WorldWideScience

Sample records for branches of law

  1. Can National Company Law Require a Branch of a Foreign Company to Have an Independent Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2014-01-01

    With its basis in Danish law, the article analyses the question of whether a foreign company that establishes a branch in another EU or EEA member state can be required to ensure that the branch name not only repeats the foreign company’s name and nationality with the addition of the designation...

  2. Anomalous power law distribution of total lifetimes of branching processes: application to earthquake aftershock sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2004-10-01

    We consider a general stochastic branching process, which is relevant to earthquakes, and study the distributions of global lifetimes of the branching processes. In the earthquake context, this amounts to the distribution of the total durations of aftershock sequences including aftershocks of arbitrary generation number. Our results extend previous results on the distribution of the total number of offspring (direct and indirect aftershocks in seismicity) and of the total number of generations before extinction. We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes ("aftershocks"). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake ("productivity" or "fertility"), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities mu is characterized by a power law approximately 1/ mu(1+gamma) and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) , with 0aftershock lifetimes scales as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) when the average branching ratio is critical (n=1) . The coefficient 1aftershocks with mainshock magnitude m (productivity), with 0.5of the bare Omori decay law approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) into approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) stems from the nonlinear amplification due to the heavy-tailed distribution of fertilities and the critical nature of the branching cascade process. In the subcritical case n<1 , the crossover from approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) at early times to approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) at longer times is described. More generally, our results apply to any stochastic

  3. Branching laws on the metaplectic cover of ${\\rm GL}_{2}$

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Shiv Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Representation theory of $p$-adic groups naturally comes in the study of automorphic forms and one way to understand representations of a group is by restricting to its nice subgroups. D. Prasad studied the restriction for pairs $({\\rm GL}_{2}(E), {\\rm GL}_{2}(F))$ and $({\\rm GL}_{2}(E), D_{F}^{\\times})$ where $E/F$ is a quadratic equation and $D_{F}$ is the unique quaternion division algebra, and $D_{F}^{\\times} \\hookrightarrow {\\rm GL}_{2}(E)$. Prasad proved a multiplicity one result and a ...

  4. Anomalous Power Law Distribution of Total Lifetimes of Branching Processes Relevant to Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence) model which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes (``aftershocks''). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake (``productivity'' or ``fertility''), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities $\\mu$ is characterized by a power law $\\sim 1/\\mu^{1+\\gamma}$ and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as $\\sim 1/t^{1+\\theta}$, with $0 < \\theta <1$ relevant for earthquakes. Using the tool of generating probability functions and a quasistatic approximation which is shown to be exact asymptotically for large durations, we show that the density distribution of to...

  5. Distribution of the Largest Aftershocks in Branching Models of Triggered Seismicity: Theory of the Universal Bath's law

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2005-01-01

    Using the ETAS branching model of triggered seismicity, we apply the formalism of generating probability functions to calculate exactly the average difference between the magnitude of a mainshock and the magnitude of its largest aftershock over all generations. This average magnitude difference is found empirically to be independent of the mainshock magnitude and equal to 1.2, a universal behavior known as Bath's law. Our theory shows that Bath's law holds only sufficiently close to the critical regime of the ETAS branching process. Allowing for error bars +- 0.1 for Bath's constant value around 1.2, our exact analytical treatment of Bath's law provides new constraints on the productivity exponent alpha and the branching ratio n: $0.9 <= alpha <= 1$ and 0.8 <= n <= 1. We propose a novel method for measuring alpha based on the predicted renormalization of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of the magnitudes of the largest aftershock. We also introduce the ``second Bath's law for foreshocks: the pro...

  6. Universal artifacts affect the branching of phylogenetic trees, not universal scaling laws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R Altaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superficial resemblance of phylogenetic trees to other branching structures allows searching for macroevolutionary patterns. However, such trees are just statistical inferences of particular historical events. Recent meta-analyses report finding regularities in the branching pattern of phylogenetic trees. But is this supported by evidence, or are such regularities just methodological artifacts? If so, is there any signal in a phylogeny? METHODOLOGY: In order to evaluate the impact of polytomies and imbalance on tree shape, the distribution of all binary and polytomic trees of up to 7 taxa was assessed in tree-shape space. The relationship between the proportion of outgroups and the amount of imbalance introduced with them was assessed applying four different tree-building methods to 100 combinations from a set of 10 ingroup and 9 outgroup species, and performing covariance analyses. The relevance of this analysis was explored taking 61 published phylogenies, based on nucleic acid sequences and involving various taxa, taxonomic levels, and tree-building methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All methods of phylogenetic inference are quite sensitive to the artifacts introduced by outgroups. However, published phylogenies appear to be subject to a rather effective, albeit rather intuitive control against such artifacts. The data and methods used to build phylogenetic trees are varied, so any meta-analysis is subject to pitfalls due to their uneven intrinsic merits, which translate into artifacts in tree shape. The binary branching pattern is an imposition of methods, and seldom reflects true relationships in intraspecific analyses, yielding artifactual polytomies in short trees. Above the species level, the departure of real trees from simplistic random models is caused at least by two natural factors--uneven speciation and extinction rates; and artifacts such as choice of taxa included in the analysis, and imbalance introduced by outgroups

  7. Branching laws for small unitary representations of GL(n,C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Schwarz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary representati......The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary...

  8. Convergence in law for the branching random walk seen from its tip

    CERN Document Server

    Madaule, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Considering a critical branching random walk on the real line. In a recent paper, Aidekon [3] developed a powerful method to obtain the convergence in law of its minimum after a log-factor normalization. By an adaptation of this method, we show that the point process formed by the branching random walk and its minimum converge in law to a Poisson point process colored by a certain point process. This result, confirming a conjecture of Brunet and Derrida [10], can be viewed as a discrete analog of the corresponding results for the branching brownian motion, previously established by Arguin et al. [5] [6] and Aidekon et al. [2].

  9. Report on the 14th regional conference of the German Branch of the International Nuclear Law Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14th Regional Conference of the German National Group of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire/International Nuclear Law Association was held in Nuremberg on 28 and 29 September 2015. About 100 participants from Germany and abroad participated the conference. The topics of the five Working sessions were: - Turnkey - a viable contractual concept for nuclear new build and decommissioning?; - Access to justice in environmental law and related to international investments disputes; - Nuclear Liability - Latest Developments; - Legal requirements on the final disposal of nuclear waste - a Global overview; - Nuclear Safety in the EU.

  10. Introspection on the Branch Legal Theory of Social Law%社会法的部门法哲学反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈步雷

    2012-01-01

    The critical problems of the mechanism, theory paradigms as concerned, evolution, development of functions, nature or noumenon of social law must be taken seriously in the field of the branch legal theory of social law. Interdisciplinary and critical methods should be emphasized. The emergence mechanism of social law lies in the instinct of society protection and social reason and the counterbalance relations of "the market movement pushes the course, the society protection movement draws the course " as concerned in this paper can be found. The nature of social law is social consideration relations or a special social covenant between property rights , economic order and social rights protection. The theory of "problem generation gap of social law" has profound and extensive ability of interpretation. China faces all the three generations of social law problems at the same time and the system requirement is urgent. China should learn from the third generation of social law which is probed in the world and constructs the domestic social law. The Interdisciplinary theory paradigms as concerned should be used for reference in the field of the branch legal theory of social law in China.%社会法的产生机理、演化变革、功能发展、性质或本体、社会法问题代沟与制度需求、主要理论范式等深层次的反思性问题,应在部门法哲学意义上得到关注,应予以跨学科、批判性的研究。社会法的产生机理在于社会保护本能和社会理性,形成了本文所称的“市场化运动推之,社会保护运动挽之”的制衡关系。其性质为构成维系现代产权制度、经济秩序与保障社会权利之间的社会对价关系或新型社会契约。社会法相关的“问题代沟”理论具有广泛的解释力。中国同时面临三代社会法问题,制度需求强烈,应以全球正在探索的第三代社会法为主要资源,科学建构社会法;借鉴多学科理论范式建构社会法法哲学。

  11. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  12. 论“部门法哲学”于高校法学研究和教学的引入%On Introduction of"Branch Legal Philosophy"into Laws Research and Teaching in Universities and Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵静

    2014-01-01

    The branch legal philosophy is a branch of laws, with the theoretical form and taking the universal ap-plication principles, categories, principles, rules, and values etc. as researching objects. It is the product of com-bination of legal philosophy and branch laws, and also the system of basic theories of branch laws. The introduc-tion of"branch legal philosophy"into laws research and teaching of colleges can promote the research and teach-ing of laws, and narrow the gap between the theoretical teaching and practical teaching in laws education of col-leges, promote the construction of laws teaching system and scientific system, and conform to the need of training advanced laws talents. The colleges can make use of different research results and teaching materials on branch legal philosophy, adopt various forms, such as academic lectures, optional and compulsive courses etc. in the un-dergraduate courses, combine with professional advantages and characteristics, and conduct the research and ed-ucation of branch legal philosophy.%部门法哲学是以理论形态存在的,以部门法的普遍适用原理、范畴、原则、规则、价值等为研究对象的法学分支学科,是法哲学和部门法相结合的产物,是部门法基本理论的体系化。在高校法学研究和教学中引入部门法哲学不仅可以促进法学研究和教学,弱化法学本科教育中理论教育与实践教育相脱节的情况,而且有利于推动法学教学体系和学科体系建设,适应新形势下高级法学人才培养的需要。高校可利用不同部门法哲学现有的研究成果和教材成果,在高校本科法学教学中采取学术讲座、选修课、必修课等形式,结合高校自身专业优势和特点开展部门法哲学的研究和教育。

  13. Students’ perception on teaching competences of teachers of the branch of social science and law of the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz PÉREZ PÉREZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data from research conducted at the University of Valencia in order to analyse students' perception on teaching competences of teachers in the area of Social and legal Sciences. The study included a total of 389 university students from 10 different degrees of the University of Valencia. In general, the subjects in the sample rated the 32 competencies as very important in the teaching / learning process. Students assess personal skills as the most important competences, followed by scientific, methodological and social ones.Overall the two most valued competences refer to “the proper and respectful treatment of students”, as well as “creating a classroom atmosphere based on dialogue and communication”. This data is a constant that is repeated in all degrees tested, with minor variations. The competences which are less valued are "Maintaining a careful personal image" and "keep update on new information and communication technologies”.

  14. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  15. 论安全法律部门的独立性、交叉性和分支构成%Study on the Independence and Branch Constitution of Safety Law Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹瑜璞; 朱燕

    2011-01-01

    To make people realize the important position of safety law department in Chinas legal system and its constitution, thus, to set up such a faith that safety law department is an independent department, the paper discusses the independence and cross of the existence of safety law department based on method of sociology, method of law and comparative method, and explains the constitution of safety law department from five different perspectives. The independence is that its regulation targets are the relationships of property and personal safety independent of other department laws; its main branches are project construction safety law, civil safety law, administrative safety law, safety criminal responsibility law, procedural safety law, commercial safety law, environmental safety law, resource safety law and military safety law, etc. Therefore, the legal community must upgrade the safety law department to a level as high as environment and resources protection law department as well as labor and social security law department; The legislative branch must establish safety legal system on the basis of each branch law so as to overcome the long existing flaw of disorder, intricacy and overlap in safety law understanding.%为了使人们认识到安全法律部门在我国法律体系中的重要地位,安全法律部门是由哪些内容构成的,从而树立安全法律部门是独立的部门这样一种信念.以法学方法、社会学方法、比较方法等论述我国安全法律部门存在的独立性和交叉性,并从5个不同的角度论述安全法律部门的分支构成.其独立性在于其调整对象是独立于其他各部门法的财产、人身安全关系;其分支划分主要是安全工程建设法、安全民法、安全行政法、安全刑事责任法、安全诉讼法、安全商法、环境安全法、资源安全法、军事安全法等.因此,法学界要把安全法律部门提高到与环境资源法部门、劳动社会保障法

  16. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  17. Occupation time fluctuation limits of infinite variance equilibrium branching systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milos, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We establish limit theorems for the fluctuations of the rescaled occupation time of a $(d,\\alpha,\\beta)$-branching particle system. It consists of particles moving according to a symmetric $\\alpha$-stable motion in $\\mathbb{R}^d$. The branching law is in the domain of attraction of a (1+$\\beta$)-stable law and the initial condition is an equilibrium random measure for the system (defined below). In the paper we treat separately the cases of intermediate $\\alpha/\\beta

  18. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  19. The Practice and Exploration of Strengthening Law Talent Team Construction in the PBC Branches%加强基层央行法律人才队伍建设的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寻心乐

    2012-01-01

    国以才立,政以才治,业以才兴。“十二五”是我国金融改革的关键时期,进一步加强基层央行金融法律人才队伍建设,对确保其高效履职,具有十分重要的现实意义。本文试图通过分析人民银行西安分行辖区法律人才队伍的现状,探寻加强基层央行金融法律人才队伍建设的有效途径。%Talents play an important role in building a nation, managing a government and promoting an industry. The "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" is a critical period of China's financial reform, and further strengthening the construction of financial law talent team is of great significance to ensure efficient performance. By attempting to analyze the current situation of law personnel in Xi'an Branch, the paper tries to find out effective ways to strengthen the construction of financial law talent team.

  20. Analysis on Alkali Metal Migration Law in Process of Eucalyptus Branches Direct Combustion%桉树枝直燃利用过程中碱金属迁移规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦威; 廖艳芬; 陈拓; 马晓茜; 杨云金; 余勇强

    2014-01-01

    For knowing alkali metal migration law in eucalyptus branches burned in some biomass power plant,this paper studies it by combustion experiment.The experimental sample is eucalyptus branch particle with grain size of 1 80μm which is used for repeat combustion experiment in pipe burner in order to get residual samples under different temperatures and with different combustion time.By proximate analysis on residual samples,it is able to get combustion laws of volatiles and fixed carbon.The experimental result shows that volatility of alkali metal in eucalyptus branches is very strong and there is 87%potassium released into gas phase in process of high temperature burning.Meanwhile,precipitation of alkali metal is speeding up with increase of temperature and precipitation volume dose is increasing with temperature and stop time.In addition,tak-ing kaolin as additive,it conducts quantitative analysis on its impact on retention rate of alkali metal in ash.The analysis re-sult indicates that kaolin has very good retention role for alkali metal in eucalyptus branches and retention effect of 5% kao-lin is the best.%为了解某生物质电厂燃用的桉树枝的碱金属迁移规律,对其进行了燃烧实验研究。实验样品为粒径180μm的桉树枝颗粒,在管式燃烧器中进行燃烧重复实验,获得不同温度和燃烧时间下的残留物样品,然后对残留物进行工业分析,获得挥发分、固定碳的燃烧规律;实验结果表明桉树枝碱金属挥发性很强,高温燃尽时有87%的钾释放进入气相,碱金属的析出随温度的增高而加快,析出总量也随温度和停留时间而增加。另外,以高岭土作为添加剂,定量分析了其对桉树枝碱金属在灰渣中的固留率的影响,分析结果表明高岭土对桉树枝的碱金属有很好固留作用,5%的高岭土添加量固留效果最佳。

  1. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques,taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. The only free parameter in the whole analysis is the integrated mass loss of red giant branch stars. This is the first time that synthetic horizontal branch models, consistent with the complex star formation history of a galaxy, are calculated and matched to the observations. We find that the metallicity range covered by the star formation history, as constrained by observations, plus a simple mass loss law, enable us to cover both the full magnitude and colour range of HB stars. In addition the number count distribution along the observed horizontal branch, can be also reproduced, provided that the red giant branch mass loss is mildly metallicity dependent, with a very small dispersion ...

  2. Physics Laws of Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Economics, and other fields of social science are often criticized as unscientific for their apparent failures to formulate universal laws governing human societies. Whether economics is truly a science is one of the oldest questions. This paper attempts to create such universal laws, and asserts that economics is a branch of quantum physics just like chemistry. Choice is a central concept in economics and other fields of social science, yet there is no corresponding concept of choice in mode...

  3. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  4. Creep of welded branched pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Creep failure of welds in high-temperature power plant steam piping systems is known to be a potential cause of plant failure. Creep behaviour of plain pipes with circumferential welds and cross-weld specimens have received fairly extensive attention. However, research into the creep behaviour of welded thick-walled branched steam pipes has received less attention. Consequently, this thesis addresses improving the understanding of the creep behaviour for this type of geometry. Numerical and a...

  5. The Enlightenment of Parkinson’s Law to the Staffing Administration of Branches of the Central Bank%帕金森定律对央行分支行机构编制管理的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西娟

    2015-01-01

    本文使用帕金森定律对人民银行分支机构人员设置进行分析,解释了形成目前人员构成现状的深层次原因,并提出从职能入手,明确机构职能与业务权限;从机构编制入手,严格控制机构编制;从岗位分类入手,完善人力资源管理体系等建议。%The paper uses Parkinson’s law to analyze the staffing of branches of PBC, explains the deep reason of present situa-tion of the formation of the personnel constitution, and puts forward such suggestions as clarifying the organization function and busi-ness popedom from the perspective of the functions, strictly controlling the recruitment from the perspective of the institution establish-ment and improving human resources management system from the perspective of the post classification and so on.

  6. Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser

    2008-01-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.

  7. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  8. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  9. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    1999-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  10. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  11. Stochastic Transition between Turbulent Branch and Thermodynamic Branch of an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2002-01-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point an...

  12. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants. Branching is regulated by multiple internal factors which are modulated by different environmental signals. A key environmental signal in the context of a plant population is a low red / far-red intensi...

  13. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  14. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  15. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  16. A space-averaged model of branched structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; Michelin, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Many biological systems and artificial structures are ramified, and present a high geometric complexity. In this work, we propose a space-averaged model of branched systems for conservation laws. From a one-dimensional description of the system, we show that the space-averaged problem is also one-dimensional, represented by characteristic curves, defined as streamlines of the space-averaged branch directions. The geometric complexity is then captured firstly by the characteristic curves, and secondly by an additional forcing term in the equations. This model is then applied to mass balance in a pipe network and momentum balance in a tree under wind loading.

  17. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  18. Arterial Branching within the Confines of Fractal L-System Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric Lindenmayer systems (L-systems) are formulated to generate branching tree structures that can incorporate the physiological laws of arterial branching. By construction, the generated trees are de facto fractal structures, and with appropriate choice of parameters, they can be made to exhibit some of the branching patterns of arterial trees, particularly those with a preponderant value of the asymmetry ratio. The question of whether arterial trees in general have these fractal chara...

  19. Factorisations of distributive laws

    OpenAIRE

    Kraehmer, Ulrich; Slevin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Boehm and Stefan constructed duplicial (paracyclic) objects from distributive laws between (co)monads. Here we define the category of factorisations of a distributive law, show that it acts on this construction, and give some explicit examples.

  20. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor... Professional Employees § 541.304 Practice of law or medicine. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and...

  1. Law of Empires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  2. Law of Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Jerison; John K.-H. Quah

    2006-01-01

    We formulate several laws of individual and market demand and describe their relationship to neoclassical demand theory. The laws have implications for comparative statics and stability of competitive equilibrium. We survey results that offer interpretable sufficient conditions for the laws to hold and we refer to related empirical evidence. The laws for market demand are more likely to be satisfied if commodities are more substitutable. Certain kinds of heterogeneity across individuals make ...

  3. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  4. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  5. Analysis of thermal conductivity in tree-like branched networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou Jian-Long; Lu Hang-Jun; Wu Feng-Min; Xu You-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric tree-like branched networks are explored by geometric algorithms.Based on the network,an analysis of the thermal conductivity is presented.The relationship between effective thermal conductivity and geometric structures is obtained by using the thermal-electrical analogy technique.In all studied cases,a clear behaviour is observed,where angle(δ,θ)among parent branching extended lines,branches and parameter of the geometric structures have stronger effects on the effective thermal conductivity.When the angle δ is fixed,the optical diameter ratio β* is dependent on angle θ.Moreover,γ and m are not related to β*.The longer the branch is,the smaller the effective thermal conductivity will be.It is also found that when the angle θ<δ/2,the higher the iteration m is,the lower the thermal conductivity will be and it tends to zero,otherwise,it is bigger than zero.When the diameter ratio β1<0.707 and angle δ is bigger,the optimal k of the perfect ratio increases with the increase of the angle δ;when β1>0.707,the optimal k decreases.In addition,the effective thermal conductivity is always less than that of single channel material.The present results also show that the effective thermal conductivity of the asymmetric tree-like branched networks does not obey Murray's law.

  6. Report on the 14{sup th} regional conference of the German Branch of the International Nuclear Law Association; Aus der Werkstatt des Nuklearrechts. Bericht ueber die 14. Regionaltagung der Deutschen Landesgruppe der AIDN/INLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-12-15

    The 14th Regional Conference of the German National Group of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire/International Nuclear Law Association was held in Nuremberg on 28 and 29 September 2015. About 100 participants from Germany and abroad participated the conference. The topics of the five Working sessions were: - Turnkey - a viable contractual concept for nuclear new build and decommissioning?; - Access to justice in environmental law and related to international investments disputes; - Nuclear Liability - Latest Developments; - Legal requirements on the final disposal of nuclear waste - a Global overview; - Nuclear Safety in the EU.

  7. Comparative efficiency analysis of Portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction- based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their efficiency in fostering the use of new transaction channels, their efficiency in increasing sales and their customer base, and their efficiency in generating profits. Service qu...

  8. Comparative performance analysis of portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction-based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their effectiveness in fostering the use of new transaction channels such as the internet and the telephone, their effectiveness in increasing sales and their customer base, and the...

  9. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  10. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  11. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  12. Statistical Distributions of Earthquake Numbers: Consequence of Branching Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2009-01-01

    We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic, and the negative binomial (NBD). In particular, a point branching process along the magnitude (or log seismic moment) axis with independent events (immigrants) explains the magnitude/moment-frequency relation and the NBD of earthquake counts in large time/space windows, as well as the dependence of the NBD parameters on the magnitude threshold. We discuss applying these distributions, especially the NBD, to approximate event numbers in earthquake catalogs. There are many different representations of the NBD. Most can be traced either to the Pascal distribution or to the mixture of the Poisson distribution with the gamma law. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of both representations for statistical analysis of earthquake catalogs. We also consider ap...

  13. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  14. The Functions of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L

    1998-01-01

    We often think of law as fulfilling certain social functions; for instance, it is said to guide behaviour, maintain order, settle disputes, and provide benefits and services. In the social sciences, more general claims are also made that law stabilizes the dominant mode of production, promotes economic efficiency, secures patriarchy, and so on. 1 What do these claims mean, and what do they contribute to our understanding of law as a social institution? Those are the questions I want to explor...

  15. New position paper of the geothermal energy industry for the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG); Positionspapier der Geothermie-Branche zur Novellierung des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes (EEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    In April 2011, the geothermal industry associations Wirtschaftsforum Geothermie e.V. (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and GtV Bundesverband Geothermie e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) have submitted a proposal for further development of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in a joint position paper for a more rapid expansion of deep geothermal energy. A total of eight changes in the EEG should promote the further positive development of geothermal energy for the production of sustainable heat and electricity.

  16. Scaling of entanglement entropy in the (branching) multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz

    OpenAIRE

    Evenbly, G.; Vidal, G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the scaling of entanglement entropy in both the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) and in its generalization, the branching MERA. We provide analytical upper bounds for this scaling, which take the general form of a boundary law with various types of multiplicative corrections, including power-law corrections all the way to a bulk law. For several cases of interest, we also provide numerical results that indicate that these upper bounds are saturated to leadi...

  17. Scaling of entanglement entropy in the (branching) multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz

    OpenAIRE

    Evenbly, Glen; Vidal, Guifre

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the scaling of entanglement entropy in both the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) and in its generalization, the branching MERA. We provide analytical upper bounds for this scaling, which take the general form of a boundary law with various types of multiplicative corrections, including power-law corrections all the way to a bulk law. For several cases of interest, we also provide numerical results that indicate that these upper bounds are saturated to lead...

  18. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  19. Measurement of tau lepton branching fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present τ- lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample ofτ- → ντK-π+π- events, we examine the resonance structure of the K-π+π- system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for τ- → ντK1-(1270) and τ- → ντK1-(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the τ- lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, μ, π, and K

  20. Laws of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The book is concerned with the laws of nature and in particular with the laws of physics. The authors discuss three important questions: First, whether the observed regularities are based on strict "laws of nature" that hold rigorously and without any exception. Second, what we call a "law of nature" is studied by comparing this concept with invariance principles, causality principles, teleological principles and means of predicting future events. Finally, on the basis of these investigations the authors treat the ambitious and intricate third question, why the laws of nature hold. Are there rational reasons for this largely unexplained phenomenon? This book addresses students as well as researchers. It will be an excellent reference for those interested in the philosophical foundations of the natural sciences.

  1. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-01-01

    Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the la...

  2. Heterogeneity of coronary arterial branching geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shu-Yen; Reyes, Denise A.; Higgins, William E.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Past measurements of arterial branching geometry have indicated that the branching geometry is somewhat consistent with an optimal trade-off between the work needed to build and maintain the arterial tree and the work needed to operate the tree as a transport system. The branching geometry is also consistent with the mechanism that acutely adjusts the lumen diameter by way of maintaining a constant shear stress by dilating (or constricting) the arteries via the nitric oxide mechanism. However, those observations also indicate that there is considerable variation about the predicted optimization, both within any one individual and between individuals. Possible causes for this variation include: (1) measurement noise -- both due to the imprecision of the method but also the preparation of the specimen for applying the measurement technique, (2) the fact that the measurement task presents a major logistic problem, which increases as the vessel size decreases (but the number of branches correspondingly doubles at each branching) and results in progressive under-sampling as the vessel size decreases, (3) because of the logistic task involved the number of arterial trees analyzed is also greatly limited, and (4) there may indeed be actual heterogeneity in the geometry which is due to slight variation in implementation of the 'rules' used to construct a vascular tree. Indeed, it is this latter possibility that is of considerable physiological interest as it could result in the observed heterogeneity of organ perfusion and also provide some insight into the relative importance of 'initial ' conditions (i.e., how the vascular tree initially develops during embryogenesis) and the adaptive mechanisms operative in the maturing individual. The use of micro-CT imaging to provide 3D images of the intact vascular tree within the intact organ overcomes or minimizes the logistic problems listed above. It is the purpose of this study to examine whether variability in the branching

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics

  5. Anomalous law of cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Infrared studies of asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis studies are presented of asymptotic giant branch stars, which are thought to be an important link in the evolution of the galaxy. The studies were performed on the basis of data collected by the IRAS, the infrared astronomical satelite. 233 refs.; 33 figs.; 16 tabs

  7. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

  8. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  9. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  10. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  11. The rule of law

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Murati; Elmi Morina

    2015-01-01

    The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment...

