WorldWideScience

Sample records for branches of law

  1. Can National Company Law Require a Branch of a Foreign Company to Have an Independent Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2014-01-01

    With its basis in Danish law, the article analyses the question of whether a foreign company that establishes a branch in another EU or EEA member state can be required to ensure that the branch name not only repeats the foreign company’s name and nationality with the addition of the designation...

  2. Anomalous power law distribution of total lifetimes of branching processes: application to earthquake aftershock sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2004-10-01

    We consider a general stochastic branching process, which is relevant to earthquakes, and study the distributions of global lifetimes of the branching processes. In the earthquake context, this amounts to the distribution of the total durations of aftershock sequences including aftershocks of arbitrary generation number. Our results extend previous results on the distribution of the total number of offspring (direct and indirect aftershocks in seismicity) and of the total number of generations before extinction. We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes ("aftershocks"). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake ("productivity" or "fertility"), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities mu is characterized by a power law approximately 1/ mu(1+gamma) and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) , with 0aftershock lifetimes scales as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) when the average branching ratio is critical (n=1) . The coefficient 1aftershocks with mainshock magnitude m (productivity), with 0.5of the bare Omori decay law approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) into approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) stems from the nonlinear amplification due to the heavy-tailed distribution of fertilities and the critical nature of the branching cascade process. In the subcritical case n<1 , the crossover from approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) at early times to approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) at longer times is described. More generally, our results apply to any stochastic

  3. Anomalous Power Law Distribution of Total Lifetimes of Branching Processes Relevant to Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence) model which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes (``aftershocks''). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake (``productivity'' or ``fertility''), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities $\\mu$ is characterized by a power law $\\sim 1/\\mu^{1+\\gamma}$ and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as $\\sim 1/t^{1+\\theta}$, with $0 < \\theta <1$ relevant for earthquakes. Using the tool of generating probability functions and a quasistatic approximation which is shown to be exact asymptotically for large durations, we show that the density distribution of to...

  4. Distribution of the Largest Aftershocks in Branching Models of Triggered Seismicity: Theory of the Universal Bath's law

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2005-01-01

    Using the ETAS branching model of triggered seismicity, we apply the formalism of generating probability functions to calculate exactly the average difference between the magnitude of a mainshock and the magnitude of its largest aftershock over all generations. This average magnitude difference is found empirically to be independent of the mainshock magnitude and equal to 1.2, a universal behavior known as Bath's law. Our theory shows that Bath's law holds only sufficiently close to the critical regime of the ETAS branching process. Allowing for error bars +- 0.1 for Bath's constant value around 1.2, our exact analytical treatment of Bath's law provides new constraints on the productivity exponent alpha and the branching ratio n: $0.9 <= alpha <= 1$ and 0.8 <= n <= 1. We propose a novel method for measuring alpha based on the predicted renormalization of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of the magnitudes of the largest aftershock. We also introduce the ``second Bath's law for foreshocks: the pro...

  5. Laws of Large Numbers for the Occupation Time of an Age-Dependent Critical Binary Branching System

    OpenAIRE

    López-Mimbela, José Alfredo; Salas, Antonio Murillo

    2009-01-01

    The occupation time of an age-dependent branching particle system in $\\Rd$ is considered, where the initial population is a Poisson random field and the particles are subject to symmetric $\\alpha$-stable migration, critical binary branching and random lifetimes. Two regimes of lifetime distributions are considered: lifetimes with finite mean and lifetimes belonging to the normal domain of attraction of a $\\gamma$-stable law, $\\gamma\\in(0,1)$. It is shown that in dimensions $d>\\alpha\\gamma$ fo...

  6. Universal artifacts affect the branching of phylogenetic trees, not universal scaling laws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R Altaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superficial resemblance of phylogenetic trees to other branching structures allows searching for macroevolutionary patterns. However, such trees are just statistical inferences of particular historical events. Recent meta-analyses report finding regularities in the branching pattern of phylogenetic trees. But is this supported by evidence, or are such regularities just methodological artifacts? If so, is there any signal in a phylogeny? METHODOLOGY: In order to evaluate the impact of polytomies and imbalance on tree shape, the distribution of all binary and polytomic trees of up to 7 taxa was assessed in tree-shape space. The relationship between the proportion of outgroups and the amount of imbalance introduced with them was assessed applying four different tree-building methods to 100 combinations from a set of 10 ingroup and 9 outgroup species, and performing covariance analyses. The relevance of this analysis was explored taking 61 published phylogenies, based on nucleic acid sequences and involving various taxa, taxonomic levels, and tree-building methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All methods of phylogenetic inference are quite sensitive to the artifacts introduced by outgroups. However, published phylogenies appear to be subject to a rather effective, albeit rather intuitive control against such artifacts. The data and methods used to build phylogenetic trees are varied, so any meta-analysis is subject to pitfalls due to their uneven intrinsic merits, which translate into artifacts in tree shape. The binary branching pattern is an imposition of methods, and seldom reflects true relationships in intraspecific analyses, yielding artifactual polytomies in short trees. Above the species level, the departure of real trees from simplistic random models is caused at least by two natural factors--uneven speciation and extinction rates; and artifacts such as choice of taxa included in the analysis, and imbalance introduced by outgroups

  7. Branching laws for small unitary representations of GL(n,C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Schwarz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary representati......The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary...

  8. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  9. Students’ perception on teaching competences of teachers of the branch of social science and law of the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz PÉREZ PÉREZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data from research conducted at the University of Valencia in order to analyse students' perception on teaching competences of teachers in the area of Social and legal Sciences. The study included a total of 389 university students from 10 different degrees of the University of Valencia. In general, the subjects in the sample rated the 32 competencies as very important in the teaching / learning process. Students assess personal skills as the most important competences, followed by scientific, methodological and social ones.Overall the two most valued competences refer to “the proper and respectful treatment of students”, as well as “creating a classroom atmosphere based on dialogue and communication”. This data is a constant that is repeated in all degrees tested, with minor variations. The competences which are less valued are "Maintaining a careful personal image" and "keep update on new information and communication technologies”.

  10. 论安全法律部门的独立性、交叉性和分支构成%Study on the Independence and Branch Constitution of Safety Law Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹瑜璞; 朱燕

    2011-01-01

    To make people realize the important position of safety law department in Chinas legal system and its constitution, thus, to set up such a faith that safety law department is an independent department, the paper discusses the independence and cross of the existence of safety law department based on method of sociology, method of law and comparative method, and explains the constitution of safety law department from five different perspectives. The independence is that its regulation targets are the relationships of property and personal safety independent of other department laws; its main branches are project construction safety law, civil safety law, administrative safety law, safety criminal responsibility law, procedural safety law, commercial safety law, environmental safety law, resource safety law and military safety law, etc. Therefore, the legal community must upgrade the safety law department to a level as high as environment and resources protection law department as well as labor and social security law department; The legislative branch must establish safety legal system on the basis of each branch law so as to overcome the long existing flaw of disorder, intricacy and overlap in safety law understanding.%为了使人们认识到安全法律部门在我国法律体系中的重要地位,安全法律部门是由哪些内容构成的,从而树立安全法律部门是独立的部门这样一种信念.以法学方法、社会学方法、比较方法等论述我国安全法律部门存在的独立性和交叉性,并从5个不同的角度论述安全法律部门的分支构成.其独立性在于其调整对象是独立于其他各部门法的财产、人身安全关系;其分支划分主要是安全工程建设法、安全民法、安全行政法、安全刑事责任法、安全诉讼法、安全商法、环境安全法、资源安全法、军事安全法等.因此,法学界要把安全法律部门提高到与环境资源法部门、劳动社会保障法

  11. Branching structure of uniform recursive trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Qunqiang; SU; Chun; HU; Zhishui

    2005-01-01

    The branching structure of uniform recursive trees is investigated in this paper.Using the method of sums for a sequence of independent random variables, the distribution law of ηn, the number of branches of the uniform recursive tree of size n are given first. It is shown that the strong law of large numbers, the central limit theorem and the law of iterated logarithm for ηn follow easily from this method. Next it is shown that ηn and ξn, the depth of vertex n, have the same distribution, and the distribution law of ζn,m, the number of branches of size m, is also given, whose asymptotic distribution is the Poisson distribution with parameter λ = 1/m. In addition, the joint distribution and the asymptotic joint distribution of the numbers of various branches are given. Finally, it is proved that the size of the biggest branch tends to infinity almost sure as n -→∞.

  12. Asymptotic behaviour near extinction of continuous-state branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Juan Carlos; Berzunza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-) critical continuous state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchin's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition and its reflected process at its infimum.

  13. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  14. The Practice and Exploration of Strengthening Law Talent Team Construction in the PBC Branches%加强基层央行法律人才队伍建设的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寻心乐

    2012-01-01

    国以才立,政以才治,业以才兴。“十二五”是我国金融改革的关键时期,进一步加强基层央行金融法律人才队伍建设,对确保其高效履职,具有十分重要的现实意义。本文试图通过分析人民银行西安分行辖区法律人才队伍的现状,探寻加强基层央行金融法律人才队伍建设的有效途径。%Talents play an important role in building a nation, managing a government and promoting an industry. The "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" is a critical period of China's financial reform, and further strengthening the construction of financial law talent team is of great significance to ensure efficient performance. By attempting to analyze the current situation of law personnel in Xi'an Branch, the paper tries to find out effective ways to strengthen the construction of financial law talent team.

  15. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  16. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques,taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. The only free parameter in the whole analysis is the integrated mass loss of red giant branch stars. This is the first time that synthetic horizontal branch models, consistent with the complex star formation history of a galaxy, are calculated and matched to the observations. We find that the metallicity range covered by the star formation history, as constrained by observations, plus a simple mass loss law, enable us to cover both the full magnitude and colour range of HB stars. In addition the number count distribution along the observed horizontal branch, can be also reproduced, provided that the red giant branch mass loss is mildly metallicity dependent, with a very small dispersion ...

  17. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  18. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  19. The Enlightenment of Parkinson’s Law to the Staffing Administration of Branches of the Central Bank%帕金森定律对央行分支行机构编制管理的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西娟

    2015-01-01

    本文使用帕金森定律对人民银行分支机构人员设置进行分析,解释了形成目前人员构成现状的深层次原因,并提出从职能入手,明确机构职能与业务权限;从机构编制入手,严格控制机构编制;从岗位分类入手,完善人力资源管理体系等建议。%The paper uses Parkinson’s law to analyze the staffing of branches of PBC, explains the deep reason of present situa-tion of the formation of the personnel constitution, and puts forward such suggestions as clarifying the organization function and busi-ness popedom from the perspective of the functions, strictly controlling the recruitment from the perspective of the institution establish-ment and improving human resources management system from the perspective of the post classification and so on.

  20. Evolution of Hard X-Ray Spectra Along the Branches in Cir X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, G Q; Li, T P

    2003-01-01

    Using the data from the PCA and HEXTE on board the RXTE satellite, we investigate the evolution of the 3-200 keV spectra of the peculiar low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 along the branches on its hardness-intensity diagram (HID) from the vertical horizontal branch (VHB), through the horizontal horizontal branch (HHB) and normal branch (NB), to the flaring branch (FB). We detect a power-law hard component in the spectra. It is found that the derived photon indices ($\\Gamma$) of the power-law hard component are correlated with the position on the HID. The power-law component dominates the X-ray emission of Cir X-1 in the energy band higher than $\\sim 20$ keV. The fluxes of the power-law component are compared with those of the bremsstrahlung component in the spectra. A possible origin of the power-law hard component is discussed.

  1. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  2. Scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the correlation of scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation with damage accumulation and a change in the fracture mechanism. The experimental results obtained from the glass fragmentation tests indicate that the size distribution of fragments has a fractal character and is described by a power law.

  3. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  4. Effects of branch height on leaf gas exchange, branch hydraulic conductance and branch sap flux in open-grown ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert M; Bond, Barbara J; Senock, Randy S; Ryan, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that stomata respond to changes in hydraulic conductance of the flow path from soil to leaf. In open-grown tall trees, branches of different heights may have different hydraulic conductances because of differences in path length and growth. We determined if leaf gas exchange, branch sap flux, leaf specific hydraulic conductance, foliar carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and ratios of leaf area to sapwood area within branches were dependent on branch height (10 and 25 m) within the crowns of four open-grown ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees. We found no difference in leaf gas exchange or leaf specific hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf between the upper and lower canopy of our study trees. Branch sap flux per unit leaf area and per unit sapwood area did not differ between the 10- and 25-m canopy positions; however, branch sap flux per unit sapwood area at the 25-m position had consistently lower values. Branches at the 25-m canopy position had lower leaf to sapwood area ratios (0.17 m2 cm-2) compared with branches at the 10-m position (0.27 m2 cm-2) (P = 0.03). Leaf specific conductance of branches in the upper crown did not differ from that in the lower crown. Other studies at our site indicate lower hydraulic conductance, sap flux, whole-tree canopy conductance and photosynthesis in old trees compared with young trees. This study suggests that height alone may not explain these differences.

  5. Stabilization of Branching Queueing Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brázdil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Queueing networks are gaining attraction for the performance analysis of parallel computer systems. A Jackson network is a set of interconnected servers, where the completion of a job at server i may result in the creation of a new job for server j. We propose to extend Jackson networks by "branching" and by "control" features. Both extensions are new and substantially expand the modelling power of Jackson networks. On the other hand, the extensions raise computational questions, particularly concerning the stability of the networks, i.e, the ergodicity of the underlying Markov chain. We show for our extended model that it is decidable in polynomial time if there exists a controller that achieves stability. Moreover, if such a controller exists, one can efficiently compute a static randomized controller which stabilizes the network in a very strong sense; in particular, all moments of the queue sizes are finite.

  6. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  7. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  8. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  9. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  10. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  11. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  12. Report on the 14{sup th} regional conference of the German Branch of the International Nuclear Law Association; Aus der Werkstatt des Nuklearrechts. Bericht ueber die 14. Regionaltagung der Deutschen Landesgruppe der AIDN/INLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-12-15

    The 14th Regional Conference of the German National Group of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire/International Nuclear Law Association was held in Nuremberg on 28 and 29 September 2015. About 100 participants from Germany and abroad participated the conference. The topics of the five Working sessions were: - Turnkey - a viable contractual concept for nuclear new build and decommissioning?; - Access to justice in environmental law and related to international investments disputes; - Nuclear Liability - Latest Developments; - Legal requirements on the final disposal of nuclear waste - a Global overview; - Nuclear Safety in the EU.

  13. Stochastic transition between turbulent branch and thermodynamic branch of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point and linear stability boundary. (author)

  14. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  15. Making sense of the case law on Ombudsman schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, R.M.; Allt, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the case law on ombudsman schemes in the UK, with the purpose of identifying some of the key trends that underpin this branch of law pre-the first Supreme Court decision in this area, JR55 v Northern Ireland Commissioner for Complaints. While the law on ombudsman schemes remains based on legislation and the various grounds of administrative law available in judicial review, distinct bespoke principles have also been relied upon. These principles are beginning to provide ...

  16. Analysis of thermal conductivity in tree-like branched networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou Jian-Long; Lu Hang-Jun; Wu Feng-Min; Xu You-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric tree-like branched networks are explored by geometric algorithms.Based on the network,an analysis of the thermal conductivity is presented.The relationship between effective thermal conductivity and geometric structures is obtained by using the thermal-electrical analogy technique.In all studied cases,a clear behaviour is observed,where angle(δ,θ)among parent branching extended lines,branches and parameter of the geometric structures have stronger effects on the effective thermal conductivity.When the angle δ is fixed,the optical diameter ratio β* is dependent on angle θ.Moreover,γ and m are not related to β*.The longer the branch is,the smaller the effective thermal conductivity will be.It is also found that when the angle θ<δ/2,the higher the iteration m is,the lower the thermal conductivity will be and it tends to zero,otherwise,it is bigger than zero.When the diameter ratio β1<0.707 and angle δ is bigger,the optimal k of the perfect ratio increases with the increase of the angle δ;when β1>0.707,the optimal k decreases.In addition,the effective thermal conductivity is always less than that of single channel material.The present results also show that the effective thermal conductivity of the asymmetric tree-like branched networks does not obey Murray's law.

  17. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  18. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  19. The return branch of viscous fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, F

    2005-01-01

    We report a simple experiment of two-dimensional pattern formation in a circular Hele-Shaw cell, showing the appearance of a return branch that is equivalent to the upward-connecting leader of lightning. Injecting water from the center into a foam filled cell, we obtained patterns similar to dendrites of two-dimensional dielectric breakdown experiments. When we repeat this experiment allowing the presence of water in the outer (low pressure) region, dendrites grow initially as in a normal experiment, but when a branch is near the outer boundary, the low pressure water begins to penetrate the foam against the pressure field, forming several return branches.

  20. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  1. Historical Precedents on the Protection or Defense of Natural Resources and salubritas in Rome. Towards an Administrative Environmental Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz-Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses certain situations involving the protection of natural resources by the Roman Law itself, some of which contain ancient environmental protections that today fall under a branch of Administrative Law, now known as Environmental Law.

  2. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  3. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  4. New position paper of the geothermal energy industry for the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG); Positionspapier der Geothermie-Branche zur Novellierung des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes (EEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    In April 2011, the geothermal industry associations Wirtschaftsforum Geothermie e.V. (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and GtV Bundesverband Geothermie e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) have submitted a proposal for further development of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in a joint position paper for a more rapid expansion of deep geothermal energy. A total of eight changes in the EEG should promote the further positive development of geothermal energy for the production of sustainable heat and electricity.

  5. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  6. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-01-01

    Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the la...

  7. The genealogy of extremal particles of Branching Brownian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Arguin, Louis-Pierre; Kistler, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Branching Brownian Motion describes a system of particles which diffuse in space and split into offsprings according to a certain random mechanism. In virtue of the groundbreaking work by M. Bramson on the convergence of solutions of the Fisher-KPP equation to traveling waves, the law of the rightmost particle in the limit of large times is rather well understood. In this work, we address the full statistics of the extremal particles (first-, second-, third- etc. largest). In particular, we prove that in the large $t-$limit, such particles descend with overwhelming probability from ancestors having split either within a distance of order one from time $0$, or within a distance of order one from time $t$. The approach relies on characterizing, up to a certain level of precision, the paths of the extremal particles. As a byproduct, a heuristic picture of Branching Brownian Motion ``at the edge'' emerges, which sheds light on the still unknown limiting extremal process.

  8. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  9. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  10. Anomalous law of cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  11. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

  12. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  13. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  14. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  15. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  16. Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1985-01-01

    After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

  17. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    The phenomenon of structural branching is ubiquitous in a wide array of materials such as polymers, ceramic aggregates, networks and gels. These materials with structural branching are a unique class of disordered materials and often display complex architectures. Branching has a strong influence over the structure-property relationships of these materials. Despite the generic importance across a wide spectrum of materials, our physical understanding of the scientific nature of branching and the analytic description and quantification of branching is at an early stage, though many decades of effort have been made. For polymers, branching is conventionally characterized by hydrodynamic radius (size exclusion chromatography, SEC, rheology) or by counting branch sites (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, NMR). SEC and rheology are, at best, qualitative; and quantitative characterization techniques like NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (for ceramic nanoparticulate aggregates) have limitations in providing routine quantification. Effective structure characterization, though an important step in understanding these materials, remains elusive. For ceramic aggregates, theoretical work has dominated and only a few publications on analytic studies exist to support theory. A new generic scaling model is proposed in Chapter I, which encompasses the critical structural features associated with these complex architectures. The central theme of this work is the application of this model to describe a variety of disordered structures like aggregated nano-particulates, long chain branched polymers like polyethylene, hyperbranched polymers, multi-arm star polymers, and cyclic macromolecules. The application of the proposed model to these materials results in a number of fundamental structural parameters, like the mass-fractal dimension, df, the minimum path dimension, dmin, connectivity dimension, c, and the mole fraction branch content, φbr. These dimensions

  18. F-generation law and recognition of system law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Kaiquan; Yao Bingxue

    2007-01-01

    If a system is not disturbed (or invaded) by some law, there is no doubt that each system will move according to the expected law and keep stable. Although such a fact often appears, some unknown law breaks into the system and leads it into turbulence. Using function one direction S-rough sets, this article gives the concept of the F-generation law in the system, the generation model of the F-generation law and the recognition method of the system law. Function one direction singular rough sets is a new theory and method in recognizing the disturbance law existing in the system and recognizing the system law.

  19. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  20. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  1. A Law and Economics View on Harmonization of Procedural Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Even though there exists an extensive Law and Economics literature on the topics of procedural law and harmonization of law, very little has been written on harmonization of procedural law as such. In this paper I first provide a brief overview of the economic approach to legal

  2. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does compar

  3. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  4. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  5. On the Law in The Law of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷

    2016-01-01

    This article discussed the two main laws in the novel, The Law of Life, written by the famous American realistic writer Jack London. The laws discussed in this article are Social Darwinism and Fatalism. By discussing those two laws, the article tries to look into the philosophy of life that Jack London trying to reveal in the novel.

  6. Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China establishes a comprehensive socialist legal system The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC),China’s top legislature,adopted an amendment to the Criminal Law at a bimonthly session in February,reducing the number of capital punishment by 13 to 55.

  7. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  8. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  9. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  11. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W

    1995-01-01

    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  12. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  13. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2016-11-24

    I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages.

  14. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  15. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  16. Computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinov, I. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Eremin, A. V.; Branfileva, A. N.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the principal theoretical concepts of the method used for constructing computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline networks, and this method is based on the theory of graphs and two Kirchhoff's laws applied to electrical circuits. The models make it possible to calculate velocities, flow rates, and pressures of a fluid medium in any section of pipeline networks, when the latter are considered as single hydraulic systems. On the basis of multivariant calculations the reasons for existing problems can be identified, the least costly methods of their elimination can be proposed, and recommendations for planning the modernization of pipeline systems and construction of their new sections can be made. The results obtained can be applied to complex pipeline systems intended for various purposes (water pipelines, petroleum pipelines, etc.). The operability of the model has been verified on an example of designing a unified computer model of the heat network for centralized heat supply of the city of Samara.

  17. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  18. Similarity of solution branches for two-point semilinear problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available For semilinear autonomous two-point problems, we show that all Neumann branches and all Dirichlet branches with odd number of interior roots have the same shape. On the other hand, Dirichlet branches with even number of roots may look differently. While this result has been proved previously by Schaaf cite{S}, our approach appears to be simpler.

  19. Evaluation of Thermally Induced Degradation of Branched Polypropylene by Using Rheology and Different Constitutive Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Drabek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, virgin as well as thermally degraded branched polypropylenes were investigated by using rotational and Sentmanat extensional rheometers, gel permeation chromatography and different constitutive equations. Based on the obtained experimental data and theoretical analysis, it has been found that even if both chain scission and branching takes place during thermal degradation of the tested polypropylene, the melt strength (quantified via the level of extensional strain hardening can increase at short degradation times. It was found that constitutive equations such as Generalized Newtonian law, modified White-Metzner model, Yao and Extended Yao models have the capability to describe and interpret the measured steady-state rheological data of the virgin as well as thermally degraded branched polypropylenes. Specific attention has been paid to understanding molecular changes during thermal degradation of branched polypropylene by using physical parameters of utilized constitutive equations.

  20. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  1. The Law of Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Sproul, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The law of reflux is explained using an example of backed money. In the example, government-issued money is backed by the government’s assets (mainly taxes receivable) while bank-issued money is backed by the bank’s assets. The value of both kinds of money is determined by the amount of backing held per unit of money issued. The example shows that reflux maintains money’s value, not by assuring that excessive issues of money reflux to their issuers, but by providing people with access to the ...

  2. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  3. Theoretical prediction of side branch compromise after main branch stenting in coronary bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems of treatment of bifurcation lesions is side branch (SB) stenosis appearing after stent placement in the main vessel.The aim of this study was to create quantitative method for prediction of side branch compromise extent.We accepted that the main mechanism for SB ostial stenosis is flow divider (FD) displacement from stent struts after stent implantation in the main vessel.Using easily measurable parameters from coronary angiography,as SB diameter,angle α (initial angle between axes of parent vessel and SB axis) and angle α' (angle between above mentioned axes after stent placement) we can calculate percentage diameter stenosis at branch ostium (%DS):%DS = sin (α - α')/(tan α).In boundary condition of full FD displacement %DS = cos α.We tested our theoretical predictions with fluoroscopic observation of elastic wall model of bifurcation (45°distal angle between branches)permitting wall deformations with stent.There is full coincidence of values of %DS and percentage area stenosis (%AS).The regular formulas for calculations of %DS and %AS overestimate stenosis severity between 10% and 25%.Our model tests have shown full coincidence between predicted values for %DS and observed values.We demonstrate that part of the SB ostium is not visible in regular angiography and contributes to ostial lumen area.This is a method that permits quantitative prediction of side branch compromise.

  4. THE FRAMEWORK OF INSOLVENCY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA IANCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of ways to classify the legal systems or legal families of the world, but in general legal families across the globe will in many jurisdictions either have an English law, or what can broadly be termed a Civil law, orientated foundation. When analyzing the insolvency laws of various jurisdictions such foundation will also show up in the variety of insolvency laws. But certain aspect of insolvency law will be affected by local legal culture, basic rights and the way in which a system deals with related matters such as the security rights provided for, or the approach to labor issues for instance.

  5. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  6. Principles of the continental copyright law

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev A.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two key copyright law traditions: English–American and Roman–Germanic copyright laws. The French and German copyright law is in the vanguard of the continental copyright law, with the copyright law of Russia being among the others in this copyright law system. However, the Russian copyright law has some specific characteristics. Copyright law is based on the defined principles. The purpose of the present article is to define the principles Continental Copyright Law....

  7. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  8. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  9. The peculiar Horizontal Branch of NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Ferraro, F R; Cassisi, S; Lanzoni, B; Rood, R T; Pecci, F Fusi; Sabbi, E

    2010-01-01

    We present an accurate analysis of the peculiar Horizontal Branch (HB) of the massive Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808, based on high-resolution far-UV and optical images of the central region of the cluster obtained with HST. We confirm the multimodal distribution of stars along the HB: 4 sub-populations separated by gaps are distinguishable. The detailed comparison with suitable theoretical models showed that (i) it is not possible to reproduce the luminosity of the entire HB with a single helium abundance, while an appropriate modeling is possible for three HB groups by assuming different helium abundances in the range 0.24 < Y < 0.4 that are consistent with the multiple populations observed in the Main Sequence; (ii) canonical HB models are not able to properly match the observational properties of the stars populating the hottest end of the observed HB distribution, the so called "blue-hook region". These objects are probably "hot-flashers" , stars that peel off the red giant branch before reachi...

  10. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SERVICES’ LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available European civil service law has emerged as an independent law branch relatively recently. At the EU level there were three categories of rules that regulate the public employees’ activity, according tothe treaty type that established one of the top three communities (ECSC, EEC, EURATOM. Following legislative changes that occurred in 1968, it was made a unification of these provisions, resulting in acommon law text for all the officials, known as The Status. Statutory provisions within the field recognize the law principles common to the entire Community law, such as the principle of subsidiarity, but also a number of new principles, based on this area of research, such as officials business efficiency principle, function stability principle etc. Romanian legislation, although relatively new comparing the laws of other states, has taken over many of theseprinciples, being aligned with union provisions in this field.

  11. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  12. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  13. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  14. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    , examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from......Digital society challenges the traditional perception of legal sources. The use of maps as a basis for public administration dates far back, but e-Government’s use of digital maps that include legal information creates new legal obstacles. In the coming decades, the inspire directive of 2007...... will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand...

  15. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  16. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  17. Three Laws of Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    经典的机器人三大定律,来自于科幻之父阿西莫夫的名著《I,Robot》The late Isaac Asimov(1920—1992),the prolific author of science fictionand books popularizing science,claimed credit for"robotics"as a term for thescience and technology of robots.In his 1942 sci-fi story"Runaround,"Asimovstated the ethical guidelines he called the"Three Laws of Robotics":1.A robot must not injure a human being,or,through inaction,allow a hu-man being to come to harm.2.A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except wherethose orders would ...

  18. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  19. Optimal branching asymmetry of hydrodynamic pulsatile trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florens, Magali; Sapoval, Bernard; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-04-29

    Most of the studies on optimal transport are done for steady state regime conditions. Yet, there exists numerous examples in living systems where supply tree networks have to deliver products in a limited time due to the pulsatile character of the flow, as it is the case for mammalian respiration. We report here that introducing a systematic branching asymmetry allows the tree to reduce the average delivery time of the products. It simultaneously increases its robustness against the inevitable variability of sizes related to morphogenesis. We then apply this approach to the human tracheobronchial tree. We show that in this case all extremities are supplied with fresh air, provided that the asymmetry is smaller than a critical threshold which happens to match the asymmetry measured in the human lung. This could indicate that the structure is tuned at the maximum asymmetry level that allows the lung to feed all terminal units with fresh air.

