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Sample records for branched chain alpha-oxo

  1. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients.During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  2. Spectral problem for branching chain quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branching chain of rings as a quantum graph is considered. We use the transfer matrix method to obtain the spectral equation. The existence of bound states is proved. The discrete spectrum of the Schrödinger operator for the system is described. We find the dependence of the eigenvalues positions on the branching angle.

  3. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from th...

  4. Computer simulation of long-chain branching and branching indexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    Vienna : University of Vienna, 2014. s. 22. [International Conference on Polymer Behaviour /6./. 22.09.2014-26.09.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. THE UPTAKE OF AROMATIC AND BRANCHED CHAIN HYDROCARBONS BY YEAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of the hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts, Candida maltosa and C. lipolytica, have shown that both were capable of reducing recoverable amounts of branched chain and aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture of naphthalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, pristane (tetra-methylpentadecane). ...

  6. MARKETING PRICING STRATEGIES USED BY THE BRANCHES OF CHAIN STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert Štefko; Jaroslava Gburová; Jana Jurková

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with pricing strategies in marketing of the branches of chain stores situated in Presov region (specifically in Presov region). The aims of research are to identification the most commonly used pricing strategies in marketing from the point of view of marketing managers of the branches of chain stores and the various connections between marketing pricing strategies. It includes identification of various connections between the selection of marketing pricing strategies and pric...

  7. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L;

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  8. Infinitely dimensional control Markov branching chains in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Dihe

    2006-01-01

    First of all we introduce the concepts of infinitely dimensional control Markov branching chains in random environments (β-MBCRE) and prove the existence of such chains, then we introduce the concepts of conditional generating functionals and random Markov transition functions of such chains and investigate their branching property. Base on these concepts we calculate the moments of the β-MBCRE and obtain the main results of this paper such as extinction probabilities, polarization and proliferation rate. Finally we discuss the classification ofβ-MBCRE according to the different standards.

  9. Branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylases derived from Psychrobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiashi; Timler, Jacobe G; Knutson, Carolann M; Barney, Brett M

    2013-09-01

    The conversion of branched-chain amino acids to branched-chain acids or alcohols is an important aspect of flavor in the food industry and is dependent on the Ehrlich pathway found in certain lactic acid bacteria. A key enzyme in the pathway, the 2-keto acid decarboxylase (KDC), is also of interest in biotechnology applications to produce small branched-chain alcohols that might serve as improved biofuels or other commodity feedstocks. This enzyme has been extensively studied in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis, but is also found in other bacteria and higher organisms. In this report, distinct homologs of the L. lactis KDC originally annotated as pyruvate decarboxylases from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 and P. arcticus 273-4 were cloned and characterized, confirming a related activity toward specific branched-chain 2-keto acids derived from branched-chain amino acids. Further, KDC activity was confirmed in intact cells and cell-free extracts of P. cryohalolentis K5 grown on both rich and defined media, indicating that the Ehrlich pathway may also be utilized in some psychrotrophs and psychrophiles. A comparison of the similarities and differences in the P. cryohalolentis K5 and P. arcticus 273-4 KDC activities to other bacterial KDCs is presented. PMID:23826991

  10. Uptake of Branched-Chain Amino Acids by Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Akpemado, K. M.; Bracquart, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The transport of branched-chain amino acids in Streptococcus thermophilus was energy dependent. The metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis and ATPase enzymes were active, but the proton-conducting uncouplers were not. Transport was optimal at temperatures of between 30 and 45°C and at pH 7.0 for the three amino acids leucine, valine, and isoleucine; a second peak existed at pH 5.0 with valine and isoleucine. By competition and kinetics studies, the branched-chain amino acids were found to share a...

  11. On the contraction factors of long-chain branched macromolecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, February (2014), s. 177-181. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long-chain branching * contraction factor * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  12. THE EXISTENCE AND MOMENTS OF CANONICAL BRANCHING CHAIN IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪鹤

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of branching chain in random environmnet and canonical branching chain in random environment axe introduced. Moreover the existence of these chains is proved. Finally the exact formulas of mathematical expectation and variance of branching chain in random environment axe also given.