  12. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  13. [Geometry and algebra of branches of the middle cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A classification of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is suggested by means of which each branch in any hemisphere can be qualified and identified in any variant of MCA branching. The principle of the classification consists in grouping the branches into arteries and trunks of the second, third, etc. order. Branches supplying blood to a certain sector of the lateral surface of the hemisphere are designated arteries. Their number and zone of branching are constant. Branches giving rise to 2 and more arteries are named trunks. Branching of the trunks, the number of trunks of the second, third, etc. order, and the site and type of origin of the arteries are extremely variable. Each trunk can be designated by a formula stating its order and the name of the artery supplied by this trunk. The arrangement of the MCA branches on the surface of the gyri and deep in the sulci, represented on the map of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, is designated conditionally as geometry of MCA branches. The order of branching of the trunks and the type of origin of the arteries, represented on abstract maps of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, are designated conditionally as algebra of the MCA branches. The variability of the geometry and algebra of the MCA branches must be taken into consideration in operations for extra-intracranial microanastomosis and in endovasal intervention on the MCA. PMID:3811741

  14. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: THE LEGACY OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    PARISH MATTHEW

    2014-01-01

    The growth in international law is not just a matter of an ever-increasing number of treaties. There has also been a considerable growth in what is known as "customary international law" being the writings of scholars, principles of international law that grow out of the jurisprudence of international courts and tribunals, and the writings of international organizations themselves. Like all forms of law, international law is susceptible to interminable growth. Unlike other branches of law, it...

  15. An introduction to the international law of armed conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Robert; Hyde, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a modern and basic introduction to a branch of international law constantly gaining in importance in international life, namely international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict). It is constructed in a way suitable for self-study. The subject-matters are discussed in self-contained chapters, allowing each to be studied independently of the others. Among the subject-matters discussed are, inter alia: the Relationship between jus ad bellum / jus in bello; Historical ...

  16. Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1985-01-01

    After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

  17. Occupation times of subcritical branching immigration systems with Markov motion, clt and deviations principles

    CERN Document Server

    Milos, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider two related stochastic models. The first one is a branching system consisting of particles moving according to a Markov family in R^d and undergoing subcritical branching with a constant rate of V>0. New particles immigrate to the system according to a homogeneous space time Poisson random field. The second model is the superprocess corresponding to the branching particle system. We study rescaled occupation time process and the process of its fluctuations with very mild assumptions on the Markov family. In the general setting a functional central limit theorem as well as large and moderate deviations principles are proved. The subcriticality of the branching law determines the behaviour in large time scales and in "overwhelms" the properties of the particles' motion. For this reason the results are the same for all dimensions and can be obtained for a wide class of Markov processes (both properties are unusual for systems with critical branching).

  18. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  19. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  20. F-generation law and recognition of system law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Kaiquan; Yao Bingxue

    2007-01-01

    If a system is not disturbed (or invaded) by some law, there is no doubt that each system will move according to the expected law and keep stable. Although such a fact often appears, some unknown law breaks into the system and leads it into turbulence. Using function one direction S-rough sets, this article gives the concept of the F-generation law in the system, the generation model of the F-generation law and the recognition method of the system law. Function one direction singular rough sets is a new theory and method in recognizing the disturbance law existing in the system and recognizing the system law.

  1. Measurements of $\\Xi_c^{+}$ Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the fixed target Fermilab experiment FOCUS, we measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo favored decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$, $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{K}^{*}(892)^0$, and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Lambda^0K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be $0.91\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$, $0.78\\pm0.16\\pm0.06$, and $0.28\\pm0.06\\pm0.06$, respectively. We report the first observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^+K^-$ and we measure the branching ratio relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be $0.16\\pm0.06\\pm0.01$. We also set 90% confidence level upper limits for $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\phi$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^*(1690)^0(\\Sigma^+ K^-) K^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 and 0.05, respectively. We find an indication of the decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Omega^-K^{+}\\pi^+$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*}(1385)^+ \\bar{K}^0$ and set 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching ratios with respect to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 a...

  2. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  3. Two types of conservation laws. Connection of physical fields with material systems. Peculiarities of field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Historically it happen so that in branches of physics connected with field theory and of physics of material systems (continuous media) the concept of "conservation laws" has a different meaning. In field theory "conservation laws" are those that claim the existence of conservative physical quantities or objects. These are conservation laws for physical fields. In contrast to that in physics (and mechanics) of material systems the concept of "conservation laws" relates to conservation laws fo...

  4. Evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections is estimated by evaluation procedure for straight pipe, the applicability of this procedure has not been clear. That was discussed in this study. The buckling pressure of branch pipe connections was estimated by linear eigenvalue analysis with FEA (Finite Element Analysis). The types of branch pipe connections were T-joints and T-pipes. The ranges of configurations in branch pipe connections for FEA were determined by survey of branch pipe connections in the Japanese nuclear power plants. The results of the FEA showed that the buckling strength of branch pipe was found sufficiently to be superior to that of straight piping from comparisons of estimations by FEA for branch pipe connections and those by formula for straight pipe in the design code. It was concluded that the formula for straight pipe is applicable for the evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections. (author)

  5. A Law and Economics View on Harmonization of Procedural Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Even though there exists an extensive Law and Economics literature on the topics of procedural law and harmonization of law, very little has been written on harmonization of procedural law as such. In this paper I first provide a brief overview of the economic approach to legal

  6. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. Frijda

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The aut

  7. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  8. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  9. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does compar

  10. Statistics of branched flow in a weak correlated random potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Recent images of electron flow through a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) device show branching behavior that is reproduced in numerical simulations of motion in a correlated random potential [cond-mat/0010348]. We show how such branching naturally arises from caustics in the classical flow and find a simple scaling behavior of the branching under variation of the random potential strength. Analytic results describing the statistical properties of the branching are confirmed by classical a...

  11. Differentiation of crack branching types in fractured glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2011-07-01

    The influence of different physical factors on the fracture branching phenomenon was investigated on a fractured brittle (glass) bottle. A fully branched fracture tree consisting of 144 initiation sites was induced. Branching sites were concentrated in two zones: close to the fracture origin and further away from it along the bottle axis, which was shown to be related to reflection of transverse acoustic waves from the bottle's shoulder. Two types of branching formed, complete full branches (FB), and attempted branching (AB) when one branch was shorter than 5 mm. Branching in the first zone was shown to be regulated by both the distribution of flaw lengths and the distances from each FB to its nearest fracture neighbor. Fracture spacing was found to be proportional to the stress at the propagating fracture tips.

  12. Modification of Fick's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of long-time memory effects, Fick's law must be modified by replacing the diffusion coefficient by a convolution over time of the velocity autocorrelation function. This leads to a convergent Chapman-Enskog expansion in a fluid provided the proper reference frame is taken in the presence of hydrodynamic motion

  13. On the Law in The Law of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷

    2016-01-01

    This article discussed the two main laws in the novel, The Law of Life, written by the famous American realistic writer Jack London. The laws discussed in this article are Social Darwinism and Fatalism. By discussing those two laws, the article tries to look into the philosophy of life that Jack London trying to reveal in the novel.

  14. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  15. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  16. Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China establishes a comprehensive socialist legal system The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC),China’s top legislature,adopted an amendment to the Criminal Law at a bimonthly session in February,reducing the number of capital punishment by 13 to 55.

  17. Branching of periodic orbits from Kukles isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We study local bifurcations of limit cycles from isochronous (or linearizable centers. The isochronicity has been determined using the method of Darboux linearization, which provides a birational linearization for the examples that we analyze. This transformation simplifies the analysis by avoiding the complexity of the Abelian integrals appearing in other approaches. As an application of this approach, we show that the Kukles isochrone (linear and nonlinear has at most one branch point of limit cycles. Moreover, for each isochrone, there are small perturbations with exactly one continuous family of limit cycles.

  18. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  19. Theoretical prediction of side branch compromise after main branch stenting in coronary bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems of treatment of bifurcation lesions is side branch (SB) stenosis appearing after stent placement in the main vessel.The aim of this study was to create quantitative method for prediction of side branch compromise extent.We accepted that the main mechanism for SB ostial stenosis is flow divider (FD) displacement from stent struts after stent implantation in the main vessel.Using easily measurable parameters from coronary angiography,as SB diameter,angle α (initial angle between axes of parent vessel and SB axis) and angle α' (angle between above mentioned axes after stent placement) we can calculate percentage diameter stenosis at branch ostium (%DS):%DS = sin (α - α')/(tan α).In boundary condition of full FD displacement %DS = cos α.We tested our theoretical predictions with fluoroscopic observation of elastic wall model of bifurcation (45°distal angle between branches)permitting wall deformations with stent.There is full coincidence of values of %DS and percentage area stenosis (%AS).The regular formulas for calculations of %DS and %AS overestimate stenosis severity between 10% and 25%.Our model tests have shown full coincidence between predicted values for %DS and observed values.We demonstrate that part of the SB ostium is not visible in regular angiography and contributes to ostial lumen area.This is a method that permits quantitative prediction of side branch compromise.

  20. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  1. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  2. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  3. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  4. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  5. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW)

  6. THE ROLE AND PLACE OF MATHEMATICS IN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    SEYTEEVA MЕERIM DATKAEVNA

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the curriculum of law schools include the study of the mathematics and computer science. This discipline, along with an increase in the general cultural level of students is intended to form a "technological" basis for the successful development of legal disciplines in respect of the use of modern information technologies and mathematical apparatus in the appropriate branch of law or professional activities. Undoubtedly, mathematics has a certain (but not defining) philosophical si...

  7. MOND laws of galactic dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2012-01-01

    MOND predicts a number of laws that galactic systems should obey irrespective of their complicated, haphazard, and mostly unknowable histories -- as Kepler's laws are obeyed by planetary systems. The main purpose of this work is to show how, and to what extent, these MOND laws follow from only the paradigm's basic tenets: departure from standard dynamics at accelerations a

  8. POISSON REPRESENTATIONS OF BRANCHING MARKOV AND MEASURE-VALUED BRANCHING PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Thomas G.; Rodrigues, Eliane R.

    2011-01-01

    Representations of branching Markov processes and their measure-valued limits in terms of countable systems of particles are constructed for models with spatially varying birth and death rates. Each particle has a location and a "level," but unlike earlier constructions, the levels change with time.

  9. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent ne

  10. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  11. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  13. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand......, examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...

  14. ANALYSIS OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN POLYETHYLENES BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Shanks; Fei Chen; Gandara Amarasinghe

    2003-01-01

    Short chain branching has been characterized using thermal fractionation, a stepwise isothermal crystallization technique, followed by a melting analysis scan using differential scanning calorimetry. Short chain branching distribution was also characterized by a continuous slow cooling crystallization, followed by a melting analysis scan. Four different polyethylenes were studied: Ziegler-Natta gas phase, Ziegler-Natta solution, metallocene, constrained-geometry single site catalyzed polyethylenes. The branching distribution was calculated from a calibration of branch content with melting temperature. The lamellar thickness was calculated based on the thermodynamic melting temperature of each polyethylene and the surface free energy of the crystal face. The branching distribution and lamellar thickness distribution were used to calculate weight average branch content, mean lamellar thickness, and a branch dispersity index. The results for the branch content were in good agreement with the known comonomer content of the polyethylenes. A limitation was that high branch content polyethylenes did not reach their potential crystallization at ambient temperatures. Cooling to sub-ambient was necessary to equilibrate the crystallization, but melting temperature versus branch content was not applicable after cooling to below ambient because the calibration data were not performed in this way.

  15. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  16. THE FRAMEWORK OF INSOLVENCY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA IANCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of ways to classify the legal systems or legal families of the world, but in general legal families across the globe will in many jurisdictions either have an English law, or what can broadly be termed a Civil law, orientated foundation. When analyzing the insolvency laws of various jurisdictions such foundation will also show up in the variety of insolvency laws. But certain aspect of insolvency law will be affected by local legal culture, basic rights and the way in which a system deals with related matters such as the security rights provided for, or the approach to labor issues for instance.

  17. Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: consequence of branching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2010-03-01

    We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously, we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic and the negative binomial (NBD). The theoretical model is the `birth and immigration' population process. The first three distributions above can be considered special cases of the NBD. In particular, a point branching process along the magnitude (or log seismic moment) axis with independent events (immigrants) explains the magnitude/moment-frequency relation and the NBD of earthquake counts in large time/space windows, as well as the dependence of the NBD parameters on the magnitude threshold (magnitude of an earthquake catalogue completeness). We discuss applying these distributions, especially the NBD, to approximate event numbers in earthquake catalogues. There are many different representations of the NBD. Most can be traced either to the Pascal distribution or to the mixture of the Poisson distribution with the gamma law. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of both representations for statistical analysis of earthquake catalogues. We also consider applying the NBD to earthquake forecasts and describe the limits of the application for the given equations. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrence, the NBD has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize clustering or overdispersion of a process. We determine the parameter values and their uncertainties for several local and global catalogues, and their subdivisions in various time intervals, magnitude thresholds, spatial windows, and tectonic categories. The theoretical model of how the clustering parameter depends on the corner (maximum) magnitude can be used to predict future earthquake number distribution in regions where very large earthquakes have not yet occurred.

  18. Branch structure of corona discharge: experimental simulation and chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branch structure of corona discharge has been investigated via C2H2 corona discharge. Carbon filament with excellent branch structure is formed in the discharge. This carbon filament offers a direct mimic of the branch structure of corona discharge. It provides a very useful way to study on the average energy, physical and chemical characteristics of corona discharge. On this basis, the chemical property of corona discharge for methane conversion is discussed. (authors)

  19. Deregulation of Bank Entry and Branching: Impact on Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Melanie S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper looks at public policy towards bank entry and branching in the Philippines and its impact on the sector’s structure, conduct and performance. In particular, it argues that regulatory restrictions on bank entry and branching have had adverse effects on competition, while the liberalization of these restrictions have led to a more competitive banking sector. The paper has two main sections. Section II presents the history of regulation of bank entry and branching in the Philippines. ...

  20. Activities of the Development Branch. 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities carried out by the Development Branch from 1978 through 1981 are summarized. Subjects covered include: Metallurgy, Nuclear Fuels, Instrumentation and Control, Nuclear Reactors, as well as the various projects developed during this period and the administrative and technical activities of various groups belonging to this Branch. A list of publications by personnel of this Branch during the same period is also included. (C.A.K.)

  1. The Branching of Graphs in 2-d Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. G.

    1996-01-01

    The branching ratio is calculated for three different models of 2d gravity, using dynamical planar phi-cubed graphs. These models are pure gravity, the D=-2 Gaussian model coupled to gravity and the single spin Ising model coupled to gravity. The ratio gives a measure of how branched the graphs dominating the partition function are. Hence it can be used to estimate the location of the branched polymer phase for the multiple Ising model coupled to 2d gravity.

  2. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  3. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  4. [Variability of the celiac artery and its branches in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmona, Kh; Kovachev, G

    1985-01-01

    Contrast matter was used with a total of 363 sheep fetuses, newborn lambs, and adult sheep to study the variability of the coeliac artery and its branches. It was found that the artery and some of its branches, such as arteria ruminalis sinistra, arteria reticularis, and arteria lienalis often showed variations, resp., deviations in their branching and distribution. Others, such as arteria ruminalis dextra and arteria hepatica showed no variations whatever. Both the coeliac artery and the anterior intestinal artery in the sheep were most often shown to branch from the aorta alone (in 71.07 per cent of the cases) as against the rarely observed common truncus coeliacomesentericus (in 28.93 per cent of the cases). The most commonly observed form of branching of arteria coeliaca seemed to be tripus coeliacus, while the branching with the formation of a short truncus hepatogastricus was comparatively a rare phenomenon. It was also established that the left ruminal artery was much more frequently the branch of truncus lienoruminalis than the branch of arteria gastrica sinistra. So far as the place in which arteria reticularis arose three variants were observed. Most frequently this artery was shown to be the branch of arteria gastrica sinistra. PMID:4013078

  5. Effects of Pre-Stress State and Rupture Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2002-12-01

    We consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the rupture start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does rupture continue on the main fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of rupture along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the rupturing fault tip, which increase with rupture velocity at locations off the main fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate rupture on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching rupture, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on rupture velocity. The most favored side for rupture transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the main fault. Simultaneous rupturing on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages rupture continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the rupture velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults

  6. Law related to management of natural resources And the determination of Its environment

    OpenAIRE

    VISHAWAS CHOUHAN

    2012-01-01

    With the help of my article I am discovering hypothesis about the law related to management of natural resources and present environment law & critical analysis of its environment effect. It is my belief that is root of origin of “Law” or origin of “Statutes” in world the main reason was the management of natural resources. On this basis it is necessary to add a new branch – Environment School of Jurisprudence in the branches of Jurisprudence.

  7. Arterial branching within the confines of fractal L-system formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, M

    2001-09-01

    Parametric Lindenmayer systems (L-systems) are formulated to generate branching tree structures that can incorporate the physiological laws of arterial branching. By construction, the generated trees are de facto fractal structures, and with appropriate choice of parameters, they can be made to exhibit some of the branching patterns of arterial trees, particularly those with a preponderant value of the asymmetry ratio. The question of whether arterial trees in general have these fractal characteristics is examined by comparison of pattern with vasculature from the cardiovascular system. The results suggest that parametric L-systems can be used to produce fractal tree structures but not with the variability in branching parameters observed in arterial trees. These parameters include the asymmetry ratio, the area ratio, branch diameters, and branching angles. The key issue is that the source of variability in these parameters is not known and, hence, it cannot be accurately reproduced in a model. L-systems with a random choice of parameters can be made to mimic some of the observed variability, but the legitimacy of that choice is not clear. PMID:11524457

  8. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the site of emergence of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the temporalis muscle and to identify the number of its accessory branches and their locations. A pilot study, conducted on the same number of patients, concluded that the main zygomaticotemporal branch emerges from the deep temporal fascia at a point on average 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral palpebral commissure, commonly referred to as the lateral canthus. These measurements, however, were obtained after dissection of the temporal area, rendering the findings less reliable. The current study included 20 consecutive patients, 19 women and one man, between the ages of 26 and 85 years, with an average age of 47.6 years. Those who had a history of previous trauma or surgery in the temple area were excluded. Before the start of the endoscopic forehead procedure, the likely topographic site of the zygomaticotemporal branch was marked 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral orbital commissure on the basis of the information extrapolated from the pilot study. The surface mark was then transferred to the deeper layers using a 25-gauge needle stained with brilliant green. After endoscopic exposure of the marked site, the distance between the main branch of the trigeminal nerve or its accessory branches and the tattoo mark was measured in posterolateral and cephalocaudal directions. In addition, the number and locations of the accessory branches of the trigeminal nerve were recorded. On the left side, the average distance of the emergence site of the main zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the palpebral fissure was 16.8 mm (range, 12 to 31 mm) in the posterolateral direction and an average of 6.4 mm (range, 4 to 11 mm) in the cephalad direction. On the right side, the average measurements for the main branch were 17.1 mm (range, 15 to 21 mm) in the lateral direction and 6.65 mm (range, 5 to 11 mm) in the

  9. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the site of emergence of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the temporalis muscle and to identify the number of its accessory branches and their locations. A pilot study, conducted on the same number of patients, concluded that the main zygomaticotemporal branch emerges from the deep temporal fascia at a point on average 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral palpebral commissure, commonly referred to as the lateral canthus. These measurements, however, were obtained after dissection of the temporal area, rendering the findings less reliable. The current study included 20 consecutive patients, 19 women and one man, between the ages of 26 and 85 years, with an average age of 47.6 years. Those who had a history of previous trauma or surgery in the temple area were excluded. Before the start of the endoscopic forehead procedure, the likely topographic site of the zygomaticotemporal branch was marked 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral orbital commissure on the basis of the information extrapolated from the pilot study. The surface mark was then transferred to the deeper layers using a 25-gauge needle stained with brilliant green. After endoscopic exposure of the marked site, the distance between the main branch of the trigeminal nerve or its accessory branches and the tattoo mark was measured in posterolateral and cephalocaudal directions. In addition, the number and locations of the accessory branches of the trigeminal nerve were recorded. On the left side, the average distance of the emergence site of the main zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the palpebral fissure was 16.8 mm (range, 12 to 31 mm) in the posterolateral direction and an average of 6.4 mm (range, 4 to 11 mm) in the cephalad direction. On the right side, the average measurements for the main branch were 17.1 mm (range, 15 to 21 mm) in the lateral direction and 6.65 mm (range, 5 to 11 mm) in the

  10. Supercritical branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hutzenthaler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical branching processes in constant environment conditioned on eventual extinction are known to be subcritical branching processes. The case of random environment is more subtle. A supercritical branching diffusion in random environment (BDRE) conditioned on eventual extinction of the population is not a BDRE. However the quenched law of the population size of a supercritical BDRE conditioned on eventual extinction is equal to the quenched law of the population size of a subcritical BDRE. As a consequence, supercritical BDREs have a phase transition which is similar to a well-known phase transition of subcritical branching processes in random environment.

  11. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  12. Three Laws of Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    经典的机器人三大定律,来自于科幻之父阿西莫夫的名著《I,Robot》The late Isaac Asimov(1920—1992),the prolific author of science fictionand books popularizing science,claimed credit for"robotics"as a term for thescience and technology of robots.In his 1942 sci-fi story"Runaround,"Asimovstated the ethical guidelines he called the"Three Laws of Robotics":1.A robot must not injure a human being,or,through inaction,allow a hu-man being to come to harm.2.A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except wherethose orders would ...

  13. Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential Trade Agreements: From Co-Existence to Coherence.

  14. The Law Of Environmental Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with preservation regulation on environment, which includes the meaning of environmental law, foundation of environmental law and development, characteristic of the law, the right of environment, the method and the case of lawmaking of environment, formation of environmental law in Korea, organization of administration, explanation of environmental regulation with term and definition, exclusion of application, safety of nature, supervision of air and water, discharge facilities and prevention facility, air pollution, discharge facility business, management of industrial waste substance and grievance mediation and compensation for the lost.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Poly(ester urea)s with Different Branch Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiayi; Becker, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    A new class of L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) was developed that possess tunable mechanical properties, water uptake ability and degradation rates. Our preliminary data has shown that 1,6-hexanediol L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possesses an elastic modulus nearly double that of poly(lactic acid). My work details the synthesis of a series of L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possessing a variation in diol chain length and in branch density and shows how these subtle structural differences influence the mechanical properties and in vitro biodegradation rates. The elastic moduli span a range of values that overlap with several currently clinically available degradable polymers. Increasingly the diol chain lengths increases the amount of flexible segment in the chemical structure, which results in reduced elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. Increasing the amount of branch monomer incorporated into the system reduces the molecular entanglement, which also results in decreased elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. The L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s also exhibited a diol length dependent degradation process that varied between 1-5 % over 16 weeks. Compared with PLLA, PEUs degrade more quickly and the rate can be tuned by changing the diol chain length. PEUs absorb more water and the water uptake ability can be tuned by changing the branch density. This work was supported by Akron Functional Materials Center.

  16. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  17. Economic Analysis of Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Shavell

    2003-01-01

    Contract law governs agreements between parties. This paper contains the chapters on contract law from a general, forthcoming book, Foundations of Economic Analysis of Law (Harvard University Press, 2003). Chapter 13 presents an overview of the subject. Chapter 14 is concerned with contract formation, that is, with the process through which parties find contracting partners, with aspects of contract negotiation, and with the rules governing when an arrangement between parties becomes legally ...

  18. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; Boer, Thomas de; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  19. Nuclear law and law of the sea - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general idea behind the work of the Paris Colloqium on Nuclear Law and Law of the Sea was that of an agreement and sometimes opposition between two specificities, that of the law of the maritime and, in particular, ocean environment, and that of the law of nuclear techniques. These relationships were studied notably in the perspective of the problems of transport of nuclear materials and their liability insurance, as well as from the viewpoint of the operation of nuclear powered ships. Another problem studied in this context is that of radioactive marine pollution. (N.E.A.)

  20. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  1. Vehicle Fleet Information - BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN: Bureau of Motor Vehicle License Branch Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 142 branch offices of the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles (BMV). Addresses for each branch...

  2. Branched nanostructures and method of synthesizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luis F. (Inventor); Resto, Oscar (Inventor); Sola, Francisco (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A branched nanostructure is synthesized. A porous material, with pores having a diameter of approximately 1 .mu.m or less, is placed in a vacuum. It is irradiated with an electron beam. This causes a trunk to grow from the porous material and further causes branches to grow from the trunk.

  3. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  4. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the labor criminal law, as an interference zone between the criminal law and labor law, has to be regarded from the internal social realities governing the labor aspects, as well from the comparative law's point of view.

  5. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  6. History of Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelter, Martin; Grechenig, Kristoffel

    2014-01-01

    The roots of law & economics lie in late 19th century continental Europe. However, this early movement did not persist, having been cut off in the 1930s. After World War II, modern law & economics was (re-)invented in the United States and subsequently grew into a major field of research at U.S. law schools. In continental Europe, law & economics was re-imported as a discipline within economics, driven by economists interested in legal issues rather than by legal scholars. Hence, the European...

  7. Optimal structure of tree-like branching networks for fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Jianlong; Chen, Yanyan; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Lu, Hangjun; Wu, Fengmin; Fan, Jintu

    2014-01-01

    Tree-like branching networks are very common flow or transportation systems from natural evolution. In this study, the optimal structures of tree-like branching networks for minimum flow resistance are analyzed for both laminar and turbulent flow in both smooth and rough pipes. It is found that the dimensionless effective flow resistance under the volume constraint for different flows is sensitive to the geometrical parameters of the structure. The flow resistance of the tree-like branching networks reaches a minimum when the diameter ratio β∗ satisfies β∗=Nk, where, N is the bifurcation number N=2,3,4,… and k is a constant. For laminar flow, k=-1/3, which is in agreement with the existing Murray’s law; for turbulent flow in smooth pipes, k=-3/7; for turbulent flow in rough pipes, k=-7/17. These results serve as design guidelines of efficient transport and flow systems.