  20. POISSON REPRESENTATIONS OF BRANCHING MARKOV AND MEASURE-VALUED BRANCHING PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Thomas G.; Rodrigues, Eliane R.

    2011-01-01

    Representations of branching Markov processes and their measure-valued limits in terms of countable systems of particles are constructed for models with spatially varying birth and death rates. Each particle has a location and a "level," but unlike earlier constructions, the levels change with time.

  1. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Branched-chain Amino Acid Metabolon: INTERACTION OF GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE WITH THE MITOCHONDRIAL BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINOTRANSFERASE (BCATm)*

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R. Max; Mobley, James A.; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain α-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain α-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glut...

  3. ANALYSIS OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN POLYETHYLENES BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Shanks; Fei Chen; Gandara Amarasinghe

    2003-01-01

    Short chain branching has been characterized using thermal fractionation, a stepwise isothermal crystallization technique, followed by a melting analysis scan using differential scanning calorimetry. Short chain branching distribution was also characterized by a continuous slow cooling crystallization, followed by a melting analysis scan. Four different polyethylenes were studied: Ziegler-Natta gas phase, Ziegler-Natta solution, metallocene, constrained-geometry single site catalyzed polyethylenes. The branching distribution was calculated from a calibration of branch content with melting temperature. The lamellar thickness was calculated based on the thermodynamic melting temperature of each polyethylene and the surface free energy of the crystal face. The branching distribution and lamellar thickness distribution were used to calculate weight average branch content, mean lamellar thickness, and a branch dispersity index. The results for the branch content were in good agreement with the known comonomer content of the polyethylenes. A limitation was that high branch content polyethylenes did not reach their potential crystallization at ambient temperatures. Cooling to sub-ambient was necessary to equilibrate the crystallization, but melting temperature versus branch content was not applicable after cooling to below ambient because the calibration data were not performed in this way.

  4. ANALYSIS OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN POLYETHYLENES BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertShanks; FeiChan; GandaraAmarasinghe; RobertShanks

    2003-01-01

    Short chain branching has been characterized using thermal fractionation,a stepwise isothermal crystallization technique,followed by a melting analysis scan using differential scanning calorimetry.Short chain branching distribution was also characterized by a continuous slow cooling crystallization,followed by a melting analysis scan.Four different polyethylenes were studied:Ziegler-Natta gas phase,Ziegler-Natta solution,metallocene,constrained-geometry single site catalyzed polyethylenes.The branching distribution was calculated from a calibration of branch content with melting temperature.The lamellar thickness was calculated based on the thermodynamic melting temperature of each polyethylene and the surface free energy of the crystal face.The branching distribution and lamellar thickness distribution were used to calculate weight average branch content,mean lamellar thickness,and a branch dispersity index.The results for the branch content were in good agreement with the known comonomer content of the polyethylenes.A limitation was that high branch content polyethylenes did not reach their potential crystallization at ambient temperatures.Cooling to sub-ambient was necessary to equilibrate the crystallization,but melting temperature versus branch content was not applicable after cooling to below ambient because the calibration data were not performed in this way.

  5. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  6. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  7. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  8. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the labor criminal law, as an interference zone between the criminal law and labor law, has to be regarded from the internal social realities governing the labor aspects, as well from the comparative law's point of view.

  9. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  10. Effects of Pre-Stress State and Rupture Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2002-12-01

    We consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the rupture start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does rupture continue on the main fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of rupture along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the rupturing fault tip, which increase with rupture velocity at locations off the main fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate rupture on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching rupture, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on rupture velocity. The most favored side for rupture transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the main fault. Simultaneous rupturing on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages rupture continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the rupture velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults

  11. Interpretation of the Omori Law

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmi, Anatol V

    2016-01-01

    The known Omori law is presented in the form of differential equation that describes the evolution of the aftershock activity. This equation is derived hypothetically with taking into account deactivation of the faults in epicentral zone of the main shock. A generalization of the Omori law is proposed.

  12. Supercritical branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hutzenthaler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical branching processes in constant environment conditioned on eventual extinction are known to be subcritical branching processes. The case of random environment is more subtle. A supercritical branching diffusion in random environment (BDRE) conditioned on eventual extinction of the population is not a BDRE. However the quenched law of the population size of a supercritical BDRE conditioned on eventual extinction is equal to the quenched law of the population size of a subcritical BDRE. As a consequence, supercritical BDREs have a phase transition which is similar to a well-known phase transition of subcritical branching processes in random environment.

  13. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Starke, R

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of relativistic generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic plasmas in astrophysics and cosmology. Here we propose an alternative route to this problem by introducing the most general Lorentz covariant first order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor $\\chi^\\mu_{~\

  14. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  15. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  16. Methodology of Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio Maria); L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction A chapter on the methodology of law and economics, i.e. the economic analysis of law, concerns the methodology of economics. The above quote (Becker 1976, 5) shows that economics should not be defined by its subject, but by its method (also Veljanovski 2007, 19). This method

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Branching Schemes for the CSP

    CERN Document Server

    Balafoutis, Thanasis; Stergiou, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    The search strategy of a CP solver is determined by the variable and value ordering heuristics it employs and by the branching scheme it follows. Although the effects of variable and value ordering heuristics on search effort have been widely studied, the effects of different branching schemes have received less attention. In this paper we study this effect through an experimental evaluation that includes standard branching schemes such as 2-way, d-way, and dichotomic domain splitting, as well as variations of set branching where branching is performed on sets of values. We also propose and evaluate a generic approach to set branching where the partition of a domain into sets is created using the scores assigned to values by a value ordering heuristic, and a clustering algorithm from machine learning. Experimental results demonstrate that although exponential differences between branching schemes, as predicted in theory between 2-way and d-way branching, are not very common, still the choice of branching sche...

  18. Metastability of Bose and Fermi gases on the upper branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, André; Roditi, Itzhak; Squires, Joshua

    2016-12-01

    We study three-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases in the upper branch, a phase defined by the absence of bound states in the repulsive interaction regime, within an approximation that considers only two-body interactions. Employing a formalism based on the S matrix, we derive useful analytic expressions that hold on the upper branch in the weak coupling limit. We determine upper branch phase diagrams for both bosons and fermions with techniques valid for arbitrary positive scattering length.

  19. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  20. Dynamic rupture of megathrust earthquakes with branching on splay faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somala, S.; Ampuero, J. P.; Lapusta, N.

    2010-12-01

    The accretionary prism of subduction margins generally contains splay faults that approach the surface at steeper angles than the megathrust interface. Rupture propagating onto splay faults during megathrust earthquakes can increase seafloor uplift significantly and contribute to the potential of tsunami. Another key aspect of tsunamigenic earthquakes is their relatively low radiation efficiency, which could be related to slow rupture at shallow depth due to frictionally stable fault properties. We present here results of numerical simulations of dynamic rupture on megathrust/splay fault systems that address the mechanical plausibility and characteristics of coseismic slip on splay faults. As a case study, we consider a possible earthquake scenario for the Nankai subduction zone. Previous dynamic rupture simulations (Wendt et. al., 2009) considered a splay fault that cuts through the overriding crust and reaches the surface more than 100 km away from the trench. We examine instead a model geometry based on seismic reflection profiling in Nankai, in which a megasplay fault branches off at around 50 km from the trench, cuts through the sedimentary wedge and reaches the seafloor at about 25 km from the trench. We first investigate the 2D dynamics of this splay fault system, governed by slip-weakening friction law. We compare rupture propagation on this faulting model using a finite-element code (PyLith) and a spectral element code (SEM2DPACK). We report on the favorable conditions for splay faults to rupture, the degree of slip partitioning and the effects of arresting rupture at different depths on the plate-boundary. We also show how well our work correlates with previous works on branched fault systems. We then select a small set of 3D simulations that illustrates the main aspects. Finally the effect of velocity-strengthening fault properties at shallow depth is studied in the context of rate-and-state friction, with particular emphasis on the conditions to produce

  1. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the site of emergence of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the temporalis muscle and to identify the number of its accessory branches and their locations. A pilot study, conducted on the same number of patients, concluded that the main zygomaticotemporal branch emerges from the deep temporal fascia at a point on average 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral palpebral commissure, commonly referred to as the lateral canthus. These measurements, however, were obtained after dissection of the temporal area, rendering the findings less reliable. The current study included 20 consecutive patients, 19 women and one man, between the ages of 26 and 85 years, with an average age of 47.6 years. Those who had a history of previous trauma or surgery in the temple area were excluded. Before the start of the endoscopic forehead procedure, the likely topographic site of the zygomaticotemporal branch was marked 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral orbital commissure on the basis of the information extrapolated from the pilot study. The surface mark was then transferred to the deeper layers using a 25-gauge needle stained with brilliant green. After endoscopic exposure of the marked site, the distance between the main branch of the trigeminal nerve or its accessory branches and the tattoo mark was measured in posterolateral and cephalocaudal directions. In addition, the number and locations of the accessory branches of the trigeminal nerve were recorded. On the left side, the average distance of the emergence site of the main zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the palpebral fissure was 16.8 mm (range, 12 to 31 mm) in the posterolateral direction and an average of 6.4 mm (range, 4 to 11 mm) in the cephalad direction. On the right side, the average measurements for the main branch were 17.1 mm (range, 15 to 21 mm) in the lateral direction and 6.65 mm (range, 5 to 11 mm) in the

  2. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  3. INTERFERENCES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW WITH THE URBAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the large, complex issue of influences that urbanization can have on the environment, requires first of all, some general considerations on the interferences between the urban law and the environmental law. The urban law investigates and regulates the affecting and planning of the urban space. Therefore, this type of regulations are at the interference with the environmental law , which, inter alia , deals with the protection and conservation of the environment in the urban settlements, in the built space and also the ecological deployment of the activities in this space. The interaction between the two is becoming increasingly important especially when the urban law is increasingly correlated with the environmental protection, the natural space and the ecological activities.

  4. PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS STUDENTS BY SPORTS BRANCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye TOSUNOĞLU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to analyze the personality traits of the athletes who are studying in secondary school according to the sport branches and the relations of personality traits with team sports. The study population consists of 331 athletes, 113 female athletes and 218 male athletes studying in Tokat province center and the sample in secondary school in Tokat province center. Research is in the survey model. "Eysenck Personality Inventory" was used in the research. Firstly, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to investigate whether the data correspond to normal distribution. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used in comparison of the subjects with more than two groups because it was found that the items in the scale had normal distribution. According to the results of the research; When the neurotic points according to the branches are examined, it is seen that the highest average score is in the sportsmen who are dealing with the football branch. The scores of the athletic students for the psychotic dimension were lower in the volleyball branch than the other branches and the neuroticism dimension was lower than the scores for the volleyball and handball branches, football and basketball branches. In the case of lie dimension, statistically significant difference was found between volleyball and handball branches. According to this; The highest average for the handball branch of the lowest average belongs to the volleyball branch, while no significant difference was found among the branches for the extraversion dimension. According to the results of the research, it can be said that team sports affect the personality traits of the neuroticism, psychoticism, lie and extraversion dimension.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Poly(ester urea)s with Different Branch Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiayi; Becker, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    A new class of L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) was developed that possess tunable mechanical properties, water uptake ability and degradation rates. Our preliminary data has shown that 1,6-hexanediol L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possesses an elastic modulus nearly double that of poly(lactic acid). My work details the synthesis of a series of L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possessing a variation in diol chain length and in branch density and shows how these subtle structural differences influence the mechanical properties and in vitro biodegradation rates. The elastic moduli span a range of values that overlap with several currently clinically available degradable polymers. Increasingly the diol chain lengths increases the amount of flexible segment in the chemical structure, which results in reduced elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. Increasing the amount of branch monomer incorporated into the system reduces the molecular entanglement, which also results in decreased elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. The L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s also exhibited a diol length dependent degradation process that varied between 1-5 % over 16 weeks. Compared with PLLA, PEUs degrade more quickly and the rate can be tuned by changing the diol chain length. PEUs absorb more water and the water uptake ability can be tuned by changing the branch density. This work was supported by Akron Functional Materials Center.

  6. Studying the R-branch and the Q-branch emission spectral lines of diatomic molecules using improved analytical formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghong; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Yi; Fu, Jia; Fan, Qunchao; Li, Huidong; Feng, Hao

    2016-06-01

    The difference converging method (DCM) used to predict the R-branch and the Q-branch high-lying rotational lines for diatomic systems is improved in this study. The key analytical formulae of the DCM method are modified by adding a higher order spectral term Hυ, and adding a physical converging criterion to improve the accuracy of predictions. Applications of the improved DCM method to the R-branch of the TiF molecule and the Q-branch of the 193IrN molecule show that the accuracy of the R-branch and the Q-branch rotational lines is about one order of magnitude better than the results obtained using the previous formulae, which demonstrate the necessity of the added small term Hυ and the physical converging criterion. The DCM results are also shown to be better than the extrapolated rotational lines using the least-squares method.

  7. Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines for maximum efficiency with radiative heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG HanJiang; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui

    2008-01-01

    Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration, input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝△(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory, and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches, four maximum-efficiency branches, and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained, as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton's heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.

  8. Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines for maximum efficiency with radiative heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration,input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝Δ(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory,and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches,four maximum-efficiency branches,and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained,as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton’s heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.

  9. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; Boer, Thomas de; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  10. Vehicle Fleet Information - BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN: Bureau of Motor Vehicle License Branch Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 142 branch offices of the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles (BMV). Addresses for each branch...

  11. Branch Point Mitigation of Thermal Blooming Phase Compensation Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    areas of the aberrated wavefronts where there are sharp discontinuities in the phase. Such is the case when branch points and branch cuts are in the...1965. [72] Michael C. Roggemann and Byron M. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 1996. [73] David A. Nahrstedt

  12. Why Students Choose the Branch Campus of a Large University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Jeff; Howell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Fonseca and Bird (2007) ask an intriguing question that relates to university branch campuses: "What happened to all the people who thought online learning would drive traditional education out of the market? Just when "click" is supposed to be replacing "brick," branch campuses are proliferating around the country."…

  13. Branched nanostructures and method of synthesizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luis F. (Inventor); Resto, Oscar (Inventor); Sola, Francisco (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A branched nanostructure is synthesized. A porous material, with pores having a diameter of approximately 1 .mu.m or less, is placed in a vacuum. It is irradiated with an electron beam. This causes a trunk to grow from the porous material and further causes branches to grow from the trunk.

  14. Methodology of International Law1

    OpenAIRE

    Dominicé, Christian

    2014-01-01

    I. DEFINITION Methodology seeks to define the means of acquiring scientific knowledge. There is no generally accepted definition of the methodology of international law. In this article it will be taken to comprise both its wider meaning of the methods used in the acquisition of a scientific knowledge of the international legal system and its narrower and more specialized meaning, the methods used to determine the existence of norms or rules of international law. The correlation of these two ...

  15. Interpretation of the Omori law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The well-known Omori law is represented in the form of the differential equation describing the evolution of the aftershock activity. The interpretation of the evolution equation is suggested. It is based on the idea of deactivation of the faults in the vicinity of the main shock of the earthquake. The generalization of the Omori law with the allowance for the nonstationarity of the medium in the source, which is cooling after the main shock, is presented.

  16. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  17. Mandelbrot Law of Evolving Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xue-Zao; YANG Zi-Mo; WANG Bing-Hong; ZHOU Tao

    2012-01-01

    We show that the degree distribution of a growing network with linear preferential attachment approximately follows the Mandelbrot law,and propose an analytical method based on a recursive formula that can be used to obtain a more accurate expression of the shifting coefficient.Simulations demonstrate the advantages of our method. This work provides a possible mechanism leading to the Mandelbrot law of evolving networks,and refines the mainstream analytical methods for the shifting coefficient.

  18. The power of law versus the law of power - Interview with Stanislav Markelov, Lawyer, Moscow, 3 June 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Merlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PIPSS.ORG – You worked as a lawyer on the Budanov case, and you created the Rule of Law Institute. How long since this institute was created?Stanislav Markelov: About two years.PIPSS.ORG – Who is the founder of the institute?Stanislav Markelov: I am.PIPSS.ORG – In which regions of Russia is this institute active? How many regions have branches? Stanislav Markelov: If I’m not mistaken, there are branches in 22 regions of Russia, and in other CIS countries: Belarus and Ukraine.PIPSS.ORG – What ...

  19. Revision of the Adoption Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    DECEMBER 29, 1991, saw thePresident of the People’sRepublic of China promulgatea new adoption law by Order 54, a lawwhich was introduced to the seventhNational People’s Congress at thetwenty-third meeting of its StandingCommittee and which took effect fromApril 1, 1992. This was the first suchadoption law in China and, althoughadoption did occur prior to itsimplementation, it was not then boundby legal measures or guarantee.

  20. The law of electromagnetic induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the electromagnetic induction law which do not take into account Faraday’s restrictions are not in full accordance with the physical phenomenon and so they are not laws. Their incomplete correspondence with real devices results in such "paradoxes" as unlimited magnetic field of unipolar generators, infinite sizes of inductors for DC and AC machines modeled, and so on.

  1. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterning of cell behaviors establishes the regional differences within tissues that collectively develop branched organs into their characteristic treelike shapes. Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. We used microfabrication to build model mammary epithelial tissues of defined geometry that branched in a stereotyped pattern when induced with growth factors. Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. Branch sites were defined by activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), inhibition of which disrupted morphogenesis. Stress, FAK activation, and branching were all altered by manipulating cellular contractility, matrix stiffness, intercellular cohesion and tissue geometry. These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. Insight, innovation, integration Morphogenesis is ultimately a physical process wherein tissues are sculpted into their final three-dimensional (3D) patterns. Mechanical stresses from the microenvironment can also play regulatory roles, but their influence on pattern is difficult to ascertain in 3D systems in vivo. Here we integrate 3D microscale engineered tissues with insight from biological mechanics to understand the role of endogenous mechanical stresses in patterning tissue development. The innovation lies in the use of numerical modeling to design experiments that can predict the stress distribution and resulting morphogenesis of model tissues. PMID:20717570

  2. THE PARADOX OF POSITIVISTIC VIEW AND PROGRESSIVE LAW OF CRIMINAL LAW ENFORCEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyarsi Krismiyarsi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of positivistic view and progressive law in the criminal law enforcement happened because there is a difference among the law enforcement officer’s view and perception.  Our law education from the beginning until now still teaches the students the positivistic view so that after the students becoming law officers in running the law they still use positive law or positivistic view. The positivistic view is often far from the substantive justice and close to the formal justice. In order to functioning the progressive law in law enforcement especially the penal code constraint of positivistic view which rooted inside of the law enforcer’s mind, therefore it is need paradigm change by fixing the law system, law education, ethics and morality of law officers , and increasing religious consciousness.Keywords: paradox, law positivism, progressive law, criminal law enforcement

  3. Community and law: identifying the locus of law in community

    OpenAIRE

    Yaylali, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    "Community and law approach" provides an illuminating insight into alternative legal orderings within a social unit. The comprehensiveness of legal systems within a community or a social unit, provides a suitable basis for a structural framework of alternative legal systems or Legal Pluralism, which is missing in the discourse on Legal Pluralism. "Identifying the locus of law within a community", provides us with an indication on how autopoetic a legal system can be within a social unit, taki...

  4. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  5. Processability improvement of polyolefins through radiation-induced branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Phillips, Ed; Parks, Lewis

    2010-03-01

    Radiation-induced long-chain branching for the purpose of improving melt strength and hence the processability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) is reviewed. Long-chain branching without significant gel content can be created by low dose irradiation of PP or PE under different atmospheres, with or without multifunctional branching promoters. The creation of long-chain branching generally leads to improvement of melt strength, which in turn may be translated into processability improvement for specific applications in which melt strength plays an important role. In this paper, the changes of the melt flow rate and the melt strength of the irradiated polymer and the relationship between long-chain branching and melt strength are reviewed. The effects of the atmosphere and the branching promoter on long-chain branching vs. degradation are discussed. The benefits of improved melt strength on the processability, e.g., sag resistance and strain hardening, are illustrated. The implications on practical polymer processing applications such as foams and films are also discussed.

  6. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  7. On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

  8. Scaling limits of Markov-Branching trees and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    The goal of these lectures is to survey some of the recent progress on the description of large-scale structure of random trees. We use the framework of Markov-Branching sequences of trees and discuss several applications.

  9. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  10. Theory of intellectual property. Fundations on philosophy, law and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Felipe Álvarez Amézquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property as any branch of law has several dimensions. Two traditional are: practical and theoretical. In the first patents are granted or registration certificates of works are requested, among many other procedures where no doubt there are ambiguities that deserve clarification. In the second the fundamentals are analyzed and criticized in search of articulation without adherence to procedural questions. However, after a review of the expert literature, we find that the latter dimension of intellectual property (IP has little literature. This article analyzes and articulates the most important foundations available in philosophy, law and economics on IP, helping to consolidate the theoretical dimension on the subject.

  11. Coset construction of logarithmic minimal models: branching rules and branching functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Working in the Virasoro picture, it is argued that the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p')=LM(p,p';1) can be extended to an infinite hierarchy of logarithmic conformal field theories LM(p,p';n) at higher fusion levels n=1,2,3,.... From the lattice, these theories are constructed by fusing together n x n elementary faces of the appropriate LM(p,p') models. It is further argued that all of these logarithmic theories are realized as diagonal cosets (A_1^{(1)})_k \\oplus (A_1^{(1)})_n / (A_1^{(1)})_{k+n} where n is the integer fusion level and k=np/(p'-p)-2 is a fractional level. These cosets mirror the cosets of the higher fusion level minimal models of the form M(m,m';n), but are associated with certain reducible representations. We present explicit branching rules for characters in the form of multiplication formulas arising in the logarithmic limit of the usual Goddard-Kent-Olive coset construction of the non-unitary minimal models M(m,m';n). The limiting branching functions play the role of Kac characters for...

  12. Bounds of Deviation for Branching Chains in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gang WANG

    2011-01-01

    We consider non-extinct branching processes in general random environments. Under the condition of means and second moments of each generation being bounded, we give the upper bounds and lower bounds for some form deviations of the process.

  13. Theory of intellectual property. Fundations on philosophy, law and economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Felipe Álvarez Amézquita; Óscar Eduardo Salazar; Julio César Padilla Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual property as any branch of law has several dimensions. Two traditional are: practical and theoretical. In the first patents are granted or registration certificates of works are requested, among many other procedures where no doubt there are ambiguities that deserve clarification. In the second the fundamentals are analyzed and criticized in search of articulation without adherence to procedural questions. However, after a review of the expert literature, we find that the latter d...

  14. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  15. Free compact boson on branched covering of $\\mathbb{CP}^1$ and on branched covering of the torus

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    We have studied free compact boson on two special kinds of Riemann surfaces: One is branched covering of $\\mathbb{CP}^1$, and the other one is branched covering of the torus. We obtain the partition function for arbitrary higher genus by directly constructing the period matrix, which can be expressed in terms of simple contour integrals. The partition function is interesting because it is related to the \\emph{product} of correlation functions of twist fields in different sectors. Also, when the branched cuts are chosen to be real, it is related to the R\\'enyi entanglement entropy of multiple intervals in a infinite (finite) system at zero (finite) temperature.

  16. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. The molecular concept of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Gommer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In his famous work The Concept of Law Hart asked himself the question 'what is law?' Hart makes a very strict distinction between rules and morals: morals are rooted in biology, rules source back to society. Hart's sociological truisms have proven to be untrue, because modern evolutionary biology is not about the survival of the individual (or even of a species but about the spreading of genes. This knowledge changes the fundamentals of Hart's theory and therefore his theory as a whole. In addition, my theory captures vital insights of Dworkin, legal realism, Posner and CLS, while at the same time forming a significant improvement upon them.In essence, the biological theory of law presented in this article is based on fractal patterns. Macroscale patterns recur in microscale patterns. The spreading of genes depends on important characteristics of genes: they are stable, they replicate, they need nutrients to replicate and they can cooperate. Superficially, genes, cells, organisms and groups may seem to act purposefully, but it is merely a pattern, with genes as generators, that brings structure to chaos. Human desires are in fact the needs of their genes. Thanks to language, morals can be put in words and become rules. To keep everyone working together, we need an ingenious device - like the law - to maintain that complex situations can continue to be judged on the basis of the simple principle of stability and reciprocity. To a degree, therefore, law itself can be derived from unconscious emotions and morals.

  18. Line Mixing and Broadening in the Raman Q Branch of HD at 304.6 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon; Sinclair; Le Flohic MP; Drummond; May

    1998-12-01

    The Q-branch lines of pure HD were measured at densities ranging from 1 to 7 Amagat at 304.6 K. Each profile was fitted to the well-known Rosenkranz expression to extract the size of the asymmetry due to line mixing as well as to the linewidth. Line mixing and broadening coefficients were obtained by fitting the asymmetries and widths to a straight line as a function of gas density. Apart from a single existing measurement for the Q(0) line, our mixing coefficients are the first direct measurements of the asymmetry due to line mixing in HD. Our broadening coefficients are consistent with the best earlier measurements but are an order of magnitude more precise. Agreement is found with some existing semiclassical calculations of broadening. We have fitted our HD broadening coefficients to a variety of empirical energy gap laws. Our conclusions are that none of the exponential gap law (EGL), the modified exponential gap (MEG) law, and the statistical power gap (SPG) law successfully models our broadening coefficients. We present a modified version of the EGL and the MEG laws, which are successful in reproducing the experimental results. Using the fitted parameters of the new gap law, we have calculated the relaxation matrix of HD at room temperature. With this relaxation matrix, we have simulated the Q-branch spectrum at a number of densities between 49.1 and 490 Amagat and compared the results with previous high-density measurements. At all densities and frequencies, the simulated spectral intensity was found to agree with the measured strength within about 5% of the peak of the spectrum. In addition, the comparison provides evidence of a nonlinear vibrational dephasing shift in HD. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. Antibiotics and renal branching morphogenesis: comparison of toxicities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueters, R.R.G.; Kusters, L.J.; Klaasen, A.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Schreuder, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many premature born neonates receive antibiotic drugs to treat infections, which are applied during active nephrogenesis. We studied the impact of clinical concentrations of gentamicin and alternatives, ceftazidime and meropenem, on ureteric branching. METHODS: Mice metanephroi were diss

  20. "Yugoslavia" Branch of the International Astronomical Institute "Isaac Newton"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Popović, Luka Č.; Simić, Zoran; Jovanović, Predrag; Milovanović, Nenad; Bon, Edi

    2005-10-01

    Isaac Newton Institute of Chile in Eastern Europe and Eurasia and its president and founder Gonzalo Alcaino Barros have been presented as well as the foundation and activities of its "Yugoslavia" branch.

  1. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  2. Effects of the structure of the branches on the two-photon absorption properties for the multi-branched molecules with nitrogen (N) as coupling center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the structure of branches on the TPA properties for multi-branched molecules, the TPA cross section is calculated by using ZINDO/SOS method. The investigated mole- cules have different branches (chomorfores based on stilbene, dithienothiophene and flourene) with nitrogen(N) as coupling center. The results show that the cooperative enhancement in multi-branched molecules depends on the structures of the branches and the structures of branches play an important role in the enhancement of the TPA cross section. The designed molecules with stilbene and dithie- nothiophene as branched possess relatively larger two-photon absorption cross sections.

  3. Effects of the structure of the branches on the two-photon absorption properties for the multi-branched molecules with nitrogen (N) as coupling center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the structure of branches on the TPA properties for multi-branched molecules, the TPA cross section is calculated by using ZINDO/SOS method. The investigated molecules have different branches (chomorfores based on stilbene, dithienothiophene and flourene) with nitrogen(N) as coupling center. The results show that the cooperative enhancement in multi-branched molecules depends on the structures of the branches and the structures of branches play an important role in the enhancement of the TPA cross section. The designed molecules with stilbene and dithienothiophene as branched possess relatively larger two-photon absorption cross sections.

  4. Decoherence and the Branching of Chaos-less Classical Trajectory

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    This study was started to know mysterious classicality of nuclei. This time, I found a new rule for decoherence. I used a model without chaos. As a result, it was shown that not only the intersection of classical trajectories but also branching of classical trajectories are needed for decoherence. In other words, it was shown that interactions between a main system and environments have to make enough branchings of classical trajectories of the main system for decoherence.