  8. On the Cognition of Laws of Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Weingartner, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I shall discuss the problem of cognition of laws of nature on the following different levels of understanding: First level of understanding of laws of nature: the Greek Ideal of Science Second level: Space Time Invariance Third level: Dynamical Laws Fourth level: Statistical Laws Fifth level: Laws and Causality Sixth level: Chaotic Motion Seventh level: Initial conditions and Constants of Nature

  9. Economic Models of Law: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Miceli; Baker, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This introductory chapter to Economic Models of Law (forthcoming, Edward Elgar) discusses the use of economic models for understanding law. It also provides a survey of the contents of the volume, which consist of twenty-one previously published articles in the areas of torts, contracts, property, and legal process.

  10. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, t...

  11. Interpretation of the Omori Law

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmi, Anatol V

    2016-01-01

    The known Omori law is presented in the form of differential equation that describes the evolution of the aftershock activity. This equation is derived hypothetically with taking into account deactivation of the faults in epicentral zone of the main shock. A generalization of the Omori law is proposed.

  12. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Starke, R

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of relativistic generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic plasmas in astrophysics and cosmology. Here we propose an alternative route to this problem by introducing the most general Lorentz covariant first order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor $\\chi^\\mu_{~\

  13. Synthesis of branched polyglucans by the tandem action of potato phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Reixach, Marta Palomo; van der Maarel, Marc; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Schouten, Arend Jan; Loos, Katja

    2008-01-01

    An enzymatic tandem reaction is described in which the enzymes phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) catalyze the synthesis of branched polyglucans from glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P). Phosphorylase consumes G-1-P and polymerizes linear amylose while DR GBE intro

  14. Methodology of Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio Maria); L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction A chapter on the methodology of law and economics, i.e. the economic analysis of law, concerns the methodology of economics. The above quote (Becker 1976, 5) shows that economics should not be defined by its subject, but by its method (also Veljanovski 2007, 19). This method

  15. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  16. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  17. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  18. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterning of cell behaviors establishes the regional differences within tissues that collectively develop branched organs into their characteristic treelike shapes. Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. We used microfabrication to build model mammary epithelial tissues of defined geometry that branched in a stereotyped pattern when induced with growth factors. Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. Branch sites were defined by activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), inhibition of which disrupted morphogenesis. Stress, FAK activation, and branching were all altered by manipulating cellular contractility, matrix stiffness, intercellular cohesion and tissue geometry. These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. Insight, innovation, integration Morphogenesis is ultimately a physical process wherein tissues are sculpted into their final three-dimensional (3D) patterns. Mechanical stresses from the microenvironment can also play regulatory roles, but their influence on pattern is difficult to ascertain in 3D systems in vivo. Here we integrate 3D microscale engineered tissues with insight from biological mechanics to understand the role of endogenous mechanical stresses in patterning tissue development. The innovation lies in the use of numerical modeling to design experiments that can predict the stress distribution and resulting morphogenesis of model tissues. PMID:20717570

  19. Phenomenological picture of fluctuations in branching random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A H; Munier, S

    2014-10-01

    We propose a picture of the fluctuations in branching random walks, which leads to predictions for the distribution of a random variable that characterizes the position of the bulk of the particles. We also interpret the 1/sqrt[t] correction to the average position of the rightmost particle of a branching random walk for large times t≫1, computed by Ebert and Van Saarloos, as fluctuations on top of the mean-field approximation of this process with a Brunet-Derrida cutoff at the tip that simulates discreteness. Our analytical formulas successfully compare to numerical simulations of a particular model of a branching random walk. PMID:25375474

  20. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  1. Processability improvement of polyolefins through radiation-induced branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Phillips, Ed; Parks, Lewis

    2010-03-01

    Radiation-induced long-chain branching for the purpose of improving melt strength and hence the processability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) is reviewed. Long-chain branching without significant gel content can be created by low dose irradiation of PP or PE under different atmospheres, with or without multifunctional branching promoters. The creation of long-chain branching generally leads to improvement of melt strength, which in turn may be translated into processability improvement for specific applications in which melt strength plays an important role. In this paper, the changes of the melt flow rate and the melt strength of the irradiated polymer and the relationship between long-chain branching and melt strength are reviewed. The effects of the atmosphere and the branching promoter on long-chain branching vs. degradation are discussed. The benefits of improved melt strength on the processability, e.g., sag resistance and strain hardening, are illustrated. The implications on practical polymer processing applications such as foams and films are also discussed.

  2. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  3. Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: consequence of branching process

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic, and the negative binomial (NBD). The theoretical model is the `birth and immigration' population process. The first three distributions above can be considered special cases of the NBD. In particular, a point branching process along t...

  4. On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

  5. Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines for maximum efficiency with radiative heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG HanJiang; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui

    2008-01-01

    Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration, input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝△(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory, and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches, four maximum-efficiency branches, and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained, as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton's heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.

  6. Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines for maximum efficiency with radiative heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration,input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝Δ(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory,and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches,four maximum-efficiency branches,and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained,as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton’s heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.

  7. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  8. INTERFERENCES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW WITH THE URBAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the large, complex issue of influences that urbanization can have on the environment, requires first of all, some general considerations on the interferences between the urban law and the environmental law. The urban law investigates and regulates the affecting and planning of the urban space. Therefore, this type of regulations are at the interference with the environmental law , which, inter alia , deals with the protection and conservation of the environment in the urban settlements, in the built space and also the ecological deployment of the activities in this space. The interaction between the two is becoming increasingly important especially when the urban law is increasingly correlated with the environmental protection, the natural space and the ecological activities.

  9. Coset construction of logarithmic minimal models: branching rules and branching functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Working in the Virasoro picture, it is argued that the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p')=LM(p,p';1) can be extended to an infinite hierarchy of logarithmic conformal field theories LM(p,p';n) at higher fusion levels n=1,2,3,.... From the lattice, these theories are constructed by fusing together n x n elementary faces of the appropriate LM(p,p') models. It is further argued that all of these logarithmic theories are realized as diagonal cosets (A_1^{(1)})_k \\oplus (A_1^{(1)})_n / (A_1^{(1)})_{k+n} where n is the integer fusion level and k=np/(p'-p)-2 is a fractional level. These cosets mirror the cosets of the higher fusion level minimal models of the form M(m,m';n), but are associated with certain reducible representations. We present explicit branching rules for characters in the form of multiplication formulas arising in the logarithmic limit of the usual Goddard-Kent-Olive coset construction of the non-unitary minimal models M(m,m';n). The limiting branching functions play the role of Kac characters for...

  10. Bounds of Deviation for Branching Chains in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gang WANG

    2011-01-01

    We consider non-extinct branching processes in general random environments. Under the condition of means and second moments of each generation being bounded, we give the upper bounds and lower bounds for some form deviations of the process.

  11. Free compact boson on branched covering of $\\mathbb{CP}^1$ and on branched covering of the torus

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    We have studied free compact boson on two special kinds of Riemann surfaces: One is branched covering of $\\mathbb{CP}^1$, and the other one is branched covering of the torus. We obtain the partition function for arbitrary higher genus by directly constructing the period matrix, which can be expressed in terms of simple contour integrals. The partition function is interesting because it is related to the \\emph{product} of correlation functions of twist fields in different sectors. Also, when the branched cuts are chosen to be real, it is related to the R\\'enyi entanglement entropy of multiple intervals in a infinite (finite) system at zero (finite) temperature.

  12. Antibiotics and renal branching morphogenesis: comparison of toxicities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueters, R.R.G.; Kusters, L.J.; Klaasen, A.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Schreuder, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many premature born neonates receive antibiotic drugs to treat infections, which are applied during active nephrogenesis. We studied the impact of clinical concentrations of gentamicin and alternatives, ceftazidime and meropenem, on ureteric branching. METHODS: Mice metanephroi were diss

  13. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  14. Decoherence and the Branching of Chaos-less Classical Trajectory

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    This study was started to know mysterious classicality of nuclei. This time, I found a new rule for decoherence. I used a model without chaos. As a result, it was shown that not only the intersection of classical trajectories but also branching of classical trajectories are needed for decoherence. In other words, it was shown that interactions between a main system and environments have to make enough branchings of classical trajectories of the main system for decoherence.

  15. Effects of the structure of the branches on the two-photon absorption properties for the multi-branched molecules with nitrogen (N) as coupling center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the structure of branches on the TPA properties for multi-branched molecules, the TPA cross section is calculated by using ZINDO/SOS method. The investigated mole- cules have different branches (chomorfores based on stilbene, dithienothiophene and flourene) with nitrogen(N) as coupling center. The results show that the cooperative enhancement in multi-branched molecules depends on the structures of the branches and the structures of branches play an important role in the enhancement of the TPA cross section. The designed molecules with stilbene and dithie- nothiophene as branched possess relatively larger two-photon absorption cross sections.

  16. Effects of the structure of the branches on the two-photon absorption properties for the multi-branched molecules with nitrogen (N) as coupling center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the structure of branches on the TPA properties for multi-branched molecules, the TPA cross section is calculated by using ZINDO/SOS method. The investigated molecules have different branches (chomorfores based on stilbene, dithienothiophene and flourene) with nitrogen(N) as coupling center. The results show that the cooperative enhancement in multi-branched molecules depends on the structures of the branches and the structures of branches play an important role in the enhancement of the TPA cross section. The designed molecules with stilbene and dithienothiophene as branched possess relatively larger two-photon absorption cross sections.

  17. The branching structure of diffusion-limited aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, T C

    1997-01-01

    I analyze the topological structures generated by diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), using the recently developed "branched growth model". The computed bifurcation number B for DLA in two dimensions is B ~ 4.9, in good agreement with the numerically obtained result of B ~ 5.2. In high dimensions, B -> 3.12; the bifurcation ratio is thus a decreasing function of dimensionality. This analysis also determines the scaling properties of the ramification matrix, which describes the hierarchy of branches.

  18. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  19. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  20. Methodology of International Law1

    OpenAIRE

    Dominicé, Christian

    2014-01-01

    I. DEFINITION Methodology seeks to define the means of acquiring scientific knowledge. There is no generally accepted definition of the methodology of international law. In this article it will be taken to comprise both its wider meaning of the methods used in the acquisition of a scientific knowledge of the international legal system and its narrower and more specialized meaning, the methods used to determine the existence of norms or rules of international law. The correlation of these two ...

  1. Interpretation of the Omori law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The well-known Omori law is represented in the form of the differential equation describing the evolution of the aftershock activity. The interpretation of the evolution equation is suggested. It is based on the idea of deactivation of the faults in the vicinity of the main shock of the earthquake. The generalization of the Omori law with the allowance for the nonstationarity of the medium in the source, which is cooling after the main shock, is presented.

  2. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacr...

  3. Side-Branching Statistics of Plant Root Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen, N.; Malamud, B.

    2001-12-01

    Many studies exist that characterise plant root architecture by calculating the fractal dimension of the root network, but few studies quantify the branching characteristics of the root network. This paper examines the Tokunaga side-branching statistics for the root systems of four plants--Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris), Lucern (Medicago sativa), Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and White Clover (Trifolium michelianum)--and compares the resulting statistics to those calculated by similar means (by other authors) for the Kentucky and Powder River drainage basins and several Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) models. The plant root networks studied all contained similar numbers of different order roots, but the side-branching statistics differed, offering one explanation for the differing visual appearance of the branching root networks. The White Clover plant had similar Tokunaga branching statistics to the drainage networks and DLA models. This may be due to the dichotomous root structure of the White Clover plant, which produces a network that is much more similar in appearance to the two drainage networks and DLA models than the other three plants, which had herringbone root. All of the root networks, drainage basins, and DLA models had branching networks that could be quantified well to very well by Tokunaga side-branching statistics. For many years, engineers have avoided implementation of stabilisation schemes involving vegetation, due to the inherent problems involved in the quantification of their dynamic and complex root structures. The use of Tokunaga statistics as a simplifying measure of root branching characteristics, may aid in this aspect, as well as others, such as the modelling of nutrient or water uptake.

  4. The power of law versus the law of power - Interview with Stanislav Markelov, Lawyer, Moscow, 3 June 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Merlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PIPSS.ORG – You worked as a lawyer on the Budanov case, and you created the Rule of Law Institute. How long since this institute was created?Stanislav Markelov: About two years.PIPSS.ORG – Who is the founder of the institute?Stanislav Markelov: I am.PIPSS.ORG – In which regions of Russia is this institute active? How many regions have branches? Stanislav Markelov: If I’m not mistaken, there are branches in 22 regions of Russia, and in other CIS countries: Belarus and Ukraine.PIPSS.ORG – What ...

  5. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements of Exclusive D^0 Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Coan, T E; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Credé, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Phillips, E A; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S S; Müller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H

    2005-01-01

    With the first data sample collected by the CLEO-c detector at the psi(3770) resonance we have studied four exclusive semileptonic decays of the D0 meson. Our results include the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement for D0 --> rho- e+ nu_e and improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D0 decays to K- e+ nu_e, pi- e+ nu_e, and K*- e+ nu_e.

  6. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Persson,; Olof Dahlman,; Ann-Christine Albertsson

    2012-01-01

    Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan) isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes) were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch lengt...

  7. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  8. Nuclear law and law of the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Colloquium was held on 12th and 13th June 1975. The Proceedings, which deal with the relationship developed in recent years between both these legal systems contain the full texts of the papers submitted and the ensuing discussions between the participants. These papers discuss the technical and economic prospects of nuclear-powered ships, as well as the third party liability and licensing systems applicable to this form of navigation. The rules applicable to third party liability for maritime transport of nuclear materials and the problems raised by insurance for such transport are also described. The question of radioactive marine pollution, in particular in the light of the recent international conventions such as the 1972 London Convention, was analyzed by several speakers, while other papers dealt with the legal aspects of off-shore siting of nuclear power plants and the denuclearisation of the seabed. (NEA)

  9. Line Mixing and Broadening in the Raman Q Branch of HD at 304.6 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon; Sinclair; Le Flohic MP; Drummond; May

    1998-12-01

    The Q-branch lines of pure HD were measured at densities ranging from 1 to 7 Amagat at 304.6 K. Each profile was fitted to the well-known Rosenkranz expression to extract the size of the asymmetry due to line mixing as well as to the linewidth. Line mixing and broadening coefficients were obtained by fitting the asymmetries and widths to a straight line as a function of gas density. Apart from a single existing measurement for the Q(0) line, our mixing coefficients are the first direct measurements of the asymmetry due to line mixing in HD. Our broadening coefficients are consistent with the best earlier measurements but are an order of magnitude more precise. Agreement is found with some existing semiclassical calculations of broadening. We have fitted our HD broadening coefficients to a variety of empirical energy gap laws. Our conclusions are that none of the exponential gap law (EGL), the modified exponential gap (MEG) law, and the statistical power gap (SPG) law successfully models our broadening coefficients. We present a modified version of the EGL and the MEG laws, which are successful in reproducing the experimental results. Using the fitted parameters of the new gap law, we have calculated the relaxation matrix of HD at room temperature. With this relaxation matrix, we have simulated the Q-branch spectrum at a number of densities between 49.1 and 490 Amagat and compared the results with previous high-density measurements. At all densities and frequencies, the simulated spectral intensity was found to agree with the measured strength within about 5% of the peak of the spectrum. In addition, the comparison provides evidence of a nonlinear vibrational dephasing shift in HD. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  11. [Variations of the celiac trunk branches in the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordei, P; Antohe, D S

    2002-09-01

    The study was performed on 60 human foetuses, aged between 4 to 9 months, using as methods dissection and plastic and contrast substances injection. We studied the celiac trunk in what concerns the division into its terminal branches, insisting on the possible morphological variations, some rare collateral branches starting from the common arterial trunk, the dimensional relations between the branches at their origin and the level of the celiac trunk origin from the aorta, in relation with the vertebral column, the diaphragmatic passage of the aorta and with the superior mesenteric artery. We also assessed the dimensional relations (calibers at origin) between the branches of the celiac trunk. Ass possible variations of the division of the celiac trunk, we assessed: gastro-hepatic trunk, with the splenic artery directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery; gastro-splenic trunk, with the hepatic artery originating from the aorta; hepato-splenic trunk, with origin of the left gastric artery either directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery. Rare variations: celiaco-mesenteric trunk; two arterial trunks, hepato-splenic and hepato-gastric; separate aortic origin for all three "classic" branches of the celiac trunk; two hepatic arteries, one from the celiac trunk and the other from the aorta or superior mesenteric artery; celiac trunk that divides into several terminal branches; one or two suprarenal arteries originating from the celiac trunk. PMID:12572348

  12. On the Concept of Law in Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Claus

    2013-01-01

    I discuss the main features of the concept of law in physics. Fundamental laws from Newtonian mechanics to general relativity are reviewed. I end with an outlook on the new form of laws in the emerging theory of quantum gravity.

  13. Computer simulations of randomly branching polymers: annealed versus quenched branching structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Angelo; Everaers, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    We present computer simulations of three systems of randomly branching polymers in d = 3 dimensions: ideal trees and self-avoiding trees with annealed and quenched connectivities. In all cases, we performed a detailed analysis of trees connectivities, spatial conformations and statistical properties of linear paths on trees, and compare the results to the corresponding predictions of Flory theory. We confirm that, overall, the theory predicts correctly that trees with quenched ideal connectivity exhibit less overall swelling in good solvent than corresponding trees with annealed connectivity even though they are more strongly stretched on the path level. At the same time, we emphasize the inadequacy of the Flory theory in predicting the behaviour of other, and equally relevant, observables like contact probabilities between tree nodes. We show, then, that contact probabilities can be aptly characterized by introducing a novel critical exponent, {θ }{path}, which accounts for how they decay as a function of the node-to-node path distance on the tree.

  14. Mandelbrot Law of Evolving Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xue-Zao; YANG Zi-Mo; WANG Bing-Hong; ZHOU Tao

    2012-01-01

    We show that the degree distribution of a growing network with linear preferential attachment approximately follows the Mandelbrot law,and propose an analytical method based on a recursive formula that can be used to obtain a more accurate expression of the shifting coefficient.Simulations demonstrate the advantages of our method. This work provides a possible mechanism leading to the Mandelbrot law of evolving networks,and refines the mainstream analytical methods for the shifting coefficient.

  15. Scaling laws of turbulent dynamos

    OpenAIRE

    Fauve, Stephan; Petrelis, Francois

    2007-01-01

    We consider magnetic fields generated by homogeneous isotropic and parity invariant turbulent flows. We show that simple scaling laws for dynamo threshold, magnetic energy and Ohmic dissipation can be obtained depending on the value of the magnetic Prandtl number.

  16. Revision of the Adoption Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    DECEMBER 29, 1991, saw thePresident of the People’sRepublic of China promulgatea new adoption law by Order 54, a lawwhich was introduced to the seventhNational People’s Congress at thetwenty-third meeting of its StandingCommittee and which took effect fromApril 1, 1992. This was the first suchadoption law in China and, althoughadoption did occur prior to itsimplementation, it was not then boundby legal measures or guarantee.

  17. Exact law of live nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  18. Synthesis of Climate Change Policy in Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of U.S. Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brinkmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the United States has struggled to develop a comprehensive policy for climate change and concomitant greenhouse gas emissions that addresses the current scientific thinking on the topic. The absence of any clear legislative or executive approach dominated national discussions and the court system was used to litigate a variety of issues associated with global warming. This paper synthesizes actions taken in the three branches of government prior to and immediately following the Obama election. In the Judicial branch, several branches of law have been used to force government and private parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Based on the historic greenhouse gas lawsuit, Massachusetts et al. v. the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, and under the direction of the Obama administration, the U.S. EPA has taken significant action to regulate greenhouse gases. In the legislative branch, a comprehensive energy and climate bill passed the House of Representatives and comparable and alternate energy and climate bills were debated in the Senate indicating hope for legislation in the 111th Congress. However, these bills proved to be unsuccessful, therefore leaving the U.S. EPA and the courts the only options for national climate policy in the near future.

  19. Community and law: identifying the locus of law in community

    OpenAIRE

    Yaylali, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    "Community and law approach" provides an illuminating insight into alternative legal orderings within a social unit. The comprehensiveness of legal systems within a community or a social unit, provides a suitable basis for a structural framework of alternative legal systems or Legal Pluralism, which is missing in the discourse on Legal Pluralism. "Identifying the locus of law within a community", provides us with an indication on how autopoetic a legal system can be within a social unit, taki...

  20. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  1. Two Concepts of Law of Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    I argue that there are at least two concepts of law of nature worthy of philosophical interest: strong law and weak law. Strong laws are the laws investigated by fundamental physics, while weak laws feature prominently in the “special sciences” and in a variety of non-scientific contexts. In the first section, I clarify my methodology, which has to do with arguing about concepts. In the next section, I offer a detailed description of strong laws, which I claim satisfy four criteria: (1) If it...

  2. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatami Firooz Abadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  3. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Mohammad Ali Khatami Firouzabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  4. Fragrance Release from the Surface of Branched Poly (Amide S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youngs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased.

  5. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  6. Method of branch ariflow for calculatinga complicated mine ventilation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-gong

    2001-01-01

    The solutions widely used at preeent for calculating complicated mine ventilation networks are ones in which resistance of the branches and characteristic parameters of the fans are taken as basic input data. But it is time-and-energy-consuming to obtain the branch resistance values. A new solution is developed in this peper in which the branch reeistance values are obtained through measuring and evaluating the airflow of the whole ventilation network. Theoretical analysis is made of the establishment of a linear equation series with branch resistance as unknown numbers, an equation series for which one, and only one, result of solutions exists. This solution is programmed in C language and passed on a personal computer. The programmed solution programmed proves of practical use, as demonstrated by specific examples. Being different from other solutions, the method takes the branch airflow and fan working points as basic input data, and the present solution is of greater advantage for calculating ventilation networks of mines in operation.

  7. The molecular concept of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Gommer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In his famous work The Concept of Law Hart asked himself the question 'what is law?' Hart makes a very strict distinction between rules and morals: morals are rooted in biology, rules source back to society. Hart's sociological truisms have proven to be untrue, because modern evolutionary biology is not about the survival of the individual (or even of a species but about the spreading of genes. This knowledge changes the fundamentals of Hart's theory and therefore his theory as a whole. In addition, my theory captures vital insights of Dworkin, legal realism, Posner and CLS, while at the same time forming a significant improvement upon them.In essence, the biological theory of law presented in this article is based on fractal patterns. Macroscale patterns recur in microscale patterns. The spreading of genes depends on important characteristics of genes: they are stable, they replicate, they need nutrients to replicate and they can cooperate. Superficially, genes, cells, organisms and groups may seem to act purposefully, but it is merely a pattern, with genes as generators, that brings structure to chaos. Human desires are in fact the needs of their genes. Thanks to language, morals can be put in words and become rules. To keep everyone working together, we need an ingenious device - like the law - to maintain that complex situations can continue to be judged on the basis of the simple principle of stability and reciprocity. To a degree, therefore, law itself can be derived from unconscious emotions and morals.

  8. Enhancement of computer system for applications software branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykat, Alex

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a compilation of the history of a two-month project concerned with a survey, evaluation, and specification of a new computer system for the Applications Software Branch of the Software and Data Management Division of Information and Electronic Systems Laboratory of Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA. Information gathering consisted of discussions and surveys of branch activities, evaluation of computer manufacturer literature, and presentations by vendors. Information gathering was followed by evaluation of their systems. The criteria of the latter were: the (tentative) architecture selected for the new system, type of network architecture supported, software tools, and to some extent the price. The information received from the vendors, as well as additional research, lead to detailed design of a suitable system. This design included considerations of hardware and software environments as well as personnel issues such as training. Design of the system culminated in a recommendation for a new computing system for the Branch.

  9. Partial branching enzyme treatment increases the low glycaemic property and α-1,6 branching ratio of maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Xue, Jiangchao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yaqi; Jia, Yingmin

    2014-12-01

    Partial branching enzyme treatment was used to modulate the starch fine chain structure responsible for a high content of slowly digestible starch fraction. Normal maize starch modified using branching enzyme for 4h showed a maximum slowly digestible starch content of 23.90%. The branching enzyme hydrolysis decreased the amylose content from 32.8% to 12.8%. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches showed a larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in the enzyme treated starch sample compare to native starch. The number of shorter chains (DP30) from 20.11% to 11.95%. (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of α-1,6 branching ratio from 4.7% to 9.4% during enzyme treatment. The increase in the amount of shorter chains and more α-1,6 linkages likely contribute to their slow digestion property. These results suggest that starches treated with partial branching enzyme synthesis a novel branched structure with slowly digestible character.

  10. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2011-02-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. PMID:20967430

  11. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  12. Three laws of energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper formulates and explores a hypothesis on three general energy transition laws: the law of stable long-term energy costs to income ratio; the law of improving energy quality; and the law of growing energy productivity. These laws are essential for shaping long-term projections and checking for their consistency. All three are rooted in amazingly stable in time and universal across countries energy costs to income ratios. Limited energy purchasing power sets up thresholds, which, if exceeded, bring asymmetry to energy demand to price elasticity. The author believes, that the theoretical postulate on the substantial substitution among production factors, which is used in the production functions theory, may be incorrect. In reality, innovations mainly lead to the substitution of a low-quality production factor with the same yet of a better-quality. Improving energy quality with stable costs to income ratio is accompanied by growing energy productivity. Energy costs to income thresholds are indicators allowing for better projections of oil prices

  13. A Lamperti type representation of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Ma Emilia; Bravo, Gerónimo Uribe

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the relationship between the breadth-first walk of a rooted tree and its sequence of generation sizes, we extend the Lamperti representation of continuous-state branching processes to allow immigration. The representation is obtained by solving a random ordinary differential equation defined by a pair of independent L\\'evy processes. Stability of the solutions is studied and gives, in particular, limit theorems (of a type previously studied by Grimvall, Kawazu and Watanabe, and Li) and a simulation scheme for continuous-state branching processes with immigration. We further apply our stability analysis to extend Pitman's limit theorem concerning Galton-Watson processes conditioned on total population size to more general offspring laws.