  5. Chemical constituents from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Yan-ling; Liu, Ming-tao; Zi, Jia-chen; Gan, Mao-luo; Song, Wei-xia; Fan, Xiao-na; Wang, Xiao-na; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-07-01

    Using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, macroporous adsorbent resin, and reversed-phase HPLC, 115 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, treterpenes, coumarins, lignans, fatty acid derivatives, and simple aromatic derivatives were isolated from an ethanol extract of branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana (Oleaceaue), and their structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1 D, 2D NMR and MS techniques. Among them, 41 compounds were new. In previous reports, we have been described the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivities of the 41 new compounds and 22 known orii including 8 coumarins, 4 phenolic and 12 phenylethanoidal glycosides. As a consequence, we herein reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the remaining 50 known compounds including 8- hydroxy-12-oxoabieta-9(11),13-dien-20-oic 8, 20-lactone(1), 6beta-hydroxyfcrruginol(2),(+)-pisiferic acid(3), (+)-pisiferal(4),(+)-7-dehydroabiet6none(5), 1-oxomiltirone(6), subdigitatone(7), linarionoside B(8), (9S)-linarionoside B(9), (3R,9R)-3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol 9-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(10), ursolic acid(11), betulinic acid(12), euscaphic acid(13), (+)-syringaresinol(14), (+)-fraxiresinol(15), (+)-1-hydroxysyringaresinol(16), pinoresinol(17), medioresinol(18), 8-acetoxypinoresinol(19), epipinoresinol(20), (-)-olivil(21), (+)-cyclo-olivil(22), 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-7'-one(23),(+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (24), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(25),(+)-syringaresinol O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (26), liriodendrin (27), ehletianol D(28), icariside E5(29) (-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-1-C-syringylglycerol(30),(-)-(7R, 8S)-erythro-guaiacylglycerol (31),(-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-guaiacylglycerol(32), 3-(4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-methoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenol(33),2,3-dihydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3

  6. Relating Chain Structure to Physical Properties of Branched Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramnath; Beaucage, Gregory; Kulkarni, Amit S.; Galiatsatos, Vassilios; McFaddin, Douglas C.

    2008-03-01

    We investigated linear and branched polyethylene (PE) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The experiments were conducted on dilute solutions of PE in deuterated p-xylene. A variety of structural information^ such as fractal dimension (df), connectivity dimension (c), minimum path dimension (dmin), long chain branch fraction (φbr), radius of gyration (Rg) and persistence length (lp) were obtained. Such information presents a qualitative and quantitative assessment of branching in polymers. Theoretical models such as `binary contacts per pervaded volume' model^* were employed to correlate the structural information of the polymer to its entanglement molecular weight (Me). Me was used to predict physical properties such as plateau modulus (GN^0 ) and zero-shear viscosity (η0). We relate physical properties of branched polymers to their structural properties.^ Beaucage G. Physical Review E 70,031401 (2004) ^*Colby et al. Macromolecules 25, p.996 (1992)

  7. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  8. [Law-making "pioneers" of scientometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András; Schubert, Gábor

    2016-01-10

    The three much cited laws of scientometrics are the laws of Bradford, Lotka and Zipf. The authors briefly review the scientific career of the men behind the names, and that how they discovered the laws named after them. An outline is also given of the scientific aftermath of the laws and of the oeuvre of their eponym.

  9. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  10. Collateral branching of long-distance cortical projections in monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2013-12-15

    Collateralization of individual cortical axons is well documented for rodents but less so for monkeys, where double retrograde tracer experiments have tended to find only small numbers of neurons projecting to two different injection sites. Evidence from both double label and single axon studies, however, suggests that in specific projection systems the number of neurons with collateralized axons can be 10% or greater. These include feedback projections from temporal areas (but less so those from V4 and MT/V5). Single-axon analyses show that many parietal neurons branch to multiple targets. Except for giant Meynert cells in area V1, feedforward projections from early visual areas have only a small number of neurons with branching axons. Why only some neurons collateralize, what determines branch points and projection foci, and how this impacts network organization are largely unknown. Deciphering the branching code might offer new perspectives on space-time organization at the network level.

  11. Rule of Law Fully Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN CHUNYING

    2011-01-01

    Governing the country according to the law and building a socialist state with rule of law are fundamental strategies for running the country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.Since the founding of the People's Republic of China,especially over the past three decades of reform and opening-up,through the unremitting efforts of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee,the State Council,the local people's congresses and their standing committees,as well as all sectors of society,by the end of August,2011,China had enacted the Constitution and the 240 laws,706 administrative regulations and more than 8,600 local regulations that are now in force.

  12. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  13. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non...

  14. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  15. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  16. On the integration of public law jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shuhong

    2006-01-01

    After two to three hundred years of development,modern public laws have become more and more important,mature and integrated especially since the 20th century.Traditionally,the dispersive and overlapping public law researches were grounded on the sectional public laws like constitutional law,administrative law,criminal law,procedural law,international public law,etc.Nevertheless,with all-around emergence of public law,the traditional research method can no longer adapt to the development needs of the modern public law.Therefore,it is quite necessary for us to create a kind of moderate unified public law between the laws and the sectional public laws,so as to do comprehensive,integrated and systematic researches on various sectional public laws.Based on the indepth argumentation about the necessity of developing unified public laws,this paper further puts forward that,to discuss an all-encompassing way about the main problems of creating the unified public laws and expect to fill the gap with it,the unified public law should define its study objectives mainly focused on the contents of integrated public law criteria,common public law features and general public law rules and so on;form its theoretical basis on the line of the relations between public power and the citizen privilege;establish its category structure found on the concept of public power and the derivative core and basic categories;and build up the disciplinary system based on the systematic integrity of the public law research results.

  17. Synthesis of Climate Change Policy in Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of U.S. Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brinkmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the United States has struggled to develop a comprehensive policy for climate change and concomitant greenhouse gas emissions that addresses the current scientific thinking on the topic. The absence of any clear legislative or executive approach dominated national discussions and the court system was used to litigate a variety of issues associated with global warming. This paper synthesizes actions taken in the three branches of government prior to and immediately following the Obama election. In the Judicial branch, several branches of law have been used to force government and private parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the historic greenhouse gas lawsuit, Massachusetts et al. v. the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, and under the direction of the Obama administration, the U.S. EPA has taken significant action to regulate greenhouse gases. In the legislative branch, a comprehensive energy and climate bill passed the House of Representatives and comparable and alternate energy and climate bills were debated in the Senate indicating hope for legislation in the 111th Congress. However, these bills proved to be unsuccessful, therefore leaving the U.S. EPA and the courts the only options for national climate policy in the near future.

  18. Hiding dependence-discovery of F-hiding laws and system laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Houyong; Huang Shunliang; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    Function one direction S-rough sets have dynamic characteristics and law characteristics. By using the function one direction S-rough sets, this article presents the concepts of the f-hiding law, F-hiding law, f-hiding law dependence and F-hiding law dependence. Based on the concepts above, this article proposes the hiding-dependence theorem of f-hiding laws, the hiding-dependence theorem of F-hiding laws, the hiding-dependence separation theorem, the hiding dependencs-discovery principle of unknown laws. Finally, the application of the hiding dependence of hiding laws in the discovery of system laws is given.

  19. Expanding Newton Mechanics with Neutrosophy and Quadstage Method ──New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal

  20. PUBLIC LAW AS A VICTIM OF THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS VACARELU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day of 2009 has a common speech: economic crisis and its consequences, not only in economic topics, but also in few others domains, connected with the real economy.However, in this public speech, it was a problem: we must find a guilty element, because it must be someone who was not able to function correct, to not respect some rules that was good many years, but not in first years of 21st century. And, as always, every specialist and whole political class offered an answer. But this is not enough: a crisis has not only causes, but t has its victims.The globalization was one of them; human rights – in few states, young generation is a perpetual victim. In legal branch, the consequences were much simple: private law (banking law and commercial law didn’t suffer too much, but public law – because whole eyes were settled in this direction – felt this pressure. State intervention in the economy was considered not really political correct, not really a benefit for economies, but something necessary. In fact, public law was considered only a reserve. In this case, can we speak about a delegitimization of public law? Is the purpose of public law available for 21st century or it become now only a simple reserve, necessary only to solve the “side-slip” of the private law? And, because the connection between private law and the economy is too strong, can we see now the public law as a victim of the economy?

  1. Improving Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law and Gauss's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development and evaluation of five research-based tutorials on Coulomb's law, superposition, symmetry and Gauss's Law to help students in the calculus-based introductory physics courses learn these concepts. We discuss the performance of students on the pre-/post-tests given before and after the tutorials in three calculus-based introductory physics courses. We also discuss the performance of students who used the tutorials and those who did not use it on a multiple-choice test which employs concepts covered in the tutorials.

  2. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  3. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  4. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  5. Stability of earthquake clustering models: criticality and branching ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J; Harte, David S

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  6. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  7. Fabrication of multi-level branched metal nanowires by AAO template electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liping; YUAN Zhihao; ZHANG Xiaoguang

    2006-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with various branched pores were prepared through one- to multi-step varying the anodic voltage by a factor of 1√2 during an anodization of aluminum. The corresponding branched Fe nanowires (i.e. Y-branched, two-level branched and more complex tree-like nanostructures) were achieved by electrodepositing Fe into the branched pores of the AAO template. Selecting area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM images show that the stem and branches of the branched Fe nanowires are single- crystalline with a face-centered cubic lattice. These branched Fe nanowires will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  8. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  9. The Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  10. Fundamentals of EU VAT law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a

  11. Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A J; See, M S; Ellis, H

    2008-01-01

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is highly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injury. This study aimed to map the course of the SBRN in the context of surgical approaches and identify a safe area of incision for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. The SBRN emerged from under brachioradialis by a mean of 8.31 cm proximal to the radial styloid (RS), and remained radial to the dorsal tubercle of the radius by a mean of 1.49 cm. The nerve divided into a median of four branches. The first branch arose a mean of 4.92 cm proximal to the RS, traveling 0.49 cm radial to the first compartment of the extensor retinaculum, while the main nerve remained ulnar to it by 0.64 cm. All specimens had branches underlying the traditional transverse incision for de Quervain's release. A 2.5-cm longitudinal incision proximal from the RS avoided the SBRN in 17/25 cases (68%). In 20/25 specimens (80%), the SBRN underlay the cephalic vein. In 18/25 (72%), the radial artery was closely associated with a sensory nerve branch near the level of the RS (SBRN 12/25, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LCNF) 6/25.) A longitudinal incision in de Quervain's surgery may be preferable. Cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal third of the forearm is best avoided. The close association between the radial artery and first branch of the SBRN or the LCNF may explain the pain often experienced during arterial puncture. Particular care should be taken during radial artery harvest to avoid nerve injury.

  12. Law of Conservation of Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  13. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  14. The character of physical law: seeking new laws

    CERN Document Server

    BBC TV Science & Features

    1965-01-01

    In this series of Messenger Lectures given at Cornell University, Nobel Prize winning theoretical physicist Richard Feynman explores physical principles and the study of physics. In this talk Dr. Feynman considers our knowledge of the p hysical world and looks at the art of guessing as a useful method for discovering new physical laws.

  15. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  16. A Critical Reassessment of the Hess–Murray Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sciubba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hess–Murray law is a correlation between the radii of successive branchings in bi/trifurcated vessels in biological tissues. First proposed by the Swiss physiologist and Nobel laureate Walter Rudolf Hess in his 1914 doctoral thesis and published in 1917, the law was “rediscovered” by the American physiologist Cecil Dunmore Murray in 1926. The law is based on the assumption that blood or lymph circulation in living organisms is governed by a “work minimization” principle that—under a certain set of specified conditions—leads to an “optimal branching ratio” of r i + 1 r i = 1 2 3 = 0.7937 . This “cubic root of 2” correlation underwent extensive theoretical and experimental reassessment in the second half of the 20th century, and the results indicate that—under a well-defined series of conditions—the law is sufficiently accurate for the smallest vessels (r of the order of fractions of millimeter but fails for the larger ones; moreover, it cannot be successfully extended to turbulent flows. Recent comparisons with numerical investigations of branched flows led to similar conclusions. More recently, the Hess–Murray law came back into the limelight when it was taken as a founding paradigm of the Constructal Law, a theory that employs physical intuition and mathematical reasoning to derive “optimal paths” for the transport of matter and energy between a source and a sink, regardless of the mode of transportation (continuous, like in convection and conduction, or discrete, like in the transportation of goods and people. This paper examines the foundation of the law and argues that both for natural flows and for engineering designs, a minimization of the irreversibility under physically sound boundary conditions leads to somewhat different results. It is also shown that, in the light of an exergy-based resource analysis, an amended version of the Hess–Murray law may still hold an important position in engineering and

  17. Classifications of mandibular canal branching:A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Augusto Aquino Castro; Manuel Oscar Lagravere-Vich; Tania Mara Pimenta Amaral; Mauro Henrique Guimaraes Abreu; Ricardo Alves Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To gather existing radiographic classifications of mandibular canals branching, considering the criteria on which these were based.METHODS: The search for studies on mandibular canals based on imaging exams included literature reviews, epidemiological studies of prevalence, descriptive studies, or case reports. An electronic search in the MEDLINE(Ovid SP), Pub Med, EMBASE(Ovid SP), Web of Science(Thompson Reuters), and Scopus(Elsevier) databases was performed, as well as a manual evaluation of the references of the selected articles. Combinations of key words were placed in each database. No restrictions were imposed regarding the year of publication or language. References collected in duplicate were removed by the authors. A table was drawn up, containing the included studies and respective interest data.RESULTS: Six classifications of mandibular canals branching were selected for the present literature review. Four were based on two-dimensional radiographic exams, and two were performed based on threedimensional tomographic exams. Three-dimensional classifications were determined based on the analysis found in the least number of exams, comparatively to two-dimensional studies. The prevalence of mandibular canal branching varied from 0% to 38.75% in the works based on two-dimensional exams, while those found inthree-dimensional exams ranged from 15.6% to 65%. The studies were mostly referred to branches that began in the mandibular ramus. Just one classification considered the branches that began in the mandibular body region.CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional exams appear to be the best method to view mandibular canal branching. Further studies are warranted to determine its true prevalence and questions concerning to associations.

  18. Globalization And Its Influence On The Development Of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author researches questions of globalization impact on the international law. Author notes that today it is possible to talk about the new phase of globalization that is associated with the development of bilateral regional agreements, as well as changes in the configuration of the trade and political landscape. In the article author also reveals the essence of processes that determine development of international law in the century of globalization. Along with the formation of a new branch of law - integration law, which is a kind of legal mechanism to govern global public relations, development of modern public law is determined by the changing of nature of production and international specialization, as well as multinational corporations. In the conclusion author points out possibility of the own monetary system creation in the integration community, even in the format of multi-speed integration, what allows EU member states together confront to dollar and yuan, what contributes to the achievement of their national interests in the economic sphere, therefore, legal mechanism established the European Union takes into account both regional and economic aspects that are associated with the process of globalization. With new trends in the development of modern international law it is necessary to develop advanced models of legal regulation for processes caused by globalization.

  19. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  20. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents.

  1. Branched-chain amino acid metabolon: interaction of glutamate dehydrogenase with the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R Max; Mobley, James A; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain alpha-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain alpha-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5'-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate.

  2. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatami Firooz Abadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  3. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Mohammad Ali Khatami Firouzabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  4. Fragrance Release from the Surface of Branched Poly (Amide S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youngs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased.

  5. A Lamperti type representation of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Ma Emilia; Bravo, Gerónimo Uribe

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the relationship between the breadth-first walk of a rooted tree and its sequence of generation sizes, we extend the Lamperti representation of continuous-state branching processes to allow immigration. The representation is obtained by solving a random ordinary differential equation defined by a pair of independent L\\'evy processes. Stability of the solutions is studied and gives, in particular, limit theorems (of a type previously studied by Grimvall, Kawazu and Watanabe, and Li) and a simulation scheme for continuous-state branching processes with immigration. We further apply our stability analysis to extend Pitman's limit theorem concerning Galton-Watson processes conditioned on total population size to more general offspring laws.

  6. Method of branch ariflow for calculatinga complicated mine ventilation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-gong

    2001-01-01

    The solutions widely used at preeent for calculating complicated mine ventilation networks are ones in which resistance of the branches and characteristic parameters of the fans are taken as basic input data. But it is time-and-energy-consuming to obtain the branch resistance values. A new solution is developed in this peper in which the branch reeistance values are obtained through measuring and evaluating the airflow of the whole ventilation network. Theoretical analysis is made of the establishment of a linear equation series with branch resistance as unknown numbers, an equation series for which one, and only one, result of solutions exists. This solution is programmed in C language and passed on a personal computer. The programmed solution programmed proves of practical use, as demonstrated by specific examples. Being different from other solutions, the method takes the branch airflow and fan working points as basic input data, and the present solution is of greater advantage for calculating ventilation networks of mines in operation.

  7. Partial branching enzyme treatment increases the low glycaemic property and α-1,6 branching ratio of maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Xue, Jiangchao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yaqi; Jia, Yingmin

    2014-12-01

    Partial branching enzyme treatment was used to modulate the starch fine chain structure responsible for a high content of slowly digestible starch fraction. Normal maize starch modified using branching enzyme for 4h showed a maximum slowly digestible starch content of 23.90%. The branching enzyme hydrolysis decreased the amylose content from 32.8% to 12.8%. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches showed a larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in the enzyme treated starch sample compare to native starch. The number of shorter chains (DP30) from 20.11% to 11.95%. (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of α-1,6 branching ratio from 4.7% to 9.4% during enzyme treatment. The increase in the amount of shorter chains and more α-1,6 linkages likely contribute to their slow digestion property. These results suggest that starches treated with partial branching enzyme synthesis a novel branched structure with slowly digestible character.

  8. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  9. Preaching in the perspective of civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kroczek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preaching the word of God is the part of the ministry of the divine word. The activity belongs exclusively to the Church and is regulated by the church law, but it is also under regime of Polish law. The article focuses on the Polish civil law and treats about: copyright law, the protection of secret information in labor law and in educational law, the obligation of silence before election day, and protection of personal interests. The catholic ministers must be aware of the civil liability for the preaching.

  10. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  11. Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga

    CERN Document Server

    Bey, A; Canchel, G; Dossat, C; Giovinazzo, J; Matea, I; Elomaa, V; Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, M; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I; Pentillä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J; Adimi, N; De France, G; Thomas, J C; Voltolini, G; Chaventré, T

    2008-01-01

    Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla. 62Ga is one of the heavier Tz = 0, 0+ -> 0+ beta-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the Vud quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of 62Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR= 99.893(24)%, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed beta decay of 62Ga.

  12. Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, Gradignan Cedex (France); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, El Alia, B.P. 32, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); France, G. de; Thomas, J.C.; Voltolini, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-05-15

    Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 62}Ga is one of the heavier T{sub z}=0, 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of {sup 62}Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR=99.893(24) %, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed {beta} -decay of {sup 62}Ga. (orig.)

  13. STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF INFERIOR SEGMENTAL BRANCH OF RENAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandragirish S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The segmental arteries of the kidney supply the organ in such a way that, each renal pole receives its own artery while, the anterior portion between the poles is supplied by an upper and lower segmental vessel. These two arteries also include in their territory the lateral edge of the kidney and adjacent to the strip of parenchyma on the dorsal or posterior aspect of the organ. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery is very important for surgeries in its distribution area in kidney. Materials and Methods: 100 kidneys (Fifty pairs intact with abdominal aorta were collected from department of Forensic medicine, JSS Medical College and Mysore Medical College. For study of segmental variation Corrosion cast technique method was used. The variations of inferior segmental branch of renal artery were observed and recorded. Results: In present study type I inferior segmental branch of renal artery were found in - 59% cases, type II in - 6% cases, type III in - 28% cases, type IV in - 2% cases. Conclusion: The inferior segmental artery from the anterior division of the renal artery is the commonest event –arising in 59%. This is Type I, the normal type. It arises from the renal artery (28% or from the posterior division (6% or from the aorta (2%. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery helpful in kidney transplantation and renal surgery because these type of surgeries success mainly depends on arterial ligations.

  14. Newtons law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Newton, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  15. Library Laws of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Richard E., Comp.

    Compiled to provide a central reference point for all legislative information pertaining to libraries in the State of Texas, this publication includes all pertinent legislation as amended through the 71st Legislature, 1989, Regular Session. This update of the 1980 edition has been expanded to include statutes pertaining to the school and academic…

  16. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  17. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  18. Topology of Branched Polymers: Effect on Structure and Dynamic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramnath; Beaucage, Gregory; Kulkarni, Amit S.; Galiatsatos, Vassilios; McFaddin, Douglas C.

    2008-03-01

    We investigated linear and branched polyethylene (PE) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The experiments were conducted on dilute solutions of PE in deuterated p-xylene. A variety of structural information^ such as fractal dimension (df), connectivity dimension (c), minimum path dimension (dmin), long chain branch fraction (φbr), radius of gyration (Rg) and persistence length (lp) were obtained. Such information presents a qualitative and quantitative assessment of branching in polymers. Theoretical models such as `binary contacts per pervaded volume' model^* were employed to correlate the structural information of the polymer to its entanglement molecular weight (Me). Me was used to predict physical properties of the polymer such as plateau modulus (GN^0 ) and zero-shear viscosity (η0). ^Beaucage G. Physical Review E 70,031401 (2004) ^*Colby et al. Macromolecules 25, p.996 (1992)

  19. Anomalous branching pattern of common hepatic artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of hepatic artery variations exists which is continuously proving a hindrance for the surgeons and radiologists. During routine dissection in the subhepatic region in 50 year old male cadaver for undergraduate teaching, a variation in the branching pattern of common hepatic artery was noticed. We observed an unusual branching of the common hepatic artery into seven terminal branches, of which two were left hepatic arteries, two were right gastric arteries and the remaining three were right hepatic artery, cystic artery and gastroduodenal artery. Hepatic artery proper was absent. Embryological basis of these variations were discussed. The present case is a rarity and will further throw light on the knowledge of the hepatic artery variations, thus assisting surgeons and radiologists in various surgical and diagnostic procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1740-1742

  20. Probing the hardest branching of jets in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculation of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions between the leading subjets inside a reconstructed jet in heavy ion collisions. These observables are directly sensitive to the hardest branching in the process of jet formation and are, therefore, ideal for studying the early stage of the in-medium parton shower evolution. The modification of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions in lead-lead relative to proton-proton collisions is evaluated using the leading-order medium-induced splitting functions obtained in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluon interactions. Qualitative and in most cases quantitative agreement between theory and preliminary CMS measurements suggests that the parton shower in heavy ion collisions can be dramatically modified early in the branching history. We propose a new measurement which will illuminate the angular distribution of the hardest branching within jets in heavy ion collisions.

  1. Law of Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-08

    Cir. 1993); Afifi v. United States Dep’t of Interior, 924 F.2d 61, 62 (4th Cir. 1991); Manning v. MSPB, 742 F.2d 1424 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Long v. United...district court, and bifurcated proceedings are prohibited. See Afifi , 924 F.2d at 62-63; Williams, 715 F.2d at 1490-91. According to one court, the no

  2. Computer simulations of melts of randomly branching polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Angelo; Everaers, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    Randomly branching polymers with annealed connectivity are model systems for ring polymers and chromosomes. In this context, the branched structure represents transient folding induced by topological constraints. Here we present computer simulations of melts of annealed randomly branching polymers of 3 ≤ N ≤ 1800 segments in d = 2 and d = 3 dimensions. In all cases, we perform a detailed analysis of the observed tree connectivities and spatial conformations. Our results are in excellent agreement with an asymptotic scaling of the average tree size of R ˜ N1/d, suggesting that the trees behave as compact, territorial fractals. The observed swelling relative to the size of ideal trees, R ˜ N1/4, demonstrates that excluded volume interactions are only partially screened in melts of annealed trees. Overall, our results are in good qualitative agreement with the predictions of Flory theory. In particular, we find that the trees swell by the combination of modified branching and path stretching. However, the former effect is subdominant and difficult to detect in d = 3 dimensions.

  3. Effects of Pre-Stress State and Propagation Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2001-12-01

    Major earthquakes seldom rupture along single planar faults. Instead there exist geometric complexities, including fault bends, branches and stepovers, which affect the rupture process, including nucleation and arrest. Here we consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Analyses based on elastic stress fields near propagating ruptures suggest that whether a branch path will be followed or not, and whether branching to the extensional or compressional side is favored, depend on both the rupture propagation velocity as the branch is approached and on the pre-stress state before rupture arrives. See Kame and Yamashita (GJI, 139, 345-358, 1999) and Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR subm. 2001, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf). The latter predicted that branching to the extensional side would be favored in all pre-stress states except for those in which the direction of maximum pre-compression Smax makes a shallow angle ψ with the fault plane. Angles ψ 45 ° result when the ratio is less than unity. Thus it is anticipated that the most favored side for rupture branching should switch from the extensional to the compressive side as we consider progressively larger σ oxx/σ oyy (which means progressively smaller ψ ). In order to test that and other predictions, we have adapted the elastodynamic boundary integral equation methodology of Kame and Yamashita to 2-dimensional Mode II ruptures along branched fault systems, to allow simulations of rupture in which the failure path is dynamically self-chosen. Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress (-σ nn). Our current results are preliminary. Nevertheless, by comparing results for σ oxx/σ oyy = 0.8 with those for 1.4, we have established, e.g., that a 15

  4. Scale dependence of branching in arterial and bronchial trees

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, J G; Hunt, B R; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Although models of branching in arterial and bronchial trees often predict a dependence of bifurcation parameters on the scale of the bifurcating vessels, direct verifications of this dependence with data are uncommon. We compare measurements of bifurcation parameters in airways and arterial trees of different mammals as a function of scale to general features predicted by theoretical models. We find that the size dependence is more complex than existing theories based solely on energy minimization explain, and suggest additional factors that may govern the branching at different scales.

  5. CONTROLLED ANIONIC SYNTHESIS OF FUNCTIONALIZED AND STAR-BRANCHED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RODERIC P. QUIRK; YIN Jian; GUO Shaohua; HU Xiaowei; GABRIEL SUMMERS; KIM Jungahn; ZHU Linfang; LAUREL E. SCHOCK

    1990-01-01

    The use of living, alkyllithium-initiated anionic polymerization to prepare chain-end functionalized polymers and heteroarm, star- branched polymers is discussed. The scope and limitations of specific termination reactions with a variety of electrophilic species are illustrated for carbonation, hydroxyethylation,amination, and sulfonation. The methodology of using substituted 1,1- diphenylethylenes to provide a general, quantitative functionalization procedure is outlined and illustrated with examples of amine and phenol end-functionalization. A methodology is described for the synthesis of functionalized,star-branched copolymers with compositionally heterogeneous arms of controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution using 1, 3-bis (1-phenylethenyl) benzene.

  6. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The staff of the UBS CERN branch (apart from Nicole Savoini, not in the picture). The new branch manager Mr Denis Mellet (fourth from the right) is standing just in front of his predecessor Mr Pierre Guyenon. Mr Pierre Guyenon, who has managed the CERN branch of the UBS for the last seven years, retired on 31 May. Pierre Guyenon was always committed to establishing a harmonious and trusting relationship between CERN, its employees and the bank. He also maintained an excellent atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. Mr Denis Mellet, who has worked for the bank for many years in various capacities, has taken over from Mr Guyenon.

  7. A Case of Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Uneventful Phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dragnev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following uneventful phacoemulsification, possibly caused by sub-Tenon's anaesthesia. There were no predisposing general health problems. There are two possible mechanisms: (1 mechanical effect of the bolus anaesthetic; (2 pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular calibre. The latter mechanism is much more probable, because of the vasoconstrictive properties of both medications used. This is the first reported case of branch retinal artery occlusion after sub-Tenon's anaesthesia with preservative-free medications.

  8. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    After seven years at the helm of the CERN branch of the UBS, Mr. Denis Mellet retired on 1 October.   Denis Mellet has always striven to develop harmonious relations, in a climate of trust, between CERN and the staff of the bank. He has succeeded in maintaining a pleasant atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. He is succeeded by M. Ezio Mangia, who has worked for many years in the bank’s branches department.

  9. The sector constants of continuous state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Handa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Continuous state branching processes with immigration are studied. We are particularly concerned with the associated (non-symmetric) Dirichlet form. After observing that gamma distributions are only reversible distributions for this class of models, we prove that every generalized gamma convolution is a stationary distribution of the process with suitably chosen branching mechanism and with continuous immigration. For such non-reversible processes, the strong sector condition is discussed in terms of a characteristic called the Thorin measure. In addition, some connections with notion from noncommutative probability theory will be pointed out through calculations involving the Stieltjes transform.

  10. Lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths of doubly ionized tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Johanning, M.; Schnabel, R.; Kock, M. [Inst. fuer Atom- and Molekuelphysik, Abt. Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany); Kling, R. [Inst. fuer Atom- and Molekuelphysik, Abt. Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany); National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Li, Z.; Lundberg, H. [Dept. of Physics, Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden); Johansson, S. [Atomic Spectroscopy, Dept. of Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    A first small set of W III oscillator strengths has been obtained from combined lifetime and branching fraction measurements. The branching fractions in the wavelength region of 154-334 nm were measured with a Penning discharge and a Fourier transform spectrometer. Three levels have been calibrated and absolute scales with lifetimes measured with the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. The f-values derived have uncertainties of about 8% at best. A comparison with Cowan-code calculations is given since no other data are available in the literature. (orig.)

  11. Cortical Correlates of Fitts’ Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eIfft

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitts' law describes the fundamental trade-off between movement accuracy and speed: It states that the duration of reaching movements is a function of target size and distance. While Fitts' law has been extensively studied in ergonomics and has guided the design of human-computer interfaces, there have been few studies on its neuronal correlates. To elucidate sensorimotor cortical activity underlying Fitts’ law, we implanted two monkeys with multielectrode arrays in the primary motor (M1 and primary somatosensory (S1 cortices. The monkeys performed reaches with a joystick-controlled cursor towards targets of different size. The reaction time, movement time and movement velocity changed with target size, and M1 and S1 activity reflected these changes. Moreover, modifications of cortical activity could not be explained by changes of movement parameters alone, but required target size as an additional parameter. Neuronal representation of target size was especially prominent during the early reaction time period where it influenced the slope of the firing rate rise preceding movement initiation. During the movement period, cortical activity was mostly correlated with movement velocity. Neural decoders were applied to simultaneously decode target size and motor parameters from cortical modulations. We suggest using such classifiers to improve neuroprosthetic control.

  12. Abuse of rights in Community Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...

  13. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  14. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  15. The international environmental law of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The author puts the question of whether the international environmental law can be called an international law of cooperation and examines its particular features and the available instruments for transboundary cooperation on various levels. (Orig./CB)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties i

  18. Evaluating Student Satisfaction of Quality at International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to present the determinants of students' perceptions of quality and experience of study at international branch campuses in Malaysia, a country that is set to become an academic hub in Asia. This study used a multi-method approach for data collection. The respondents comprised 245 students (both undergraduate and…

  19. Cancer vaccines: the perspective of the Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogn, J A; Finerty, J F; Heath, A K; Shen, G L; Austin, F C

    1993-08-12

    The Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI, is supporting a great deal of exciting research relevant to cancer vaccine development. The few areas highlighted here are representative of ongoing research opportunities, but further progress depends largely on a continued infusion of investigator-initiated ideas to realize the potential of current research areas and open new ones.

  20. A Perspective on the Future of Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Branch campuses can thrive in the extremely competitive environment of higher education, because of their commitment to access and their relatively low cost of operation. Success, however, depends on understanding the preferences of adult learners and other place bound students. With targeted programs, focused services, careful financial…

  1. The role of branched endografts in preserving internal iliac arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielliu, I. F. J.; Bos, W. T. G. J.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Prins, T. R.; Van den Dungen, J. J. A. M.; Verhoeven, E. L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to report our treatment algorithm and early results with the use of an iliac branched device (IBD) to preserve the internal iliac artery (IIA) in the treatment of aortoiliac and solitary common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms. Methods. From September 2004 on, all patients

  2. An asymptotic analysis of closed queueing networks with branching populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, N.; Coffman, E.G.; Kogan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Closed queueing networks have proven to be valuable tools for system performance analysis. In this paper, we broaden the applications of such networks by incorporating populations of {em branching customers: whenever a customer completes service at some node of the network, it is replaced by N>=0 cu

  3. Trigeminal branch stimulation for the treatment of intractable craniofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason A; Mejia Munne, Juan C; Winfree, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT Trigeminal branch stimulation has been used in the treatment of craniofacial pain syndromes. The risks and benefits of such an approach have not been clearly delineated in large studies, however. The authors report their experience in treating craniofacial pain with trigeminal branch stimulation and share the lessons they have learned after 93 consecutive electrode placements. METHODS A retrospective review of all patients who underwent trigeminal branch electrode placement by the senior author (C.J.W.) for the treatment of craniofacial pain was performed. RESULTS Thirty-five patients underwent implantation of a total of 93 trial and permanent electrodes between 2006 and 2013. Fifteen patients who experienced improved pain control after trial stimulation underwent implantation of permanent stimulators and were followed for an average of 15 months. At last follow-up 73% of patients had improvement in pain control, whereas only 27% of patients had no pain improvement. No serious complications were seen during the course of this study. CONCLUSIONS Trigeminal branch stimulation is a safe and effective treatment for a subset of patients with intractable craniofacial pain.

  4. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies.

  5. Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrinov, Yu M [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Mahfouzi, F [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, PO Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented.

  6. Branching in current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2007-02-01

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented.

  7. CONSTITUTIONALIZATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND REVIEWABILITY OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to conduct an analysis of the constitutionalization of Administrative Law, which results from changes in the rule of law and, under a theoretical standpoint, from the paradigm shift of legal exegesis followed by the advent of neo-constitutionalism, which poses the Constitution as the parameter for the interpretation of the other legal branches. Within this context, considering that the concept of administrative discretion goes through interpretation changes and that administrative activity is performed within the boundaries of discretion, this power/duty must always be used with substantial regulatory criteria in order to get the maximum effectiveness of the constitutional rules, thus being subjected to review. In this sense, it is demonstrated that a public official cannot in any way deviate from the realization of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution, hence stating the reviewability of the administrative discretion.

  8. Law as a Tale of Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Understanding law as a tale of identity, indentity includes what we ought as much as what we are. Criticism of law and literature of seing literature as having precende over law which is a mere technicality. Different human rights consceptions in Denmark compared to Europe equal diffent identities....

  9. Pragmatism, Holism, and the Concept of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Dyrda (Adam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhen discussing O. W. Holmes’s answer to the question What constitutes the law? Morton White underlines the fact that Holmes’s inquiry didn’t focus on developing the concept of law. White states: ‘...Holmes said little in The Path of the Law about the notion of legal authority, perhaps b

  10. [Expertise in the context of criminal law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermylen, Yvo

    2005-01-01

    The procedures of expert investigations in criminal law are different from those in civil law. Being an expert in criminal law investigations assumes thorough knowledge of dentistry, forensic investigations and of rules and procedures to follow. Adequate training and continuous education are mandatory.

  11. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  12. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, among...

  13. The emergence of global climate law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    As the chapters in this Encyclopedia demonstrate, climate law is a dynamic and multidisciplinary field, implicating many diverse fields of law at all levels from municipal planning through multinational treaties. The outlines of an emerging global law can be discerned, including shared principles su

  14. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  15. A Measurement of the Tau Topological Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, Dmitri Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Bellunato, T.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bol, J.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.H.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Croix, J.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hertz, O.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovanski, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumstein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kurowska, J.; Lamsa, J.W.; Laugier, J.P.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.M.; Murray, W.J.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwanda, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Y.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Sette, G.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sokolov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Dam, Piet; Van den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP-1, measurements of the inclusive tau branching ratios for decay modes containing one, three, or five charged particles have been performed, giving the following results: B_1 = B(\\tau^- -> (particle)^- \\geq 0pi^0 \\geq 0K^0 \

  16. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many li

  17. Countability of Planck Boxes in Quantum Branching Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2002-04-01

    Two popular paradigms of cosmological quantum branching are Many World (MW) model of parallel universes (Everett, Deutsch) and inflationary quantum foam (IQF) model (Guth, Linde). Taking Planck L,T units as physically smallest, our Big Bang miniverse with size 10E28 cm and duration 10E18 sec has some 10E244 (N) elementary 4D Planck Boxes (PB) in its entire spacetime history. Using combinatorics, N! (about 10E10E247) is upper estimate for number of all possible 4D states, i.e. scale of "eternal return" (ER; Nietzsche, Eliade) for such miniverses. To count all states in full Megaverse (all up and down branches of infinite tree of all MW and/or IQF miniverses) we recall that all countable infinities have same (aleph-naught) cardinality (Cantor). Using Godel-type numbering, count PB in our miniverse by primes. This uses first N primes. Both MW and IQF models presume splitting of miniverses as springing (potentially) from each PB, making each PB infinitely rich, inexhaustible and unique. Next branching level is counted by integers p1Ep2, third level by p1Ep2Ep3 integers, etc, ad infinitum. To count in up and down directions from "our" miniverse, different branching subsets of powers of primes can be used at all levels of tower exponentiation. Thus, all PB in all infinitude of MW and/or IQF branches can be uniquely counted by never repeating integers (tower exponents of primes), offering escape from grim ER scenarios.

  18. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  19. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  20. Application of Ranganathans Laws to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Amoohosseini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: Does the Web save the time of the users? This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathans Five Laws of Library Science which inspired them

  1. Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: "Does the Web save the time of the users?" This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science which inspired them.

  2. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  3. Asymptotic behaviour of extinction probability of interacting branching collision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Anyue; Li, Junping; Chen, Yiqing; Zhou, Dingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact expressions for the extinction probabilities of the Interacting Branching Collision Processes (IBCP) were very recently given by Chen et al. [4], some of these expressions are very complicated; hence, useful information regarding asymptotic behaviour, for example, is harder to obtain. Also, these exact expressions take very different forms for different cases and thus seem lacking in homogeneity. In this paper, we show that the asymptotic behaviour of these extr...

  4. Law and Justice in Community: The Significance of the Living Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Doyle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Law and Justice in Community provides an account of law that privileges the role of custom, which the authors characterise as the living law. In this paper, I argue that the authors' account of law observes the same features as those observed by Hart in his Concept of Law. However, Hart viewed all law through the lens of state law, with the result that he did not identify the purpose of law. Conversely, Barden and Murphy view all law through the lens of the living law, with the result that they do not identify some of the most acute issues raised by pervasive state law. Ultimately, each account is helpful as a corrective to the other.

  5. Friction between the Branches of Government Regarding the Civil Service in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Puentes González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available he civil service is important for managing the affairs of the State and the public administration. According to Ramón Parada Vásquez, the civil service should be understood as the group of people who are vested with powers and competences, and fulfil certain functions in order to provide public services within the legal framework in which they must develop their activities and account for them. The present paper is twofold: first, it presents the evolution of the civil service from the time the Colombian nation-State is consolidated until the Political Constitution of 1991, outlining the criteria, principles and values that have been presided over the treatment being given to the purpose of this study. Second, the present text gives an account of several readings and interpretations that the branches of the government have been giving to the Charter with regard to the civil service and administrative career. Both will be available in two levels of complexity: the first, with the enactment of laws and the second, with the issuance of legislative acts. To demonstrate, in this context, the frictions between the branches of Government, the Constitutional Court’s sentences in defense of the Cherter are presented, with which it takes out of the legal system law provisions intended to violate the Political Constitution; those provisions have been presented under the pretext of solving a problem of temporary character of thousands of public employees circumventing the selection process. For this reason, there has been a permanent friction among the three branches of government. In the end, the Constitutional Court’s decisions have prevailed and with its permanent teaching it has prompted the Executive and the Legislative to work independently but harmoniously as it is established in the 1991 Constitution.

  6. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  7. State responsibility and right to health in Brazil: a balance of the Branches' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Lima, Luciana Dias

    2009-01-01

    The 1988 Federal Constitution set forth a new political-institutional moment in Brazil reasserting the Democratic State and defining a broad social protection policy including health as a social citizenship right. Since its promulgation, a great number of laws, ministerial decrees and administrative actions have attempted to make feasible the political project outlined in the Constitution. On the other hand, in the same period, the number of legal orders regarding health related demands has increased. Such a movement has revealed inconsistencies and contradictions in the legal and normative scope of SUS (Unified Health System), as well as problems not calculated by health policies, questioning the Executive Branch's actions and creating a new demand for legislation. This article discusses the role of the State in health as of 1990, considering the action of the Branches. The perspectives on the right to health in the construction of a democratic State oriented to social wellbeing, facing the challenges related to coordination mechanisms and balance among Branches in the health issue, are discussed.

  8. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry's law constants (HLC are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs, solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014, an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  9. Breakup branches of Borromean beryllium-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R., E-mail: r.smith.3@pgr.bham.ac.uk; Freer, M.; Wheldon, C.; Curtis, N.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Ziman, V. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Bucher, B.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Jung, F.; Lu, W.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P. [Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Copp, P.; Lesher, S. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    The breakup reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 4}He, 3α)n was measured using an array of four double-sided silicon strip detectors at beam energies of 22 and 26 MeV. Excited states in {sup 9}Be up to 12 MeV were populated and reconstructed through the measurement of the charged reaction products. It is proposed that limits on the spins and parities of the states can be derived from the way that they decay. Various breakup paths for excited states in {sup 9}Be have been explored including the {sup 8}Be{sub g.s.} + n, {sup 8}Be{sub 2{sup +}} + n and {sup 5}He{sub g.s.} + {sup 4}He channels. By imposing the condition that the breakup proceeded via the {sup 8}Be ground state, clean excitation spectra for {sup 9}Be were reconstructed. The remaining two breakup channels were found to possess strongly-overlapping kinematic signatures and more sophisticated methods (referenced) are required to completely disentangle these other possibilities. Emphasis is placed on the development of the experimental analysis and the usefulness of Monte-Carlo simulations for this purpose.

  10. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P

    2006-01-01

    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  11. Design of a Sapling Branch Grafting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic sapling grafting methods and grafting robot technologies are not comprehensively studied despite the fact that they are urgently required in practice. For this reason, a sapling grafting robot is developed to implement automatic grafting for saplings. The developed grafting robot includes clipping mechanism, moving mechanism, cutting mechanism, binding mechanism, and Arduino MCU based control system, which is capable of clipping, moving, positioning, cutting, grafting, and binding saplings. Experiments show that the stock cutting efficiency is 98.4%, the scion cutting efficiency is 98.9%, the grafting efficiency is 87.3%, and the binding efficiency is 68.9%.

  12. Multigene phylogeny resolves deep branching of Amoebozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Chao, Ema; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Berney, Cédric; Snell, Elizabeth A; Lewis, Rhodri

    2015-02-01

    Amoebozoa is a key phylum for eukaryote phylogeny and evolutionary history, but its phylogenetic validity has been questioned since included species are very diverse: amoebo-flagellate slime-moulds, naked and testate amoebae, and some flagellates. 18S rRNA gene trees have not firmly established its internal topology. To rectify this we sequenced cDNA libraries for seven diverse Amoebozoa and conducted phylogenetic analyses for 109 eukaryotes (17-18 Amoebozoa) using 60-188 genes. We conducted Bayesian inferences with the evolutionarily most realistic site-heterogeneous CAT-GTR-Γ model and maximum likelihood analyses. These unequivocally establish the monophyly of Amoebozoa, showing a primary dichotomy between the previously contested subphyla Lobosa and Conosa. Lobosa, the entirely non-flagellate lobose amoebae, are robustly partitioned into the monophyletic classes Tubulinea, with predominantly tube-shaped pseudopodia, and Discosea with flattened cells and different locomotion. Within Conosa 60/70-gene trees with very little missing data show a primary dichotomy between the aerobic infraphylum Semiconosia (Mycetozoa and Variosea) and secondarily anaerobic Archamoebae. These phylogenetic features are entirely congruent with the most recent major amoebozoan classification emphasising locomotion modes, pseudopodial morphology, and ultrastructure. However, 188-gene trees where proportionally more taxa have sparser gene-representation weakly place Archamoebae as sister to Macromycetozoa instead, possibly a tree reconstruction artefact of differentially missing data.

  13. KEBERADAAN KONSEP RULE BY LAW (NEGARA BERDASARKAN HUKUM DIDALAM TEORI NEGARA HUKUM THE RULE OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hendra Wijaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research titled, the existence of the concept of rule by law (state law within thestate theories of law the rule of law, which is where the first problem: How can theadvantages of Rule by Law in the theory of law Rule of Law?, How is the dis advantages of aconcept of Rule by law in the theory of law Rule of Law.This research method using the method of normative, legal research that examines thewritten laws of the various aspects, ie aspects of the theory, history, philosophy, comparative,structure and composition, scope, and content, consistent, overview, and chapter by chapter,formality, and the binding force of a law, and the legal language used, but did not examine orimlementasi applied aspects. By using this approach of Historical analysis and approach oflegal conceptual analysis.In this research have found that the advantages of the concept of Rule by Law lies in theproviding of certainty, can also be social control for the community, thus ensuring all citizensin good order at all reciprocal relationships within the community. And Disadvantages of theconcept of Rule by Law if the Law which legalized state action is not supported by democracyand human rights, and the principles of justice, there will be a denial of human rights,widespread poverty, and racial segregation, and if the law is only utilized out by theauthorities as a means to legalize all forms of actions that violate human can inflicttotalitarian nature of the ruling

  14. Branching patterns emerge in a mathematical model of the dynamics of lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yina; Chen, Ting-Hsuan; Zeng, Xingjuan; Warburton, David; Boström, Kristina I; Ho, Chih-Ming; Zhao, Xin; Garfinkel, Alan

    2014-01-15

    Recent experimental work has described an elegant pattern of branching in the development of the lung. Multiple forms of branching have been identified, including side branching and tip bifurcation. A particularly interesting feature is the phenomenon of 'orthogonal rotation of the branching plane'. The lung must fill 3D space with the essentially 2D phenomenon of branching. It accomplishes this by rotating the branching plane by 90° with each generation. The mechanisms underlying this rotation are not understood. In general, the programmes that underlie branching have been hypothetically attributed to genetic 'subroutines' under the control of a 'global master routine' to invoke particular subroutines at the proper time and location, but the mechanisms of these routines are not known. Here, we demonstrate that fundamental mechanisms, the reaction and diffusion of biochemical morphogens, can create these patterns. We used a partial differential equation model that postulates three morphogens, which we identify with specific molecules in lung development. We found that cascades of branching events, including side branching, tip splitting and orthogonal rotation of the branching plane, all emerge immediately from the model, without further assumptions. In addition, we found that one branching mode can be easily switched to another, by increasing or decreasing the values of key parameters. This shows how a 'global master routine' could work by the alteration of a single parameter. Being able to simulate cascades of branching events is necessary to understand the critical features of branching, such as orthogonal rotation of the branching plane between successive generations, and branching mode switch during lung development. Thus, our model provides a paradigm for how genes could possibly act to produce these spatial structures. Our low-dimensional model gives a qualitative understanding of how generic physiological mechanisms can produce branching phenomena, and how

  15. Hard Decisons, Soft Laws : Exploring the authority and the political impact of soft law in international law

    OpenAIRE

    Genneby, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether there is soft law in international law has been as much the subject of contemporary debate as whether or not there is private legal authority in the international society. The legal boundaries seem to be blurred by the process of globalisation and the recent shift in international law. The traditional definition of international law has been outdated as new forms of treaties has introduced new subject of law to the judicial arena. At the same time a supplementary map o...

  16. An empirical assessment of tree branching networks and implications for plant allometric scaling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Stegen, James C; Savage, Van M; Smith, Duncan D; von Allmen, Erica I; Sperry, John S; Reich, Peter B; Enquist, Brian J

    2013-08-01

    Several theories predict whole-tree function on the basis of allometric scaling relationships assumed to emerge from traits of branching networks. To test this key assumption, and more generally, to explore patterns of external architecture within and across trees, we measure branch traits (radii/lengths) and calculate scaling exponents from five functionally divergent species. Consistent with leading theories, including metabolic scaling theory, branching is area preserving and statistically self-similar within trees. However, differences among scaling exponents calculated at node- and whole-tree levels challenge the assumption of an optimised, symmetrically branching tree. Furthermore, scaling exponents estimated for branch length change across branching orders, and exponents for scaling metabolic rate with plant size (or number of terminal tips) significantly differ from theoretical predictions. These findings, along with variability in the scaling of branch radii being less than for branch lengths, suggest extending current scaling theories to include asymmetrical branching and differential selective pressures in plant architectures.

  17. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest develop...

  18. Challenge: Code of environmental law; Herausforderung Umweltgesetzbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Within the meeting ''Challenge: Code of environmental law'' at 16th February, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) and organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) the new code of environmental law as a contribution to more modernness and efficiency in the environmental politics (Sigmar Gabriel); (b) The code of environmental law from the view of the economy (Martin Wansleben); (c) Significance of the code of environmental law from the view of jurisprudence (Michael Kloepfer); (d) Targets, content and utility of the code of environmental law: Summary of the panel discussion (Tanja Goenner, Klaus Mittelbach, Juergen Resch, Hans-Joachim Koch, Alfred Wirtz, Andreas Troge (moderator)); (e) Considerations to the coding of water law in the code of environmental law (Helge Wendenburg); (f) Considerations to the coding of water law: Summary of te discussion; (g) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law (Jochen Flasbarth); (h) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law: Summary of the discussion.

  19. Higher order branching of periodic orbits from polynomial isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the higher order local bifurcations of limit cycles from polynomial isochrones (linearizable centers when the linearizing transformation is explicitly known and yields a polynomial perturbation one-form. Using a method based on the relative cohomology decomposition of polynomial one-forms complemented with a step reduction process, we give an explicit formula for the overall upper bound of branch points of limit cycles in an arbitrary $n$ degree polynomial perturbation of the linear isochrone, and provide an algorithmic procedure to compute the upper bound at successive orders. We derive a complete analysis of the nonlinear cubic Hamiltonian isochrone and show that at most nine branch points of limit cycles can bifurcate in a cubic polynomial perturbation. Moreover, perturbations with exactly two, three, four, six, and nine local families of limit cycles may be constructed.

  20. Discovering the laws of urbanisation

    CERN Document Server

    Simini, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the world's population exceeded 7 billion, and since 2008 the number of individuals living in urban areas has surpassed that of rural areas. This is the result of an overall increase of life expectancy in many countries that has caused an unprecedented growth of the world's total population during recent decades, combined with a net migration flow from rural villages to urban agglomerations. While it is clear that the rate of natural increase and migration flows are the driving forces shaping the spatial distribution of population, a general consensus on the mechanisms that characterise the urbanisation process is still lacking. Here we present two fundamental laws of urbanisation that are quantitatively supported by empirical evidence: 1) the number of cities in a country is proportional to the country's total population, irrespective of the country's area, and 2) the average distance between cities scales as the inverse of the square root of the country's population density. We study the spatio-temp...

  1. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  2. Precision measurement of the $D^{*0}$ decay branching fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, Y; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, H P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, R Q; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Pu, Y N; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ren, H L; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2014-01-01

    Using 482 pb$^{-1}$ of data taken at $\\sqrt{s}=4.009$ GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of $D^{*0}$ into $D^0\\pi^0$ and $D^0\\gamma$ to be $\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\pi^0)=(65.5\\pm 0.8\\pm 0.5)%$ and $\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\gamma)=(34.5\\pm 0.8\\pm 0.5)%$ respectively, by assuming that the $D^{*0}$ decays only into these two modes. The ratio of the two branching fractions is $\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\pi^0)/\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\gamma) =1.90\\pm 0.07\\pm 0.05$, which is independent of the assumption made above. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones systematic. The precision is improved by a factor of three compared to the present world average values.

  3. The genealogy of branching Brownian motion with absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Berestycki, Julien; Schweinsberg, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We consider a system of particles which perform branching Brownian motion with negative drift and are killed upon reaching zero, in the near-critical regime where the total population stays roughly constant with approximately N particles. We show that the characteristic time scale for the evolution of this population is of order (log N)^3, in the sense that when time is measured in these units, the scaled number of particles converges to a variant of Neveu's continuous-state branching process. Furthermore, the genealogy of the particles is then governed by a coalescent process known as the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent. This validates the non-rigorous predictions by Brunet, Derrida, Muller, and Munier for a closely related model.

  4. Some distance bounds of branching processes and their diffusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kammerer, Niels B

    2010-01-01

    We compute exact values respectively bounds of "distances" - in the sense of (transforms of) power divergences and relative entropy - between two discrete-time Galton-Watson branching processes with immigration GWI for which the offspring as well as the immigration is arbitrarily Poisson-distributed (leading to arbitrary type of criticality). Implications for asymptotic distinguishability behaviour in terms of contiguity and entire separation of the involved GWI are given, too. Furthermore, we determine the corresponding limit quantities for the context in which the two GWI converge to Feller-type branching diffusion processes, as the time-lags between observations tend to zero. Some applications to (static random environment like) Bayesian decision making and Neyman-Pearson testing are presented as well.

  5. Tightness for Maxima of Generalized Branching Random Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    We study generalized branching random walks, which allow time dependence and local dependence between siblings. Under appropriate tail assumptions, we prove the tightness of $F_n(\\cdot-Med(F_n))$, where $F_n(\\cdot)$ is the maxima distribution at time $n$ and $Med(F_n)$ is the median of $F_n(\\cdot)$. The main component in the argument is a proof of exponential decay of the right tail $1-F_n(\\cdot-Med(F_n))$.

  6. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    OpenAIRE

    Jovana Rančić; Nemanja Rančić; Nemanja Majstorović; Vladimir Biočanin; Marko Milosavljević; Mihajlo Jakovljević

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was...

  7. Branching Fraction Measurement of B to omega l nu decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

    2012-06-13

    We present a measurement of the B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu} branching fraction based on a sample of 467 million B{bar B} pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe 1041 {+-} 133 signal decays, corresponding to a branching fraction of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.15 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The dependence of the decay rate on q{sup 2}, the momentum transfer squared to the lepton system, is compared to QCD predictions of the form factors based on a quark model and light-cone sum rules.

  8. On the origins of the Mendelian laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, F; Corcos, A

    1984-01-01

    The two laws usually attributed to Mendel were not considered as laws by him. The first law, the law of independent segregation occurs in Mendel's paper as an assumption or hypothesis. Hugo de Vries refers to this as a law discovered by Mendel. This appears to be the first use of an expression equivalent to Mendel's law. In his paper de Vries did not associate the observable characters with structures having a causitive role. That was done by Correns, who transformed the law of segregation of characters into a law of the segregation of anlagen. The second law, the law of independent assortment, is present in embryonic form in Mendel's paper. Here the independent assortment of characters appears as a secondary conclusion to a series of experiments involving several pairs of traits. Mendel repeats the primary conclusion later in the paper but not the secondary one. This leads us to believe that he considered the secondary conclusion as of lesser importance. We note in this context that the 9:3:3:1 ratio commonly associated with the idea of independent assortment, and attributed to Mendel, also does not occur in his paper. A careful reading of the papers of his discoverers shows it was Correns who first drew attention to this ratio. However, he did not formulate the second Mendelian law even though it was clearly implied. Neither was it stated by de Vries. Indeed, the first clear separation of the two laws and the naming of the second law was by T. H. Morgan some 13 years later.

  9. The iron law of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Philip Carl

    2004-09-01

    Political philosophers have doubted the compatibility of various major values, such as equality and freedom. Ethnographic and historical evidence has indicated the presence of (1) economic equality and individual freedom in the absence of civil peace in segmentary societies based on self-help; (2) economic equality and civil peace in the absence of individual freedom in corporate societies; and (3) individual freedom and civil peace in the absence of economic equality in mercantile and capitalist societies. However, little if any evidence has documented all three -- economic equality, individual freedom, civil peace -- in stable coexistence. By way of delineating the relations between and among the values in question, I offer "The Iron Law of Politics," which asserts that economic equality, individual freedom, and civil peace cannot all exist simultaneously in any society, although any two of the three can.