  14. Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga

    CERN Document Server

    Bey, A; Canchel, G; Dossat, C; Giovinazzo, J; Matea, I; Elomaa, V; Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, M; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I; Pentillä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J; Adimi, N; De France, G; Thomas, J C; Voltolini, G; Chaventré, T

    2008-01-01

    Beta-decay branching ratios of 62Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla. 62Ga is one of the heavier Tz = 0, 0+ -> 0+ beta-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the Vud quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of 62Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR= 99.893(24)%, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed beta decay of 62Ga.

  15. Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, Gradignan Cedex (France); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, El Alia, B.P. 32, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); France, G. de; Thomas, J.C.; Voltolini, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-05-15

    Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 62}Ga is one of the heavier T{sub z}=0, 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of {sup 62}Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR=99.893(24) %, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed {beta} -decay of {sup 62}Ga. (orig.)

  16. Photoinduced Ratchet-Like Rotational Motion of Branched Molecular Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyan; Al-Kaysi, Rabih O; Bardeen, Christopher J

    2016-06-13

    Photomechanical molecular crystals can undergo a variety of light-induced motions, including expansion, bending, twisting, and jumping. The use of more complex crystal shapes may provide ways to turn these motions into useful work. To generate such shapes, pH-driven reprecipitation has been used to grow branched microcrystals of the anthracene derivative 4-fluoroanthracenecarboxylic acid. When these microcrystals are illuminated with light of λ=405 nm, an intermolecular [4+4] photodimerization reaction drives twisting and bending of the individual branches. These deformations drive a rotation of the overall crystal that can be repeated over multiple exposures to light. The magnitude and direction of this rotation vary because of differences in the crystal shape, but a typical branched crystal undergoes a 50° net rotation after 25 consecutive irradiations for 1 s. The ability of these crystals to undergo ratchet-like rotation is attributed to their chiral shape. PMID:27150819

  17. Rule of Law Fully Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN CHUNYING

    2011-01-01

    Governing the country according to the law and building a socialist state with rule of law are fundamental strategies for running the country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.Since the founding of the People's Republic of China,especially over the past three decades of reform and opening-up,through the unremitting efforts of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee,the State Council,the local people's congresses and their standing committees,as well as all sectors of society,by the end of August,2011,China had enacted the Constitution and the 240 laws,706 administrative regulations and more than 8,600 local regulations that are now in force.

  18. [Law-making "pioneers" of scientometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András; Schubert, Gábor

    2016-01-10

    The three much cited laws of scientometrics are the laws of Bradford, Lotka and Zipf. The authors briefly review the scientific career of the men behind the names, and that how they discovered the laws named after them. An outline is also given of the scientific aftermath of the laws and of the oeuvre of their eponym.

  19. Controlling the morphology of multi-branched gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Waqqar; Stefan Kooij, E; Van Silfhout, Arend; Poelsema, Bene, E-mail: e.s.kooij@tnw.utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, NL-7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-03-26

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile way to achieve high yield synthesis of shape- and size-controlled multi-branched gold nanoparticles (MBNPs). Control over the shape of the MBNPs was achieved by varying the ratio of gold to the mild reducing agent ascorbic acid, using a seed-mediated growth approach. Higher ascorbate concentrations resulted in the smoothing of branches, leading to the yield of relatively more isotropic particles. Furthermore, we found that using much higher silver concentrations in the growth solution resulted in the formation of rod-shaped micro-features together with MBNPs; we postulate them to be cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide crystals. The as-prepared MBNPs show interesting tunable optical properties that are strongly influenced by the particle shape. The results are discussed in terms of plasmon coupling between the core and branches of the MBNPs.

  20. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  1. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  2. Probing the hardest branching of jets in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculation of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions between the leading subjets inside a reconstructed jet in heavy ion collisions. These observables are directly sensitive to the hardest branching in the process of jet formation and are, therefore, ideal for studying the early stage of the in-medium parton shower evolution. The modification of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions in lead-lead relative to proton-proton collisions is evaluated using the leading-order medium-induced splitting functions obtained in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluon interactions. Qualitative and in most cases quantitative agreement between theory and preliminary CMS measurements suggests that the parton shower in heavy ion collisions can be dramatically modified early in the branching history. We propose a new measurement which will illuminate the angular distribution of the hardest branching within jets in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  4. In search of fundamental laws

    CERN Document Server

    Pleitez, V

    1999-01-01

    One of the main activities in science teaching, and in particular in Physics teaching, is not only the discussion of both modern problems and problems which solution is an urgent matter. It means that the picture of an active and alive science should be transmitted to the students, mainly to the College students. A central point in this matter is the issue which characterizes the Fundamental Laws of Nature. In this work we emphasize that this sort of laws may exist in areas which are different from those usually considered. In this type of discussion it is neither possible nor desirable to avoid the historical perspective of the scientific development.

  5. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  6. The internal branch lengths of the Kingman coalescent

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmer, Iulia; Kersting, Götz

    2015-01-01

    In the Kingman coalescent tree the length of order $r$ is defined as the sum of the lengths of all branches that support $r$ leaves. For $r=1$ these branches are external, while for $r\\ge2$ they are internal and carry a subtree with $r$ leaves. In this paper we prove that for any $s\\in\\mathbb{N}$ the vector of rescaled lengths of orders $1\\le r\\le s$ converges to the multivariate standard normal distribution as the number of leaves of the Kingman coalescent tends to infinity. To this end we u...

  7. Scale dependence of branching in arterial and bronchial trees

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, J G; Hunt, B R; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Although models of branching in arterial and bronchial trees often predict a dependence of bifurcation parameters on the scale of the bifurcating vessels, direct verifications of this dependence with data are uncommon. We compare measurements of bifurcation parameters in airways and arterial trees of different mammals as a function of scale to general features predicted by theoretical models. We find that the size dependence is more complex than existing theories based solely on energy minimization explain, and suggest additional factors that may govern the branching at different scales.

  8. The molecular concept of law

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik Gommer

    2011-01-01

    In his famous work The Concept of Law Hart asked himself the question 'what is law?' Hart makes a very strict distinction between rules and morals: morals are rooted in biology, rules source back to society. Hart's sociological truisms have proven to be untrue, because modern evolutionary biology is not about the survival of the individual (or even of a species) but about the spreading of genes. This knowledge changes the fundamentals of Hart's theory and therefore his theory as a whole. In a...

  9. IDENTIFYING PATTERNS OF FACIAL NERVE BRANCHES WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala Rao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve is highly variable and complex in its extra cranial course. Past studies have described patterns of branching in the face and anastomoses between branches. The studies have also thrown light on the significance of the patterns for the surgeon. With more and more development of surgical and aesthetic procedures evolving, an attempt has been made to identify all previously described named patterns with review of past literature and recognize any newer patterns to be noted and recorded. Adult human cadavers (24 which were allotted to first year medical students in the department of Anatomy, P.E.S Medical College, for routine dissection as per schedule were used for the study. One full term fetus was also included in the study. Dissection was done on either side of the faces and therefore the total sample size was considered to be 50 cervicofacial halves. The age of the cadavers was unknown at the time of dissection. The conventional method of dissection was used to identify and trace the facial nerve and its branches. The variability of branching pattern of facial nerve was observed. The patterns observed in this study were compared to patterns described by Davis et al in 1956.Twelve specimens(24/48 cervicofacial halves, showed straight branching pattern(type-1.Three specimens(6/48, cervico-facial halves showed anastomosis in temporo-facial division(type-II, Three (6/48, specimens showed loop formation between divisions(type-III. The type-VI which is a complex pattern of intricate anastomosis of all the branches was seen in four specimens (8/48.In two (4/48 specimens there was loop formation in the cervicofacial division. A larger cervicofacial division was seen in one of the specimens (2/48.The fetal halves did not show any anastomosis between the branches. An attempt has been made to identify the different patterns described with review of literature, to find out any new patterns and to correlate surgical significance of the

  10. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The staff of the UBS CERN branch (apart from Nicole Savoini, not in the picture). The new branch manager Mr Denis Mellet (fourth from the right) is standing just in front of his predecessor Mr Pierre Guyenon. Mr Pierre Guyenon, who has managed the CERN branch of the UBS for the last seven years, retired on 31 May. Pierre Guyenon was always committed to establishing a harmonious and trusting relationship between CERN, its employees and the bank. He also maintained an excellent atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. Mr Denis Mellet, who has worked for the bank for many years in various capacities, has taken over from Mr Guyenon.

  11. Law of parity conservation and other symmetry laws of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general role of symmetry laws in physics is discussed and the development that led to the disproof of parity conservation is reviewed. The possibility that other invariance principles, e.g., time-reversal invariance, may be violated is suggested

  12. The making of a fusion branch in the Drosophila trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Louis; Lebreton, Gaelle; Casanova, Jordi

    2012-02-15

    Connection of epithelial tubes to generate a common network is a key step in the formation of tubular organs such as the tracheal respiratory and the vascular systems. However, it is not clear how these connecting tubes arise. Here we address this issue by studying the dorsal fusion branches in the Drosophila trachea, taking into account the morphology and contribution of each cell type on the basis of their individual labeling. Our results explain how a fusion branch forms and also illustrate the different nature of the two seamless tubes in the Drosophila trachea, generated by fusion and terminal cells respectively. PMID:22178247

  13. Effects of Pre-Stress State and Propagation Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2001-12-01

    Major earthquakes seldom rupture along single planar faults. Instead there exist geometric complexities, including fault bends, branches and stepovers, which affect the rupture process, including nucleation and arrest. Here we consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Analyses based on elastic stress fields near propagating ruptures suggest that whether a branch path will be followed or not, and whether branching to the extensional or compressional side is favored, depend on both the rupture propagation velocity as the branch is approached and on the pre-stress state before rupture arrives. See Kame and Yamashita (GJI, 139, 345-358, 1999) and Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR subm. 2001, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf). The latter predicted that branching to the extensional side would be favored in all pre-stress states except for those in which the direction of maximum pre-compression Smax makes a shallow angle ψ with the fault plane. Angles ψ 45 ° result when the ratio is less than unity. Thus it is anticipated that the most favored side for rupture branching should switch from the extensional to the compressive side as we consider progressively larger σ oxx/σ oyy (which means progressively smaller ψ ). In order to test that and other predictions, we have adapted the elastodynamic boundary integral equation methodology of Kame and Yamashita to 2-dimensional Mode II ruptures along branched fault systems, to allow simulations of rupture in which the failure path is dynamically self-chosen. Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress (-σ nn). Our current results are preliminary. Nevertheless, by comparing results for σ oxx/σ oyy = 0.8 with those for 1.4, we have established, e.g., that a 15

  14. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements of Exclusive D^+ Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, G S; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Credé, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Weaver, K M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S S; Müller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J

    2005-01-01

    Using data collected at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D+ decays to K0B e+ nu_e, pi0 e+ nu_e, K0B* e+ nu_e, and rho0 e+ nu_e, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D+ --> omega e+ nu_e. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D0 and D+ decays.

  15. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    After seven years at the helm of the CERN branch of the UBS, Mr. Denis Mellet retired on 1 October.   Denis Mellet has always striven to develop harmonious relations, in a climate of trust, between CERN and the staff of the bank. He has succeeded in maintaining a pleasant atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. He is succeeded by M. Ezio Mangia, who has worked for many years in the bank’s branches department.

  16. Evaporation of Jupiter like planets orbiting extreme horizontal branch stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2011-01-01

    We study the evaporation of planets orbiting close to hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars. These planets survived the common envelope phase inside the envelope of the reg giant star progenitor. We find that Jupiter-like planets orbiting within 10Ro from an EHB star suffers a non-negligible mass-loss during their 10^8 yr evolution on the horizontal branch. The evaporated gas is ionized and becomes a source of Balmer lines. Such planets might be detected by the periodic variation of the...

  17. A REALISTIC CRITICAL OUTLOOK ON LAW: SOCIOLOGY OF LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Türkbağ, Ahmet Ulvi

    2012-01-01

    Positive law or a legal system as a closed logical system has its own inner coherence and this characteristic is a very important element of a system. It is important because the logical structure of norms which lead concepts and conceptions, at least in theory, is the guarantee of objectiveness or impartiality (thus ‘rule of law') of a legal system. In the second part of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century however, legal theory was dominated by a kind o...

  18. Uptake of Branched-Chain Amino Acids by Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Akpemado, K. M.; Bracquart, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The transport of branched-chain amino acids in Streptococcus thermophilus was energy dependent. The metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis and ATPase enzymes were active, but the proton-conducting uncouplers were not. Transport was optimal at temperatures of between 30 and 45°C and at pH 7.0 for the three amino acids leucine, valine, and isoleucine; a second peak existed at pH 5.0 with valine and isoleucine. By competition and kinetics studies, the branched-chain amino acids were found to share a...

  19. The sector constants of continuous state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Handa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Continuous state branching processes with immigration are studied. We are particularly concerned with the associated (non-symmetric) Dirichlet form. After observing that gamma distributions are only reversible distributions for this class of models, we prove that every generalized gamma convolution is a stationary distribution of the process with suitably chosen branching mechanism and with continuous immigration. For such non-reversible processes, the strong sector condition is discussed in terms of a characteristic called the Thorin measure. In addition, some connections with notion from noncommutative probability theory will be pointed out through calculations involving the Stieltjes transform.

  20. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Stumpf, L; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  1. On the integration of public law jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shuhong

    2006-01-01

    After two to three hundred years of development,modern public laws have become more and more important,mature and integrated especially since the 20th century.Traditionally,the dispersive and overlapping public law researches were grounded on the sectional public laws like constitutional law,administrative law,criminal law,procedural law,international public law,etc.Nevertheless,with all-around emergence of public law,the traditional research method can no longer adapt to the development needs of the modern public law.Therefore,it is quite necessary for us to create a kind of moderate unified public law between the laws and the sectional public laws,so as to do comprehensive,integrated and systematic researches on various sectional public laws.Based on the indepth argumentation about the necessity of developing unified public laws,this paper further puts forward that,to discuss an all-encompassing way about the main problems of creating the unified public laws and expect to fill the gap with it,the unified public law should define its study objectives mainly focused on the contents of integrated public law criteria,common public law features and general public law rules and so on;form its theoretical basis on the line of the relations between public power and the citizen privilege;establish its category structure found on the concept of public power and the derivative core and basic categories;and build up the disciplinary system based on the systematic integrity of the public law research results.

  2. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  3. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  4. PUBLIC LAW AS A VICTIM OF THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS VACARELU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day of 2009 has a common speech: economic crisis and its consequences, not only in economic topics, but also in few others domains, connected with the real economy.However, in this public speech, it was a problem: we must find a guilty element, because it must be someone who was not able to function correct, to not respect some rules that was good many years, but not in first years of 21st century. And, as always, every specialist and whole political class offered an answer. But this is not enough: a crisis has not only causes, but t has its victims.The globalization was one of them; human rights – in few states, young generation is a perpetual victim. In legal branch, the consequences were much simple: private law (banking law and commercial law didn’t suffer too much, but public law – because whole eyes were settled in this direction – felt this pressure. State intervention in the economy was considered not really political correct, not really a benefit for economies, but something necessary. In fact, public law was considered only a reserve. In this case, can we speak about a delegitimization of public law? Is the purpose of public law available for 21st century or it become now only a simple reserve, necessary only to solve the “side-slip” of the private law? And, because the connection between private law and the economy is too strong, can we see now the public law as a victim of the economy?

  5. Expanding Newton Mechanics with Neutrosophy and Quadstage Method ──New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal

  6. Pecularities of Afghanistan’s criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Omirzhanov Yesbol; Seraj Qutbul Arefin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the peculiarities of Afghanistan’s criminal law. It includes brief information about criminal law of Afghanistan, afghan penal code, the role of Shari’a and its relationship with the criminal law of Afghanistan. Also, this article discusses the core components of the afghan criminal law: the elements of a crime, criminal liability, punishment, and crimes proscribed under Afghan law. Some recommendations are focused in the article to remove the weak points and problems o...

  7. Hiding dependence-discovery of F-hiding laws and system laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Houyong; Huang Shunliang; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    Function one direction S-rough sets have dynamic characteristics and law characteristics. By using the function one direction S-rough sets, this article presents the concepts of the f-hiding law, F-hiding law, f-hiding law dependence and F-hiding law dependence. Based on the concepts above, this article proposes the hiding-dependence theorem of f-hiding laws, the hiding-dependence theorem of F-hiding laws, the hiding-dependence separation theorem, the hiding dependencs-discovery principle of unknown laws. Finally, the application of the hiding dependence of hiding laws in the discovery of system laws is given.

  8. Scaling Laws of Polyelectrolyte Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Borukhov, I.; Andelman, D.; Orland, H.

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption of charged polymers (polyelectrolytes) from a semi-dilute solution to a charged surface is investigated theoretically. We obtain simple scaling laws for (i) the amount of polymer adsorbed to the surface, Gamma, and (ii) the width of the adsorbed layer D, as function of the fractional charge per monomer p and the salt concentration c_b. For strongly charged polyelectrolytes (p

  9. Improving Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law and Gauss's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development and evaluation of five research-based tutorials on Coulomb's law, superposition, symmetry and Gauss's Law to help students in the calculus-based introductory physics courses learn these concepts. We discuss the performance of students on the pre-/post-tests given before and after the tutorials in three calculus-based introductory physics courses. We also discuss the performance of students who used the tutorials and those who did not use it on a multiple-choice test which employs concepts covered in the tutorials.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  12. The stagnation of international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelyn, Joost; Wessel, R.A.; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional international law and its instruments are stagnating both in terms of quantity and quality. New, alternative forms of cross-border cooperation, in particular processes of informal international lawmaking, have emerged and gained prominence since the 2000s in response to an increasingly d

  13. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  14. Global Expansion of International Branch Campuses: Managerial and Leadership Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author outlines the growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) over the past fifty years and discusses some of the major management and leadership challenges associated with creating and sustaining IBCs. Part one of the chapter provides a discussion of the global expansion of IBCs. The second part focuses on the…

  15. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Kim; P.D. Iedema

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties i

  16. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  17. A Perspective on the Future of Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Branch campuses can thrive in the extremely competitive environment of higher education, because of their commitment to access and their relatively low cost of operation. Success, however, depends on understanding the preferences of adult learners and other place bound students. With targeted programs, focused services, careful financial…

  18. Law of Conservation of Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  19. A Critical Reassessment of the Hess–Murray Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sciubba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hess–Murray law is a correlation between the radii of successive branchings in bi/trifurcated vessels in biological tissues. First proposed by the Swiss physiologist and Nobel laureate Walter Rudolf Hess in his 1914 doctoral thesis and published in 1917, the law was “rediscovered” by the American physiologist Cecil Dunmore Murray in 1926. The law is based on the assumption that blood or lymph circulation in living organisms is governed by a “work minimization” principle that—under a certain set of specified conditions—leads to an “optimal branching ratio” of r i + 1 r i = 1 2 3 = 0.7937 . This “cubic root of 2” correlation underwent extensive theoretical and experimental reassessment in the second half of the 20th century, and the results indicate that—under a well-defined series of conditions—the law is sufficiently accurate for the smallest vessels (r of the order of fractions of millimeter but fails for the larger ones; moreover, it cannot be successfully extended to turbulent flows. Recent comparisons with numerical investigations of branched flows led to similar conclusions. More recently, the Hess–Murray law came back into the limelight when it was taken as a founding paradigm of the Constructal Law, a theory that employs physical intuition and mathematical reasoning to derive “optimal paths” for the transport of matter and energy between a source and a sink, regardless of the mode of transportation (continuous, like in convection and conduction, or discrete, like in the transportation of goods and people. This paper examines the foundation of the law and argues that both for natural flows and for engineering designs, a minimization of the irreversibility under physically sound boundary conditions leads to somewhat different results. It is also shown that, in the light of an exergy-based resource analysis, an amended version of the Hess–Murray law may still hold an important position in engineering and

  20. Optimal enforcement of competition law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motchenkova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent theoretical developments in the field of antitrust law enforcement, much still needs to be done in order to prevent collusion and price-fixing in the major indiustries. Although penalties were recently increased considerably and new instruments of cartel deterrence such as lenienc

  1. The Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  2. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  3. The character of physical law: seeking new laws

    CERN Multimedia

    BBC TV Science & Features

    1965-01-01

    In this series of Messenger Lectures given at Cornell University, Nobel Prize winning theoretical physicist Richard Feynman explores physical principles and the study of physics. In this talk Dr. Feynman considers our knowledge of the p hysical world and looks at the art of guessing as a useful method for discovering new physical laws.

  4. Globalization And Its Influence On The Development Of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author researches questions of globalization impact on the international law. Author notes that today it is possible to talk about the new phase of globalization that is associated with the development of bilateral regional agreements, as well as changes in the configuration of the trade and political landscape. In the article author also reveals the essence of processes that determine development of international law in the century of globalization. Along with the formation of a new branch of law - integration law, which is a kind of legal mechanism to govern global public relations, development of modern public law is determined by the changing of nature of production and international specialization, as well as multinational corporations. In the conclusion author points out possibility of the own monetary system creation in the integration community, even in the format of multi-speed integration, what allows EU member states together confront to dollar and yuan, what contributes to the achievement of their national interests in the economic sphere, therefore, legal mechanism established the European Union takes into account both regional and economic aspects that are associated with the process of globalization. With new trends in the development of modern international law it is necessary to develop advanced models of legal regulation for processes caused by globalization.

  5. An asymptotic analysis of closed queueing networks with branching populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, N.; Coffman, E.G.; Kogan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Closed queueing networks have proven to be valuable tools for system performance analysis. In this paper, we broaden the applications of such networks by incorporating populations of {em branching customers: whenever a customer completes service at some node of the network, it is replaced by N>=0 cu

  6. The role of branched endografts in preserving internal iliac arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielliu, I. F. J.; Bos, W. T. G. J.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Prins, T. R.; Van den Dungen, J. J. A. M.; Verhoeven, E. L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to report our treatment algorithm and early results with the use of an iliac branched device (IBD) to preserve the internal iliac artery (IIA) in the treatment of aortoiliac and solitary common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms. Methods. From September 2004 on, all patients

  7. Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrinov, Yu M [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Mahfouzi, F [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, PO Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented.

  8. Branching in current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2007-02-01

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented.

  9. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  10. Ring-shaped variation of the coeliac trunk branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, A; Pynadath, N; Anguswamy, N; Vallath, S; Kordali, P; Stirling, A

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant arterial variations in the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk are of great interest to surgeons and radiologists. We report on a rare arterial variation found in a 79-year-old cadaver during educational dissection. Specifically, the coeliac axis formed a unique incomplete trunk termed the hepato-hepatic trunk. The splenic artery arose separately from the anterior aspect of the abdominal aorta. On the right side, there was a right hepatic artery giving rise to a gastroduodenal but an absence of the left hepatic. On the left side, there was a branch coursing towards the porta hepatis; the left hepatic artery, dividing into the left gastric, an accessory left gastric, and a branch to the distal oesophagus. The hepato-hepatic trunk formed a ring-shaped vascular structure around the caudate lobe of the liver. Precise mapping and observation of the extrahepatic arteries and bile duct branches is essential in a variety of hepato-biliary laparoscopic procedures of the liver and gallbladder. Other operative procedures requiring, a comprehensive kno-wledge of the varied coeliac trunk patterns are liver transplantation and arterial embolism for hepatic tumour therapy. PMID:26620519

  11. Religious law versus secular law The example of the get refusal in Dutch, English and Israeli law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blois, M. de

    2010-01-01

    The tension between religious law and secular law in modern democracies is illustrated in this article by a discussion of the different approaches to the get (a bill of divorce) refusal (based on Jewish law) under Dutch, English and Israeli law. These legal orders share many characteristics, but als

  12. One anlytic form for four branches of the ABCD matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Baskal, S

    2010-01-01

    It is not always possible to diagonalize the optical $ABCD$ matrix, but it can be brought into one of the four Wigner matrices by a similarity transformation. It is shown that the four Wigner matrices can be combined into one matrix with four branches. This result is illustrated in terms of optical activities, laser cavities, and multilayer optics.

  13. Fluctuation induces evolutionary branching in a mathematical model of ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Ecological systems are always subjected to various environmental fluctuations. They evolve under these fluctuations and the resulting systems are robust against them. The diversity in ecological systems is also acquired through the evolution. How do the fluctuations affect the evolutionary processes? Do the fluctuations have direct impact on the species diversity in ecological systems? In the present paper, we investigate the relation between the environmental fluctuation and the evolution of species diversity with a mathematical model of evolutionary ecology. In the model, individual organisms compete for a single restricted resource and the temporal fluctuation in the resource supply is introduced as the environmental fluctuation. The evolutionary process is represented by the mutational change of genotypes which determines their resource utilization strategies. We found that when the environmental state is switched form static to fluctuating conditions, the initial closely related population distributed around the genotype adapted for the static environment is destabilized and divided into two groups in the genotype space; i.e., the evolutionary branching is induced by the environmental fluctuation. The consequent multiple species structures is evolutionary stable at the presence of the fluctuation. We perform the evolutionary invasion analysis for the phenomena and illustrate the mechanisms of the branchings. The results indicate a novel process of increasing the species diversity via evolutionary branching, and the analysis reveals the mechanisms of the branching process as the response to the environmental fluctuation. The robustness of the evolutionary process is also discussed.

  14. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  15. A Measurement of the Tau Topological Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Bellunato, T F; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bilenky, S M; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bol, J L; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Chung, S H; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Croix, J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Davenport, M; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Ghodbane, N; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hertz, O; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kurowska, J; Lamsa, J; Laugier, J P; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Merle, E; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Morettini, P; Morton, G; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwanda, C; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Sette, G; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zumerle, G; Zupan, M

    2001-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP-1, measurements of the inclusive tau branching ratios for decay modes containing one, three, or five charged particles have been performed, giving the following results: B_1 = B(\\tau^- -> (particle)^- \\geq 0pi^0 \\geq 0K^0 \

  16. THE USE OF LAW INFORMATION SOURCES IN LEGAL RESEARCH BY NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES LAW STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the law information sources used in legal research among undergraduate law students in Nigeria universities. Twelve faculty of law libraries were purposively selected from among the thirty four universities that offer law in the country. In all, 1534 law students were randomly selected from the total population of 7219 registered law students at the time of this study. A descriptive survey method was used to obtain open and close ended data from law students, 82% respon...