  10. Measurement of the B -> D(*)D(*)K Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, P.del Amo

    2010-12-16

    The authors present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons to {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K, where the D{sup (*)} and {bar D}{sup (*)} mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (3.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.24)% and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (4.05 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb{sup -1} of data containing 471 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  11. Simulated lipoprotein transport in the wall of branched arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbeau, M Z; Lutz, R J; Collins, W E

    2000-01-01

    Study of arterial blood flow dynamics improves our understanding of the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The transport and accumulation of macromolecules in the arterial wall can be influenced by local fluid mechanics. We used numeric simulations to investigate such transport in a T-junction model. Presumably an in vitro experiment would consist of gel segments inserted in the walls of a mechanical flow T-junction model near branch points where separation and recirculation zones are expected. The transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated theoretically at these sites in a two dimensional numeric T-branch model. In the numeric model, the hydraulic conductivity of the porous gel wall segments was varied for a fixed species diffusivity to provide simulations with wall transmural Peclet numbers ranging from 0.3 to 30. Steady state flow patterns in the lumen of the two dimensional T-branch were simulated at Reynolds numbers of 250 and 500, using the software package FIDAP 7.61 to implement the finite element method. The simulations demonstrated that wall Peclet numbers greater than 1.0 were needed to achieve species concentration gradients within the wall that varied in the axial direction, thereby reflecting the influence of disturbed flow and pressure patterns in the lumen. As expected, the transmural concentration gradients were steeper when convection predominated. Blood flow in the lumen can influence the distribution of macromolecules in the arterial wall and needs to be investigated for the relevance to atherosclerosis.

  12. Molecular thermodynamics for micellar branching in solutions of ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vasily A; Victorov, Alexey I

    2006-09-26

    We develop an analytical molecular-thermodynamic model for the aggregation free energy of branching portions of wormlike ionic micelles in 1:1 salt solution. The junction of three cylindrical aggregates is represented by a combination of pieces of the torus and bilayer. A geometry-dependent analytical solution is obtained for the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This analytical solution is applicable to saddle-like structures and reduces to the solutions known previously for planar, cylindrical, and spherical aggregates. For micellar junctions, our new analytical solution is in excellent agreement with numerical results over the range of parameters typical of ionic surfactant systems with branching micelles. Our model correctly predicts the sequence of stable aggregate morphologies, including a narrow bicontinuous zone, in dependence of hydrocarbon tail length, head size, and solution salinity. For predicting properties of a spatial network of wormlike micelles, our aggregation free energy is used in the Zilman-Safran theory. Our predictions are compared with experimental data for branching micelles of ionic surfactants.

  13. Multiple branching rupture of the 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.; Ji, Chen; Bassett, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Several source models have been proposed to explain the enigmatic 2009 Tonga-Samoa earthquake. The long-period data require a composite source model and can be fit with a normal-faulting subevent followed by one or more reverse-faulting subevents. The short-period data, in contrast, indicate a more compact rupture pattern around the epicenter. The lack of a unified source model reflects the complexity of the event. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of this earthquake with P wave back-projection from globally distributed stations in different frequency bands (low frequency: 0.05-0.2 Hz, high frequency: 0.2-2 Hz) and a multiple moment tensor inversion. The rupture propagation revealed by back-projection exhibits frequency-dependent behavior, with two branches of high-frequency-enriched bilateral rupture around the epicenter and a high-frequency-deficient rupture branch at the subduction interface. A composite source model with one Mw 8.0 normal-faulting earthquake east of the trench axis (seaward) followed by one Mw 8.1 reverse-faulting earthquake along the subduction interface west of the trench axis (landward) can explain the very long period data (200˜500 s). Combined with high-resolution swath bathymetry data, the back-projection images show that the azimuth of rupture branches east of the trench axis were controlled by the geometry of bending-related faults on the Pacific plate and that the rupture branch west of the trench axis may correlate with the along-strike fore-arc segmentation. The rupture along the subduction interface was triggered by the seaward rupture and a partially subducted normal fault may have played a key role in facilitating the triggering. The apparent normal-reverse faulting interactions pose a higher seismic risk to this region than their individual strands at the northernmost corner of the Tonga subduction zone.

  14. Electron density fluctuations accelerate the branching of streamer discharges in air

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, A

    2011-01-01

    Branching is an essential element of streamer discharge dynamics but today it is understood only qualitatively. The variability and irregularity observed in branched streamer trees suggest that stochastic terms are relevant for the description of streamer branching. We here consider electron density fluctuations due to the discrete particle number as a source of stochasticity in positive streamers in air at standard temperature and pressure. We derive a quantitative estimate for the branching distance that agrees within a factor of 2 with experimental values. As branching without noise would occur later, if at all, we conclude that stochastic particle noise is relevant for streamer branching in air at atmospheric pressure.

  15. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for B- --->D0 K*-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Simani, M C; Cheng, C H

    2003-12-30

    The authors present a measurement of the branching fraction for the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0} K{sup *-} using a sample of approximately 86 million B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The D{sup 0} is detected through its decays to K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, and the K{sup *-} through its decay to K{sub S}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}. They measure the branching fraction to be {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}K{sup *-}) = (6.3 {+-} 0.7(stat.){+-}0.5(syst.)) x 10{sup -4}.

  16. Teaching the third law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    This work gives a brief summary of major formulations of the third law of thermodynamics and their implications, including the impossibility of perpetual motion of the third kind. The last sections of this work review more advanced applications of the third law to systems with negative temperatures and negative heat capacities. The relevance of the third law to protecting the arrow of time in general relativity is also discussed. Additional information, which may useful in analysis of the third law, is given in the Appendices. This short review is written to assist lecturers in selecting a strategy for teaching the third law of thermodynamics to engineering and science students. The paper provides a good summary of the various issues associated with the third law, which are typically scattered over numerous research publications and not discussed in standard textbooks.

  17. Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu

    2016-05-01

    Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.

  18. Human Dignity and the Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Riley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rule of law denotes an expectation of non-arbitrary governance.  It also invokes law’s distinctive characteristics: formality, institutional independence, and authority.  Taken together with a basic conception of the person, the rule of law can be treated as ‘good governance consistent with human rationality or agency’ and is often associated with human dignity.  On the view defended here human dignity in conjunction with the rule of law makes additional, specific, demands on legal systems, namely the reconciliation of the ‘normative holism’ of law (its regulatory reach with permissive, ‘anthropological’, demands.  This line of enquiry provides us with both a distinctive understanding of human dignity and an understanding of law that is normative but still closely related to the formal virtues implied by the rule of law.

  19. Measurements of Branching Ratios for $\\eta$ Decays into Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Adlarson, P; Bardan, W; Bashkanov, M; Bergmann, F S; Berłowski, M; Bhatt, H; Bondar, A; Büscher, M; Calén, H; Ciepał, I; Clement, H; Coderre, D; Czerwiński, E; Demmich, K; Engels, R; Erven, A; Erven, W; Eyrich, W; Fedorets, P; Föhl, K; Fransson, K; Goldenbaum, F; Goswami, A; Grigoryev, K; Gullström, C -O; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hejny, V; Hüsken, N; Jarczyk, L; Johansson, T; Kamys, B; Kemmerling, G; Khan, F A; Khatri, G; Khoukaz, A; Kirillov, D A; Kistryn, S; Kleines, H; Kłos, B; Krzemień, W; Kulessa, P; Kupść, A; Kuzmin, A; Lalwani, K; Lersch, D; Lorentz, B; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Marciniewski, P; Mariański, B; Mikirtychiants, M; Morsch, H -P; Moskal, P; Ohm, H; Ozerianska, I; del Rio, E Perez; Piskunov, N M; Prasuhn, D; Pszczel, D; Pysz, K; Pyszniak, A; Ritman, J; Roy, A; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Sawant, S; Schadmand, S; Sefzick, T; Serdyuk, V; Shwartz, B; Sitterberg, K; Siudak, R; Skorodko, T; Skurzok, M; Smyrski, J; Sopov, V; Stassen, R; Stepaniak, J; Stephan, E; Sterzenbach, G; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Szczurek, A; Täschner, A; Trzciński, A; Varma, R; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wrońska, A; Wüstner, P; Wurm, P; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zieliński, M J; Zink, A; Złomańczuk, J; Żuprański, P; Żurek, M

    2015-01-01

    The WASA-at-COSY experiment has collected $3\\times10^{7}$ events with $\\eta$-mesons produced via the reaction $pd\\rightarrow{^{3}\\textrm{He}}\\eta$ at $\\textrm{T} = 1.0 \\textrm{GeV}$. Using this data set, we evaluate the branching ratios of the decays $\\eta\\to\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\gamma$, $\\eta\\to e^{+}e^{-}\\gamma$, $\\eta\\to\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\eta\\to e^{+}e^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$. The branching ratios are normalized to the $\\eta\\rightarrow\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}$ decay. In addition an upper limit on a $CP$-violating asymmetry in $\\eta\\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$ is extracted.

  20. Meaning of Cantract Law in Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Muliuolienė, Jūratė

    2006-01-01

    The present Master’s Work “Importance of Contract Law in Electronic Commerce” explores legal regulations of electronic commerce in comparison to traditional legal regulation in Lithuania and foreign countries. Comparative analysis is focused on the significance of contract law in regulation of legal terms in electronic space. Comparative analysis of legal regulation of contract law and electronic commerce is carried out by the following aspects: concepts of contract and electronic transaction...

  1. INFLUENCES OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND BRANCHING PARAMETER OF LACQUER POLYSACCHARIDE ON THE GROWTH OF LEUCOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lina; DING Qiong

    1995-01-01

    A method of determining branching parameter of lacquer polysaccharide was established by acid-base back-titration of terminal uronic acid of branches. The branching factors obtained are in agreement with the values determined by colorimetric method with carbazole and the results estimated by using Zimm-Stockmayer equation from viscosity data. Influences of molecular weights and branching factors of five fractions of lacquer polysaccharide on the bioactivities were studied. The results show that the polysaccharides have bioactivities in motivating the growth of leucocytes, and the effect increases with the decrease of molecular weight and branching factor in the range studied(17×104>Mw>4×104).

  2. Law system and legislation system

    OpenAIRE

    Boshno, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of publication of the «Jurisprudence» textbook by Svetlana Vladimirovna Boshno. Law system is a key element of general theory of law. The major fundamentals of its construction are subject matter and method of legal regulation. Of great importance is the division of legal regulation methods into mandative and dispositive ones. The paper articulates the concepts of institute and branch of law demonstrated through various examples. An important classification of bra...

  3. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  4. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  5. On the Western Conception of Natural Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Song; YU Yu-he

    2004-01-01

    Natural law is an important concept of the Westem political culture. The author makes a simple investigation into the various definitions of natural law, based on which he comes to the conclusion that natural law is a key concept of Western political culture; that it is a moral norm of politics as well as a product of rational thinking; and that its meaning has varied over time.

  6. The Concept of Law and International Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Hedley Bull, one of the founders of the School of International Society (English School) relies heavily on H.L.A. Hart in his understanding of law, including international law. The contribution seeks to explore 1) how Bull has creatively made use of Hart's Concept of Law, 2) on which points Hart......'s theory has short comings, 3) on which additional points Bull's use of the concept of law has short comings, and 4) sketch of ideas how to improve the various short comings....

  7. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Henry's law constants (HLC are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs, solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014, an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  8. Branching Fraction Measurements of B ->etac K Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We study the decays B+ -> etac K+ and B0 -> etac K0, where the etac is reconstructed in the Ks K+ pi- and K+ K- pi0 decay modes. Results are based on a sample of 86 million BBbar pairs collected with the BaBar detector at the SLAC e+e- B Factory. We measure the branching fractions BR(B+ -> etac K+) = (1.34 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.41) x 10^{-3} and BR(B0 -> etac K0) = (1.18 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.37) x 10^{-3}, where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third reflects the etac branching fraction uncertainty. In addition, we search for B -> etac K events with etac -> 2(K+K-) and etac -> phi phi and determine the etac decay branching fraction ratios BR(etac -> 2(K+K-))/BR(etac -> K Kbar pi) = (2.3 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^{-2} and BR(etac -> phi phi)/BR(etac -> K Kbar pi) = (5.5 +/- 1.4 +/- 0.5) x 10^{-2}.

  9. The Liability of the Employer and the Liability of the Employees between Civil Law and Labour Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru POPA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The working relationships based on the individual labour contract have an unprecedented aspect in civil law, namely, inequity of parts during the performance of the contract. This inequity is transposed in theoretical and applicative plan by the existence of the subordination report between the employer and employee. The lack of balance of the forces between the two parts of the contract constituted the necessary element for the birth of the new law branch which, by its settlements, to compensate this drawback. Though, in matter of liability, this “law of inequity” does not distinguish as a creator of new and independent institutions from “the general law”, apparently confining only at the removing or compensating the premises of the parts inequity. Thus, the Romanian labour law create a specific institution named patrimonial liability which involve applicable rules in the legal relationship arise from the individual labour contract that represent an exception from the common rules of the civil liability but does not completely delimit from it and using it as a decipherer resource of its elements and as supplement resource.The patrimonial liability does not exclude in all the situations the co-existence of other forms of civil, contravention or criminal liability if the necessary elements for their incidence occur.

  10. The Anthropocene - and International Law of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly voicing a new concern: that the Earth may be undergoing a shift from the most recent known geological epoch, the Holocene (the latest 11,700 years, which have been characterized by relative environmental stability - a factor significant for the development of human civilization), to a new one - the Anthropocene (Zalasiewicz et al., 2010). In 2009, the Anthropocene Working Group was established within the International Commission on Stratigraphy in order to examine the stratigraphic basis for the term 'Anthropocene' and to consider the justification for its possible formalization as the most recent geological time unit. Formal change of the Geological Time Scale due to recognition of the Anthropocene as a new epoch in the geological history of our planet could critically raise awareness and highlight the magnitude of the human impact on the Earth System, prompting fundamental reflection on today's social structures. Important questions may arise about the sustainability of certain aspects of current International Law - a system of rules resting on foundations that evolved under the circumstances of the Holocene, assumed to be ever-lasting. Core challenges for International Law may now be on the horizon. Certain segments of international law, such as the Law of the Sea, involve causal links (historical and ideological) with the development towards the Anthropocene (Vidas, 2011). Other aspects, such as human rights, may gain in prominence and acquire new dimensions - all likely to require fundamental re-examination of accepted perspectives of International Law. The Law of the Sea - a branch of international law that applies to around 71 percent of the Earth's surface area - received its current framework in the near-universal 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (162 parties as of 1 July 2012), which in turn built on some four centuries of development. In our times, however, a thorough re-examination of the Law of the Sea

  11. A Logical Model of Private International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Phan Minh; Sartor, Giovanni

    We provide a logical analysis of private international law, the body of law establishing when courts of a country should decide a case (jurisdiction) and what legal system they should apply to this purpose (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interaction among multiple legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may be useful for understanding this rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Moreover, it might be useful for modelling the way in which interactions between heterogeneous agents, belonging to different and differently regulated virtual societies, can be governed without recourse to a central regulatory agency.

  12. The second law of blackhole dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kabe, Koustubh Ajit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the non-generalized or restricted second law blackhole dynamics as given by Bekenstein in the beginning is restated, with a rigid proof, in a different form akin to the statement of the second law of thermodynamics given by Clausius. The various physical possibilities and implications of this statement are discussed therein. This paper is a mere venture into the restricted second law of blackhole dynamics pertaining to blackholes emitting Hawking radiation. The paper thus considers a didactically interesting reformulation of the second law of blackhole thermodynamics after some revisions.

  13. Catalytic production of branched small alkanes from biohydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shin-ichi; Kanno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hideo; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-08-10

    Squalane, C30 algae-derived branched hydrocarbon, was successfully converted to smaller hydrocarbons without skeletal isomerization and aromatization over ruthenium on ceria (Ru/CeO2 ). The internal CH2 CH2 bonds located between branches are preferably dissociated to give branched alkanes with very simple distribution as compared with conventional methods using metal-acid bifunctional catalysts.

  14. The Voice of the Law in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqa Qurrata A'yun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt that the law has a tight relation with the language. We can see how language works in law since it comes from the idea, being enacted, and enforced. That is why language has a significant role along the legal process. This article will review the book written by Ab Massier which assumes at least three aspect of linguistic job in law: doing law is acting by means of language into a lingual activity, which is based on texts, and is resulting in texts. The main issue in this book is based on the problems of Indonesian language of the law which has replaced the Dutch language. Massier criticize instrumental approach to language and the impact of Dutch in Indonesian law language. His analysis refers to James Boyd White's statement about a translation of authoritative texts as the primary feature to define law itself. It is the perspective of doing law as a lingual activity that consists of communicating, speaking, and writing. Almost all legal processes produce texts, and therefore the text means the authority of the law.

  15. Hilbert series and mixed branches of $T[SU(N)]$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We consider mixed branches of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $T[SU(N)]$ theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both cases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  16. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  17. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the ...

  18. Properties of Super-Poisson Processes and Super-Random Walks with Spatially Dependent Branching Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia REN

    2008-01-01

    The global supports of super-Poisson processes and super-random walks with a branching mechanism ψ(z)=z2 and constant branching rate are known to be noncompact. It turns out that, for any spatially dependent branching rate, this property remains true. However, the asymptotic extinction property for these two kinds of superprocesses depends on the decay rate of the branching-rate function at infinity.

  19. THE EXISTENCE AND MOMENTS OF CANONICAL BRANCHING CHAIN IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪鹤

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of branching chain in random environmnet and canonical branching chain in random environment axe introduced. Moreover the existence of these chains is proved. Finally the exact formulas of mathematical expectation and variance of branching chain in random environment axe also given.

  20. The History of the Chinese Marriage Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    IN this issue of Women of China we will introduce readers to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China. The Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China was adopted at the Third Session of the Fifth National People’s Congress and promulgated on September 10, 1980. It

  1. Disorder effects on the static scattering function of star branched polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blavatska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the impact of structural disorder on the static scattering function of f-armed star branched polymers in d dimensions. To this end, we consider the model of a star polymer immersed in a good solvent in the presence of structural defects, correlated at large distances r according to a power law ~r-a. In particular, we are interested in the ratio g(f of the radii of gyration of star and linear polymers of the same molecular weight, which is a universal experimentally measurable quantity. We apply a direct polymer renormalization approach and evaluate the results within the double ϵ = 4 - d, δ = 4 - a-expansion. We find an increase of g(f with an increasing δ. Therefore, an increase of disorder correlations leads to an increase of the size measure of a star relative to linear polymers of the same molecular weight.

  2. Informational laws of genome structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined.

  3. Public Relations as Scientific Branch of Information and Communication Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the field of information and communication sciences is a young field in the social sciences, it is important to consider how technology impacts the development of this field. This is especially relevant when looking at the area of public relations. Amid changing technological developments public relations is constantly being redefined in this complex environment. This work focuses on the development of public relations as a branch of study in the field of information and communication sciences. I review the scientific methods used to evaluate the influence and effects of public relations, while discussing the different methodological approaches.

  4. 31 CFR 359.71 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Miscellaneous Provisions § 359.71 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States... Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, 160 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14202 New York, Boston...

  5. 31 CFR 351.86 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Miscellaneous Provisions § 351.86 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States... Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, 160 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14202 New York, Boston...

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Flocculation Properties of Branched Cationic Polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water soluble branched cationic polyacrylamide (BCPAM was synthesized using solution polymerization. The polymerization was initiated using potassium diperiodatocuprate, K5[Cu(HIO62](Cu(III, initiating the self-condensing vinyl copolymerization of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC monomer. The resulting copolymer was characterized by the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with standard jar tests of sewage. The effects of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature, and the mass ratio of monomers on intrinsic viscosity and flocculation properties of the product were determined using single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment.

  7. Product branching ratio of the HCCO + NO reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, K.T.; Hershberger, J.F.

    2000-01-20

    The reaction of HCCO radicals with NO was studied at room temperature by excimer laser photolysis of ketene precursor molecules followed by infrared absorption spectroscopic detection of CO and CO{sub 2} product molecules. After quantification of product yields and consideration of secondary chemistry, the authors obtain the following product branching ratios (1{sigma} error bars) at 296 K: 0.12 {+-} 0.04 for CO{sub 2} + (HCN) and 0.88 {+-} 0.04 for CO + (HCNO). In addition, they estimate a relative quantum yield for HCCO production in the 193 nm photolysis of CH{sub 2}CO to be 0.17 {+-} 0.02.

  8. Human Dignity and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The rule of law denotes an expectation of non-arbitrary governance.  It also invokes law’s distinctive characteristics: formality, institutional independence, and authority.  Taken together with a basic conception of the person, the rule of law can be treated as ‘good governance consistent with huma

  9. Conservation Laws of Differential Equations in Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Mao-Chang; MEI Feng-Xiang; SHANG Mei

    2005-01-01

    Conservation laws of some differential equations in fiance are studied in this paper. This method does not involve the use or existence of a variational principle. As an alternative, linearize the given equation and find adjoint equation of the linearized equation, the conservation laws can be constructed directly from the symmetries and adjoint symmetries of the associated linearized equation and its adjoint equation.

  10. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  11. MEANINGS OF ARCHAIC LAW IN THE WORK OF CONFUCIUS AS A SOURCE OF CHINESE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Oana NEDELEA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Confucius's ideas are a basic element in the thinking and evolution of mankind, bringing a very important contribution in the development of law principles. Confucius's ideas on Law and the principles by which society is organized and managed properly can be summarized in the following lessons: “The superior man is dominated by love of justice, the common man is dominated by the love of gain”. Confucius required to be respected traditions, customs and rituals in order to have a stronger society and citizens that obey the laws. The teachings of Confucius were a main source of law which later formed the principles of Chinese law.

  12. Perception of the judiciary law by the law-maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V. Lazarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptualtheoretical provisions and scientific recommendations for the implementation of judiciary decisions in the legislation of the Russian Federation. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the necessity to analyze the fundamental precedent judicial decisions for the possible implementation of the legal positions of courts into legislative acts. The problem is not confined to the perception of provisions created by the constitutional charter courts. The paper shows the main directions of future activities on the implementation idea. The operation of the Department is shown which was created at the Institute for Legislation and Comparative Law at the Government of the Russian Federation entrusted with the relevant functions. Scientific novelty the mechanism of implementation of judiciary decisions in the Russian legislation has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation. Practical significance the findings of this paper can be used in scientific legislative and lawenforcement activities and the educational process of institutions of higher education.

  13. Channeling of Branched Flow in Weakly Scattering Anisotropic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueldre, Henri; Metzger, Jakob J.; Schultheis, Erik; Fleischmann, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    When waves propagate through weakly scattering but correlated, disordered environments they are randomly focused into pronounced branchlike structures, a phenomenon referred to as branched flow, which has been studied in a wide range of isotropic random media. In many natural environments, however, the fluctuations of the random medium typically show pronounced anisotropies. A prominent example is the focusing of tsunami waves by the anisotropic structure of the ocean floor topography. We study the influence of anisotropy on such natural focusing events and find a strong and nonintuitive dependence on the propagation angle which we explain by semiclassical theory.

  14. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  15. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  16. Synthesis of strontium carbonate rods and hierarchical branches in the presence of two organic additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Long; Chen, Guoping; Wang, Xixi; Fang, Hongxia; Wu, Chengxiu; Xing, Tiantian [Department of Chemistry, Huangshan University, Huangshan 245041 (China)

    2010-03-15

    In this paper, strontium carbonate (SrCO{sub 3}) crystals have been synthesized in the presence of two organic additives, including sodium citrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to characterize the products. The results indicate that SrCO{sub 3}rods with the ratio of length to diameter about 20 are obtained in the aqueous solution containing sodium citrate. While polycrystalline SrCO{sub 3} hierarchical branches with about 10 {mu}m length are produced by using HMT.The possible formation mechanism of the SrCO{sub 3}crystals obtained in above two systems is discussed, which can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. Sodium citrate and HMT may direct the formation of SrCO{sub 3} rod-like or branch-like structures by adsorbing onto certain facets of SrCO{sub 3} crystals. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. An Empirical Examination of Lotka's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1986-01-01

    Findings of empirical examination of author productivity data to determine conformity to Lotka's law indicate that: most data didn't fit inverse square function; two constants in Lotka's formulation (slope n, constant c) must be derived from observed distribution; inverse square law was special case of inverse exponential relationship. (37…

  18. Laws Concern Domestic Issues of the PRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Article 1 This Law is formulated in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China with a view to ensuring self-government by the villagers in the countryside, who will administer their own affairs in accordance with the law, and promoting socialist democracy at the grassroots level, socialist material

  19. Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers an optimization model and a solution method for the design of two-dimensional mechanical mechanisms. The mechanism design problem is modeled as a nonconvex mixed integer program which allows the optimal topology and geometry of the mechanism to be determined simultaneously...... and that buckling is prevented. The feasible set of the design problem is described by nonlinear differentiable and non-differentiable constraints as well as nonlinear matrix inequalities. To solve the mechanism design problem a branch and bound method based on convex relaxations is developed. To guarantee...... mechanism design problems of realistic size to global optimality....

  20. Contradiction and Kant's Formula of Universal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the

  1. Nonlinear branch-point dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Denberg, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    Two branched polystyrene melts with narrow molar mass distribution have been synthesized: a multiarm An-C-C-An pom-pom polystyrene and an An-C asymmetric star polystyrene where n is the number of arms. The pom-pom and the asymmetric star have molar masses of Mw ) 300 kg/mol and Mw ) 275 kg...... polystyrene, the measured transient elongational viscosity is not consistent with a rheological constitutive equation that is separable in time and strain. Contrary to this situation, however, for pom-pom polystyrene, the transient elongational viscosity may be described by a time-strain separable...

  2. Remembered branches: towards a future of Korean homosexual film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J

    2000-01-01

    Korean cinema has long labored under an imported Confucian homophobia which, through its effects if not its causes, seems to mirror the Western conception of the closet. Recent cinematic developments in Korea, including a queer film festival in Seoul, are slowly but surely beginning to change that. Using as primary texts the recent Korean gay film Broken Branches and the long-forgotten lesbian film Ascetic: Woman and Woman, my essay hopes to serve as a set of introductory remarks on a queer Korean cinema culture whose surface has only just been broached.

  3. Hack's law of debris-flow basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; YUE Z.Q.; LEE C.F.; BEIGHLEY R.E.; CHEN Xiao-Qing; HU Kai-Heng; CUI Peng

    2009-01-01

    Hack's law was originally derived from basin statistics for varied spatial scales and regions.The exponent value of the law has been shown to vary between 0.47 and 0.70,causing uncertainty in its application.This paper focuses on the emergence of Hack's law from debris-flow basins in China.Over 5,000 debris-flow basins in different regions of China with drainage areas less than 100km2 are included in this study.Basins in the different regions are found to present similar distributions.Hack's law is derived fi'om maximum probability and conditional distributions,suggesting that the law should describe some critical state of basin evolution.Results suggest the exponent value is approximately 0.5.Further analysis indicates that Hack's law is related to other scaling laws underlying the evolution of a basin and that the exponent is not dependent on basin shape but rather on the evolutionary stage.A case study of a well known debris-flow basin further confirms Hack's law and its implications in basin evolution.

  4. Contradictions of labor law during elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Márquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article is part of a research to understand Uruguayan labour law through an analysis of the contradictions that arise between the rights and obligations derived from public law rules in the current stage where labour law is dispersed within the voluminous set of rules that conforms Uruguayan law. Our argument focuses particularly on the topic of the working hours that officers and public notaries invest whenever citizenship is convened to vote in the electoral polls, the most important act in a democracy. We hope this publication may arise a debate that contributes to the construction of new rules helping in the creation of a better labour law.

  5. Thermodynamics of Benford's First Digit Law

    CERN Document Server

    Lemons, Don S

    2016-01-01

    Iafrate, Miller, and Strauch [Equipartition and a Distribution for Numbers: A Statistical Model for Benford's Law," arXiv:1503.08259] construct and test a statistical model for partitioning a conserved quantity. One consequence of their model is Benford's law. This Comment amplifies their work by exploring its thermodynamic consequences.

  6. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  7. A simple law of star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2012-01-01

    with {\\cal M}_a by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum epsilonff, and depending only on t ff/t dyn: epsilonff ˜ epsilonwindexp (– 1.6 t ff/t dyn). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law...

  8. Reaction-diffusion-branching models of stock price fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei-Han; Tian, Guang-Shan

    Several models of stock trading (Bak et al., Physica A 246 (1997) 430.) are analyzed in analogy with one-dimensional, two-species reaction-diffusion-branching processes. Using heuristic and scaling arguments, we show that the short-time market price variation is subdiffusive with a Hurst exponent H=1/4. Biased diffusion towards the market price and blind-eyed copying lead to crossovers to the empirically observed random-walk behavior ( H=1/2) at long times. The calculated crossover forms and diffusion constants are shown to agree well with simulation data.

  9. Left bundle branch block: a rare ECG manifestation of hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Madhav M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease was brought to our emergency medical department with symptoms of pain in chest and abdomen, vomitings. Laboratory testing revealed serum potassium 7.7 mEq/L, serum creatinine 9.1 mg/dL. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed left bundle branch block (LBBB pattern with left axis deviation, tall T waves and ST elevation. Among ECG alterations in hyperkalemia, LBBB is rare and is being reported in our case.

  10. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  11. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  12. An Investigation of the Laws of Traversals

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskelioff, Mauro; 10.4204/EPTCS.76.5

    2012-01-01

    Traversals of data structures are ubiquitous in programming. Consequently, it is important to be able to characterise those structures that are traversable and understand their algebraic properties. Traversable functors have been characterised by McBride and Paterson as those equipped with a distributive law over arbitrary applicative functors; however, laws that fully capture the intuition behind traversals are missing. This article is an attempt to remedy this situation by proposing laws for characterising traversals that capture the intuition behind them. To support our claims, we prove that finitary containers are traversable in our sense and argue that elements in a traversable structure are visited exactly once.

  13. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-05

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years.

  14. Hydrography of the West Spitsbergen Current, Svalbard Branch: Autumn 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelet, Edward D.; Tervalon, Nicole; Bellingham, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic inflow is the primary source of water and heat to the Arctic Ocean. A large portion enters through Fram Strait where it splits into the Yermak and Svalbard Branches. In October to November 2001 the USCGC Healy occupied five oceanographic transects across the Svalbard Branch west and north of Spitsbergen. Temperature and salinity sections show the warm, salty Atlantic Water cooling and freshening as it flows along the continental slope for 553 km. The temperature in the upper 500 m of the water column decreased by 0.25°C/(100 km) implying a heat flux across the sea surface of up to 520 W/m2 if one assumes a nominal current of speed of 0.1 m/s. A temperature-salinity (T-S) analysis shows that the shape of the T-S curves can be explained in terms of the ratio of the atmospheric-to-ice-melt heat flux. The observations imply that ice melt accounts for progressively more surface cooling as the flow moves toward the Arctic Ocean. An autonomous underwater vehicle completed a vertical section in the region of maximum water mass gradient and revealed layer interleaving in fine detail. Data from this cruise extend a long time series of Atlantic layer source temperature beginning in 1910 (Saloranta and Haugan, 2001). The extended observations show that after the temperature of the Atlantic layer inflow reached a peak in 1992, it cooled to a minimum in 1998 and rose again through 2001.

  15. Evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, V. V.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the history surrounding the evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Discusses Sadi Carnot's contributions, but also refers to those by Clapeyron, Thomson, Joule, Clausius, and Boltzman among others. (RR)

  16. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  17. The second and third parameters of the Horizontal Branch in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, Raffaele G; Bragaglia, Angela; Lucatello, Sara; D'Orazi, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    The Horizontal Branch (HB) second parameter of Globular Clusters (GCs) is a major open issue in stellar evolution. Large photometric and spectroscopic databases allow a re-examination of this issue. We derive median and extreme (90% of the distribution) colours and magnitudes of stars along the HB for about a hundred GCs. We transform these into median and extreme masses of stars on the HB taking into account evolutionary effects, and compare these masses with those expected at the tip of the Red Giant Branch to derive the total mass lost by the stars. A simple linear dependence on metallicity of this total mass lost explains well the median colours of HB stars. Adopting this mass loss law as universal, we find that age is the main second parameter. However, at least a third parameter is clearly required. The most likely candidate is the He abundance, which might be different in GCs stars belonging to the different stellar generations whose presence was previously derived from the Na-O and Mg-Al anticorrelati...

  18. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication.

  19. Implications of an inverse branching aftershock sequence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D L; Abaimov, S G; Dobson, I; Rundle, J B

    2009-01-01

    The branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model is a self-similar statistical model for earthquake aftershock sequences. A prescribed parent earthquake generates a first generation of daughter aftershocks. The magnitudes and times of occurrence of the daughters are obtained from statistical distributions. The first generation daughter aftershocks then become parent earthquakes that generate second generation aftershocks. The process is then extended to higher generations. The key parameter in the BASS model is the magnitude difference Deltam* between the parent earthquake and the largest expected daughter earthquake. In the application of the BASS model to aftershocks Deltam* is positive, the largest expected daughter event is smaller than the parent, and the sequence of events (aftershocks) usually dies out, but an exponential growth in the number of events with time is also possible. In this paper we explore this behavior of the BASS model as Deltam* varies, including when Deltam* is negative and the largest expected daughter event is larger than the parent. The applications of this self-similar branching process to biology and other fields are discussed.

  20. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  1. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  2. Branches of the abdominal aorta in Aotus azarae infulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mendonça Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aotus is found in South America and is known for its nocturnal habit. The morphology of the genus is poorly understood even though it is used in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to identify the collateral branches of the abdominal aorta of two females and one male Aotus azarae infulatus (commonly known as the night monkey. The vessels were observed and stained with Neoprene latex and radiopaque contrast. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde via intramuscular and intracavitary routes, dissected and radiographed. It was observed that the celiac artery was divided into three subjacent branches, the gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. The left and right renal arteries originated from a common trunk in two animals (animals 1 and 2, while the adrenal artery in one of the animals was derived from the celiac trunk and renal artery (animal 2. In one animal the mesenteric artery flow gave rise to individual cranial rectal, sigmoid and left colic arteries (animal 3. In the three animals the abdominal aorta bifurcated in the final portion of the abdomen, with the external and internal iliac artery on each side, and then the median sacral artery. These anatomical variations need to be identified and reported because these animals are frequently used in clinical and surgical, veterinary practices.

  3. [Conceptual foundations of creation of branch database of technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical educational institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horban', A Ie

    2013-09-01

    The question of implementation of the state policy in the field of technology transfer in the medical branch to implement the law of Ukraine of 02.10.2012 No 5407-VI "On Amendments to the law of Ukraine" "On state regulation of activity in the field of technology transfers", namely to ensure the formation of branch database on technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical education institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine and established by budget are considered. Analysis of international and domestic experience in the processing of information about intellectual property rights and systems implementation support transfer of new technologies are made. The main conceptual principles of creation of this branch database of technology transfer and branch technology transfer network are defined.

  4. Effects of RNA branching on the electrostatic stabilization of viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Wagner, Jef; van der Schoot, Paul; Podgornik, Rudolf; Zandi, Roya

    2016-08-01

    Many single-stranded (ss) ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses self-assemble from capsid protein subunits and the nucleic acid to form an infectious virion. It is believed that the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged RNA and the positively charged viral capsid proteins drive the encapsidation, although there is growing evidence that the sequence of the viral RNA also plays a role in packaging. In particular, the sequence will determine the possible secondary structures that the ssRNA will take in solution. In this work, we use a mean-field theory to investigate how the secondary structure of the RNA combined with electrostatic interactions affects the efficiency of assembly and stability of the assembled virions. We show that the secondary structure of RNA may result in negative osmotic pressures while a linear polymer causes positive osmotic pressures for the same conditions. This may suggest that the branched structure makes the RNA more effectively packaged and the virion more stable.

  5. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  6. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  7. Religious Values and Conflict of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tonolo

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.

  8. Bole girdling affects metabolic properties and root, trunk and branch hydraulics of young ponderosa pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Pruyn, Michele L

    2008-10-01

    Effects of trunk girdling on seasonal patterns of xylem water status, water transport and woody tissue metabolic properties were investigated in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws.) trees. At the onset of summer, there was a sharp decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)) in girdled trees followed by a full recovery after the first major rainfall in September. Eliminating the root as a carbohydrate sink by girdling induced a rapid reversible reduction in g(s). Respiratory potential (a laboratory measure of tissue-level respiration) increased above the girdle (branches and upper trunk) and decreased below the girdle (lower trunk and roots) relative to control trees during the growing season, but the effect was reversed after the first major rainfall. The increase in branch respiratory potential induced by girdling suggests that the decrease in g(s) was caused by the accumulation of carbohydrates above the girdle, which is consistent with an observed increase in leaf mass per area in the girdled trees. Trunk girdling did not affect native xylem embolism or xylem conductivity. Both treated and control trunks experienced loss of xylem conductivity ranging from 10% in spring to 30% in summer. Girdling reduced xylem growth and sapwood to leaf area ratio, which in turn reduced branch leaf specific conductivity (LSC). The girdling-induced reductions in g(s) and transpiration were associated with a decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance. Two years after girdling, when root-to-shoot phloem continuity had been restored, girdled trees had a reduced density of new wood, which increased xylem conductivity and whole-tree LSC, but also vulnerability to embolism.

  9. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2016-07-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray's law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray's law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows.

  10. Variations of the Interstellar Extinction Law within the Nearest Kiloparsec

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George

    2016-01-01

    Multicolor photometry from the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogues for 11 990 OB and 30 671 K-type red giant branch stars is used to detect systematic large-scale variations of the interstellar extinction law within the nearest kiloparsec. The characteristic of the extinction law, the total-to-selective extinction ratio $R_V$, which also characterizes the size and other properties of interstellar dust grains, has been calculated for various regions of space by the extinction law extrapolation method. The results for the two classes of stars agree: the standard deviation of the "red giants minus OB" $R_V$ differences within 500 pc of the Sun is 0.2. The detected $R_V$ variations between 2.2 and 4.4 not only manifest themselves in individual clouds but also span the entire space near the Sun, following Galactic structures. In the Local Bubble within about 100 pc of the Sun, $R_V$ has a minimum. In the inner part of the Gould Belt and at high Galactic latitudes, at a distance of about 150 pc from the Sun, $R_V$ reaches...

  11. Measurements of $B \\to D_{s^{(*)+}} D^{*(*)}$ Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Kopp, S E; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; McGee, S A; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Hill, T S; Morrison, R J; Nelson, H N; Richman, J D; Witherell, M S; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Behrens, B H; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J; Brandenburg, G; Ershov, A; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J

    2000-01-01

    This article describes improved measurements by CLEO of the $B^0 \\to D_s^+ D^{*-}$ and $B^0 \\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}$ branching fractions, and first evidence for the decay $B^+ \\to D_s^{(*)+} \\bar{D}^{**0}$, where $\\bar{D}^{**0}$ represents the sum of the $\\bar{D}_1(2420)^0$, $\\bar{D}_2^*(2460)^0 $, and $\\bar{D}_1(j=1/2)^0$ L=1 charm meson states. Also reported is the first measurement of the $D_s^{*+}$ polarization in the decay $B^0 \\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}$. A partial reconstruction technique, employing only the fully reconstructed $D_s^+$ and slow pion $\\pi_s^-$ from the $D^{*-} \\to \\bar{D}^0 \\pi^-_s$ decay, enhances sensitivity. The observed branching fractions are $ {\\mathcal B} (B^0 \\to D_s^+ D^{*-}) = (1.10 \\pm 0.18 \\pm 0.10 \\pm 0.28)%$, $ {\\mathcal B} (B^0 \\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}) = (1.82 \\pm 0.37 \\pm 0.24 \\pm 0.46)%$, and $ {\\mathcal B} (B^+ \\to D_s^{(*)+} \\bar{D}^{**0}) = (2.73 \\pm 0.78 \\pm 0.48 \\pm 0.68)%$, where the first error is statistical, the second systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty in th...

  12. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…

  13. Delivery of siRNA using ternary complexes containing branched cationic peptides: the role of peptide sequence, branching and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudsiova, Laila; Welser, Katharina; Campbell, Frederick; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Dawson, Natalie; Cui, Lili; Hailes, Helen C; Lawrence, M Jayne; Tabor, Alethea B

    2016-03-01

    Ternary nanocomplexes, composed of bifunctional cationic peptides, lipids and siRNA, as delivery vehicles for siRNA have been investigated. The study is the first to determine the optimal sequence and architecture of the bifunctional cationic peptide used for siRNA packaging and delivery using lipopolyplexes. Specifically three series of cationic peptides of differing sequence, degrees of branching and cell-targeting sequences were co-formulated with siRNA and vesicles prepared from a 1 : 1 molar ratio of the cationic lipid DOTMA and the helper lipid, DOPE. The level of siRNA knockdown achieved in the human alveolar cell line, A549-luc cells, in both reduced serum and in serum supplemented media was evaluated, and the results correlated to the nanocomplex structure (established using a range of physico-chemical tools, namely small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurement); the conformational properties of each component (circular dichroism); the degree of protection of the siRNA in the lipopolyplex (using gel shift assays) and to the cellular uptake, localisation and toxicity of the nanocomplexes (confocal microscopy). Although the size, charge, structure and stability of the various lipopolyplexes were broadly similar, it was clear that lipopolyplexes formulated from branched peptides containing His-Lys sequences perform best as siRNA delivery agents in serum, with protection of the siRNA in serum balanced against efficient release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm of the cell.

  14. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of the rheology of linear and branched alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, S.T.; Cummings, P.T.; Cochran, H.D.; Moore, J.D.; Gupta, S.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1998-03-01

    Liquid alkanes in the molecular weight range of C{sub 20}-C{sub 40} are the main constituents of lubricant basestocks, and their rheological properties are therefore of great concern in industrial lubricant applications. Using massively parallel supercomputers and an efficient parallel algorithm, the authors have carried out systematic studies of the rheological properties of a variety of model liquid alkanes ranging from linear to singly branched and multiply branched alkanes. They aim to elucidate the relationship between the molecular architecture and the viscous behavior. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for n-decane (C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-hexadecane (C{sub 16}H{sub 34}), n-tetracosane (C{sub 24}H{sub 50}), 10-n-hexylnonadecane (C{sub 25}H{sub 52}), and squalane (2, 6, 10, 15, 19, 23-hexamethyltetracosane, C{sub 30}H{sub 62}). At a high strain rate, the viscosity shows a power-law shear thinning behavior over several orders of magnitude in strain rate, with exponents ranging from {minus}0.33 to {minus}0.59. The power-law shear thinning is shown to be closely related to the ordering of the molecules. The molecular architecture is shown to have a significant influence on the power-law exponent. At a low strain rate, the viscosity behavior changes to a Newtonian plateau, whose accurate determination has been elusive in previous studies. The molecular order in this regime is essentially that of the equilibrium system, a signature of the linear response. The Newtonian plateau is verified by independent equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the Green-Kubo method. The reliable determination of the Newtonian viscosity from nonequilibrium molecular simulation permits us to calculate the viscosity index for squalane. The viscosity index is a widely used property to characterize the lubricant`s temperature performance, and the studies represent the first approach toward its determination by molecular simulation.

  15. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  16. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...

  17. Demonstration of Kirchhoff's First Law for Pure Spin Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, Joseph; Rosamond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.

    In conventional electronics a fundamental component of circuit design is the principle of fan-out, which allows multiple operations to be performed in order to build up complex logical procedures. A fan-out device relies on the condition that electrical currents obey Kirchoff's laws and in order for spin-logic to be viable, the same must be shown for pure spin currents. Both fan-out and fan-in experiments have been performed to observe how spin currents behave in a multi-terminal circuit. The development of a 3-dimensional nonlocal IV and matrix fitting method provides information about each spin current, along with the thermal current generated at the injection point, and how they interact with each other. The fan-out geometry demonstrates that a pure spin current will divide between the different branches in a circuit, with a magnitude determined through the spin resistances of each arm. The fan-in measurements demonstrate that two pure spin currents will add and subtract with each other in a conventional manner expected from Kirchhoff's first law. These experiments have demonstrated the symmetry of pure spin currents with respect to the injection current and shown that they obey Kirchhoff's current law.

  18. PRINCIPLES, BASES, AND LAWS OF FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady N. Zverev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the goals and problems of fundamental informatics, formulates principal laws of information universe and constructive bases of information objects and processes. The classification of semantics types of knowledge and skills is presented. 

  19. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  20. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... NCINeuroOncology@mail.nih.gov . Our News The Neuro-Oncology Branch Welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as New Branch ...

  1. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅳ)--SURFACE COUSERVATION LAWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴天民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to reestablish rather complete surface conservation laws for micropolar thermomechanical continua from the translation and the rotation invariances of the general balance law. The generalized energy-momentum and energy-moment of momentum tensors are presented. The concrete forms of surface conservation laws for micropolar thermomechanical continua are derived. The existing related results are naturally derived as special cases from the results proposed in this paper. The incomplete degrees of the existing surface conservation laws are clearly seen from the process of the deduction.The surface conservation laws for nonlocal micropolar thermomechanical continua may be easily obtained via localization.

  2. The protection of journalists in international law

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, a large number of journalists are killed or injured in line of professional duty or on account of the results of their investigative journalism, particularly in the course of armed conflicts. Unfortunately, there is no single document in international law which would embody specific rules on the protection of journalists. Instead, the protection of journalists in international law is exercised on the basis of general rules contained in human rights treaties and special provisions ...

  3. Branch dependent shear coefficients and their influence on the free vibration of Mindlin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakawicz, Joseph M.; Bottega, William J.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of the shear correction coefficient on the branches of the frequency spectrum for the free vibrations of Mindlin plates is studied. Each of the three branches of the frequency spectrum for the Mindlin plate is associated with its corresponding branch of the frequency spectrum of the infinite elastodynamic plate through direct comparison. The use of branch dependent shear correction coefficients is proposed, and is utilized to bring each of the three branches of the Mindlin plate into best agreement with their corresponding elastodynamic branches. Conclusions with respect to the accuracy and range of applicability of the Mindlin frequency spectrum are drawn, with emphasis on the second flexural (Mindlin w2) frequency branch. For the plate that is simply-supported on all of its edges, each of the three frequency branches contributes to the motion of the plate independently of the other two branches. Hence, only one of the branches is active for a given vibration mode, which allows one to solve for unique natural frequencies for each of the branches and to quantify their accuracy as well as to study the motion of each branch separately. This is not, however, the case for plates with other support conditions. In these cases, the vibrational motion corresponding to each of the branches of the frequency spectrum contributes to a given vibration mode. This, in turn, alters the implementation of Mindlin theory for these plates. Results for natural frequency predictions are compared to those of other studies in the literature as well as to those of the classical case when a single shear correction coefficient is employed. It is shown that natural frequency predictions are improved for the plate with all of its edges simply-supported, while the accuracy of the mode shape is improved for other boundary conditions.

  4. Design of Hierarchical Ring Networks Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing hierarchical two layer ring networks. The top layer consists of a federal-ring which establishes connection between a number of node disjoint metro-rings in a bottom layer. The objective is to minimize the costs of links in the network, taking both the fixed...... link establishment costs and the link capacity costs into account. The hierarchical two layer ring network design problem is solved in two stages: First the bottom layer, i.e. the metro-rings are designed, implicitly taking into account the capacity cost of the federal-ring. Then the federal......-ring is designed connecting the metro-rings, minimizing fixed link establishment costs of the federal-ring. A branch-and-price algorithm is presented for the design of the bottom layer and it is suggested that existing methods are used for the design of the federal-ring. Computational results are given...

  5. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen; Mortensen, N. Asger; Brongersma, Mark L.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-12-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons.

  6. Study of the starting pressure gradient in branching network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the production of oil in low permeability reservoirs with high efficiency,it is necessary to fully understand the properties and special behaviors of the reservoirs and correctly describe the flow in the reservoirs.This paper applies the branching network mode to the study of the starting pressure gradient of nonlinear Newtonian fluid (Bingham fluid) in the reservoirs with low permeability based on the fact that the fractured network may exist in the reservoirs.The proposed model for starting pressure gradient is a function of yield stress,microstructural parameters of the network.The proposed model may have the potential in further exploiting the mechanisms of flow in porous media with fractured network.

  7. Early administration of branched-chain amino acid granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    The effect of malnutrition on survival in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis has not been well defined.Nutritional intervention with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) can increase serum albumin concentration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis but its effects on survival are unclear.The BCAA to tyrosine ratio (BTR) is a surrogate marker (the normal range of BTR is between 4.41 and 10.05,and a Fischer's ratio of 1.8 corresponds to a BTR of 3.5) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis,and BCAA inhibits hepatic carcinogenesis in patients with compensated cirrhosis.This review discusses data regarding the effect of early administration of BCAA granules based on the ratio of BCAA to BTR on prognosis in patients with cirrhosis.

  8. Structure and Hydration of Highly Branched, Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Nickels, Jonathan; Stanley, Christopher; Diallo, Souleymane; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John

    Monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles are a promising, new soft colloidal nanomaterial with many applications in the personal care, food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. These applications rely on exceptional properties that emerge from the highly branched structure of phytoglycogen and its interaction with water, such as extraordinarily high water retention, and low viscosity and exceptional stability in water. The structure and hydration of the nanoparticles was characterized using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). SANS allowed us to determine the size of the nanoparticles, evaluate their radial density profile, quantify the particle-to-particle spacing, and determine their water content. The results show clearly that the nanoparticles are highly hydrated, with each nanoparticle containing 250% of its mass in water, and that aqueous dispersions approach a jamming transition at ~ 25% (w/w). QENS experiments provided an independent and consistent measure of the high level of hydration of the particles.

  9. Scaling Laws in the Distribution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J T; Saar, E; Trimble, V; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Martinez, Vicent J.; Saar, Enn; Trimble, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Research done during the previous century established our Standard Cosmological Model. There are many details still to be filled in, but few would seriously doubt the basic premise. Past surveys have revealed that the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the Universe is far from random: it is highly structured over a vast range of scales. To describe cosmic structures, we need to build mathematically quantifiable descriptions of structure. Identifying where scaling laws apply and the nature of those scaling laws is an important part of understanding which physical mechanisms have been responsible for the organization of clusters, superclusters of galaxies and the voids between them. Finding where these scaling laws are broken is equally important since this indicates the transition to different underlying physics. In describing scaling laws we are helped by making analogies with fractals: mathematical constructs that can possess a wide variety of scaling properties. We must beware, however, of saying that ...

  10. 29 CFR 458.80 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. 458.80 Section... Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall designate another Administrative Law Judge for...

  11. The Influence of Natural User Experience on Information Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Švedaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the main cause of user experience on development methods and laws, including Fitt’s Law, Hick-Hyman Law, Accot’s Law, Gestalt Law, proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, figure and ground, simplicity, symmetry and experience.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Zipf's Law and Avoidance of Excessive Synonymy

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Dmitrii

    2007-01-01

    Zipf's law states that if words of language are ranked in the order of decreasing frequency in texts, the frequency of a word is inversely proportional to its rank. It is very robust as an experimental observation, but to date it escaped satisfactory theoretical explanation. We suggest that Zipf's law may arise from the evolution of word semantics dominated by expansion of meanings and competition of synonyms.

  13. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  14. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  15. [Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng-Ri; Jia, Wei-Wei; Dong, Li-Hu

    2013-07-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth, respectively, the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated, and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software. The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood, and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models. When considering plot effect, and taking alpha1 and alpha3 and beta1 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. When considering tree effect, and taking alpha2 and alpha3 and beta2 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth, but also show the differences among the individual trees. No matter considering plot effect or tree effect, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model. Moreover, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.

  16. The Evolution of China's Foreign Trade Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wenhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Since China started the reform of foreign trade system in 1978,the foreign trade laws and regulations have developed from scratch or from a limited amount,gradually with the step of reform.

  17. Karp-Miller Trees for a Branching Extension of VASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Neeraj Verma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We study BVASS (Branching VASS which extend VASS (Vector Addition Systems with States by allowing addition transitions that merge two configurations. Runs in BVASS are tree-like structures instead of linear ones as for VASS. We show that the construction of Karp-Miller trees for VASS can be extended to BVASS. This entails that the coverability set for BVASS is computable. This allows us to obtain decidability results for certain classes of equational tree automata with an associative-commutative symbol. Recent independent work by de Groote et al. implies that decidability of reachability in BVASS is equivalent to decidability of provability in MELL (multiplicative exponential linear logic, which is still an open problem. Hence our results are also a step towards answering this question in the affirmative.

  18. Measurement of the K+ --> pi+ nu nu branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.; /Brookhaven; Anisimovsky, V.V.; /Moscow, INR; Aoki, M.; /TRIUMF; Ardebili, M.; /Princeton U.; Artamonov, A.V.; /Serpukhov, IHEP; Atiya, M.; /Brookhaven; Bassalleck, B.; /New Mexico U.; Bazarko, A.O.; /Princeton U.; Bhuyan, B.; /Brookhaven; Blackmore, E.W.; /TRIUMF; Bryman, D.A.; /British Columbia U. /Tsinghua U., Beijing /TRIUMF

    2008-03-01

    Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77 x 10{sup 12} k{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}}) = (1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30}) x 10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V.V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].

  19. An Overview of Nordic Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Bryde; Runesson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This essay is published as the opening chapter in a book that celebrates the 100 year anniversary of the uniform Nordic Contracts Acts. It introduces some of the main concepts, main rules and lines of argumentation that you will find in Nordic contract law. Thereby it introduces the reader...... into core characteristics of these fundamental parts of the private law systems in the Nordic countries....

  20. New Paradigm for Global Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Law is both a condition and a consequence of social development, an outcome of the broader social process, a form of social organization which channels social energies based on the relative strength of past practice and precedent, the present balance of power and emerging social values. Values are the bedrock of social process and the driving force for social activism. Historically, law evolves as a mechanism for conflict avoidance and resolution founded on the practical management of conflict and higher values, made possible by the implicit acceptance and internalization of the authority component of collective expectations. Established law acts as a conservative force of the status quo subject to continuous pressure to evolve from the changing public conscience and social values. Lasswell’s comprehensive model of social process highlights the contribution of multiple participants to the evolution of law at the macro and micro level, including the role of individual value demands and the potential assertive power of the human community as a whole. The article explores the potential role of non-states in changing international law regarding the legality of nuclear weapons. An appreciation of the integral relationship between law, politics and society is essential to a fuller understanding of social, power and legal processes and the goal of universalizing peace and human dignity.

  1. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS IN M62

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Origlia, L.; Massari, D. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani, 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-11-10

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al). For the majority (five out of six) of the AGB targets, we find that the abundances of both iron and titanium determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O–Na, Al–Mg, and Na–Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for GC stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first-generation stars are expected to lie, similar to what was recently found for the AGB population of NGC 6752. While the sodium and aluminum abundances could be underestimated as a consequence of the NLTE bias affecting iron and titanium, the oxygen line used does not suffer from the same effects, and the lack of O-poor AGB stars therefore is a solid result. We can thus conclude that none of the investigated AGB stars belongs to the second stellar generation of M62. We also find an RGB star with extremely high sodium abundance ([Na/Fe] = +1.08 dex)

  2. Semileptonic branching fractions of charged and neutral B mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Athanas, M; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Gronberg, J B; Kutschke, R; Menary, S R; Morrison, R J; Nakanishi, S; Nelson, H N; Nelson, T K; Qiao, C; Richman, J D; Ryd, A; Tajima, H; Sperka, D; Witherell, M S; Balest, R; Cho, K; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Lingel, K; Lohner, M; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Bebek, C; Berkelman, K; Bloom, K; Browder, T E; Cassel, David G; Cho, H A; Coffman, D M; Crowcroft, D S; Drell, P S; Dumas, D J P; Ehrlich, R; Gaidarev, P B; García-Sciveres, M; Geiser, B; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Henderson, S; Jones, C D; Jones, S L; Kandaswamy, J; Katayama, N; Kim, P C; Kreinick, D L; Ludwig, G S; Masui, J; Mevissen, J; Mistry, N B; Ng, C R; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Salman, S; Sapper, M; Würthwein, F; Avery, P; Freyberger, A P; Rodríguez, J; Yang, S; Yelton, J; Cinabro, D; Liu, T; Saulnier, M; Wilson, R; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G; Ong, B; Palmer, M; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Edwards, K W; Ogg, M; Bellerive, A; Britton, D I; Hyatt, E R F; MacFarlane, D B; Patel, P M; Spaan, B; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Besson, D; Coppage, D; Copty, N K; Davis, R; Hancock, N; Kelly, M S; Kotov, S A; Kravchenko, I V; Kwak, N; Lam, H; Kubota, Y; Lattery, M; Momayezi, M; Nelson, J K; Patton, S; Poling, R A; Savinov, V; Schrenk, S; Wang, R; Alam, M S; Kim, I J; Ling, Z; Mahmood, A H; O'Neill, J J; Severini, H; Sun, C R; Wappler, F; Crawford, G; Daubenmier, C M; Fulton, R; Fujino, D; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Lee, J; Malchow, R L; Skovpen, Y; Sung, M; White, C; Zoeller, M M; Butler, F; Fu, X; Nemati, B; Ross, W R; Skubic, P L; Wood, M; Bishai, M; Fast, J; Gerndt, E; McIlwain, R L; Miao, T; Miller, D H; Modesitt, M; Payne, D; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Wang Pei Ning; Battle, M; Ernst, J; Gibbons, L K; Kwon, Y; Roberts, S; Thorndike, E H; Wang, C H; Dominick, J; Lambrecht, M; Sanghera, S; Shelkov, V; Skwarnicki, T; Stroynowski, R; Volobuev, I P; Wei, G; Zadorozhny, P; Artuso, M; Gao, M; Golberg, M; He, D; Horwitz, N; Kennett, R; Mountain, R; Moneti, G C; Muheim, F; Mukhin, Y; Playfer, S; Rozen, Y; Stone, S; Vasseur, G; Xing, X; Zhu, G; Bartelt, J; Csorna, S E; Egyed, Z; Jain, V; Gibaut, D; Kinoshita, K; Pomianowski, P A; Barish, B C; Chadha, M; Chan, S; Cowen, D F; Eigen, G; Miller, J S; O'Grady, C; Urheim, J; Weinstein, A J

    1994-01-01

    An examination of leptons in {\\Upsilon (4S)} events tagged by reconstructed B decays yields semileptonic branching fractions of b_-=(10.1 \\pm 1.8\\pm 1.4)\\% for charged and b_0=(10.9 \\pm 0.7\\pm 1.1)\\% for neutral B mesons. This is the first measurement for charged B. Assuming equality of the charged and neutral semileptonic widths, the ratio b_-/b_0=0.93 \\pm 0.18 \\pm 0.12 is equivalent to the ratio of lifetimes. A postscript version is available through World-Wide-Web in http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/publi c/CLNS/1994

  3. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  4. Angiographic Findings of Extrahepatic Branches Originating from Hepatic Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Wang; Ren-jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the presentation and variation of extrahepatic branches originating from hepatic artery by hepatic arteriography.Methods: Hepatic arteriogram of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic primary or metastatic tumors before interventional therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Two interventional radiologists independently reviewed the type, originating artery, distribution and variation of extrahepatic artery.Results: Five types of extrahepatic artery were found, with the most common type of the right gastric artery (n=156, 78%), followed by the cystic artery (n=126, 63%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19, 9.5%), hepatic falciform artery (n=5, 2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4, 2%). In 188 cases, there were extrahepatic arteries derived from hepatic proper artery or its branches, and the most frequent originating site was the right hepatic artery (130 extrahepatic branches), followed by the proper hepatic artery (103 branches), left hepatic artery (56 branches) and middle hepatic artery (3 branches). The left hepatic artery was the arising site with the multiple types of extrahepatic branches including all above branches except the cystic artery.Conclusion: Many types of extrahepatic branches usually derive from the hepatic artery or its distal branches, and its originating sites are not constant. It is important to avoid damage of extrahepatic tissue during interventional therapy for liver tumors.