  17. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  18. Theoretical update of the semileptonic branching ratio of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reconsider the prediction of the semileptonic branching ratio of B mesons, using a recent calculation of the radiative corrections with account for finite quark masses in nonleptonic decays and taking into account 1/mb2 corrections. For the semileptonic branching ratio we obtain BSL=(11.8±1.6)% using pole quark masses and BSL=(11.0±1.9)% using running anti M anti S quark masses. The uncertainty is dominated by unknown higher oder perturbative corrections. We conclude that the present accuracy of the theoretical analysis does not allow to state a significant disagreement with the experimental results. However, our re-analysis of the decay b→ccs yields an increase of (35±11)% due to next-to-leading order corrections including mass dependent terms, which further emphasizes the problem of the average charm quark content of the final state in B decays. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of a Branch of the Phylogenetic Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Stuart; Weng, Gezhi

    2005-01-01

    We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a ``tortoise and hare effect'': Those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree ...

  20. FEATURES OF THE UNWRITTEN SOURCES OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    There are three sources of European Union law: primary law, secondary law and supplementary law. Besides the case law of the Court of Justice, supplementary law includes international law and the general principles of law. It has enabled the Court to bridge the gaps left by primary and/or secondary law. International law is a source of inspiration for the Court of Justice when developing its case law. The Court cites written law, custom and usage. General principles of law are unwritten sourc...

  1. Newtons law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Newton, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  2. A law of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries have a right to economic growth, and to achieve that they need energy. Without it they cannot bring about poverty reduction or meet the Millennium Development Goals. Two billion people have no access to modern forms of energy. Private enterprise cannot operate without it. Research shows that recurrent power outages inflict severe financial damage on businesses. And schools and health care institutions can clearly provide better services if they have access to power supplies. At the same time, we have to realize that our growing energy consumption is already causing environmental and health problems and damaging our economies. Poorer populations tend to use wood and charcoal as their main energy sources, but indoor wood fires lead to health difficulties, especially among women and children. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 1.6 million people die every year as a result of indoor air pollution. Use of fossil fuels for large-scale power generation and transport is also a source of air pollution, especially in cities in developing countries. According to the World Energy Assessment (2000), urban air pollution caused primarily by emissions from fossil fuels and motorized transport leads to around 800,000 deaths a year worldwide. Consumption of fossil fuels also leads to emissions of the greenhouse gases that cause climate change. More effort is needed to promote the use of renewable energy sources, so that they can eventually meet a greater proportion of our needs. For the next 30 to 50 years, however, there will be no realistic prospect of meeting all of our energy requirements through renewables. So we must also work on energy efficiency, cleaner fuels and modern fossil fuels

  3. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  4. Branched Polymers via ROMP of Termimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanik, Nils; Kilbinger, Andreas F M

    2016-03-01

    Today's olefin metathesis catalysts show high reactivity, selectivity, and functional group tolerance and allow the design of new syntheses of precisely functionalized polymers. Here the synthesis of a new end-capping reagent is investigated allowing the introduction of a highly reactive activated ester end-group at the polymer chain end as well as its prefunctionalization to directly introduce functional moieties. The versatility of this new end-capping reagent is demonstrated by utilizing it to synthesize a so-called termimer (a monomer with termination capabilities). Copolymerization of a norbornene derivative with the termimer leads to hyperbranched ring-opening metathesis polymerization polymers as proven by gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-ToF-(matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight) mass spectrometry. PMID:26787265

  5. Breakup branches of Borromean beryllium-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R., E-mail: r.smith.3@pgr.bham.ac.uk; Freer, M.; Wheldon, C.; Curtis, N.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Ziman, V. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Bucher, B.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Jung, F.; Lu, W.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P. [Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Copp, P.; Lesher, S. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    The breakup reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 4}He, 3α)n was measured using an array of four double-sided silicon strip detectors at beam energies of 22 and 26 MeV. Excited states in {sup 9}Be up to 12 MeV were populated and reconstructed through the measurement of the charged reaction products. It is proposed that limits on the spins and parities of the states can be derived from the way that they decay. Various breakup paths for excited states in {sup 9}Be have been explored including the {sup 8}Be{sub g.s.} + n, {sup 8}Be{sub 2{sup +}} + n and {sup 5}He{sub g.s.} + {sup 4}He channels. By imposing the condition that the breakup proceeded via the {sup 8}Be ground state, clean excitation spectra for {sup 9}Be were reconstructed. The remaining two breakup channels were found to possess strongly-overlapping kinematic signatures and more sophisticated methods (referenced) are required to completely disentangle these other possibilities. Emphasis is placed on the development of the experimental analysis and the usefulness of Monte-Carlo simulations for this purpose.

  6. Treatment of surrogacyin Comparative Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Ruiz SÁENZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress in the life sciences and medicine driven by modern advances and discoveries of science and technology has led to the development of assisted reproductive technology as a solution to the problem of infertility, replacing adoption as a traditional alternative to biological parenthood. In this context, deserves special mention surrogacy by the disputes generated from a social standpoint, ethical, legal and biomedical. The disparate regulation of this practice into national law has led to the “reproductive tourism”, that is, the transfer of couples from countries where the practice of surrogacy is illegal in other countries where the practice is legal, leading private international law issues relating to the recognition of the parentage of children born through the use of these techniques.

  7. Design of a Sapling Branch Grafting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic sapling grafting methods and grafting robot technologies are not comprehensively studied despite the fact that they are urgently required in practice. For this reason, a sapling grafting robot is developed to implement automatic grafting for saplings. The developed grafting robot includes clipping mechanism, moving mechanism, cutting mechanism, binding mechanism, and Arduino MCU based control system, which is capable of clipping, moving, positioning, cutting, grafting, and binding saplings. Experiments show that the stock cutting efficiency is 98.4%, the scion cutting efficiency is 98.9%, the grafting efficiency is 87.3%, and the binding efficiency is 68.9%.

  8. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  9. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P

    2006-01-01

    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  10. Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...

  11. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ)+〈Q〉_{F|m}≥0, where ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρ_{m} and 〈Q〉_{F|m} is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples. PMID:27627241

  12. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M.; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as Δ H (ρm,ρ ) + F |m≥0 , where Δ H (ρm,ρ ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρm and F |m is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples.

  13. Electrophoretic dynamics of self-assembling branched DNA structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Daniel Milton

    This study advances our understanding of the electrophoretic dynamics of branched biopolymers and explores technologies designed to exploit their unique properties. New self-assembly techniques were developed to create branched DNA for visualization via fluorescence microscopy. Experiments in fixed gel networks reveal a distinct trapping behavior, in contrast with linear topologies. The finding that detection can be achieved by introducing a branch point contributes significantly to the field of separation science and can be exploited to develop new applications. Results obtained in polymer solutions point to identical mobilities for branched and linear topologies, despite large differences in their dynamics. This finding led to a new description of electrophoresis based on non-Newtonian viscoelastic effects in the electric double layer surrounding a charged object. This new theoretical framework presents a new outlook important not only to the electrophoretic physics of nucleic acids, but all charged objects including proteins, colloids, and nanoparticles. To study the behavior of smaller biopolymers, such as restriction fragments and recombination intermediates, a library of symmetrically branched DNA was synthesized followed by characterization in gels. The experimental results contribute a large body of information relating molecular architecture and the dynamics of rigid structures in an electric field. The findings allow us to create new separation technologies based on topology. These contributions can also be utilized in a number of different applications including the study of recombination intermediates and the separation of proteins according to structure. To demonstrate the importance of these findings, a sequence and mutation detection technique was envisioned and applied for genetic analysis. Restriction fragments from mutation "hotspots" in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, known to play a role in cancer development, were analyzed with this technique

  14. State responsibility and right to health in Brazil: a balance of the Branches' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Lima, Luciana Dias

    2009-01-01

    The 1988 Federal Constitution set forth a new political-institutional moment in Brazil reasserting the Democratic State and defining a broad social protection policy including health as a social citizenship right. Since its promulgation, a great number of laws, ministerial decrees and administrative actions have attempted to make feasible the political project outlined in the Constitution. On the other hand, in the same period, the number of legal orders regarding health related demands has increased. Such a movement has revealed inconsistencies and contradictions in the legal and normative scope of SUS (Unified Health System), as well as problems not calculated by health policies, questioning the Executive Branch's actions and creating a new demand for legislation. This article discusses the role of the State in health as of 1990, considering the action of the Branches. The perspectives on the right to health in the construction of a democratic State oriented to social wellbeing, facing the challenges related to coordination mechanisms and balance among Branches in the health issue, are discussed.

  15. Two types of conservation laws. Connection of physical fields with material systems. Peculiarities of field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova, L I

    2008-01-01

    Historically it happen so that in branches of physics connected with field theory and of physics of material systems (continuous media) the concept of "conservation laws" has a different meaning. In field theory "conservation laws" are those that claim the existence of conservative physical quantities or objects. These are conservation laws for physical fields. In contrast to that in physics (and mechanics) of material systems the concept of "conservation laws" relates to conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and mass that establish the balance between the change of physical quantities and external action. In the paper presented it is proved that there exist a connection between of conservation laws for physical fields and those for material systems. This points to the fact that physical fields are connected with material systems. Such results has an unique significance for field theories. This enables one to substantiate many basic principles of field theories, such as, for example...

  16. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  17. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically with...... one of the product channels. The selectivity is achieved by irradiating the aligned molecules with light polarized parallel or perpendicular to the polarization axis of the alignment laser....

  18. The concept and importance of medical law

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević Branislava; Segedi Dimitrije

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Medical law is a scientific discipline which has not been affirmed in our country, but at law schools in many developed countries it has gained the status of a separate scientific discipline and today it is studied with multidisciplinary cooperation of Schools of Medicine, Schools of Dentistry and Schools of Pharmacy. Generally speaking, medical law concerns the rights and duties of the medical profession. Ethics and legal questions of medical law. The progress of scientific res...

  19. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  20. Higher order branching of periodic orbits from polynomial isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the higher order local bifurcations of limit cycles from polynomial isochrones (linearizable centers when the linearizing transformation is explicitly known and yields a polynomial perturbation one-form. Using a method based on the relative cohomology decomposition of polynomial one-forms complemented with a step reduction process, we give an explicit formula for the overall upper bound of branch points of limit cycles in an arbitrary $n$ degree polynomial perturbation of the linear isochrone, and provide an algorithmic procedure to compute the upper bound at successive orders. We derive a complete analysis of the nonlinear cubic Hamiltonian isochrone and show that at most nine branch points of limit cycles can bifurcate in a cubic polynomial perturbation. Moreover, perturbations with exactly two, three, four, six, and nine local families of limit cycles may be constructed.

  1. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  2. The genealogy of branching Brownian motion with absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Berestycki, Julien; Schweinsberg, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We consider a system of particles which perform branching Brownian motion with negative drift and are killed upon reaching zero, in the near-critical regime where the total population stays roughly constant with approximately N particles. We show that the characteristic time scale for the evolution of this population is of order (log N)^3, in the sense that when time is measured in these units, the scaled number of particles converges to a variant of Neveu's continuous-state branching process. Furthermore, the genealogy of the particles is then governed by a coalescent process known as the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent. This validates the non-rigorous predictions by Brunet, Derrida, Muller, and Munier for a closely related model.

  3. Some distance bounds of branching processes and their diffusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kammerer, Niels B

    2010-01-01

    We compute exact values respectively bounds of "distances" - in the sense of (transforms of) power divergences and relative entropy - between two discrete-time Galton-Watson branching processes with immigration GWI for which the offspring as well as the immigration is arbitrarily Poisson-distributed (leading to arbitrary type of criticality). Implications for asymptotic distinguishability behaviour in terms of contiguity and entire separation of the involved GWI are given, too. Furthermore, we determine the corresponding limit quantities for the context in which the two GWI converge to Feller-type branching diffusion processes, as the time-lags between observations tend to zero. Some applications to (static random environment like) Bayesian decision making and Neyman-Pearson testing are presented as well.

  4. Precision measurement of the $D^{*0}$ decay branching fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, Y; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, H P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, R Q; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Pu, Y N; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ren, H L; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2014-01-01

    Using 482 pb$^{-1}$ of data taken at $\\sqrt{s}=4.009$ GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of $D^{*0}$ into $D^0\\pi^0$ and $D^0\\gamma$ to be $\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\pi^0)=(65.5\\pm 0.8\\pm 0.5)%$ and $\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\gamma)=(34.5\\pm 0.8\\pm 0.5)%$ respectively, by assuming that the $D^{*0}$ decays only into these two modes. The ratio of the two branching fractions is $\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\pi^0)/\\BR(D^{*0} \\to D^0\\gamma) =1.90\\pm 0.07\\pm 0.05$, which is independent of the assumption made above. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones systematic. The precision is improved by a factor of three compared to the present world average values.

  5. The international environmental law of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The author puts the question of whether the international environmental law can be called an international law of cooperation and examines its particular features and the available instruments for transboundary cooperation on various levels. (Orig./CB)

  6. Abuse of rights in Community Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights......The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...

  7. Fractal Dimension of Randomly Branched Polymers in a Good Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴信武; 张书文; 王海军; 王素娟; 韩颖慧

    2002-01-01

    We propose a concept of subchains for randomly branched polymers. As a direct application of this concept,the asymptotic expression of the average mean square radius of gyration is determined to give the fractal dimensions, in which the excluded volume effect is taken into consideration. Furthermore, we investigate a scaling relation that is associated with the Flory exponent v, the fractal dimension df and the polydispersity exponent τ.

  8. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    OpenAIRE

    Jovana Rančić; Nemanja Rančić; Nemanja Majstorović; Vladimir Biočanin; Marko Milosavljević; Mihajlo Jakovljević

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was...

  9. Variant Branching Pattern of Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy Ravindra Shantakumar; Mohandas Rao, K. G.

    2012-01-01

    During routine dissection of an approximately 50-year-old male cadaver for the undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, we came across a variation in branching pattern of right axillary artery. The second part of axillary artery gave rise to a common trunk which divided into the subscapular and lateral thoracic arteries. The third part of right axillary artery gave rise to anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. Variations in t...

  10. Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with limi

  11. Branching Fraction Measurement of B to omega l nu decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

    2012-06-13

    We present a measurement of the B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu} branching fraction based on a sample of 467 million B{bar B} pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe 1041 {+-} 133 signal decays, corresponding to a branching fraction of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.15 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The dependence of the decay rate on q{sup 2}, the momentum transfer squared to the lepton system, is compared to QCD predictions of the form factors based on a quark model and light-cone sum rules.

  12. Representational Similarity Analysis – Connecting the Branches of Systems Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Bandettini, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g., single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). ...

  13. Measurement of the B -> D(*)D(*)K Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, P.del Amo

    2010-12-16

    The authors present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons to {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K, where the D{sup (*)} and {bar D}{sup (*)} mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (3.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.24)% and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (4.05 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb{sup -1} of data containing 471 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  14. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non......-randomized, interventional case study of the surgical sheathotomy decompression procedure. We enrolled 12 patients (seven women, five men; median age 64 years) with BRVO and decreased visual acuity (VA) caused by haemorrhage, oedema and ischaemia. The mean duration of thrombosis was 7 months (2-15 months). The patients were...

  15. Simulated lipoprotein transport in the wall of branched arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbeau, M Z; Lutz, R J; Collins, W E

    2000-01-01

    Study of arterial blood flow dynamics improves our understanding of the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The transport and accumulation of macromolecules in the arterial wall can be influenced by local fluid mechanics. We used numeric simulations to investigate such transport in a T-junction model. Presumably an in vitro experiment would consist of gel segments inserted in the walls of a mechanical flow T-junction model near branch points where separation and recirculation zones are expected. The transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated theoretically at these sites in a two dimensional numeric T-branch model. In the numeric model, the hydraulic conductivity of the porous gel wall segments was varied for a fixed species diffusivity to provide simulations with wall transmural Peclet numbers ranging from 0.3 to 30. Steady state flow patterns in the lumen of the two dimensional T-branch were simulated at Reynolds numbers of 250 and 500, using the software package FIDAP 7.61 to implement the finite element method. The simulations demonstrated that wall Peclet numbers greater than 1.0 were needed to achieve species concentration gradients within the wall that varied in the axial direction, thereby reflecting the influence of disturbed flow and pressure patterns in the lumen. As expected, the transmural concentration gradients were steeper when convection predominated. Blood flow in the lumen can influence the distribution of macromolecules in the arterial wall and needs to be investigated for the relevance to atherosclerosis.

  16. Some Economics of Trade Secret Law

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, David D; William M. Landes; Posner, Richard A

    1991-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of trade secrets to the business community, the law of trade secrets is a neglected orphan in economic analysis. This paper sketches an approach to the economics of trade secret law that connects it more closely both to other areas of intellectual property and to broader issues in the positive economic theory of the common law.

  17. Property Tax Laws of Texas. A Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jay D., Jr.

    This booklet is basically a summary of a law book on the same subject by the same author. Although the 25 chapters of the larger work correspond directly to the chapters of the summary, this publication is not a law book in the usual sense. Rather, it is intended primarily to provide a simplified view of the property tax laws of Texas for tax…

  18. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  19. First measurement of the Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, M; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, D; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, J M; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow, H; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, H W; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J; Tovey, Stuart N

    1979-01-01

    In an experiment in the CERN-SPS charged-hyperon beam, the main Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios have been measured to be Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Lambda K/sup -/)/ Gamma (all)=0.686+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/ pi /sup -/)/ Gamma (all) =0.234+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)/ Gamma (all)=0.080+or-0.008. The relative branching ratio of the two Xi pi modes provides a test of the Delta I=1/2 rule in decuplet-octet transitions. A search has also been made for the rare decay modes Omega /sup -/ to Lambda pi /sup -/, Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ gamma , Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/e/sup -/ nu . (6 refs).

  20. Measurement of the Branching Fraction for B- --->D0 K*-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Simani, M C; Cheng, C H

    2003-12-30

    The authors present a measurement of the branching fraction for the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0} K{sup *-} using a sample of approximately 86 million B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector from e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The D{sup 0} is detected through its decays to K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, and the K{sup *-} through its decay to K{sub S}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}. They measure the branching fraction to be {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}K{sup *-}) = (6.3 {+-} 0.7(stat.){+-}0.5(syst.)) x 10{sup -4}.

  1. One rule to grow them all: a general theory of neuronal branching and its practical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Cuntz

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing axonal and dendritic branching is essential for unravelling the functionality of single neurons and the way in which they connect. Nevertheless, no formalism has yet been described which can capture the general features of neuronal branching. Here we propose such a formalism, which is derived from the expression of dendritic arborizations as locally optimized graphs. Inspired by Ramón y Cajal's laws of conservation of cytoplasm and conduction time in neural circuitry, we show that this graphical representation can be used to optimize these variables. This approach allows us to generate synthetic branching geometries which replicate morphological features of any tested neuron. The essential structure of a neuronal tree is thereby captured by the density profile of its spanning field and by a single parameter, a balancing factor weighing the costs for material and conduction time. This balancing factor determines a neuron's electrotonic compartmentalization. Additions to this rule, when required in the construction process, can be directly attributed to developmental processes or a neuron's computational role within its neural circuit. The simulations presented here are implemented in an open-source software package, the "TREES toolbox," which provides a general set of tools for analyzing, manipulating, and generating dendritic structure, including a tool to create synthetic members of any particular cell group and an approach for a model-based supervised automatic morphological reconstruction from fluorescent image stacks. These approaches provide new insights into the constraints governing dendritic architectures. They also provide a novel framework for modelling and analyzing neuronal branching structures and for constructing realistic synthetic neural networks.

  2. [Expertise in the context of criminal law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermylen, Yvo

    2005-01-01

    The procedures of expert investigations in criminal law are different from those in civil law. Being an expert in criminal law investigations assumes thorough knowledge of dentistry, forensic investigations and of rules and procedures to follow. Adequate training and continuous education are mandatory.

  3. From Subsidiary to Branch Organization of International Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Lawrence; Sweeney, Richard J.; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    with the intention to reap economies of scale and scope by providing services in an integrated organization. Nordea has so far operated under a legal structure with subsidiaries in the host countries. When the new branch organization is implemented, EU directives specify that the home country is responsible...... institutional foundations for substantial market discipline in banking. In particular, distress resolution and insolvency procedures for banks must be made rule based and credible for host country authorities to accept home country control....

  4. Stability of Branched Flow from a Quantum Point Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bo; Heller, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    In classically chaotic systems, small differences in initial conditions are exponentially magnified over time. However, it was observed experimentally that the (necessarily quantum) "branched flow" pattern of electron flux from a quantum point contact (QPC) traveling over a random background potential in two-dimensional electron gases(2DEGs) remains substantially invariant to large changes in initial conditions. Since such a potential is classically chaotic and unstable to changes in initial ...

  5. Introduction. Coleridge and the Rule of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Michael John KOOY

    2013-01-01

    Coleridge and law? Of all the professions Coleridge had dealings with during the course of his life – poetry, divinity, journalism, education, medicine – he had least patience with law. Though, as a young man, he once contemplated taking up law, and later regretted not having done so, he tended to regard law as a profession driven by an anti-metaphysical bias, a prejudice that acquaintances like the jurists James Mackintosh and John Stoddart probably did little to dispel (Henry Crabb Robinson...

  6. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  7. The unique branching patterns of Deinococcus glycogen branching enzymes are determined by their N-terminal domains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce alpha-1,6 branching points in alpha-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus radiodu

  8. INFLUENCES OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND BRANCHING PARAMETER OF LACQUER POLYSACCHARIDE ON THE GROWTH OF LEUCOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lina; DING Qiong

    1995-01-01

    A method of determining branching parameter of lacquer polysaccharide was established by acid-base back-titration of terminal uronic acid of branches. The branching factors obtained are in agreement with the values determined by colorimetric method with carbazole and the results estimated by using Zimm-Stockmayer equation from viscosity data. Influences of molecular weights and branching factors of five fractions of lacquer polysaccharide on the bioactivities were studied. The results show that the polysaccharides have bioactivities in motivating the growth of leucocytes, and the effect increases with the decrease of molecular weight and branching factor in the range studied(17×104>Mw>4×104).

  9. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2005-01-01

    . Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively....... This resulted in a branched hexasaccharide and a branched tetrasoccharide. alpha-Amylases from Asperagillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sp. cleaved the decasoccharide at two distinct sites, either producing two branched pentasoccharides, or a branched hexasoccharide and a branched...

  10. The Assesment of the Effects of Unjust Provocation on Extra Good Time in Islamic Crimınal-Law.

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Hadi; ÇOLAK, Mehmet; Gökbayır, Sema

    2012-01-01

    States establish legistlatory laws in order to ensure social peace and to provide canfidance and of safety people. The criminal laws takes an important place on stating, implementation and continuity of this rules. The criminal law focus on criminal while other law branches takes the crime as a base and focus on it. Almost in every law sistems the psychology of the criminal on the items that push him into crime is very important. The psychology of the criminal and the style of commiting crime...

  11. Branching Fraction Measurements of B ->etac K Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We study the decays B+ -> etac K+ and B0 -> etac K0, where the etac is reconstructed in the Ks K+ pi- and K+ K- pi0 decay modes. Results are based on a sample of 86 million BBbar pairs collected with the BaBar detector at the SLAC e+e- B Factory. We measure the branching fractions BR(B+ -> etac K+) = (1.34 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.41) x 10^{-3} and BR(B0 -> etac K0) = (1.18 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.13 +/- 0.37) x 10^{-3}, where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third reflects the etac branching fraction uncertainty. In addition, we search for B -> etac K events with etac -> 2(K+K-) and etac -> phi phi and determine the etac decay branching fraction ratios BR(etac -> 2(K+K-))/BR(etac -> K Kbar pi) = (2.3 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^{-2} and BR(etac -> phi phi)/BR(etac -> K Kbar pi) = (5.5 +/- 1.4 +/- 0.5) x 10^{-2}.

  12. The Integration of Women into Law Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Elena N.

    The integration of women into law school faculties was studied to determine the interrelationships among cultural, institutional, and individual influences. Currently available data on women's representation in law schools were analyzed, and data were collected from a national law faculty recruitment conference and through on-site visits to 10 law…

  13. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  14. Characteristics of the T-junction with the equal diameters of all branches for the variable angle of the adjacent branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štigler, Jaroslav; Klas, Roman; Šperka, Oldřich

    2014-03-01

    Basic aim of this paper is to bring out the characteristics of the T-junctions. T-junction consists of the one straight pipe and the adjacent branch which can be inclined under various angle γ. These characteristics were done for the T-junctions with equal diameters of all branches and for five different angles of the adjacent branch. There is also included comparison between characteristics obtained by the numerical calculation and by the experiment in this paper.

  15. Properties of the glucan branching enzyme of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus

    OpenAIRE

    van der Maarel, MJEC; de Vos, A.; Sanders, P.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Glucan branching enzymes are responsible for the synthesis of alpha(1-->6) glycosidic bonds in glycogen and amylopectin. The glucan branching enzyme of the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus is the most thermoactive and thermostable glucan branching enzyme described. The gene encoding this glucan branching enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli and purified using gamma-cyclodextrin affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the enzyme was subjected to a biochemical characterization. The optimum tempe...

  16. Application of Ranganathans Laws to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Amoohosseini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: Does the Web save the time of the users? This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathans Five Laws of Library Science which inspired them

  17. Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: "Does the Web save the time of the users?" This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science which inspired them.

  18. Catalytic production of branched small alkanes from biohydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shin-ichi; Kanno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hideo; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-08-10

    Squalane, C30 algae-derived branched hydrocarbon, was successfully converted to smaller hydrocarbons without skeletal isomerization and aromatization over ruthenium on ceria (Ru/CeO2 ). The internal CH2 CH2 bonds located between branches are preferably dissociated to give branched alkanes with very simple distribution as compared with conventional methods using metal-acid bifunctional catalysts.

  19. Summary of activities of the Research Branch during 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view of the work performed during 1981 by CNEA's Research Branch in basic and applied research is provided. The information includes the main activities and achievements in: 1) Physics Department: Tandar Project; Technical Assistance and Engineering; Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics. 2) Reactor Chemistry Department: Chemical Control Division; Moderator and Coolant Physical-Chemistry Division; Radiation Chemistry Division. 3) Radiobiology Department: Radiation Pathology; Cellular Biology; Somatic Effects of the Ionizing Radiations; Genetics; Radiomicrobiology; Bioterium; Irradiation and Dosimetry Section, and, finally, in Biomathematics, Labelled Molecules and Radiochemistry. (M.E.L.)