  5. Measurement of B -> D_s K pi branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the exclusive $B^+$ meson decay to the final state $D_s^- K^+\\pi^+$ using $520 \\times 10^{6} B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected near the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance, with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. Using the $D_S^- \\to \\phi \\pi^-$ decay mode to reconstruct $D_s^-$ mesons, we obtain the branching fraction ${\\cal B}(B^+\\to D_s^-K^+\\pi^+)= (1.77^{+0.12}_{-0.12} {\\mathrm (stat)} \\pm 0.16 {\\mathrm (syst)} \\pm 0.23 {\\cal(B)})\\times 10^{-4}$. We also present preliminary results of a study of the two-body $D_sK$, $D_s\\pi$ and $K\\pi$ subsystems observed in this final state.

  6. Measurement of the branching fraction Br(Bs -> Ds(*) Ds(*))

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Böhnlein, A; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; De, K; Degenhardt, J D; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Déliot, F; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Gómez, B; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Käfer, D; Kühl, T; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Lévêque, J; Cwiok, M; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Mättig, P; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nöding, C; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Wang, M H L; Sajot, G; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Ströhmer, R; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Van den Berg, P J; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Walder, J; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; de Jong, P; van Eijk, B; Åsman, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction Br(Bs -> Ds(*) Ds(*)) using a data sample corresponding to 1.3 fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment in 2002-2006 during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. One Ds(*) meson was partially reconstructed in the decay Ds -> phi mu nu, and the other Ds(*) meson was identified using the decay Ds -> phi pi where no attempt was made to distinguish Ds and Ds* states. The resulting measurement is Br(Bs -> Ds(*) Ds(*)) = 0.039 +0.019 -0.017 (stat) +0.016 -0.015 (syst). This was subsequently used to estimate the width difference Delta Gamma^{CP}_s in the Bs-Bsbar system: Delta Gamma^{CP}_s / Gamma_s = 0.079 +0.038 -0.035 (stat) +0.031 -0.030 (syst).

  7. Clonal propagation of Bambusa vulgaris by leafy branch cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Islam; M.K.Bhuiyan; M.M.Hossain; M.A.Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Bambusa vulgaris Schrad ex wendl is a widely cultivated bamboo species in rural Bangladesh for its versatile uses. The vegetative propagation becomes the only viable alternative for this species because B. vulgaris does not set seed after sparse flowering, which makes seed- ling progenies unavailable. A low-cost propagation trial was conducted to explore the clonal propagation techniques for the species with two types of small branch cuttings, nodal leafy cuttings and tip cuttings. The cuttings, after treating with 0, 0.1%, 0.4%, and 0.8% IBA solutions, were kept in non-mist propagator to let them to root for assessing the rooting ability. The cuttings were rooted in four weeks and were allowed to grow in the polybags for 10 months under nursery condition to assess their steckling capacity. The study reveals that both types of branch cuttings are able to develop roots, shoots, to survive and to form rhizome under the nursery condition. Rooting ability of the cuttings was significantly enhanced by the application of rooting hormone - IBA. The highest root- ing percentage in nodal leafy cuttings and the tip cuttings (56.67% and 51.0%, respectively) were observed in 0.8% IBA treatment, followed by 0.4% IBA and the lowest (34.3% and 30.0%, respectively) was in control. The highest number of root developed per cutting (9.77 and 8.33 in nodal leafy cuttings and the tip cuttings, respectively) was also obtained from the cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA solution, followed 0.4% IBA treat- ment and the lowest (3.1 and 2.1, respectively) was in the cuttings with- out treatment. However, the length of the longest root varied significantly neither with the cutting types nor the concentrations of IBA solution. Survival percentage of the stecklings in nursery condition was signifi- cantly enhanced by IBA.

  8. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D_s^+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2008-01-01

    The branching fractions of D_s meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 /pb of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D_s decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D_s -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.50 +- 0.23 +- 0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K- K+ pi+ decay mode.

  9. Gender and Boyle's law of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Gender and Boyle''s Law of GasesElizabeth PotterRe-examines the assumptions and experimental evidence behind Boyle''s Law.Boyle''s Law, which describes the relation between the pressure and volume of a gas, was worked out by Robert Boyle in the mid-1600s. His experiments are still considered examples of good scientific work and continue to be studied along with their historical and intellectual contexts by philosophers, historians, and sociologists. Now there is controversy over whether Boyle''s work was based only on experimental evidence or whether it was influenced by the politics and religious controversies of the time, including especially class and gender politics.Elizabeth Potter argues that even good science is sometimes influenced by such issues, and she shows that the work leading to the Gas Law, while certainly based on physical evidenc...

  10. Refuge Law Enforcement : Memorandum of Understanding

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This agreement, a reciprocal law enforcement and assistance agreement, is made between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the County Sheriff's Department. The...

  11. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  12. World Peace Through the Rule of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    primarily a European con- clave .1 0 In so limiting its participants the Conference delib- erately limited its possibilities of worldwide influence. This...Non- accessible law is nonexistent law. Philosophers may debate whether there is really a sound when a tree crashes in a wilder- ness and the sound is...floor debate on the adoption of the recommendation of the Foreign Relations Committee. It added the following eight words to the previously cited

  13. On the tautology of the matching law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1971-03-01

    The generalized matching law, that organisms divide their time between alternatives in proportion to the value of the reinforcement consequent on the choice, is derivable from the assumption that an organism choosing between alternatives is under no constraints except those the contingencies of reinforcement impose. Hence, the law is not subject to empirical test. Its value lies in its simple codification of assumptions underlying choice experiments.

  14. Three new branched chain equations of state based on Wertheim's perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bennett D; Chapman, Walter G

    2013-05-07

    In this work, we present three new branched chain equations of state (EOS) based on Wertheim's perturbation theory. The first represents a slightly approximate general branched chain solution of Wertheim's second order perturbation theory (TPT2) for athermal hard chains, and the second represents the extension of first order perturbation theory with a dimer reference fluid (TPT1-D) to branched athermal hard chain molecules. Each athermal branched chain EOS was shown to give improved results over their linear counterparts when compared to simulation data for branched chain molecules with the branched TPT1-D EOS being the most accurate. Further, it is shown that the branched TPT1-D EOS can be extended to a Lennard-Jones dimer reference system to obtain an equation of state for branched Lennard-Jones chains. The theory is shown to accurately predict the change in phase diagram and vapor pressure which results from branching as compared to experimental data for n-octane and corresponding branched isomers.

  15. Branching fractions of tau leptons to three charged hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Drell, P S; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Benslama, K; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; von Toerne, E; Zoeller, M M; Severini, H; Skubic, P; Dytman, S A; Mueller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Maravin, Y; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J

    2003-05-09

    From electron-positron collision data collected with the CLEO detector operating at Cornell Electron Storage Ring near sqrt[s]=10.6 GeV, improved measurements of the branching fractions for tau decays into three explicitly identified hadrons and a neutrino are presented as B(tau(-)-->pi(-)pi(+)pi(-)nu(tau))=(9.13+/-0.05+/-0.46)%, B(tau(-)-->K-pi(+)pi(-)nu(tau))=(3.84+/-0.14+/-0.38) x 10(-3), B(tau(-)-->K-K+pi(-)nu(tau))=(1.55+/-0.06+/-0.09) x 10(-3), and B(tau(-)-->K-K+K-nu(tau))<3.7 x 10(-5) at 90% C.L., where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  16. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  17. DETERMINATION OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH cis-1,4-POLYBUTADIENE BY GPC AND AUTOMATIC VISCOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Benhui; JIN Riguang

    1984-01-01

    Based on the methods reported by Ambler and Kraus, a method has been developed for the determination of long-chain branching distribution in polymers by the combined use of GPC and intrinsic viscosity data of polymer fractions. In this method, gi, λi, Gi, mi, the weight percentage of polymer that is branched, etc. can be used simultaneously to characterize the distribution, degree and content of branching in polymers. Some relations between molecular weight polydispersity and branching polydispersity in Nickel-based high cis-1,4-polybutadiene samples are discussed. It was found that the number of long branches λ per unit molecular weight is a function of molecular weight and all of the samples are highly branched at a molecular weight of about 106.

  18. The History of International Private Law in China and its sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Soto von Arnim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese International Private Law has a long history as its first provision dates from the Mingli Code during the Ming Dynasty. Despite its early beginnings, Private International Law really began to develop during the 1980’s. In China, this branch of law includes Conflict of Law rules, Conflict of Jurisdiction rules, and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in civil and commercial matters. Despite the fact that in China there are various opinions about which would be the best type of codification method between a complete and a subject-by-subject codification, the newest Chinese International Private Law, which dates from October 28, 2010, has only codified conflict of laws rules. This law represents an important advance in the China’s Private International Law development even though some of its provisions have been widely criticized

  19. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  20. The Asymptotic Giant Branch and the Tip of the Red Giant Branch as Probes of Star Formation History: The Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy KKH 98

    OpenAIRE

    Melbourne, J; Williams, B.; Dalcanton, J.; Ammons, S. M.; Max, C.; Koo, D.C.; Girardi, Leo; Dolphin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the red giant branch (RGB) as probes of the star formation history (SFH) of the nearby (D=2.5 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxy, KKH 98. Near-infrared (IR) Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) images resolve 592 IR bright stars reaching over 1 magnitude below the Tip of the Red Giant Branch. Significantly deeper optical (F475W and F814W) Hubble Space Telescope images of the same field contain over 2500 stars, reaching to the ...

  1. The law and its interaction with medical ethics in end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Kathy L

    2011-09-01

    The previous two articles in this series explored the historical and theoretical development of medical decision making from initial reliance on medical beneficence to a more recent emphasis on patient autonomy. The law of withholding and withdrawal of treatment has much in common with medical ethics. It is based on concerns about patient autonomy expressed by courts, legislatures, and the executive branch of the government. Legally, the patient's right of self-determination has been based on a variety of sources ranging from state and federal constitutions to the common law of torts and from cases to statutes and regulations. Understanding the various sources of the law, the distinctions among those sources, and the interaction of the branches of government in this context assists in understanding the law itself. In our federalist system of government, significant legal variations can exist among the states, but although technically valid, excessive concern about compliance with the precise contours of each state's statute when surrogate decision makers are engaging in bedside deliberations is unnecessary. Regardless of source or precise legal contours, the overall goal, which neither the physician nor the patient's surrogate or proxy decision makers should forget, is to honor what the patient would want to have done. Physicians and attorneys will agree on that as a matter of both ethics and the law.

  2. Status and Development Trend of Administrative Law Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Since the new century, the development trend of administrative law and administrative law issues have been a concern for Chinese administrative law scholars, especially in recent years, more and more scholars start to discuss " new administrative law" ,directly or indirectly," New Administrative Law" has become China' s new hot spot for administrative law research. From two aspects, which involve the new direction of the construction of the administrative law system and the new vision of the administrative law, relevant research results on law research were reviewed and commented, and a number of visions were made on the future development of China' s administrative law, which were practically significant.

  3. Branch Structure of Corona Discharge:Experimental Simulation and Chemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹吉军; 刘昌俊

    2004-01-01

    The branch structure of corona discharge has been investigated via C2H2 corona discharge. Carbon filament with excellent branch structure is formed in the discharge. This carbon filament offers a direct mimic of the branch structure of corona discharge. It providesa very useful way to study on the average energy, physical and chemical characteristics of coronadischarge. On this basis, the chemical property of corona discharge for methane conversion is discussed.

  4. Quantized Coulomb branches of Jordan quiver gauge theories and cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kodera, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    We study quantized Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of Jordan type. We prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is isomorphic to the spherical graded Cherednik algebra in the unframed case, and is isomorphic to the spherical cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebra in the framed case. We also prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is a deformation of a subquotient of the Yangian of the affine $\\mathfrak{gl}(1)$.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HEALTH LAW: OVERVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Daolu

    2014-07-01

    Health law is a rapidly developing law specialty in China. This article examines the current overall framework and evolution of Chinese health law, as a background to an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this legal regime. Research suggests that: 1) The independent status of Chinese health law as jurisprudence and a specialty ought to be assured altogether; 2) The convergence between health law and other laws should be strengthened; 3) The current Chinese health law framework ought to be completed. This suggests the necessity to find ways to improve the independence of health law in China by eliminating the convergence and completing the legal framework.

  6. Measurement of charged kaon semileptonic decay branching fraction using ISTRA+ detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, V. A.; Akimenko, S. A.; Bolotov, V. N.; Britvich, G. I.; Duk, V. A.; Filin, A. P.; Inyakin, A. V.; Kholodenko, S. A.; Khudyakov, A. A.; Konstantinov, A. S.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Leontiev, V. M.; Makarov, A. I.; Obraztsov, V. F.; Polyakov, V. A.; Polyarush, A. Yu.; Popov, A. V.; Romanovsky, V. I.; Stenyakin, O. V.; Tchikilev, O. G.; Yushchenko, O. P.

    2014-06-01

    The ratio of branching fractions for and K - → π-π0 decays has been measured using the ISTRA+ spectrometer. The result of our measurement is the following: Using the current PDG value for the K 2π branching fraction, this result leads to the measured K e3 branching fraction of Br( K e3) = 0.0501 ± 0.0009 and to the value of | V us | f +(0) = 0.2115 ± 0.0021.

  7. Source, settling and degradation of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the marine water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Fukuhara, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (branched GDGTs) are commonly found in distal marine sediments. However, their presence in the water column, source and delivery process are not fully understood. In this study, we examined seasonal and depth variation in the flux of branched GDGTs in sinking particles and underlying sediment at 39°N, 147°E in the mid-latitude NW Pacific from November 1997 to August 1999. Branched GDGTs showed synchronous variation in their sinking flux at different depths, and the variation was similar to that of lithogenic material of eolian dust origin. Their degrees of cyclization and methylation were nearly constant and bear some resemblance to those of alkaline soils. This suggests that westerly winds transport branched GDGTs to the study site via the atmosphere from continental Asia. The sinking flux of branched GDGTs was higher in 1999 than in 1998, presumably reflecting changes in the migration path of Asian dust in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Synchronous variation in branched GDGT concentrations at different depths implies rapid vertical transport of branched GDGTs to deep water with a sinking velocity exceeding 260 m d-1. The sinking flux of the branched GDGTs decreased with increasing depth, but the rate of decrease was much smaller than those of other compounds. The preservation efficiency of branched GDGTs was 3.5-6.4% of surface inputs at the water-sediment interface, which is much higher than those of isoprenoid GDGTs (1.0-1.3%) and other compounds. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index values were extremely low (i.e. <0.0015) in comparison with any other studies so far. The BIT values in the surface sediment were five times higher than those in sinking particles, which is attributed to the preferential preservation of branched GDGTs in oxic environments.

  8. The Three Laws of Thought, Plus One: The Law of Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Saaty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rules of logic are nearly 2500 years old and date back to Plato and Aristotle who set down the three laws of thought: identity, non-contradiction, and excluded middle. The use of language and logic has been adequate for us to develop mathematics, prove theorems, and create scientific knowledge. However, the laws of thought are incomplete. We need to extend our logical system by adding to the very old laws of thought an essential yet poorly understood law. It is a necessary law of thought that resides in our biology even deeper than the other three laws. It is related to the rudiments of how we as living beings, and even nonliving things, respond to influences as stimuli. It helps us discriminate between being ourselves and sensing that there is something else that is not ourselves that even amoebas seem to know. It is the intrinsic ability to sense and distinguish. This fourth law is the law of comparisons. Although it has been missing from our logical deductions it underlies the other three laws of thought because without it we cannot know what is and what is not.

  9. THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTITYPE CANONICAL MARKOV BRANCHING CHAINS IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The investigation for branching processes has a long history by their strong physics background, but only a few authors have investigated the branching processes in random environments. First of all, the author introduces the concepts of the multitype canonical Markov branching chain in random environment (CMBCRE) and multitype Markov branching chain in random environment (MBCRE) and proved that CMBCRE must be MBCRE, and any MBCRE must be equivalent to another CMBCRE in distribution. The main results of this article are the construction of CMBCRE and some of its probability properties.

  10. Shear Modification of long-chain branched polymers : a theoretical approach using POM-POM model

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrigault, S.; Marin, Gérard; Poitou, Arnaud

    2003-01-01

    International audience; “Shear modification” is a strong modification of rheological properties which affects mainly long-chain branched polymers like LDPE. The aim of this work is to explain this effect using recent advances in molecular dynamics and especially the pom-pom model which was designed for branched polymers. The original model was slightly modified in order to take into account the change in molecular topology related to the branch point withdrawal mechanism without introducing a...

  11. The role of branched fibres in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S; Head, S I

    2011-06-01

    Branched fibres are a well-documented phenomenon of regenerating skeletal muscle. They are found in the muscles of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe condition of progressive muscle wasting caused by an absence of the sarcolemmal protein dystrophin, and in the muscles of the mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD. However, only a handful of studies have investigated how the physiological properties of these morphologically deformed fibres differ from those of normal fibres. These studies have found an association between the extent of fibre branching in mdx muscles and the susceptibility of these muscles to damage from eccentric contractions. They have also found that branched mdx muscle fibres cannot sustain maximal contractions in buffered Ca(2+) solutions, that branch points are sites of increased mechanical stress and that myofibrillar structure is greatly disturbed at branch points. These findings have important implications for understanding the function of dystrophin. It is commonly thought that the role of dystrophin is mechanical stabilization of the sarcolemma, as numerous studies have shown that eccentric contractions damage mdx muscle more than normal muscle. However, the finding that branched mdx fibres are mechanically weakened raises the question, is it the lack of dystrophin or is it the fibre branching that leads to the vulnerability of mdx muscle to contractile damage? The importance of this question to our understanding of the function of dystrophin warrants further research into the physiological properties of branched fibres and how they differ from morphologically normal fibres.

  12. Comparison of Sprint Reaction and Visual Reaction Times of Athletes in Different Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Uzaldi, Basar Basri; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to analyse sprint reaction and visual reaction times of female athletes of different branches competing in Professional leagues and to show the differences between them. 42 voluntary female athletes from various branches of Professional leagues of Istanbul (volleyball, basketball, handball) were included in the…

  13. Electrodeposition of InSb branched nanowires: Controlled growth with structurally tailored properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suprem R.; Mohammad, Asaduzzaman; Janes, David B., E-mail: janes@ecn.purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Akatay, Cem [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Maeda, Kosuke [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta–cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Deacon, Russell S.; Ishibashi, Koji [Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chen, Yong P. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Sands, Timothy D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    In this article, electrodeposition method is used to demonstrate growth of InSb nanowire (NW) arrays with hierarchical branched structures and complex morphology at room temperature using an all-solution, catalyst-free technique. A gold coated, porous anodic alumina membrane provided the template for the branched NWs. The NWs have a hierarchical branched structure, with three nominal regions: a “trunk” (average diameter of 150 nm), large branches (average diameter of 100 nm), and small branches (average diameter of sub-10 nm to sub-20 nm). The structural properties of the branched NWs were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In the as-grown state, the small branches of InSb NWs were crystalline, but the trunk regions were mostly nanocrystalline with an amorphous boundary. Post-annealing of NWs at 420 °C in argon produced single crystalline structures along 〈311〉 directions for the branches and along 〈111〉 for the trunks. Based on the high crystallinity and tailored structure in this branched NW array, the effective refractive index allows us to achieve excellent antireflection properties signifying its technological usefulness for photon management and energy harvesting.

  14. Disclosure of information in criminal proceedings : a comparative analysis of national and international criminal procedural systems and human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiori, Brando

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure and the procedure regulating it represent a subject matter in which crime control and human rights find their synthesis. Disclosure is a complex subject that covers different branches of law as it involves aspects of a procedural nature as well as considerations that belong to the realm o

  15. Darwin's evolutionary philosophy: the laws of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, E S

    1978-01-01

    The philosophical or metaphysical architecture of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is analyzed and discussed. It is argued that natural selection was for Darwin a paradigmatic case of a natural law of change -- an exemplar of what Ghiselin (1969) has called selective retention laws. These selective retention laws lie at the basis of Darwin's revolutionary world view. In this essay special attention is paid to the consequences for Darwin's concept of species of his selective retention laws. Although Darwin himself explicity supported a variety of nominalism, implicit in the theory of natural selection is a solution to the dispute between nominalism and realism. It is argued that, although implicit, this view plays a very important role in Darwin's theory of natural selection as the means for the origin of species. It is in the context of these selective retention laws and their philosophical implications that Darwin's method is appraised in the light of recent criticisms, and the conclusion drawn that he successfully treated some philosophical problems by approaching them through natural history. Following this an outline of natural selection theory is presented in which all these philosophical issues are highlighted.

  16. Law as a tool of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, S O

    2009-06-01

    The preservation of the public's health is one of the most important goals of government. The enactment and enforcement of law is the primary means by which government can encourage as well as compel conditions for healthier and safer lifestyles. The Law creates and assigns functions for public health authorities. In this regard, law is a fundamental element of effective public health policy and practice. It has played a crucial role in many of public health's greatest achievements. In spite of its contribution to effective Public Health practice, the potential for the application of law to chronic disease prevention and control is yet to be fully recognized. The development and implementation of legal frameworks could broaden the range of effective public health strategies and provide valuable tools for the public health workforce. In order to expand the range of effective public health interventions, the government should use the law as a tool to achieve the goal of preventing chronic diseases and ameliorate the growing epidemic of obesity, heart disease, stroke, cancer and other chronic diseases and their risk factors.

  17. A branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization of Hessian Lipschitz continuous functions

    KAUST Repository

    Fowkes, Jaroslav M.

    2012-06-21

    We present a branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization of a twice differentiable nonconvex objective function with a Lipschitz continuous Hessian over a compact, convex set. The algorithm is based on applying cubic regularisation techniques to the objective function within an overlapping branch and bound algorithm for convex constrained global optimization. Unlike other branch and bound algorithms, lower bounds are obtained via nonconvex underestimators of the function. For a numerical example, we apply the proposed branch and bound algorithm to radial basis function approximations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. WOOD ANATOMY OF ROOT, TRUNK AND BRANCH FROM BARBATIMÃO (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart) Coville)

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Lopes Goulart; Alessandra de Oliveira Ribeiro; Fábio Akira Mori; Natalie Ferreira de Almeida; Claudinéia Olimpia de Assis

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the wood of root, trunk and branch from barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens) in the cerrado area, in Lavras (Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil). Trunk and branch wood samples were removed at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the trunk and branch total height. Root wood samples were removed at 40 cm depth soil. Qualitatively the barbatimão wood has distinct growth layers for the trunk and branch; at the root they are poorly defined. Diffuse porosity...

  19. An Investigation of the Impact of International Branch Campuses on Organizational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lanford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors first survey the factors related to globalization that have stimulated the creation of international branch campuses. They then contend that the viability of an international branch campus should not be solely evaluated from a rational choice perspective oriented toward economic self-interest. Rather, the organizational culture of the…

  20. 12 CFR 211.4 - Permissible activities and investments of foreign branches of member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign branches of member banks. 211.4 Section 211.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... powers, and to the extent consistent with its charter, a foreign branch of a member bank may engage in... been improved; (5) Insurance. Act as insurance agent or broker; (6) Employee benefits program. Pay...

  1. Brief Introduction of The Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Refractories Branch,a specialized branch of The Chinese Society for Metals(CSM,a nonprofit academic organization concemed with the advancement of science and technology in metallurgical industry and materials science and engineering in China and is also an organization ofChinese scientists and engineersin these field.),is a nationwide academic organization for researchers or engineers in China'S refractories field.

  2. The effect of branching in a semiconducting polymer on the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintges, Gaël H L; van Franeker, Jacobus J; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-01

    The impact of branching in a diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer on the performance of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic cells is investigated. Compared to the linear polymer, the branched polymer affords a more finely dispersed fibrillar network in the photoactive layer and as a result a large enhancement of the photocurrent and power conversion efficiency.

  3. Direct Measurements of Line-Mixing Coefficients in the nu1 + nu2 Q Branch of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman; Duggan; Sinclair; May; Drummond

    1997-04-01

    High-resolution measurements of the (nu1 + nu2) Q branch of pure CO2 were made using a difference frequency spectrometer with resolution of 5 x 10(-5) cm-1 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 2000:1. Lines Q(2) through Q(32) were measured with up to 14 lines in a single spectrum. The analysis of the branch has been performed on data taken at 301 K and pressures less than 11 kPa. The spectra were analyzed on a line-by-line basis within the Rosenkranz approximation of weak overlap [P. W. Rosenkranz, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation AP-23, 498 (1975)]. The lineshape profile included Doppler broadening and Dicke narrowing [R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 89, 472 (1953)] using a modified hard collision model [S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel'man, Sov. Phys. Uspekh. 9, 701 (1967)] with line mixing. For each line the broadening, Dicke narrowing, and line-mixing coefficients were determined. The broadening coefficients are in good agreement with measurements of lines belonging to different CO2 bands. Our measured line-mixing parameters are compared to those predicted by a relaxation matrix which was calculated from an exponential power gap (EPG) law [L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, and S. E. Hannon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281 (1994)]. The vibrational band intensity and the linear pressure shift of the branch were also measured. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  4. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?

  5. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  6. Measurements of Branching Fractions of $\\tau$ Lepton Decays with one or more $K^{0}_{S}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, S; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bhuyan, B; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Doležal, Z; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kato, E; Kiesling, C; Kim, B H; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kwon, Y -J; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; MacNaughton, J; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Moll, A; Mori, T; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rostomyan, A; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Seon, O; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yamashita, Y; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of branching fractions of $\\tau$ lepton decays to final states with a $K^{0}_{S}$ meson using a 669 fb$^{-1}$ data sample accumulated with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider. The inclusive branching fraction is measured to be $\\mathcal{B}(\\tau^{-} \\to K^{0}_{S}\\ X^{-} \

  7. Mechanical and ecophysiological significance of the form of a young Acer rufinerve tree: vertical gradient in branch mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Kosei; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2006-12-01

    Most tree biomechanics models assume uniformity of mechanical properties within a tree, and only a few studies have focused on differences in mechanical status among branches. We examined mechanical properties of 49 branches of two 10-year-old trees of Acer rufinerve Sieb. et Zucc. For each branch, bending moment due to its own fresh mass, elastic modulus, section modulus and flexural stiffness were obtained. Elastic modulus of the branch was correlated with the density and thickness of the fiber cell wall and decreased with crown depth, indicating that branches at lower positions were more elastic than branches at upper positions. Compared to lower branches, upper branches were less inclined, possessed thicker growth rings, more long shoots and were subject to smaller stresses. The leaf arrangement in the upper branches might be effective in transmitting more light to the lower branches. In contrast, the lower branches were more inclined toward the horizontal and subject to greater stresses than the upper branches. Lower branch inclinations were attributed to smaller dry matter investment in diameter growth. Upper and lower branch inclinations were slightly greater and smaller, respectively, than those predicted by beam theory. The alleviation in inclination of the lower branches is probably caused by negative gravitropic responses such as tension wood formation or upward shoot elongation, or both. The horizontal display of leaves in the lower branches would be effective in light interception. The reduction in cost of the lower branches can be adaptive because they have a shorter life expectancy than the upper branches. The results showed that an adaptive tree form is realized by a vertical gradient in branch mechanical properties.