  20. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  1. Circulations of Law: Colonial Precedents, Contemporary Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Iza Hussin

    2012-01-01

    While the project of law-making has seemed an obvious and inherent part of empire-building, and law-delivery has often been a justifying rationale for imperialism, this paper asks more detailed questions about the travels of law. How is a ‘universal’ law made ‘local’, and to what effect? How have past and contemporary legal delivery projects delineated between the categories of local and universal? Our analytic project, therefore, is not simply that law travels, but wi...

  2. Law and Justice in Community: The Significance of the Living Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Doyle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Law and Justice in Community provides an account of law that privileges the role of custom, which the authors characterise as the living law. In this paper, I argue that the authors' account of law observes the same features as those observed by Hart in his Concept of Law. However, Hart viewed all law through the lens of state law, with the result that he did not identify the purpose of law. Conversely, Barden and Murphy view all law through the lens of the living law, with the result that they do not identify some of the most acute issues raised by pervasive state law. Ultimately, each account is helpful as a corrective to the other.

  3. Summary of activities of the Research Branch during 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the activities performed during 1983 by the C.N.E.A.'s Research Branch in basic and applied research is given. The main activities and achievements obtained are shown in the following areas: 1) Physics Department: Tandar Project; Experimental Nuclear Physics; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Technical Assistance and Engineering. 2) Reactor's Chemistry Department with its divisions: Radiation Chemistry; Chemical Control; Moderator and Coolant Physical Chemistry. 3) Radiobiology Department: Radiation Pathology; Genetics; Molecular Genetics; Somatic Effects; Radiomicrobiology; Irradiation and Dosimetry; Bioterium. 4) Prospective Department and Special Studies; Nuclear Fusion and Solar Energy and also, Biomathematics; Labelled Molecules and Radiochemistry. (M.E.L.)

  4. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry's law constants (HLC are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs, solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014, an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  5. Hilbert series and mixed branches of $T[SU(N)]$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We consider mixed branches of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $T[SU(N)]$ theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both cases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  6. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  7. The Structure of European Food Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd M.J. van der Meulen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution lays bare the structure of EU food law as it appears from scholarly analysis at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. The structure of EU food law can be used as a framework for teaching, application, further analysis and comparison to food law approaches in other parts of the world. From this analysis, food law emerges as a functional area of law. Core elements are: (1 the objectives of EU food law to protect consumers’ interests; (2 the principles of risk analysis and precaution; (3 obligations on businesses regarding the products they place on the market, the processes they apply and their communication towards consumers; and (4 public powers of law enforcement and incident management.

  8. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into f...

  9. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the ...

  10. Infinite-Scale Percolation in a New Type of Branching Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhlumian, A.; Molchanov, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    We give an account of matter and (basically) a solution of a new class of problems synthesizing percolation theory and branching diffusion processes. They led us to realizing a novel type of stochastic processes, namely branching processes with diffusion on the space of parameters distinguishing the branching `particles' each other.

  11. Strigolactone Inhibition of Branching Independent of Polar Auxin Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Philip B; Dun, Elizabeth A; Gui, Renyi; Mason, Michael G; Beveridge, Christine A

    2015-08-01

    The outgrowth of axillary buds into branches is regulated systemically via plant hormones and the demand of growing shoot tips for sugars. The plant hormone auxin is thought to act via two mechanisms. One mechanism involves auxin regulation of systemic signals, cytokinins and strigolactones, which can move into axillary buds. The other involves suppression of auxin transport/canalization from axillary buds into the main stem and is enhanced by a low sink for auxin in the stem. In this theory, the relative ability of the buds and stem to transport auxin controls bud outgrowth. Here, we evaluate whether auxin transport is required or regulated during bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum). The profound, systemic, and long-term effects of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid had very little inhibitory effect on bud outgrowth in strigolactone-deficient mutants. Strigolactones can also inhibit bud outgrowth in N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid-treated shoots that have greatly diminished auxin transport. Moreover, strigolactones can inhibit bud outgrowth despite a much diminished auxin supply in in vitro or decapitated plants. These findings demonstrate that auxin sink strength in the stem is not important for bud outgrowth in pea. Consistent with alternative mechanisms of auxin regulation of systemic signals, enhanced auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can suppress branching in yucca1D plants compared with wild-type plants, but has no effect on bud outgrowth in a strigolactone-deficient mutant background. PMID:26111543

  12. Properties of Super-Poisson Processes and Super-Random Walks with Spatially Dependent Branching Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia REN

    2008-01-01

    The global supports of super-Poisson processes and super-random walks with a branching mechanism ψ(z)=z2 and constant branching rate are known to be noncompact. It turns out that, for any spatially dependent branching rate, this property remains true. However, the asymptotic extinction property for these two kinds of superprocesses depends on the decay rate of the branching-rate function at infinity.

  13. The design of an asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanglong; Qin, Jie; Guo, Wei; Fang, Kuang

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by the wing vein of Lepidoptera, a designment of asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling is developed. Lepidoptera vein D was chosen to measure the angle of first and second branch level. Based on these regular patterns, an asymmetric bionic branching channel is designed in a 35 mm × 35 mm chip. Comparing with fractal-like branching channel, it provides a stronger heat transfer capability, lower pressure drop and lower flow resistance in the experiment.

  14. THE EXISTENCE AND MOMENTS OF CANONICAL BRANCHING CHAIN IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪鹤

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of branching chain in random environmnet and canonical branching chain in random environment axe introduced. Moreover the existence of these chains is proved. Finally the exact formulas of mathematical expectation and variance of branching chain in random environment axe also given.

  15. The Fundamental Concept of a Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  16. Identification and carbon isotope composition of a novel branched GDGT isomer in lake sediments: Evidence for lacustrine branched GDGT production

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Y.; De Jonge, C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E. C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Schubert, C J; Lehmann, M.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Niemann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that occur ubiquitously in soils and lacustrine sediments and have great potential as proxy indicators for paleotemperature and pH reconstructions. Initially, brGDGTs in lakes were thought to originate from soils of the watershed. The composition of the lacustrine brGDGT pool, however, often differs substantially from that in catchment soils, complicating the application of the brGDGT paleothermometer to la...

  17. Evidence of Branching Phenomena in Current-Driven Ionization Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-10-01

    This Letter reports the first fully consistent experimental observations of current-driven ionization waves conforming to the magnetohydrodynamic Rankine-Hugoniot model for hydromagnetic shocks. Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic and electrodynamic plasma state variables across the ionization region confirm the existence of two types of waves, corresponding to the upper and lower solution branches of the Hugoniot curve. These waves are generated by pulsed currents in a coaxial gas-fed plasma accelerator. The coupling between the state variables of this complex, transient, three-dimensional system shows a remarkable quantitative agreement of less than 8% deviation from the quasisteady, one-dimensional theoretical model.

  18. Public Relations as Scientific Branch of Information and Communication Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the field of information and communication sciences is a young field in the social sciences, it is important to consider how technology impacts the development of this field. This is especially relevant when looking at the area of public relations. Amid changing technological developments public relations is constantly being redefined in this complex environment. This work focuses on the development of public relations as a branch of study in the field of information and communication sciences. I review the scientific methods used to evaluate the influence and effects of public relations, while discussing the different methodological approaches.

  19. Hard Decisons, Soft Laws : Exploring the authority and the political impact of soft law in international law

    OpenAIRE

    Genneby, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether there is soft law in international law has been as much the subject of contemporary debate as whether or not there is private legal authority in the international society. The legal boundaries seem to be blurred by the process of globalisation and the recent shift in international law. The traditional definition of international law has been outdated as new forms of treaties has introduced new subject of law to the judicial arena. At the same time a supplementary map o...

  20. Pulsation at the tip of the first giant branch?

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Y; Matsunaga, N; Nakajima, Y; Nagashima, C; Nagayama, T; Kato, D; Kurita, M; Nagata, T; Sato, S; Tamura, M; Nakaya, H; Nakada, Y; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanab\\'{e}, Toshihiko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Nakada, Yoshikazu

    2002-01-01

    The first results of our ongoing near-infrared (NIR) survey of the variable red giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) and the SIRIUS infrared camera, are presented. Many very red stars were detected and found that most of them are variables. In the observed colour-magnitude diagram ($J-K, K$) and the stellar $K$ magnitude distribution, the tip of the first giant branch (TRGB), where helium burning in the core starts, is clearly seen. Apart from the genuine AGB variables, we found many variable stars at luminosities around the TRGB. From this result, we infer that a substantial fraction of them are RGB variables.

  1. Challenge: Code of environmental law; Herausforderung Umweltgesetzbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Within the meeting ''Challenge: Code of environmental law'' at 16th February, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) and organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) the new code of environmental law as a contribution to more modernness and efficiency in the environmental politics (Sigmar Gabriel); (b) The code of environmental law from the view of the economy (Martin Wansleben); (c) Significance of the code of environmental law from the view of jurisprudence (Michael Kloepfer); (d) Targets, content and utility of the code of environmental law: Summary of the panel discussion (Tanja Goenner, Klaus Mittelbach, Juergen Resch, Hans-Joachim Koch, Alfred Wirtz, Andreas Troge (moderator)); (e) Considerations to the coding of water law in the code of environmental law (Helge Wendenburg); (f) Considerations to the coding of water law: Summary of te discussion; (g) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law (Jochen Flasbarth); (h) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law: Summary of the discussion.

  2. 31 CFR 359.71 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Miscellaneous Provisions § 359.71 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States... Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, 160 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14202 New York, Boston...

  3. 31 CFR 351.86 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Miscellaneous Provisions § 351.86 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States... Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, 160 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14202 New York, Boston...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix I to Part 1201 - Certification of Branch Line Accounting System Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification of Branch Line Accounting System... RAILROAD COMPANIES Pt. 1201, App. I Appendix I to Part 1201—Certification of Branch Line Accounting System...__ the branch line accounting system data were collected and maintained for each line that met...

  5. Discovering the laws of urbanisation

    CERN Document Server

    Simini, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the world's population exceeded 7 billion, and since 2008 the number of individuals living in urban areas has surpassed that of rural areas. This is the result of an overall increase of life expectancy in many countries that has caused an unprecedented growth of the world's total population during recent decades, combined with a net migration flow from rural villages to urban agglomerations. While it is clear that the rate of natural increase and migration flows are the driving forces shaping the spatial distribution of population, a general consensus on the mechanisms that characterise the urbanisation process is still lacking. Here we present two fundamental laws of urbanisation that are quantitatively supported by empirical evidence: 1) the number of cities in a country is proportional to the country's total population, irrespective of the country's area, and 2) the average distance between cities scales as the inverse of the square root of the country's population density. We study the spatio-temp...

  6. Disorder effects on the static scattering function of star branched polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blavatska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the impact of structural disorder on the static scattering function of f-armed star branched polymers in d dimensions. To this end, we consider the model of a star polymer immersed in a good solvent in the presence of structural defects, correlated at large distances r according to a power law ~r-a. In particular, we are interested in the ratio g(f of the radii of gyration of star and linear polymers of the same molecular weight, which is a universal experimentally measurable quantity. We apply a direct polymer renormalization approach and evaluate the results within the double ϵ = 4 - d, δ = 4 - a-expansion. We find an increase of g(f with an increasing δ. Therefore, an increase of disorder correlations leads to an increase of the size measure of a star relative to linear polymers of the same molecular weight.

  7. Pulsation at the tip of the first giant branch?

    OpenAIRE

    Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Nakada, Yoshikazu

    2002-01-01

    The first results of our ongoing near-infrared (NIR) survey of the variable red giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) and the SIRIUS infrared camera, are presented. Many very red stars were detected and found that most of them are variables. In the observed colour-magnitude diagram ($J-K, K$) and the stellar $K$ magnitude distribution, the tip of the first giant branch (TRGB), where helium burning in the core starts, is clearly seen. Apart from the ge...

  8. Characterization of linear and branched polyacrylates by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaicharoen, Kittisak; Polce, Michael J; Singh, Anirudha; Pugh, Coleen; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2008-10-01

    The unimolecular degradation of alkali-metal cationized polyacrylates with the repeat unit CH(2)CH(COOR) and a variety of ester pendants has been examined by tandem mass spectrometry. The fragmentation patterns resulting from collisionally activated dissociation depend sensitively on the size of the ester alkyl substituent (R). With small alkyl groups, as in poly(methyl acrylate), lithiated or sodiated oligomers (M) decompose via free-radical chemistry, initiated by random homolytic C-C bond cleavages along the polymer chain. The radical ions formed this way dissociate further by backbiting rearrangements and beta scissions to yield a distribution of terminal fragments with one of the original end groups and internal fragments with 2-3 repeat units. If the ester alkyl group bears three or more carbon atoms, cleavages within the ester moieties become the predominant decomposition channel. This distinct reactivity is observed if R = t-butyl, n-butyl, or the mesogenic group (CH(2))(11)-O-C(6)H(4)-C(6)H(4)-CN. The [M+alkali metal](+) ions of the latter polyacrylates dissociate largely by charge-remote 1,5-H rearrangements that convert COOR to COOH groups by expulsion of 1-alkenes. The acid groups may displace an alcohol unit from a neighboring ester pendant to form a cyclic anhydride, unless hindered by steric effects. Using atom transfer radical polymerization, hyperbranched polyacrylates were prepared carrying ester groups both within and between the branches. Unique alkenes and alcohols are cleaved from ester groups at the branching points, enabling determination of the branching architecture. PMID:18373231

  9. The iron law of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Philip Carl

    2004-09-01

    Political philosophers have doubted the compatibility of various major values, such as equality and freedom. Ethnographic and historical evidence has indicated the presence of (1) economic equality and individual freedom in the absence of civil peace in segmentary societies based on self-help; (2) economic equality and civil peace in the absence of individual freedom in corporate societies; and (3) individual freedom and civil peace in the absence of economic equality in mercantile and capitalist societies. However, little if any evidence has documented all three -- economic equality, individual freedom, civil peace -- in stable coexistence. By way of delineating the relations between and among the values in question, I offer "The Iron Law of Politics," which asserts that economic equality, individual freedom, and civil peace cannot all exist simultaneously in any society, although any two of the three can.

  10. Nonlinear branch-point dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Denberg, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    Two branched polystyrene melts with narrow molar mass distribution have been synthesized: a multiarm An-C-C-An pom-pom polystyrene and an An-C asymmetric star polystyrene where n is the number of arms. The pom-pom and the asymmetric star have molar masses of Mw ) 300 kg/mol and Mw ) 275 kg...... polystyrene, the measured transient elongational viscosity is not consistent with a rheological constitutive equation that is separable in time and strain. Contrary to this situation, however, for pom-pom polystyrene, the transient elongational viscosity may be described by a time-strain separable...

  11. Measurement of the Λ→n+γ branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branching ratio for the Λ weak radiative decay has been measured to be B(Λ→n+γ)/(Λ→anything) =[1.78±0.24(stat)±0.160.14(syst)]x10-3. A low-energy kaon beam was used to produce the Λ hyperons via the reaction K-+p→Λ+π0 at rest. Photons from the signal channel and π0 decay were detected with a NaI(Tl) array. The final spectrum contains 287 events after background subtraction, an order of magnitude more events than from the only previous measurement

  12. Left bundle branch block: a rare ECG manifestation of hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Madhav M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease was brought to our emergency medical department with symptoms of pain in chest and abdomen, vomitings. Laboratory testing revealed serum potassium 7.7 mEq/L, serum creatinine 9.1 mg/dL. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed left bundle branch block (LBBB pattern with left axis deviation, tall T waves and ST elevation. Among ECG alterations in hyperkalemia, LBBB is rare and is being reported in our case.

  13. Universal scaling in the branching of the tree of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Alejandro Herrada

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns and processes of diversification of life in the planet is a key challenge of science. The Tree of Life represents such diversification processes through the evolutionary relationships among the different taxa, and can be extended down to intra-specific relationships. Here we examine the topological properties of a large set of interspecific and intraspecific phylogenies and show that the branching patterns follow allometric rules conserved across the different levels in the Tree of Life, all significantly departing from those expected from the standard null models. The finding of non-random universal patterns of phylogenetic differentiation suggests that similar evolutionary forces drive diversification across the broad range of scales, from macro-evolutionary to micro-evolutionary processes, shaping the diversity of life on the planet.

  14. Insurance experience as a category of labor law and social security law

    OpenAIRE

    Вишновецька, Світлана Василівна; Григолінський, Сергій Олексійович

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates insurance experience as a category of labor law and social security law. Defined as the period specified concept, process, legal fact and inter-Law Institute, and the main features of insurance, the insurance value is set and seniority. English abstract S. Vyshnovetska, S. Grigolinskiy Insurance experience as a category of labor law and social security law.   The political course of Ukraine's integration into the global community necessitates increasing the level of...

  15. Teaching the third law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    This work gives a brief summary of major formulations of the third law of thermodynamics and their implications, including the impossibility of perpetual motion of the third kind. The last sections of this work review more advanced applications of the third law to systems with negative temperatures and negative heat capacities. The relevance of the third law to protecting the arrow of time in general relativity is also discussed. Additional information, which may useful in analysis of the third law, is given in the Appendices. This short review is written to assist lecturers in selecting a strategy for teaching the third law of thermodynamics to engineering and science students. The paper provides a good summary of the various issues associated with the third law, which are typically scattered over numerous research publications and not discussed in standard textbooks.

  16. Hydrography of the West Spitsbergen Current, Svalbard Branch: Autumn 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelet, Edward D.; Tervalon, Nicole; Bellingham, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic inflow is the primary source of water and heat to the Arctic Ocean. A large portion enters through Fram Strait where it splits into the Yermak and Svalbard Branches. In October to November 2001 the USCGC Healy occupied five oceanographic transects across the Svalbard Branch west and north of Spitsbergen. Temperature and salinity sections show the warm, salty Atlantic Water cooling and freshening as it flows along the continental slope for 553 km. The temperature in the upper 500 m of the water column decreased by 0.25°C/(100 km) implying a heat flux across the sea surface of up to 520 W/m2 if one assumes a nominal current of speed of 0.1 m/s. A temperature-salinity (T-S) analysis shows that the shape of the T-S curves can be explained in terms of the ratio of the atmospheric-to-ice-melt heat flux. The observations imply that ice melt accounts for progressively more surface cooling as the flow moves toward the Arctic Ocean. An autonomous underwater vehicle completed a vertical section in the region of maximum water mass gradient and revealed layer interleaving in fine detail. Data from this cruise extend a long time series of Atlantic layer source temperature beginning in 1910 (Saloranta and Haugan, 2001). The extended observations show that after the temperature of the Atlantic layer inflow reached a peak in 1992, it cooled to a minimum in 1998 and rose again through 2001.

  17. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-05

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years.

  18. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years

  19. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  20. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  1. Meaning of Cantract Law in Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Muliuolienė, Jūratė

    2006-01-01

    The present Master’s Work “Importance of Contract Law in Electronic Commerce” explores legal regulations of electronic commerce in comparison to traditional legal regulation in Lithuania and foreign countries. Comparative analysis is focused on the significance of contract law in regulation of legal terms in electronic space. Comparative analysis of legal regulation of contract law and electronic commerce is carried out by the following aspects: concepts of contract and electronic transaction...

  2. Einstein and the Laws of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Weinert, Friedel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of constraints in the theory of relativity and, in particular, what philosophical work they do for Einstein's views on the laws of physics. Einstein presents a view of local ``structure laws'' which he characterizes as the most appropriate form of physical laws. Einstein was committed to a view of science, which presents a synthesis between rational and empirical elements as its hallmark. If scientific constructs...

  3. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  4. A spiritual audit of a retail branch in a South African Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. J. Smith

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not employees in a branch of one of the leading South African banks are spiritually fulfilled at work, whilst living the values of the bank. The results indicate that employees in the branch are spiritually fulfilled at work, that they seem to be “living the values”, and that they believe the branch to be a spiritual workplace. The results are linked to certain interventions in the branch, and these interventions could be replicated across the branch network, reaping the advantages of a spiritual workplace.

  5. Characterization of a branch of the phylogenetic tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a 'tortoise and hare effect': Those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree corresponding to a genus and accurate mathematical representations of the various stages are obtained. We apply our results to address certain controversial issues that have arisen in paleontology such as the importance of punctuated equilibrium and whether unique Cambrian phyla have survived to the present

  6. Characterization of a branch of the phylogenetic tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Stuart A; Weng, Gezhi

    2003-02-21

    We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a "tortoise and hare effect": those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree corresponding to a genus and accurate mathematical representations of the various stages are obtained. We apply our results to address certain controversial issues that have arisen in paleontology such as the importance of punctuated equilibrium and whether unique Cambrian phyla have survived to the present. PMID:12623281

  7. Development Of Hyper branched UV Curable Resin From Palm Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hyper branched polyurethane acrylate (HBPUA) was prepared by reacting hyper branched polyol polyester (HBP) from palm oil based with diisocyanate and hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer with the presence of 0.1-2 wt % dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. The reaction was confirmed by several analyses for example determination of hydroxyl value (OHV), acid value (AV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses. HBPUA required 0.36 J/ cm2 energy when undergone curing with UV radiation. HBPUA / TMPTA films showed 4B-2H of pencil hardness, gel content of 60-80 %, contact angle θ between 65-74 degree and Tg at -15 to -5 degree Celsius. The presence of TMPTA increased degree of cross-linking and pencil hardness. The characteristic of the polymeric material and the thermal stability of UV cured films of HBPUA formulations were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The thermal decomposition temperature started at 200 degree Celsius with Tmax at 450 to 455 degree Celsius. (author)

  8. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  9. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  10. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  11. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication. PMID:27427755

  12. Implications of an inverse branching aftershock sequence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D L; Abaimov, S G; Dobson, I; Rundle, J B

    2009-01-01

    The branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model is a self-similar statistical model for earthquake aftershock sequences. A prescribed parent earthquake generates a first generation of daughter aftershocks. The magnitudes and times of occurrence of the daughters are obtained from statistical distributions. The first generation daughter aftershocks then become parent earthquakes that generate second generation aftershocks. The process is then extended to higher generations. The key parameter in the BASS model is the magnitude difference Deltam* between the parent earthquake and the largest expected daughter earthquake. In the application of the BASS model to aftershocks Deltam* is positive, the largest expected daughter event is smaller than the parent, and the sequence of events (aftershocks) usually dies out, but an exponential growth in the number of events with time is also possible. In this paper we explore this behavior of the BASS model as Deltam* varies, including when Deltam* is negative and the largest expected daughter event is larger than the parent. The applications of this self-similar branching process to biology and other fields are discussed.

  13. Representational similarity analysis - connecting the branches of systems neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g. single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement, and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices, which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. We propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA, in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing representational dissimilarity matrices. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. We argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience.

  14. The Liability of the Employer and the Liability of the Employees between Civil Law and Labour Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru POPA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The working relationships based on the individual labour contract have an unprecedented aspect in civil law, namely, inequity of parts during the performance of the contract. This inequity is transposed in theoretical and applicative plan by the existence of the subordination report between the employer and employee. The lack of balance of the forces between the two parts of the contract constituted the necessary element for the birth of the new law branch which, by its settlements, to compensate this drawback. Though, in matter of liability, this “law of inequity” does not distinguish as a creator of new and independent institutions from “the general law”, apparently confining only at the removing or compensating the premises of the parts inequity. Thus, the Romanian labour law create a specific institution named patrimonial liability which involve applicable rules in the legal relationship arise from the individual labour contract that represent an exception from the common rules of the civil liability but does not completely delimit from it and using it as a decipherer resource of its elements and as supplement resource.The patrimonial liability does not exclude in all the situations the co-existence of other forms of civil, contravention or criminal liability if the necessary elements for their incidence occur.

  15. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  16. Effects of RNA branching on the electrostatic stabilization of viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Wagner, Jef; van der Schoot, Paul; Podgornik, Rudolf; Zandi, Roya

    2016-08-01

    Many single-stranded (ss) ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses self-assemble from capsid protein subunits and the nucleic acid to form an infectious virion. It is believed that the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged RNA and the positively charged viral capsid proteins drive the encapsidation, although there is growing evidence that the sequence of the viral RNA also plays a role in packaging. In particular, the sequence will determine the possible secondary structures that the ssRNA will take in solution. In this work, we use a mean-field theory to investigate how the secondary structure of the RNA combined with electrostatic interactions affects the efficiency of assembly and stability of the assembled virions. We show that the secondary structure of RNA may result in negative osmotic pressures while a linear polymer causes positive osmotic pressures for the same conditions. This may suggest that the branched structure makes the RNA more effectively packaged and the virion more stable.

  17. On the Western Conception of Natural Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Song; YU Yu-he

    2004-01-01

    Natural law is an important concept of the Westem political culture. The author makes a simple investigation into the various definitions of natural law, based on which he comes to the conclusion that natural law is a key concept of Western political culture; that it is a moral norm of politics as well as a product of rational thinking; and that its meaning has varied over time.

  18. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  19. The Concept of Law and International Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Hedley Bull, one of the founders of the School of International Society (English School) relies heavily on H.L.A. Hart in his understanding of law, including international law. The contribution seeks to explore 1) how Bull has creatively made use of Hart's Concept of Law, 2) on which points Hart......'s theory has short comings, 3) on which additional points Bull's use of the concept of law has short comings, and 4) sketch of ideas how to improve the various short comings....

  20. Cosmological Simulations of Normal-Branch Braneworld Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a cosmological model based on the normal branch of DGP braneworld gravity with a smooth dark energy component on the brane. The expansion history in this model is identical to LambdaCDM, thus evading all geometric constraints on the DGP cross-over scale r_c. This model can serve as a first approximation to more general braneworld models whose cosmological solutions have not been obtained yet. We study the formation of large scale structure in this model in the linear and non-linear regime using N-body simulations for different values of r_c. The simulations use the code presented in (F.S., arXiv:0905.0858) and solve the full non-linear equation for the brane-bending mode in conjunction with the usual gravitational dynamics. The brane-bending mode is attractive rather than repulsive in the DGP normal branch, hence the sign of the modified gravity effects is reversed compared to those presented in arXiv:0905.0858. We compare the simulation results with those of ordinary LambdaCDM simulations run us...