  8. Formation of catalytic silver nanoparticles supported on branched polyethyleneimine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Aline M; Santos, Kelly de O; Eising, Renato; Albuquerque, Brunno L; Giacomelli, Fernando C; Domingos, Josiel B

    2010-11-16

    A new and straightforward method for screening highly catalytically active silver nanoparticle-polymer composites derived from branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) is reported. The one-step systematic derivatization of the PEI scaffold with alkyl (butyl or octyl) and ethanolic groups led to a structural diversity correlated to the stabilization of silver nanoparticles and catalysis. Analysis of PEI derivative libraries identified a silver nanoparticle-polymer composite that was able to efficiently catalyze the p-nitrophenol reduction by NaBH(4) in water with a rate constant normalized to the surface area of the nanoparticles per unit volume (k(1)) of 0.57 s(-1) m(-2) L. Carried out in the presence of excess NaBH(4), the catalytic reaction was observed to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics and the apparent rate constant was linearly dependent on the total surface area of the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), indicating that catalysis takes place on the surface of the nanoparticles. All reaction kinetics presented induction periods, which were dependent on the concentration of substrates, the total surface of the nanoparticles, and the polymer composition. All data indicated that this induction time is related to the resistance to substrate diffusion through the polymer support. Hydrophobic effects are also assumed to play an important role in the catalysis, through an increase in the local substrate concentration.

  9. Stellar Models and Yields of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Karakas, Amanda I

    2007-01-01

    We present stellar yields calculated from detailed models of low and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We evolve models with a range of mass from 1 to 6Msun, and initial metallicities from solar to 1/200th of the solar metallicity. Each model was evolved from the zero age main sequence to near the end of the thermally-pulsing AGB phase, and through all intermediate phases including the core He-flash for stars initially less massive than 2.5Msun. For each mass and metallicity, we provide tables containing structural details of the stellar models during the TP-AGB phase, and tables of the stellar yields for 74 species from hydrogen through to sulphur, and for a small number of iron-group nuclei. All tables are available for download. Our results have many applications including use in population synthesis studies and the chemical evolution of galaxies and stellar systems, and for comparison to the composition of AGB and post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae.

  10. Student understanding of Symmetry and Gauss' law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Helping students learn why Gauss' law can or cannot be easily applied to determine the strength of the electric field at various points for a particular charge distribution, and then helping them learn to determine the shape of the Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists can develop their reasoning and problem solving skills. We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field and electric flux that are pivotal to Gauss' law of electricity. Determination of the electric field using Gauss' law requires discerning the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and being able to predict the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. It requires a good grasp of how to add the electric field vectors using the principle of superposition, and the concepts of area vector and electric flux. We administered free response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual s...

  11. STREET DANCE: A BRANCH OF SPORTS FOR ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petracovschi S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the Street dance as a phenomenon, together with other sportive activities such as street ball, roller, BMX or skateboarding, is now being practiced also by Romanian teenagers. Its main trait is the lack of institutionalisation when organised, wholly depending on the free will of those practicing it, but which gains a sportive character through the training process and the competitions organised between teams. The purpose of this research is to analyse the influence of sports on the street dance phenomenon, seen as a subculture of sports and the way in which dancers identify themselves with the sport with the aim of integrating it as a branch of sports for all. Observation and the survey questionnaire were the research methods used. A demographic questionnaire was developed and the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale was applied to 150 dancers (male and female from Timisoara. The results indicate the fact that the dancers identify themselves with athletes to a significant extent.

  12. Legal status of older laws and agreements kept in force according to Federal Mining Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of Sections 149-159 BBergG shows that great care has been taken not to interfere with existing mining rights. The law had two goals: First, existing prospecting and mining rights were to be integrated in the new law without altering the legal position of their owners. Secondly, rights that have become more pro forma rights were to be abolished by the new law. Both goals have been achieved. (orig./HSCH).

  13. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

  14. Private Law Discourse and Scholarship in the Wake of the Europeanisation of Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.; Devenney, J.; Kenny, M.

    2013-01-01

    In its approach to the regulation of the internal market, the EU has never accepted the traditional conception of private law as it has evolved in national legal systems. Whilst national private laws have been primarily concerned with justice between market participants rather than the pursuance of

  15. Deterministic Identity Testing of Read-Once Algebraic Branching Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Maurice; Sarma, Jayalal

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study polynomial identity testing of sums of $k$ read-once algebraic branching programs ($\\Sigma_k$-RO-ABPs), generalizing the work in (Shpilka and Volkovich 2008,2009), who considered sums of $k$ read-once formulas ($\\Sigma_k$-RO-formulas). We show that $\\Sigma_k$-RO-ABPs are strictly more powerful than $\\Sigma_k$-RO-formulas, for any $k \\leq \\lfloor n/2\\rfloor$, where $n$ is the number of variables. We obtain the following results: 1) Given free access to the RO-ABPs in the sum, we get a deterministic algorithm that runs in time $O(k^2n^7s) + n^{O(k)}$, where $s$ bounds the size of any largest RO-ABP given on the input. This implies we have a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for testing whether the sum of a constant number of RO-ABPs computes the zero polynomial. 2) Given black-box access to the RO-ABPs computing the individual polynomials in the sum, we get a deterministic algorithm that runs in time $k^2n^{O(\\log n)} + n^{O(k)}$. 3) Finally, given only black-box access to the polyn...

  16. Law of corresponding states for open collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Marco; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We study the relation between number of contributors and product size in Wikipedia and GitHub. In contrast to traditional production, this is strongly probabilistic, but is characterized by two quantitative nonlinear laws: a power-law bound to product size for increasing number of contributors, and the universal collapse of rescaled distributions. A variant of the random-energy model shows that both laws are due to the heterogeneity of contributors, and displays an intriguing finite-size scaling property with no equivalent in standard systems. The analysis uncovers the right intensive densities, enabling the comparison of projects with different numbers of contributors on equal grounds. We use this property to expose the detrimental effects of conflicting interactions in Wikipedia.

  17. Kinematic Decoupling of Globular Clusters with Extended Horizontal-Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Wook; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I

    2007-01-01

    About 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit unusually extended color distribution of stars in the horizontal-branch (HB) phase. This phenomenon is now best understood as due to the presence of helium enhanced second generation subpopulations, which has raised a possibility that these peculiar GCs might have a unique origin. Here we show that these GCs with extended HB are clearly distinct from other normal GCs in kinematics and mass. The GCs with extended HB are more massive than normal GCs, and are dominated by random motion with no correlation between kinematics and metallicity. Surprisingly, however, when they are excluded, most normal GCs in the inner halo show clear signs of dissipational collapse that apparently led to the formation of the disk. Normal GCs in the outer halo share their kinematic properties with the extended HB GCs, which is consistent with the accretion origin. Our result further suggests heterogeneous origins of GCs, and we anticipate this to be a starting point for more...

  18. THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya - Diana AL-KAWADRI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the case law of the ECJ and ECHR on the nature of administrative sanctions and their relation to criminal law. Also, some important criteria used by different Member States in their own legal systems in differentiating between criminal and administrative sanctions are presented. As it will be shown in this study, in establishing the difference between administrative and criminal offence sanctions, the case law of both the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union offer an indirect definition of criminal offence through its penalty. Thus, a certain behavior, if sanctioned in a procedure that could be labeled as ‘criminal procedure’, is necessarily a criminal offence.

  19. An HI Imaging Survey of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, L D; Gerard, E; Johnson, M C

    2013-01-01

    We present an imaging study of a sample of eight asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the HI 21-cm line. Using observations from the Very Large Array, we have unambiguously detected HI emission associated with the extended circumstellar envelopes of six of the targets. The detected HI masses range from M_HI ~ 0.015-0.055 M_sun. The HI morphologies and kinematics are diverse, but in all cases appear to be significantly influenced by the interaction between the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding medium. Four stars (RX Lep, Y UMa, Y CVn, and V1942 Sgr) are surrounded by detached HI shells ranging from 0.36 to 0.76 pc across. We interpret these shells as resulting from material entrained in a stellar outflow being abruptly slowed at a termination shock where it meets the local medium. RX Lep and TX Psc, two stars with moderately high space velocities (V_space>56 km/s), exhibit extended gaseous wakes (~0.3 and 0.6 pc in the plane of the sky), trailing their motion through space. The other detected star, ...

  20. 32 CFR 776.57 - Unauthorized practice of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized practice of law. 776.57 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.57 Unauthorized practice of law. (a) Unauthorized practice of law. A... law in a jurisdiction where doing so is prohibited by the regulations of the legal profession in...

  1. The Evolution of EU Administrative Law and the Contributions of Nordic Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The briefing note focuses first and foremost on the duty to inform citizens of their EU rights as a future development in EU law on a Nordic backdrop......The briefing note focuses first and foremost on the duty to inform citizens of their EU rights as a future development in EU law on a Nordic backdrop...

  2. Identification of candidate genes for dissecting complex branch number trait in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-04-01

    The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea. Of these, seven branch number-associated genes were further validated successfully in two inter (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 12299 × ICC 8261)-specific mapping populations. The axillary meristem and shoot apical meristem-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (4-5 fold) of the validated seven branch number-associated genes especially in high branch number as compared to the low branch number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two aforesaid mapping populations was apparent. Collectively, this combinatorial genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in seven potential known/candidate genes [PIN1 (PIN-FORMED protein 1), TB1 (teosinte branched 1), BA1/LAX1 (BARREN STALK1/LIKE AUXIN1), GRAS8 (gibberellic acid insensitive/GAI, Repressor of ga13/RGA and Scarecrow8/SCR8), ERF (ethylene-responsive element-binding factor), MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) and lipase] governing chickpea branch number. The useful information generated from this study have potential to expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement by developing high-yielding cultivars with more number of productive (pods and seeds) branches in chickpea.

  3. Sources of Law in Transition - Re‐visiting General Principles of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Panezi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available General Principles of International Law have been a much contested source among International Law scholars. The ambiguity that surrounds their interpretation has resulted to a vivid dialogue around their legal nature, and their use in contemporary judicial practice of domestic and international tribunals. Globalization and the ever‐increasing complexity of International Economics affected the position of General Principles within the international legal system, and resulted to their progressive consolidation in the area of International Economic Law. Further examination of issues arising vis‐à‐vis General Principles could prove to be useful in other areas of law, in the same manner they addressed legal issues in International Economic Law.

  4. Exploring Corporate Social Responsibility in Foreign Bank Branches from Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Public Disclosure of Financial Statements and Banking Audit Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila TAMAS-SZORA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the Corporate Social Responsibility CSR/the Social Responsibility Disclosure SRD reporting practices referring to the published banking financial statements and the published auditors' reports. The study was conducted on the foreign bank branches from Romania and is based on their Romanian language web-sites, that constitute the data for the analysis. The results show that voluntary CSR/SRD concepts to disclose the financial statements and the auditors' reports on the Romanian web-sites were applied only by two from nine foreign bank branches. We plead for a social responsibility of the banks, even if they are foreign bank branches that conduct their activities according to the law from their origin countries. Disclosing the economic outputs via web-site could contribute to a high level of banks' transparency and makes part from the responsibility to society into the Corporate Social Responsibility CSR concept.

  5. Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  6. An integrated pipeline for the multidimensional analysis of branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Alexander N; Short, Kieran M; Lefevre, James; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Little, Melissa H; Smyth, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Developmental branching morphogenesis establishes organ architecture, and it is driven by iterative interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal progenitor cell populations. We describe an approach for analyzing this interaction and how it contributes to organ development. After initial in vivo cell labeling with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and tissue-specific antibodies, optical projection tomography (OPT) and confocal microscopy are used to image the developing organ. These imaging data then inform a second analysis phase that quantifies (using Imaris and Tree Surveyor software), models and integrates these events at a cell and tissue level in 3D space and across developmental time. The protocol establishes a benchmark for assessing the impact of genetic change or fetal environment on organogenesis that does not rely on ex vivo organ culture or section-based reconstruction. By using this approach, examination of two developmental stages for an organ such as the kidney can be undertaken by a postdoctoral-level researcher in 6 weeks, with a full developmental analysis in mouse achievable in 5 months.

  7. The role of law in adaptive governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Cosens

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term "governance" encompasses both governmental and nongovernmental participation in collective choice and action. Law dictates the structure, boundaries, rules, and processes within which governmental action takes place, and in doing so becomes one of the focal points for analysis of barriers to adaptation as the effects of climate change are felt. Adaptive governance must therefore contemplate a level of flexibility and evolution in governmental action beyond that currently found in the heavily administrative governments of many democracies. Nevertheless, over time, law itself has proven highly adaptive in western systems of government, evolving to address and even facilitate the emergence of new social norms (such as the rights of women and minorities or to provide remedies for emerging problems (such as pollution. Thus, there is no question that law can adapt, evolve, and be reformed to make room for adaptive governance. In doing this, not only may barriers be removed, but law may be adjusted to facilitate adaptive governance and to aid in institutionalizing new and emerging approaches to governance. The key is to do so in a way that also enhances legitimacy, accountability, and justice, or else such reforms will never be adopted by democratic societies, or if adopted, will destabilize those societies. By identifying those aspects of the frameworks for adaptive governance reviewed in the introduction to this special feature relevant to the legal system, we present guidelines for evaluating the role of law in environmental governance to identify the ways in which law can be used, adapted, and reformed to facilitate adaptive governance and to do so in a way that enhances the legitimacy of governmental action.

  8. Magna Carta And Its Significant Role For Rule Of Law In The Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanovska-Spasovska Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important and famous historical documents from the English legal and constitutional legacy is the Magna Carta Libertatum. Signed and sealed in the year 1215 the Magna Carta is further on viewed as the sole inception of the idea of limiting the power of the ruler trough legal rules. That limitation is to be made with legal rules that are binding for everyone, even the monarch. Therefore, the Great Charter is viewed as the first document signed by a monarch with which, the principle of supremacy of the law is set out. That supremacy of the law has been further on developed by eminent scholars and practitioners, eventually leading to the development of the concept of rule of law. Rule of law, as a concept, means that the royal authority (or the executive branch of power is going to be inferior to the law. However, this concept means a lot more than simply that. Unlike the principle of legal state, the rule of law is closely linked to justice, separation of powers and legal certainty. All of these concepts are actually prerequisites for its existence. That is why each of them is separately examined and elaborated. Furthermore, as one of the most important principles the rule of law had a great influence on the constitutional (and legal systems around the world. Since the Republic of Macedonia strives to become a democratic state where the rule of law is established and developed it is important to elaborate the influence of this principle in it. Therefore, the research gravitates over the principle of rule of law in the Republic of Macedonia.

  9. 28 CFR 68.26 - Designation of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of Administrative Law Judge... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Designation of Administrative Law Judge. Hearings shall be held before an Administrative Law Judge...

  10. 29 CFR 102.37 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of administrative law judge. 102.37... Hearings § 102.37 Disqualification of administrative law judge. An administrative law judge may withdraw.... If, in the opinion of the administrative law judge, such affidavit is filed with due diligence and...

  11. 47 CFR 0.341 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 0.341... Delegations of Authority Administrative Law Judges § 0.341 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) After an administrative law judge has been designated to preside at a hearing and until he has issued an initial...

  12. 29 CFR 18.30 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unavailability of administrative law judge. 18.30 Section 18... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.30 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  13. 29 CFR 18.29 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority of administrative law judge. 18.29 Section 18.29... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.29 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part, the administrative law judge shall have all...

  14. 29 CFR 18.25 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of administrative law judge. 18.25 Section 18.25... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.25 Designation of administrative law judge. Hearings shall be held before an administrative law judge appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 and assigned to...

  15. 76 FR 38547 - Technical Updating Amendments to Executive Branch Financial Disclosure and Standards of Ethical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... branch regulation on financial disclosure to reflect the retroactive statutory increase of the reporting... sections of its executive branchwide ethics regulations on financial disclosure and standards of ethical... executive branch financial disclosure regulation at 5 CFR part 2634 applicable as of January 1, 2011...

  16. [Aims and background of the anticorruption law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhausen, H

    2002-01-01

    Corruption not only should be banned sociopolitically, it is a tort of law in Germany. Any employee in public duty has a special responsibility. That is the reason why the law does not tolerate any kind of corruption particularly in the public workplace. On trial the facts have to be established. A medical doctor is liable only if he abused his position to get an advantage. Doctors who are in charge of economic decisional power have to be aware that their responsibility for public money is important and that any personal advantage, which is linked to economic decisions will be problematic. Therefore the principles of transparency and rational economics have to be acknowledged.

  17. The Incorporation of Public International Law into Municipal Law and Regional Law against the Background of the Dichotomy between Monism and Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist alongside each other. However, not all legal systems are clearly either monist or dualist. The dichotomy between monism and dualism no longer only concerns the relationship between public international law and municipal law, but also increasingly affects the relationship between public international law and regional law. This contribution discusses the application of the monist and dualist approaches by the South African Constitutional Court in the Glenister case and the European Court of Justice in the Kadi and Hungary cases in order to illustrate the practical application of the dichotomy between monism and dualism in a municipal system and on a regional level.

  18. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Supports Respiration but Not Volatile Synthesis in Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kochevenko; Wagner L.Araújo; Gregory S.Maloney; Denise M.Tieman; Phuc Thi Do; Mark G.Taylor; Harry J.Klee; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine.These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids.Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants have been extensively investigated and a number of genes have been characterized,their catabolism in plants is not yet completely understood.We previously characterized the branched chain amino acid transaminase gene family in tomato,revealing both the subcellular localization and kinetic properties of the enzymes encoded by six genes.Here,we examined possible functions of the enzymes during fruit development.We further characterized transgenic plants differing in the expression of branched chain amino acid transaminases 1 and 3,evaluating the rates of respiration in fruits deficient in BCAT1 and the levels of volatiles in lines overexpressing either BCAT1 or BCAT3.We quantitatively tested,via precursor and isotope feeding experiments,the importance of the branched chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the formation of fruit volatiles.Our results not only demonstrate for the first time the importance of branched chain amino acids in fruit respiration,but also reveal that keto acids,rather than amino acids,are the likely precursors for the branched chain flavor volatiles.

  19. Application of similarity laws as a light source diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, D [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Khodorkovskii, M; Pastor, A; Timofeev, N [Saint-Petersburg State University, Petrodvorets, Ulyanovskaya 3, 198504 (Russian Federation); Zissis, G, E-mail: timofeev@pobox.spbu.r, E-mail: michael@crd.ge.co, E-mail: georges.zissis@laplace.univ-tlse.f [Universite Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier, LAPLACE Build. 3R2, 118 rte de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-06-16

    The method of using similarity laws for the study of a physical system in which some form of similarity laws exist is proposed. The example of such a system is the positive column of a gas discharge. Here, two types of similarity laws are considered: 'classical' laws and new laws that are valid for a mixture of a buffer gas and an ionization additive. New data obtained with the application of the method are presented.

  20. 12 CFR 303.184 - Moving an insured branch of a foreign bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving an insured branch of a foreign bank. 303... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES International Banking § 303.184 Moving an insured branch of a foreign bank. (a... seeking the FDIC's consent to move from one location to another, as required by section 18(d)(1) of...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix I to Part 1201 - Certification of Branch Line Accounting System Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification of Branch Line Accounting System... RAILROAD COMPANIES Pt. 1201, App. I Appendix I to Part 1201—Certification of Branch Line Accounting System... Address: (Street and number) (City, State, and ZIP code) certification I, the undersigned, of (Title...

  2. The Trials of Culture--Law, Conflict, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Pam, Ed.; Kaplan, Howard, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, and law and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This volume focuses on culture, law, conflict, and change. The first article, "Trying Beliefs: The Law of Cultural Orthodoxy and Dissent" (J. H. Landman), demonstrates…

  3. 29 CFR 102.36 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of administrative law judge. 102.36 Section... Hearings § 102.36 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge... chief administrative law judge, in Washington, DC, the associate chief judge, in San...

  4. 17 CFR 200.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Organization § 200.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) Under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551-559) and the federal securities laws, the Office of Administrative Law Judges conducts hearings in proceedings instituted by the Commission. The Administrative Law Judges are responsible for the fair...

  5. 28 CFR 68.29 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING... FRAUD § 68.29 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge. In the event the Administrative Law Judge... another Administrative Law Judge for the purpose of further hearing or other appropriate action....

  6. 17 CFR 12.305 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. 12.305 Section 12.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) At his own request. An Administrative Law Judge may withdraw from... of a party. Any party may request an Administrative Law Judge to disqualify himself on the grounds...

  7. 20 CFR 410.635 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. No Administrative Law Judge shall conduct a hearing in a case in... Administrative Law Judge shall consider such objection and shall, in his discretion, either proceed with...

  8. 27 CFR 71.95 - Responsibilities of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judges. 71.95 Section 71.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Administrative Law Judges § 71.95 Responsibilities of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall be under the administrative control of the Administrator. They shall...

  9. Equidistance of branch structure in capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model with diffusion current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrinov, Yu.M. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation) and Physical Technical Institute, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan)]. E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru; Mahfouzi, F. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seidel, P. [Institut fuer Festkorperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2006-11-01

    Branch structure in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions of HTSC is studied in the framework of two models: capacitively coupled Josephson junctions (CCJJ) model and CCJJ model with diffusion current (CCJJ + DC). We investigate the coupling dependence of the branch's slopes and demonstrate that the equidistance of the branch structure in CCJJ model is broken at enough small values of coupling parameter (at {alpha} << 1). We show that the inclusion of diffusion in the tunneling current through intrinsic Josephson junctions might restore the equidistance of the branch structure. Change of the current-voltage characteristics in CCJJ + DC model under variation of the coupling and McCumber parameters and effect of boundary conditions on the branch structure is analyzed.

  10. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere.

  11. Circulations of Law: Colonial Precedents, Contemporary Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Hussin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While the project of law-making has seemed an obvious and inherent part of empire-building, and law-delivery has often been a justifying rationale for imperialism, this paper asks more detailed questions about the travels of law. How is a ‘universal’ law made ‘local’, and to what effect? How have past and contemporary legal delivery projects delineated between the categories of local and universal? Our analytic project, therefore, is not simply that law travels, but with whom; not just that it is carried, but alongside what other commodities and baggage; not just that it moves, but that it is transformed by its passage across borders and among localities. Further, whereas much of rule of law and imperial law scholarship sees legal travel as from metropole to colony, this paper argues that ports of call are equally important for the fate of law. Aunque el proyecto de legislación parecía una parte obvia e inherente al proceso de construcción del imperio, y la creación de leyes ha sido a menudo una justificación para el imperialismo, este artículo lanza preguntas más detalladas sobre los recorridos del derecho. ¿Cómo se convierte una ley “universal” en “local”, y qué efectos conlleva? ¿Cómo han diferenciado entre las categorías “local” y “universal” los proyectos de legislación pasados y contemporáneos? Así pues, nuestro proyecto analítico no concluye simplemente que la ley tiene un recorrido, sino con quién; no simplemente que es transportada, sino con qué otras comodidades y equipaje; no sólo que se mueve, sino que se transforma en su viaje a través de límites y localizaciones. Es más, mientras que gran parte de la comunidad científica del estado del derecho y el imperio del derecho ve que las leyes van de la metrópoli a la colonia, este artículo defiende que las escalas que realiza son igual de importantes para el destino del derecho. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http

  12. Catabolism of leucine to branched-chain fatty acids in Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Hansen, A M; Lauritsen, F R

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is an important starter culture in the production of flavours from the branched-chain amino acids leucine, valine and isoleucine in fermented meat products. The sensorially most important flavour compounds are the branched-chain aldehydes and acids derived from the correspo...... the corresponding amino acids and this paper intends to perspectivate these flavour compounds in the context of leucine metabolism....

  13. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary...

  14. Different action patterns of glucoamylases on branched gluco-oligosaccharides from amylopectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonathan, M.C.; Brussel, Van M.; Scheffers, M.S.; Kabel, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in enzymatic starch hydrolysis, like in biofuel industry, is relatively slow degradation of branched structures compared to linear ones. This research aimed to evaluate glucoamylases for their activity towards branched gluco-oligosaccharides. The activity of seven modified glucoamyla

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems § 113.25-8 Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each... alarm signal. (e) Each system must have one or more branch circuit distribution panels for each zone... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of general emergency alarm system...

  16. Metallization of branched DNA origami for nanoelectronic circuit fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Geng, Yanli; Pound, Elisabeth; Gyawali, Shailendra; Ashton, Jeffrey R; Hickey, John; Woolley, Adam T; Harb, John N

    2011-03-22

    This work examines the metallization of folded DNA, known as DNA origami, as an enabling step toward the use of such DNA as templates for nanoelectronic circuits. DNA origami, a simple and robust method for creating a wide variety of shapes and patterns, makes possible the increased complexity and flexibility needed for both the design and assembly of useful circuit templates. In addition, selective metallization of the DNA template is essential for circuit fabrication. Metallization of DNA origami presents several challenges over and above those associated with the metallization of other DNA templates such as λ-DNA. These challenges include (1) the stability of the origami in the processes used for metallization, (2) the enhanced selectivity required to metallize small origami structures, (3) the increased difficulty of adhering small structures to the surface so that they will not be removed when subject to multiple metallization steps, and (4) the influence of excess staple strands present with the origami. This paper describes our efforts to understand and address these challenges. Specifically, the influence of experimental conditions on template stability and on the selectivity of metal deposition was investigated for small DNA origami templates. These templates were seeded with Ag and then plated with Au via an electroless deposition process. Both staple strand concentration and the concentration of ions in solution were found to have a significant impact. Selective continuous metal deposition was achieved, with an average metallized height as small as 32 nm. The shape of branched origami was also retained after metallization. These results represent important progress toward the realization of DNA-templated nanocircuits.

  17. Expression of Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme in an Arabidopsis mutant devoid of endogenous starch branching enzymes induces the synthesis of starch-like polyglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laura; Roussel, Xavier; Courseaux, Adeline; Ndjindji, Ofilia M; Lancelon-Pin, Christine; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J; Pontoire, Bruno; D' Hulst, Christophe; Wattebled, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    Starch synthesis requires several enzymatic activities including branching enzymes (BEs) responsible for the formation of α(1 → 6) linkages. Distribution and number of these linkages are further controlled by debranching enzymes that cleave some of them, rendering the polyglucan water-insoluble and semi-crystalline. Although the activity of BEs and debranching enzymes is mandatory to sustain normal starch synthesis, the relative importance of each in the establishment of the plant storage polyglucan (i.e. water insolubility, crystallinity and presence of amylose) is still debated. Here, we have substituted the activity of BEs in Arabidopsis with that of the Escherichia coli glycogen BE (GlgB). The latter is the BE counterpart in the metabolism of glycogen, a highly branched water-soluble and amorphous storage polyglucan. GlgB was expressed in the be2 be3 double mutant of Arabidopsis, which is devoid of BE activity and consequently free of starch. The synthesis of a water-insoluble, partly crystalline, amylose-containing starch-like polyglucan was restored in GlgB-expressing plants, suggesting that BEs' origin only has a limited impact on establishing essential characteristics of starch. Moreover, the balance between branching and debranching is crucial for the synthesis of starch, as an excess of branching activity results in the formation of highly branched, water-soluble, poorly crystalline polyglucan.

  18. Five political ideas of European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Hesselink

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian, lib

  19. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  20. 24 CFR 1720.145 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judge. (a) When an administrative law judge feels disqualified from presiding in a particular proceeding, the administrative law judge shall withdraw therefrom by notice on the record and shall notify the Secretary of such withdrawal. (b) Whenever any party believes that the administrative law...