  1. Religious law versus secular law The example of the get refusal in Dutch, English and Israeli law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs de Blois

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The tension between religious law and secular law in modern democracies is illustrated in this article by a discussion of the different approaches to the get (a bill of divorce refusal (based on Jewish law under Dutch, English and Israeli law. These legal orders share many characteristics, but also display important differences as to the role of religion and religious law in the public realm. The Dutch system is the most secular of the three; it does not recognize a role for religious law within the secular system as such. The English legislation provides for means that to a certain extent facilitate the effectuation of a religious divorce. In Israel, finally, the law of marriage and divorce is as such governed by the religious law of the parties concerned; for the majority of the population that is Jewish law. An evaluation of the different approaches in the framework of human rights law reveals the complexities of the collision of the underlying values in terms of equality, religious freedom and minority rights, also having regard to the diversity of opinions within religious communities.

  2. The Anthropocene - and International Law of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly voicing a new concern: that the Earth may be undergoing a shift from the most recent known geological epoch, the Holocene (the latest 11,700 years, which have been characterized by relative environmental stability - a factor significant for the development of human civilization), to a new one - the Anthropocene (Zalasiewicz et al., 2010). In 2009, the Anthropocene Working Group was established within the International Commission on Stratigraphy in order to examine the stratigraphic basis for the term 'Anthropocene' and to consider the justification for its possible formalization as the most recent geological time unit. Formal change of the Geological Time Scale due to recognition of the Anthropocene as a new epoch in the geological history of our planet could critically raise awareness and highlight the magnitude of the human impact on the Earth System, prompting fundamental reflection on today's social structures. Important questions may arise about the sustainability of certain aspects of current International Law - a system of rules resting on foundations that evolved under the circumstances of the Holocene, assumed to be ever-lasting. Core challenges for International Law may now be on the horizon. Certain segments of international law, such as the Law of the Sea, involve causal links (historical and ideological) with the development towards the Anthropocene (Vidas, 2011). Other aspects, such as human rights, may gain in prominence and acquire new dimensions - all likely to require fundamental re-examination of accepted perspectives of International Law. The Law of the Sea - a branch of international law that applies to around 71 percent of the Earth's surface area - received its current framework in the near-universal 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (162 parties as of 1 July 2012), which in turn built on some four centuries of development. In our times, however, a thorough re-examination of the Law of the Sea

  3. THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Lamya - Diana AL-KAWADRI

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the case law of the ECJ and ECHR on the nature of administrative sanctions and their relation to criminal law. Also, some important criteria used by different Member States in their own legal systems in differentiating between criminal and administrative sanctions are presented. As it will be shown in this study, in establishing the difference between administrative and criminal offence sanctions, the case law of both the European Court of Human Rights and the Court...

  4. Minimum disparity estimation in controlled branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Miguel; Minuesa, Carmen; del Puerto, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Minimum disparity estimation in controlled branching processes is dealt with by assuming that the offspring law belongs to a general parametric family. Under some regularity conditions it is proved that the minimum disparity estimators proposed -based on the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the offspring law when the entire family tree is observed- are consistent and asymptotic normally distributed. Moreover, it is discussed the robustness of the estimators proposed. Through a si...

  5. Measurements of $B \\to D_{s^{(*)+}} D^{*(*)}$ Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Kopp, S E; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; McGee, S A; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Hill, T S; Morrison, R J; Nelson, H N; Richman, J D; Witherell, M S; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Behrens, B H; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J; Brandenburg, G; Ershov, A; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J

    2000-01-01

    This article describes improved measurements by CLEO of the $B^0 \\to D_s^+ D^{*-}$ and $B^0 \\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}$ branching fractions, and first evidence for the decay $B^+ \\to D_s^{(*)+} \\bar{D}^{**0}$, where $\\bar{D}^{**0}$ represents the sum of the $\\bar{D}_1(2420)^0$, $\\bar{D}_2^*(2460)^0 $, and $\\bar{D}_1(j=1/2)^0$ L=1 charm meson states. Also reported is the first measurement of the $D_s^{*+}$ polarization in the decay $B^0 \\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}$. A partial reconstruction technique, employing only the fully reconstructed $D_s^+$ and slow pion $\\pi_s^-$ from the $D^{*-} \\to \\bar{D}^0 \\pi^-_s$ decay, enhances sensitivity. The observed branching fractions are $ {\\mathcal B} (B^0 \\to D_s^+ D^{*-}) = (1.10 \\pm 0.18 \\pm 0.10 \\pm 0.28)%$, $ {\\mathcal B} (B^0 \\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}) = (1.82 \\pm 0.37 \\pm 0.24 \\pm 0.46)%$, and $ {\\mathcal B} (B^+ \\to D_s^{(*)+} \\bar{D}^{**0}) = (2.73 \\pm 0.78 \\pm 0.48 \\pm 0.68)%$, where the first error is statistical, the second systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty in th...

  6. The second and third parameters of the Horizontal Branch in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, Raffaele G; Bragaglia, Angela; Lucatello, Sara; D'Orazi, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    The Horizontal Branch (HB) second parameter of Globular Clusters (GCs) is a major open issue in stellar evolution. Large photometric and spectroscopic databases allow a re-examination of this issue. We derive median and extreme (90% of the distribution) colours and magnitudes of stars along the HB for about a hundred GCs. We transform these into median and extreme masses of stars on the HB taking into account evolutionary effects, and compare these masses with those expected at the tip of the Red Giant Branch to derive the total mass lost by the stars. A simple linear dependence on metallicity of this total mass lost explains well the median colours of HB stars. Adopting this mass loss law as universal, we find that age is the main second parameter. However, at least a third parameter is clearly required. The most likely candidate is the He abundance, which might be different in GCs stars belonging to the different stellar generations whose presence was previously derived from the Na-O and Mg-Al anticorrelati...

  7. Property as the Law of Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Joseph William

    2014-01-01

    In both his article Property as the Law of Things and his prior work, Professor Henry Smith has revitalized property law theory by emphasizing the architectural role that property plays in private law and the ways in which modular property rights reduce information costs and promote both property use and transfer. I applaud Smith's insistence that we focus on the systemic nature of property rights and the benefits of bundled entitlements. At the same time, it is important to understand the li...

  8. The second law of blackhole dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kabe, Koustubh Ajit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the non-generalized or restricted second law blackhole dynamics as given by Bekenstein in the beginning is restated, with a rigid proof, in a different form akin to the statement of the second law of thermodynamics given by Clausius. The various physical possibilities and implications of this statement are discussed therein. This paper is a mere venture into the restricted second law of blackhole dynamics pertaining to blackholes emitting Hawking radiation. The paper thus considers a didactically interesting reformulation of the second law of blackhole thermodynamics after some revisions.

  9. A Logical Model of Private International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Phan Minh; Sartor, Giovanni

    We provide a logical analysis of private international law, the body of law establishing when courts of a country should decide a case (jurisdiction) and what legal system they should apply to this purpose (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interaction among multiple legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may be useful for understanding this rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Moreover, it might be useful for modelling the way in which interactions between heterogeneous agents, belonging to different and differently regulated virtual societies, can be governed without recourse to a central regulatory agency.

  10. Application of Ranganathan's laws to the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: "Does the Web save the time of the users?" This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathan's...

  11. Application of Ranganathans Laws to the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Amoohosseini; Tahereh Aziminia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: Does the Web save the time of the users? This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathans Fi...

  12. The Voice of the Law in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqa Qurrata A'yun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt that the law has a tight relation with the language. We can see how language works in law since it comes from the idea, being enacted, and enforced. That is why language has a significant role along the legal process. This article will review the book written by Ab Massier which assumes at least three aspect of linguistic job in law: doing law is acting by means of language into a lingual activity, which is based on texts, and is resulting in texts. The main issue in this book is based on the problems of Indonesian language of the law which has replaced the Dutch language. Massier criticize instrumental approach to language and the impact of Dutch in Indonesian law language. His analysis refers to James Boyd White's statement about a translation of authoritative texts as the primary feature to define law itself. It is the perspective of doing law as a lingual activity that consists of communicating, speaking, and writing. Almost all legal processes produce texts, and therefore the text means the authority of the law.

  13. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, amon...... the nations, a common core of legal values? If there is, this will facilitate legal unification. It will also make the international law-making easier if, in exceptional cases, a court is permitted to disregard a legal rule....

  14. Outline of amendments to nuclear compensation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendments to 'the Japanese Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage', submitted to the Diet in February, 1989, were approved as drafted as from January 1st, 1990. Although the Revised Law requires a nuclear operator to raise its financial security amount from 10 to 30 Billion yen, the framework of the Law remains, in principle, unchanged. How we should deal with cross frontier nuclear incidents is an important problem to be studied hereafter. (author)

  15. On the Necessarily Public Character of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks whether and how modern law may be understood as necessarily public in character. It begins by looking at the two main ways - doctrinal and disciplinary - in which law is understood as only selectively and contingently public. In both these cases law's public quality is counterposed to its private quality. However, publicness can also be conceived of as the juridical master category embracing the public and the private in the disciplinary and doctrinal senses. This conception o...

  16. [Conceptual foundations of creation of branch database of technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical educational institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horban', A Ie

    2013-09-01

    The question of implementation of the state policy in the field of technology transfer in the medical branch to implement the law of Ukraine of 02.10.2012 No 5407-VI "On Amendments to the law of Ukraine" "On state regulation of activity in the field of technology transfers", namely to ensure the formation of branch database on technology and intellectual property rights owned by scientific institutions, organizations, higher medical education institutions and enterprises of healthcare sphere of Ukraine and established by budget are considered. Analysis of international and domestic experience in the processing of information about intellectual property rights and systems implementation support transfer of new technologies are made. The main conceptual principles of creation of this branch database of technology transfer and branch technology transfer network are defined.

  17. Breakdown of Benford's Law for Birth Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M; Ileanu, B

    2014-01-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.

  18. Selected aspects of europeization of pharmaceutical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka; Wengler, Lubomira; Pawłowski, Leszek

    2010-01-01

    As one of its aspects, the process of European integration has an influence on the legal orders of the Member States, which is often referred to in the literature as the europeization of law. Upon Poland's accession to the structures of the European Union, there have also been radical changes to the Polish legal system. According to the concept of the sources of law in the Polish Constitution and to the judicial decisions of the European Court of Justice, Community law now takes priority over national law, even over acts of parliament. Pharmaceutical law represents one of the areas where the harmonization process has been taking place. It shapes the principles and the manner according to which medicinal products are approved for marketing, the conditions of clinical trials, as well as the conditions of drug manufacture and advertisement. It also determines the rules of trading in medicinal products, the running of pharmaceutical wholesalers and pharmacies, as well as the duties and rights of the Pharmaceutical Inspectorate. This paper provides a summary of research on the impact of Community law on Polish pharmaceutical law, i.e. on the europeization process, and on the consequences of this process for the Polish pharmaceutical market and for research and development. PMID:20369799

  19. Optimal Weights of Certain Branches of an Arbitrary Connected Network for Fastest Distributed Consensus Averaging Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarizadeh, Saber

    2010-01-01

    Solving fastest distributed consensus averaging problem over networks with different topologies has been an active area of research for a number of years. The main purpose of distributed consensus averaging is to compute the average of the initial values, via a distributed algorithm, in which the nodes only communicate with their neighbors. In the previous works full knowledge about the network's topology was required for finding optimal weights and convergence rate of network, but here in this work for the first time the optimal weights are determined analytically for the edges of certain types of branches, namely path branch, lollipop branch, semi-complete Branch and Ladder branch independent of the rest of network. The solution procedure consists of stratification of associated connectivity graph of branch and Semidefinite Programming (SDP), particularly solving the slackness conditions, where the optimal weights are obtained by inductive comparing of the characteristic polynomials initiated by slackness c...

  20. Off-take and slug transition at T-junction of vertical-up branch in the horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The off-take and the slug transition on air-water interface are experimentally investigated at the T-junction of the horizontal pipe with a vertical upward branch to simulate the loss-of-residual-heat-removal during a mid-loop operation in the Korea standard nuclear power plant. Scaling analysis is performed to scale down the experimental facility to the reference nuclear power plant. Two different diameters of branch pipes are used to verify the scaling laws and their scale effects. Air is used as working gaseous fluid and no water flow exists. Off-take behavior on horizontal stratified and slug flows is visually observed in the horizontal pipe. The experimental data are divided into three categories; onset of liquid entrainment at T-junctions, onset of slug transition in the horizontal pipe, and discharge quality in the branch pipe. It is found out that the scale effect of the branch diameter on the onset of liquid entrainment is small and the existing correlations for it are applicable. Also, the onset of slug transition shows a discrepancy with Taitel-Dukler's correlation and has a strong influence on the discharge quality. New correlations for discharge quality are developed considering the critical dependency of the onset of slugging. (author)

  1. The stability indexes of branched airflow of ventilation network in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yun-zhen; ZHAO Wen-bin; SHANG Yan-dong; XU Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    The stability of branched airflow of ventilation network is guarantee of safety in production of coal mine. Two indexes which stand for the stability of branches of ventilation network in coal mine were put forward in this paper, that are airflow intensity and stability index of branched airflow. The airflow stability of working place was divided into different grade according to the stability index. The conclusion has great significance for safety in production of coal mine.

  2. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of the rheology of linear and branched alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, S.T.; Cummings, P.T.; Cochran, H.D.; Moore, J.D.; Gupta, S.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1998-03-01

    Liquid alkanes in the molecular weight range of C{sub 20}-C{sub 40} are the main constituents of lubricant basestocks, and their rheological properties are therefore of great concern in industrial lubricant applications. Using massively parallel supercomputers and an efficient parallel algorithm, the authors have carried out systematic studies of the rheological properties of a variety of model liquid alkanes ranging from linear to singly branched and multiply branched alkanes. They aim to elucidate the relationship between the molecular architecture and the viscous behavior. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for n-decane (C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-hexadecane (C{sub 16}H{sub 34}), n-tetracosane (C{sub 24}H{sub 50}), 10-n-hexylnonadecane (C{sub 25}H{sub 52}), and squalane (2, 6, 10, 15, 19, 23-hexamethyltetracosane, C{sub 30}H{sub 62}). At a high strain rate, the viscosity shows a power-law shear thinning behavior over several orders of magnitude in strain rate, with exponents ranging from {minus}0.33 to {minus}0.59. The power-law shear thinning is shown to be closely related to the ordering of the molecules. The molecular architecture is shown to have a significant influence on the power-law exponent. At a low strain rate, the viscosity behavior changes to a Newtonian plateau, whose accurate determination has been elusive in previous studies. The molecular order in this regime is essentially that of the equilibrium system, a signature of the linear response. The Newtonian plateau is verified by independent equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the Green-Kubo method. The reliable determination of the Newtonian viscosity from nonequilibrium molecular simulation permits us to calculate the viscosity index for squalane. The viscosity index is a widely used property to characterize the lubricant`s temperature performance, and the studies represent the first approach toward its determination by molecular simulation.

  3. Informational laws of genome structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined. PMID:27354155

  4. Informational laws of genome structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined.

  5. Internationalisation of Law: Historical and Cultural Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a historical overview of the stages in the internationalisation of Danish law and the implication of regional and global legal settings in this process......The article provides a historical overview of the stages in the internationalisation of Danish law and the implication of regional and global legal settings in this process...

  6. Design of Hierarchical Ring Networks Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing hierarchical two layer ring networks. The top layer consists of a federal-ring which establishes connection between a number of node disjoint metro-rings in a bottom layer. The objective is to minimize the costs of links in the network, taking both the fixed...... link establishment costs and the link capacity costs into account. The hierarchical two layer ring network design problem is solved in two stages: First the bottom layer, i.e. the metro-rings are designed, implicitly taking into account the capacity cost of the federal-ring. Then the federal......-ring is designed connecting the metro-rings, minimizing fixed link establishment costs of the federal-ring. A branch-and-price algorithm is presented for the design of the bottom layer and it is suggested that existing methods are used for the design of the federal-ring. Computational results are given...

  7. Predictability of extreme events in a branching diffusion model

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielov, Andrei; Olsen, Sayaka; Zaliapin, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    We propose a framework for studying predictability of extreme events in complex systems. Major conceptual elements -- hierarchical structure, spatial dynamics, and external driving -- are combined in a classical branching diffusion with immigration. New elements -- observation space and observed events -- are introduced in order to formulate a prediction problem patterned after the geophysical and environmental applications. The problem consists of estimating the likelihood of occurrence of an extreme event given the observations of smaller events while the complete internal dynamics of the system is unknown. We look for premonitory patterns that emerge as an extreme event approaches; those patterns are deviations from the long-term system's averages. We have found a single control parameter that governs multiple spatio-temporal premonitory patterns. For that purpose, we derive i) complete analytic description of time- and space-dependent size distribution of particles generated by a single immigrant; ii) the...

  8. Integrability and the Conformal Field Theory of the Higgs branch

    CERN Document Server

    Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Stefanski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence, we investigate the CFT$_2$ at the origin of the Higgs branch. This theory has a planar, weak-coupling limit, in which anomalous dimensions of single-trace composite operators can be calculated. At one loop, the calculation reduces to finding the spectrum of a spin-chain with nearest-neighbour interactions. This CFT$_2$ spin-chain matches precisely the one that was previously found as the weak-coupling limit of the integrable system describing the AdS$_3$ side of the duality. We compute the one-loop dilatation operator in a non-trivial compact subsector and show that it corresponds to an integrable spin-chain Hamiltonian. This provides the first direct evidence of integrability on the CFT$_2$ side of the correspondence.

  9. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  10. Study of the starting pressure gradient in branching network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the production of oil in low permeability reservoirs with high efficiency,it is necessary to fully understand the properties and special behaviors of the reservoirs and correctly describe the flow in the reservoirs.This paper applies the branching network mode to the study of the starting pressure gradient of nonlinear Newtonian fluid (Bingham fluid) in the reservoirs with low permeability based on the fact that the fractured network may exist in the reservoirs.The proposed model for starting pressure gradient is a function of yield stress,microstructural parameters of the network.The proposed model may have the potential in further exploiting the mechanisms of flow in porous media with fractured network.

  11. Structure and Hydration of Highly Branched, Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Nickels, Jonathan; Stanley, Christopher; Diallo, Souleymane; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John

    Monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles are a promising, new soft colloidal nanomaterial with many applications in the personal care, food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. These applications rely on exceptional properties that emerge from the highly branched structure of phytoglycogen and its interaction with water, such as extraordinarily high water retention, and low viscosity and exceptional stability in water. The structure and hydration of the nanoparticles was characterized using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). SANS allowed us to determine the size of the nanoparticles, evaluate their radial density profile, quantify the particle-to-particle spacing, and determine their water content. The results show clearly that the nanoparticles are highly hydrated, with each nanoparticle containing 250% of its mass in water, and that aqueous dispersions approach a jamming transition at ~ 25% (w/w). QENS experiments provided an independent and consistent measure of the high level of hydration of the particles.

  12. The Economic Analysis of Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Shepherd; Paul H. Rubin

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the literature on the economic analysis of criminal law. First, it discusses the positive theory of criminal behavior and reviews the empirical evidence in support of the theory. Then, it discusses the normative theory of how public law enforcement should be designed to minimize the social costs of crime.

  13. The concept and importance of medical law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Branislava

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical law is a scientific discipline which has not been affirmed in our country, but at law schools in many developed countries it has gained the status of a separate scientific discipline and today it is studied with multidisciplinary cooperation of Schools of Medicine, Schools of Dentistry and Schools of Pharmacy. Generally speaking, medical law concerns the rights and duties of the medical profession. Ethics and legal questions of medical law. The progress of scientific research and of new technology used in diagnostics and treatment, opens new fields in terms of responsibility. Most European countries have legal institutions in the field of health care. These include laws and legal acts, as well as codification of professional norms. Law concerning physicians. Apart from the national law, there is also an international law concerning physisians. The World Health Organization and the World Association of Medical Doctors brought the following declarations: Declaration on Promotion of Patients' Rights, the Revised Lisbon Declaration on Patients' Rights, the Revised Helsinki Declaration on Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects and the Council of Europe's Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. Conclusion. There is no national order of physicians in Serbia and Montenegro, because chambers of physisians with legal authority and mandatory membership have not been formed. The foundation of Chambers of Physicians of Vojvodina and Montenegro is the first step to goal achieving. .

  14. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  15. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  16. Perception of the judiciary law by the law-maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V. Lazarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptualtheoretical provisions and scientific recommendations for the implementation of judiciary decisions in the legislation of the Russian Federation. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the necessity to analyze the fundamental precedent judicial decisions for the possible implementation of the legal positions of courts into legislative acts. The problem is not confined to the perception of provisions created by the constitutional charter courts. The paper shows the main directions of future activities on the implementation idea. The operation of the Department is shown which was created at the Institute for Legislation and Comparative Law at the Government of the Russian Federation entrusted with the relevant functions. Scientific novelty the mechanism of implementation of judiciary decisions in the Russian legislation has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation. Practical significance the findings of this paper can be used in scientific legislative and lawenforcement activities and the educational process of institutions of higher education.

  17. The Law of Demand and Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    John Quah

    2002-01-01

    This note proposes a necessary and sufficient condition on a preference to guarantee that the demand function it generates satisfies the law of demand. It shows that the law of demand may be succinctly characterized by differences in an agent's level of risk aversion when she is confronted with different lotteries composed of commodity bundles.

  18. Conservation Laws of Differential Equations in Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Mao-Chang; MEI Feng-Xiang; SHANG Mei

    2005-01-01

    Conservation laws of some differential equations in fiance are studied in this paper. This method does not involve the use or existence of a variational principle. As an alternative, linearize the given equation and find adjoint equation of the linearized equation, the conservation laws can be constructed directly from the symmetries and adjoint symmetries of the associated linearized equation and its adjoint equation.

  19. Karp-Miller Trees for a Branching Extension of VASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Neeraj Verma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We study BVASS (Branching VASS which extend VASS (Vector Addition Systems with States by allowing addition transitions that merge two configurations. Runs in BVASS are tree-like structures instead of linear ones as for VASS. We show that the construction of Karp-Miller trees for VASS can be extended to BVASS. This entails that the coverability set for BVASS is computable. This allows us to obtain decidability results for certain classes of equational tree automata with an associative-commutative symbol. Recent independent work by de Groote et al. implies that decidability of reachability in BVASS is equivalent to decidability of provability in MELL (multiplicative exponential linear logic, which is still an open problem. Hence our results are also a step towards answering this question in the affirmative.

  20. Pulsation at the tip of the first giant branch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagashima, Chie; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Nakada, Yoshikazu

    2002-12-01

    The first results of our ongoing near-infrared (NIR) survey of the variable red giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) and the SIRIUS infrared camera, are presented. Many very red stars were detected and we found that most of them are variables. In the observed colour-magnitude diagram (J-K, K) and the stellar K magnitude distribution, the tip of the first giant branch (TRGB), where helium burning in the core starts, is clearly seen. Apart from the genuine AGB variables, we found many variable stars at luminosities around the TRGB. From this result, we infer that a substantial fraction of them are RGB variables.

  1. Diterpenoids from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xu; Jin, An; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Tian; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-04-01

    Five new abietane diterpenoids, named abifadines A-E (1-5), and nine known ones (6-14), together with two known podocarpenes (15 and 16), were isolated from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii. Their structures including the relative configurations were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities. Only compounds 5 and 12 exhibited weak anti-proliferative effects against three cancer cell lines (B16, MCF7, and HepG2) with IC50 values range from 14.8 to 42.8 μM. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Monilia albicans of all compounds were also tested, but none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26969787

  2. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  3. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Cosmological simulations of normal-branch braneworld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2009-12-01

    We introduce a cosmological model based on the normal branch of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld gravity with a smooth dark energy component on the brane. The expansion history in this model is identical to ΛCDM, thus evading all geometric constraints on the DGP crossover scale rc. This well-defined model can serve as a first approximation to more general braneworld models whose cosmological solutions have not been obtained yet. We study the formation of large-scale structure in this model in the linear and nonlinear regime using N-body simulations for different values of rc. The simulations use the code presented in and solve the full nonlinear equation for the brane-bending mode in conjunction with the usual gravitational dynamics. The brane-bending mode is attractive rather than repulsive in the DGP normal branch, hence the sign of the modified gravity effects is reversed compared to those presented in . We compare the simulation results with those of ordinary ΛCDM simulations run using the same code and initial conditions. We find that the matter power spectrum in this model shows a characteristic enhancement peaking at k˜0.7h/Mpc. We also find that the abundance of massive halos is significantly enhanced. Other results presented here include the density profiles of dark matter halos, and signatures of the brane-bending mode self-interactions (Vainshtein mechanism) in the simulations. Independently of the expansion history, these results can be used to place constraints on the DGP model and future generalizations through their effects on the growth of cosmological structure.

  5. A law of scarcity for games

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kovalenkov; Myrna H. Wooders

    1999-01-01

    The "law of scarcity" is that scarceness is rewarded; recall, for example, the diamonds and water paradox. In this paper, furthering research initiated in Kelso and Crawford (1982, Econometrica 50, 1483-1504) for matching models, we demonstrate a law of scarcity for cores and approximate cores of games.

  6. An Empirical Examination of Lotka's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1986-01-01

    Findings of empirical examination of author productivity data to determine conformity to Lotka's law indicate that: most data didn't fit inverse square function; two constants in Lotka's formulation (slope n, constant c) must be derived from observed distribution; inverse square law was special case of inverse exponential relationship. (37…

  7. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  8. Measurement of B -> D_s K pi branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the exclusive $B^+$ meson decay to the final state $D_s^- K^+\\pi^+$ using $520 \\times 10^{6} B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected near the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance, with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. Using the $D_S^- \\to \\phi \\pi^-$ decay mode to reconstruct $D_s^-$ mesons, we obtain the branching fraction ${\\cal B}(B^+\\to D_s^-K^+\\pi^+)= (1.77^{+0.12}_{-0.12} {\\mathrm (stat)} \\pm 0.16 {\\mathrm (syst)} \\pm 0.23 {\\cal(B)})\\times 10^{-4}$. We also present preliminary results of a study of the two-body $D_sK$, $D_s\\pi$ and $K\\pi$ subsystems observed in this final state.

  9. Clonal propagation of Bambusa vulgaris by leafy branch cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Islam; M.K.Bhuiyan; M.M.Hossain; M.A.Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Bambusa vulgaris Schrad ex wendl is a widely cultivated bamboo species in rural Bangladesh for its versatile uses. The vegetative propagation becomes the only viable alternative for this species because B. vulgaris does not set seed after sparse flowering, which makes seed- ling progenies unavailable. A low-cost propagation trial was conducted to explore the clonal propagation techniques for the species with two types of small branch cuttings, nodal leafy cuttings and tip cuttings. The cuttings, after treating with 0, 0.1%, 0.4%, and 0.8% IBA solutions, were kept in non-mist propagator to let them to root for assessing the rooting ability. The cuttings were rooted in four weeks and were allowed to grow in the polybags for 10 months under nursery condition to assess their steckling capacity. The study reveals that both types of branch cuttings are able to develop roots, shoots, to survive and to form rhizome under the nursery condition. Rooting ability of the cuttings was significantly enhanced by the application of rooting hormone - IBA. The highest root- ing percentage in nodal leafy cuttings and the tip cuttings (56.67% and 51.0%, respectively) were observed in 0.8% IBA treatment, followed by 0.4% IBA and the lowest (34.3% and 30.0%, respectively) was in control. The highest number of root developed per cutting (9.77 and 8.33 in nodal leafy cuttings and the tip cuttings, respectively) was also obtained from the cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA solution, followed 0.4% IBA treat- ment and the lowest (3.1 and 2.1, respectively) was in the cuttings with- out treatment. However, the length of the longest root varied significantly neither with the cutting types nor the concentrations of IBA solution. Survival percentage of the stecklings in nursery condition was signifi- cantly enhanced by IBA.

  10. Angiographic Findings of Extrahepatic Branches Originating from Hepatic Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Wang; Ren-jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the presentation and variation of extrahepatic branches originating from hepatic artery by hepatic arteriography.Methods: Hepatic arteriogram of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic primary or metastatic tumors before interventional therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Two interventional radiologists independently reviewed the type, originating artery, distribution and variation of extrahepatic artery.Results: Five types of extrahepatic artery were found, with the most common type of the right gastric artery (n=156, 78%), followed by the cystic artery (n=126, 63%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19, 9.5%), hepatic falciform artery (n=5, 2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4, 2%). In 188 cases, there were extrahepatic arteries derived from hepatic proper artery or its branches, and the most frequent originating site was the right hepatic artery (130 extrahepatic branches), followed by the proper hepatic artery (103 branches), left hepatic artery (56 branches) and middle hepatic artery (3 branches). The left hepatic artery was the arising site with the multiple types of extrahepatic branches including all above branches except the cystic artery.Conclusion: Many types of extrahepatic branches usually derive from the hepatic artery or its distal branches, and its originating sites are not constant. It is important to avoid damage of extrahepatic tissue during interventional therapy for liver tumors.

  11. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  12. Stability of Conservation Laws with Discontinuous Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Runhild Aae; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    1999-09-01

    We prove L1 contractivity of weak solutions to a conservation law with a flux function that may depend discontinuously on the space variable. Furthermore, we show that the L1 difference between solutions to conservation laws with different flux functions is bounded by the total variation with respect to the space variable, of the difference between the flux functions.

  13. On the 'rationalisation' of Fick's first law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the rationalisation of the Fick I law proposed by Howe [Scripta Mater 47 (2002) 663] generally cannot be proved from a detailed atomistic (kinetic) approach, and it can be valid only in very trivial limit (very dilute solution), for which the usual and proposed forms of Fick's first law are equivalent

  14. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D_s^+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2008-01-01

    The branching fractions of D_s meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 /pb of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D_s decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D_s -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.50 +- 0.23 +- 0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K- K+ pi+ decay mode.

  15. Hack's law of debris-flow basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; YUE Z.Q.; LEE C.F.; BEIGHLEY R.E.; CHEN Xiao-Qing; HU Kai-Heng; CUI Peng

    2009-01-01

    Hack's law was originally derived from basin statistics for varied spatial scales and regions.The exponent value of the law has been shown to vary between 0.47 and 0.70,causing uncertainty in its application.This paper focuses on the emergence of Hack's law from debris-flow basins in China.Over 5,000 debris-flow basins in different regions of China with drainage areas less than 100km2 are included in this study.Basins in the different regions are found to present similar distributions.Hack's law is derived fi'om maximum probability and conditional distributions,suggesting that the law should describe some critical state of basin evolution.Results suggest the exponent value is approximately 0.5.Further analysis indicates that Hack's law is related to other scaling laws underlying the evolution of a basin and that the exponent is not dependent on basin shape but rather on the evolutionary stage.A case study of a well known debris-flow basin further confirms Hack's law and its implications in basin evolution.

  16. Yearbook of environmental and engineering law 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yearbook 1990 again contains individual contributions on German, foreign, and international environmental and engineering law. Beginning with this volume, there will always be a detailed report on previous year developments in environmental and engineering law in order to master the continuously increasing legal material. Some contributions - there are others - deal with the following subjects: Legislative need to act in matters of genetic engineering; ethics commissions and constitutional law; nature's own rights; legal protection of local government against brown coal plans; mining laws; sports and air-traffic noise; questions of nuclear waste management; removal of long-standing multi-party liability in environmental law; waste and restoration of abandoned industrial sites; technological development and liability insurance; problems of legislation coming into effect in pollution abatement procedures; Dutch air pollution abatement fund; environmental absolute liability in Austria; EC environmental legislation and solo actions by individual member states. (HSCH)

  17. Contradictions of labor law during elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Márquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article is part of a research to understand Uruguayan labour law through an analysis of the contradictions that arise between the rights and obligations derived from public law rules in the current stage where labour law is dispersed within the voluminous set of rules that conforms Uruguayan law. Our argument focuses particularly on the topic of the working hours that officers and public notaries invest whenever citizenship is convened to vote in the electoral polls, the most important act in a democracy. We hope this publication may arise a debate that contributes to the construction of new rules helping in the creation of a better labour law.

  18. The law of the mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemf, E

    1992-01-01

    The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities. PMID:12317699

  19. Thermodynamics of Benford's First Digit Law

    CERN Document Server

    Lemons, Don S

    2016-01-01

    Iafrate, Miller, and Strauch [Equipartition and a Distribution for Numbers: A Statistical Model for Benford's Law," arXiv:1503.08259] construct and test a statistical model for partitioning a conserved quantity. One consequence of their model is Benford's law. This Comment amplifies their work by exploring its thermodynamic consequences.

  20. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  1. An Investigation of the Laws of Traversals

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskelioff, Mauro; 10.4204/EPTCS.76.5

    2012-01-01

    Traversals of data structures are ubiquitous in programming. Consequently, it is important to be able to characterise those structures that are traversable and understand their algebraic properties. Traversable functors have been characterised by McBride and Paterson as those equipped with a distributive law over arbitrary applicative functors; however, laws that fully capture the intuition behind traversals are missing. This article is an attempt to remedy this situation by proposing laws for characterising traversals that capture the intuition behind them. To support our claims, we prove that finitary containers are traversable in our sense and argue that elements in a traversable structure are visited exactly once.

  2. Evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, V. V.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the history surrounding the evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Discusses Sadi Carnot's contributions, but also refers to those by Clapeyron, Thomson, Joule, Clausius, and Boltzman among others. (RR)

  3. Entrapment of the Martin-Gruber branch of median nerve in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Vinod Ranade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a dual neuro-vascular variation, which was observed in the right extremity of male cadaver. About an inch inferior to the elbow joint, three branches arose from the median nerve. These were the anterior interosseous branch, a Martin-Gruber branch (MGB and a muscular branch. The MGB coursed infero-medially to join with the ulnar nerve by running posterior to the ulnar artery. It was surprising to observe that the MGB passed between the ulnar artery and its venae comitantes. There was an acute angulation of the MGB here, suggesting entrapment at this site.

  4. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  5. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  6. Entrapment of the Martin-Gruber branch of median nerve in the forearm

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Vinod Ranade; Bukkambudhi Virupakshamurthy Murlimanju; Rajalakshmi Rai; Mohamed Ahmed Eladl

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a dual neuro-vascular variation, which was observed in the right extremity of male cadaver. About an inch inferior to the elbow joint, three branches arose from the median nerve. These were the anterior interosseous branch, a Martin-Gruber branch (MGB) and a muscular branch. The MGB coursed infero-medially to join with the ulnar nerve by running posterior to the ulnar artery. It was surprising to observe that the MGB passed between the ulnar artery and its venae comit...

  7. The Spectral Dimension of Non-generic Branched Polymer Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J D; Correia, Joao D.; Wheater, John F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the spectral dimension on non-generic branched polymer models with susceptibility exponent $\\gamma$ is given by $2/(1+\\gamma)$. For those models with negative $\\gamma$ we find that the spectral dimension is 2.

  8. The Asymptotic Giant Branch and the Tip of the Red Giant Branch as Probes of Star Formation History: The Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy KKH 98

    OpenAIRE

    Melbourne, J.; Williams, B.; Dalcanton, J.; Ammons, S. M.; Max, C.; Koo, D.C.; Girardi, Leo; Dolphin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the red giant branch (RGB) as probes of the star formation history (SFH) of the nearby (D=2.5 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxy, KKH 98. Near-infrared (IR) Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) images resolve 592 IR bright stars reaching over 1 magnitude below the Tip of the Red Giant Branch. Significantly deeper optical (F475W and F814W) Hubble Space Telescope images of the same field contain over 2500 stars, reaching to the ...

  9. Variations of the Interstellar Extinction Law within the Nearest Kiloparsec

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George

    2016-01-01

    Multicolor photometry from the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogues for 11 990 OB and 30 671 K-type red giant branch stars is used to detect systematic large-scale variations of the interstellar extinction law within the nearest kiloparsec. The characteristic of the extinction law, the total-to-selective extinction ratio $R_V$, which also characterizes the size and other properties of interstellar dust grains, has been calculated for various regions of space by the extinction law extrapolation method. The results for the two classes of stars agree: the standard deviation of the "red giants minus OB" $R_V$ differences within 500 pc of the Sun is 0.2. The detected $R_V$ variations between 2.2 and 4.4 not only manifest themselves in individual clouds but also span the entire space near the Sun, following Galactic structures. In the Local Bubble within about 100 pc of the Sun, $R_V$ has a minimum. In the inner part of the Gould Belt and at high Galactic latitudes, at a distance of about 150 pc from the Sun, $R_V$ reaches...

  10. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  11. SERVICE QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN SELECTED BRANCHES OF SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION USING SERVQUAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkavand, Fereshteh; Hossein, Seyed Mahdi; Mokhtarihesar, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of four branches of social security organization in Tehran Province, using SERVQUAL model and assessing the gaps between expectations and perceptions of customers in each branch of the service quality dimensions (factors tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and diversity). The population study was the daily costumers of four provincial branches, each group 120, total 480 people. Sampling was simple randomize and the study was cross s...

  12. Branch Structure of Corona Discharge:Experimental Simulation and Chemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹吉军; 刘昌俊

    2004-01-01

    The branch structure of corona discharge has been investigated via C2H2 corona discharge. Carbon filament with excellent branch structure is formed in the discharge. This carbon filament offers a direct mimic of the branch structure of corona discharge. It providesa very useful way to study on the average energy, physical and chemical characteristics of coronadischarge. On this basis, the chemical property of corona discharge for methane conversion is discussed.

  13. Quantized Coulomb branches of Jordan quiver gauge theories and cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kodera, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    We study quantized Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of Jordan type. We prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is isomorphic to the spherical graded Cherednik algebra in the unframed case, and is isomorphic to the spherical cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebra in the framed case. We also prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is a deformation of a subquotient of the Yangian of the affine $\\mathfrak{gl}(1)$.

  14. How Do Case Law and Statute Differ? Lessons from the Evolution of Mortgage Law

    OpenAIRE

    Andra Ghent

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the history of mortgage law in the United States. I explore the history of foreclosure procedures, redemption periods, restrictions on deficiency judgments, and foreclosure moratoria. The historical record shows that the most enduring aspects of mortgage law stem from case law rather than statute. In particular, the ability of creditors to foreclose nonjudicially is determined very early in states' histories, usually before the Civil War, and usually in case law. In contrast...

  15. Fick's law and Ohm's law: reduction from Heisenberg equation of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fick's law and Ohm's law are linear relationships of a macroscopic nature involving neutral and charged particles out of equilibrium. Their validity is examined by comparing the equation of motion which these laws represent with the Heisenberg equation of motion. Conditions that reduce the exact equation to the phenomenological equation are identified and their significance discussed. (orig.)

  16. Source, settling and degradation of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the marine water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Fukuhara, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (branched GDGTs) are commonly found in distal marine sediments. However, their presence in the water column, source and delivery process are not fully understood. In this study, we examined seasonal and depth variation in the flux of branched GDGTs in sinking particles and underlying sediment at 39°N, 147°E in the mid-latitude NW Pacific from November 1997 to August 1999. Branched GDGTs showed synchronous variation in their sinking flux at different depths, and the variation was similar to that of lithogenic material of eolian dust origin. Their degrees of cyclization and methylation were nearly constant and bear some resemblance to those of alkaline soils. This suggests that westerly winds transport branched GDGTs to the study site via the atmosphere from continental Asia. The sinking flux of branched GDGTs was higher in 1999 than in 1998, presumably reflecting changes in the migration path of Asian dust in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Synchronous variation in branched GDGT concentrations at different depths implies rapid vertical transport of branched GDGTs to deep water with a sinking velocity exceeding 260 m d-1. The sinking flux of the branched GDGTs decreased with increasing depth, but the rate of decrease was much smaller than those of other compounds. The preservation efficiency of branched GDGTs was 3.5-6.4% of surface inputs at the water-sediment interface, which is much higher than those of isoprenoid GDGTs (1.0-1.3%) and other compounds. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index values were extremely low (i.e. <0.0015) in comparison with any other studies so far. The BIT values in the surface sediment were five times higher than those in sinking particles, which is attributed to the preferential preservation of branched GDGTs in oxic environments.

  17. Anatomical differences between stem and branch wood of Ficus carica L. subsp. carica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Yaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative anatomical differences between the stem and branch wood of Ficus carica L. subsp. carica (Moraceae were investigated. In spite of the similarity in the qualitative traits, according to statistical analysis, tangential vessel diameter, radial vessel diameter, vessel frequency, vessel wall thickness, multiseriate ray width, fibre length, fibre diameter, and fibre wall thickness showed statistically significant differences in the stem and branch wood of taxon examined. Fibre length and vessel element length in branch wood is about 16% and 3% shorter respectively. In addition, vessel frequency in the branch wood is about 52% higher. Whilst the number of rays per mm is not different in branch wood and stem wood, ray width is about 18% narrower in branch wood.

  18. Influence of the structure branch market on adaptive development of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O. Zagornaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem of the study of branch markets influence on development and realization adaptive development strategy of the enterprise is considered in article. The basis of the offered approach forms the development of the alternative directions of the strategic decisions for some industrial enterprises with taking into account their position on the market and features of branch markets functioning.

  19. Changing the Order of Newton's Laws--Why & How the Third Law Should Be First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocklmayer, Sue; Rayner, John P.; Gore, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Newton's laws are difficult both for teachers and students at all levels. This is still the case despite a long history of critique of the laws as presented in the classroom. For example, more than 50 years ago Eisenbud and Weinstock proposed reformulations of the laws that put them on a sounder, more logically consistent base than is presented in…

  20. The environmental science and law II. The short development of the environmental science and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the basic documents about environmental laws and related documents approved in the world and in the Slovak Republic. The system of the environmental laws and organizations in the world and in the Slovak Republic are reviewed. A review of a selected environmental laws of the Slovak Republic are included. The significant world acts (declarations, charters and other documents) are reviewed

  1. The meningeal branches of the superior cerebellar artery: a surgical observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeoka, Katsuya; Takusakawa, Yutaka; Kominami, Shushi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The tentorial branch of the posterior cerebral artery was first identified in a cadaver dissection study. However, the tentorial branch of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) has not been clearly described in autopsy or normal anatomical studies. In this study, a dural branch of the SCA that was found during the surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is described. METHODS Between April 2011 and March 2014, 70 patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia underwent microvascular decompression. The records of 58 patients were reviewed to investigate the meningeal branch of the SCA. RESULTS The meningeal branch of the SCA was visualized in 15 of the 58 patients (25.9%). In 4 patients, it was necessary to divide this branch in order to achieve decompression of the trigeminal nerve without eliciting postoperative neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS This is the first identification of the meningeal branch of the SCA in living subjects, and such branches were rather frequently found. Recognition of this branch is important for the management of lesions in the cerebellopontine angle and tentorial lesions, using either an open microsurgical or endovascular method. PMID:26140484

  2. Henry's law constants of polyols

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, S.; J.-F. Müller

    2014-01-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included....

  3. Henry's law constants of polyols

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, S.; J.-F. Müller

    2014-01-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most ...

  4. Review and prospects of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 7th German Symposium on Atomic Energy Law which took place on March 16th, 1983 in Goettingen the Undersecretary of State of the Federal Ministery of the Interior, Dr. Guenter Hartkopf, delivered the opening speech. The speech deals with the conditions set by constitutional law and ethics, improvement of nuclear liability, guide line for incident response, participation of the public in licensing procedures under atomic energy law, necessary measures to prevent damage, the concept of waste management. Also in future the safety of the citizens has absolute priority. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  6. THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTITYPE CANONICAL MARKOV BRANCHING CHAINS IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The investigation for branching processes has a long history by their strong physics background, but only a few authors have investigated the branching processes in random environments. First of all, the author introduces the concepts of the multitype canonical Markov branching chain in random environment (CMBCRE) and multitype Markov branching chain in random environment (MBCRE) and proved that CMBCRE must be MBCRE, and any MBCRE must be equivalent to another CMBCRE in distribution. The main results of this article are the construction of CMBCRE and some of its probability properties.

  7. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  8. Organization and Structure of Branched Amphipathic Oligopeptide Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiguang; Whitaker, Susan K; Tomich, John M; Chen, Jianhan

    2016-09-27

    A class of self-assembling branched amphiphilic peptide capsules (BAPCs) was recently developed that could serve as a new drug delivery vehicle. BAPCs can encapsulate solutes up to ∼12 kDa during assembly, are unusually stable, and are readily taken up by cells with low cytotoxicity. Coarse-grained simulations have supported that BAPCs are defined by bilayers that resemble those formed by diacyl phospholipids. Here, atomistic simulations were performed to characterize the structure and organization of bilayers formed by three branched amphiphilic peptides (BAPs): bis(Ac-FLIVIGSII)-K-K4-CO-NH2, bis(Ac-CHA-LIVIGSII)-K-K4-CO-NH2, and bis(Ac-FLIVI)-K-K4-CO-NH2. The results show BAPs form a network of intra- and intermolecular backbone hydrogen bonds within the same leaflet in addition to hydrophobic side-chain interactions. The terminal residues of two leaflets form an interdigitation region locking two leaflets together. The phenyl groups in bis(Ac-FLIVIGSII)-K-K4-CO-NH2 and bis(Ac-FLIVI)-K-K4-CO-NH2 are tightly packed near the bilayer center but do not formed ordered structures with specific π-π stacking. Replacing phenyl groups with the cyclohexane side chain only slightly increases the level of disorder in bilayer structures and thus should not significantly affect the stability, consistent with experimental results on bis(Ac-CHA-LIVIGSII)-K-K4-CO-NH2 BAPCs. Self-assembly simulations further suggest that leaflet interdigitation likely occurs at early stages of BAPC formation. Atomistic simulations also reveal that the BAPC bilayers are highly permeable to water. This prediction was validated using fluorescence measurements of encapsulated self-quenching dye upon transferring BAPCs to buffers with different salt concentrations. Improved understanding of the organization and structure of BAPC bilayers at the atomic level will provide a basis for future rational modifications of BAP sequence to improve BAPC properties as a new class of delivery vehicle. PMID

  9. LOCALIZATION OF BRANCHING ENZYME IN POTATO-TUBER CELLS WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAM, AM; OOSTERGETEL, GT; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ

    1993-01-01

    Potato branching enzyme, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of starch, was localized in amyloplasts in starch-storage cells of potato (Solanum tuberosum L) with the use of immunogold electron microscopy. Branching enzyme was found in the amyloplast stroma, concentrated at the interface of the stroma a

  10. Vice-chairman Dong Songgen Attends the Opening Ceremony of Southwest Branch of CIETAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 20,Southwest Branch of the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (Southwest Branch of CIETAC) was established with a formal inauguration in Chongqing.Vice-chairman of CCPIT Dong Songgen and Vice Mayor of Chongqing Municipal Government Zhou Mubing were present at the ceremony and delivered speeches.

  11. The effect of branching in a semiconducting polymer on the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintges, Gaël H L; van Franeker, Jacobus J; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-01

    The impact of branching in a diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer on the performance of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic cells is investigated. Compared to the linear polymer, the branched polymer affords a more finely dispersed fibrillar network in the photoactive layer and as a result a large enhancement of the photocurrent and power conversion efficiency.

  12. Brief Introduction of The Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Refractories Branch,a specialized branch of The Chinese Society for Metals(CSM,a nonprofit academic organization concemed with the advancement of science and technology in metallurgical industry and materials science and engineering in China and is also an organization ofChinese scientists and engineersin these field.),is a nationwide academic organization for researchers or engineers in China'S refractories field.

  13. An Investigation of the Impact of International Branch Campuses on Organizational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lanford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors first survey the factors related to globalization that have stimulated the creation of international branch campuses. They then contend that the viability of an international branch campus should not be solely evaluated from a rational choice perspective oriented toward economic self-interest. Rather, the organizational culture of the…

  14. A branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization of Hessian Lipschitz continuous functions

    KAUST Repository

    Fowkes, Jaroslav M.

    2012-06-21

    We present a branch and bound algorithm for the global optimization of a twice differentiable nonconvex objective function with a Lipschitz continuous Hessian over a compact, convex set. The algorithm is based on applying cubic regularisation techniques to the objective function within an overlapping branch and bound algorithm for convex constrained global optimization. Unlike other branch and bound algorithms, lower bounds are obtained via nonconvex underestimators of the function. For a numerical example, we apply the proposed branch and bound algorithm to radial basis function approximations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Margins of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines legal questions coming from points of contact of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways on the one hand with the Waste Management Law, the Atomic Energy Law and Criminal Law on the other hand. He tries to find ways for solving the practical problems which arise with the execution of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways. (HSCH)

  16. Fundamental Laws and the Completeness of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Spurrett, David Jon

    1999-01-01

    The status of fundamental laws is an important issue when deciding between the three broad ontological options of fundamentalism (of which the thesis that physics is complete is typically a sub-type), emergentism, and disorder or promiscuous realism. Cartwright’s assault on fundamental laws which argues that such laws do not, and cannot, typically state the facts, and hence cannot be used to support belief in a fundamental ontological order, is discussed in this context. A case is made in def...

  17. Simple Reconstruction of Tree Branches from a Single Range Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Lin Cheng; Xiao-Peng Zhang; Bao-Quan Chen

    2007-01-01

    3D modeling of trees in real environments is a challenge in computer graphics and computer vision, since the geometric shape and topological structure of trees are more complex than conventional artificial objects. In this paper, we present a multi-process approach that is mainly performed in 2D space to faithfully construct a 3D model of the trunk and main branches of a real tree from a single range image. The range image is first segmented into patches by jump edge detection based on depth discontinuity. Coarse skeleton points and initial radii are then computed from the contour of each patch. Axis directions are estimated using cylinder fitting in the neighborhood of each coarse skeleton point. With the help of axis directions, skeleton nodes and corresponding radii are computed. Finally, these skeleton nodes are hierarchically connected, and improper radii are modified based on plant knowledge. 3D models generated from single range images of real trees demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The main contributions of this paper are simple reconstruction by virtue of image storage order of single scan and skeleton computation based on axis directions.

  18. Segmentation of branching vascular structures using adaptive subdivision surface fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitslaar, Pieter H.; van't Klooster, Ronald; Staring, Marius; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for segmentation and modeling of branching vessel structures in medical images using adaptive subdivision surfaces fitting. The method starts with a rough initial skeleton model of the vessel structure. A coarse triangular control mesh consisting of hexagonal rings and dedicated bifurcation elements is constructed from this skeleton. Special attention is paid to ensure a topological sound control mesh is created around the bifurcation areas. Then, a smooth tubular surface is obtained from this coarse mesh using a standard subdivision scheme. This subdivision surface is iteratively fitted to the image. During the fitting, the target update locations of the subdivision surface are obtained using a scanline search along the surface normals, finding the maximum gradient magnitude (of the imaging data). In addition to this surface fitting framework, we propose an adaptive mesh refinement scheme. In this step the coarse control mesh topology is updated based on the current segmentation result, enabling adaptation to varying vessel lumen diameters. This enhances the robustness and flexibility of the method and reduces the amount of prior knowledge needed to create the initial skeletal model. The method was applied to publicly available CTA data from the Carotid Bifurcation Algorithm Evaluation Framework resulting in an average dice index of 89.2% with the ground truth. Application of the method to the complex vascular structure of a coronary artery tree in CTA and to MRI images were performed to show the versatility and flexibility of the proposed framework.

  19. Inspection of the Sloka Branch pipeline. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    By agreement between Latvijas gaze and DONG (the Danish State Gas Company) the Sloka branch on the main gas pipeline Riga-Liepaja was selected for inspection. This pipeline is 30.5 km long and was constructed in 1966/67. The objective of the project has been, based on detailed inspection of relative short lengths of pipe, to determine the integrity of the pipeline and to give advice concerning the continued use as a high pressure transmission pipeline. A further objective has been to provide Latvijas gaze with a package of modern cathodic protection measuring instruments and the necessary know-how for using the instruments. The objectives have been met as follows: Based on a document review together with measurements and observations in the field and in the laboratory, the condition of approximately 10 km of pipeline has been evaluated; Recommendations are given in this report with the aim of extending the life of the pipeline; A cathodic protection instrument package was delivered and a two week training course was arranged in Latvia for Latvijas gaze`s staff covering the use of the instruments. (EG)

  20. The spectral dimension of the branched polymers phase of two-dimensional quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jónsson, T; Jonsson, Thordur; Wheater, John F.

    1998-01-01

    The metric of two-dimensional quantum gravity interacting with conformal matter is believed to collapse to a branched polymer metric when the central charge c>1. We show analytically that the spectral dimension of such a branched polymer phase is four thirds. This is in good agreement with numerical simulations for large c.