  13. The Laplace Functional and Moments for Markov Branching Chains in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-he; ZHANG Shu-lin

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of random Markov matrix, Markov branching chain in random environment (MBCRE) and Laplace functional of Markov branching chain in random environment (LFMBCRE) are introduced. The properties of LFMBCRE and the explicit formulas of moments of MBCRE are given.

  14. Radioinitiation of Chain Branched Reactions and its Sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of experiments by the writers with radioinitiation of chain branched reactions of the oxidation of organic compounds. The function of radiation as an initiating agent is described with reference to the oxidation of several unsaturated hydrocarbons and butanol. The reaction is self-accelerating and proceeds spontaneously after radiation has ceased. A detailed investigation was made of a process from oxidizing benzene, which has a high radiation resistance. The writers devised a method of sensitizing the radioinitiation of the oxidation of radiation-resistant substances by chemically inert but non-radiation-resistant substances. The main quantitative features of the process for the radiooxidation of benzene are stated to be the accumulation of various reaction products, and the effect of temperature, pressure, power and radiation dosage on the process of such accumulation. Information was obtained about the mechanism of the process. The design of circulating equipment is described. (author)

  15. Evidence of intra-chain phase separation in molten short-chain branched polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular phase separation is usually associated with block-copolymers, but the same phenomenon is also obtainable by random-copolymers. In this article, evidence of intramolecular phase separation is reported for a linear octadecene-ethene copolymer, which shows an evolving 'yield point' at a long time and low frequency. This is attributed to a partial phase separation of the long short-chain branches. In creep recovery, this behavior is evident as increasing elastic steady-state creep recovery compliance Je 0. In contrast to 'normal' block-copolymers, this special polymer has an increase in phase separation with temperature, which is caused by the chemical composition and the short chain segments in the side chain domain, leading to a high surface fraction.

  16. Branched chain amino acid profile in early chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients is a predictor of prognosis during the first period of dialysis. Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid profile. Of these, the plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, especially valine and leucine, correlate well with nutritional status. Plasma BCAAs were evaluated along with albumin and C-reactive protein in 15 patients of early stages of CKD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A significant decrease in plasma valine, leucine and albumin levels was observed in CKD patients when compared with the controls (P <0.05. No significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP levels was observed between the two groups. Malnutrition seen in our CKD patients in the form of hypoalbuminemia and decreased concentrations of BCAA points to the need to evaluate the nutritional status in the early stages itself. Simple measures in the form of amino acid supplementation should be instituted early to decrease the morbidity and mortality before start of dialysis in these patients.

  17. Catabolism of leucine to branched-chain fatty acids in Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Hansen, A M; Lauritsen, F R

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is an important starter culture in the production of flavours from the branched-chain amino acids leucine, valine and isoleucine in fermented meat products. The sensorially most important flavour compounds are the branched-chain aldehydes and acids derived from the correspo...... corresponding amino acids and this paper intends to perspectivate these flavour compounds in the context of leucine metabolism....

  18. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Supports Respiration but Not Volatile Synthesis in Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kochevenko; Wagner L.Araújo; Gregory S.Maloney; Denise M.Tieman; Phuc Thi Do; Mark G.Taylor; Harry J.Klee; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine.These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids.Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants have been extensively investigated and a number of genes have been characterized,their catabolism in plants is not yet completely understood.We previously characterized the branched chain amino acid transaminase gene family in tomato,revealing both the subcellular localization and kinetic properties of the enzymes encoded by six genes.Here,we examined possible functions of the enzymes during fruit development.We further characterized transgenic plants differing in the expression of branched chain amino acid transaminases 1 and 3,evaluating the rates of respiration in fruits deficient in BCAT1 and the levels of volatiles in lines overexpressing either BCAT1 or BCAT3.We quantitatively tested,via precursor and isotope feeding experiments,the importance of the branched chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the formation of fruit volatiles.Our results not only demonstrate for the first time the importance of branched chain amino acids in fruit respiration,but also reveal that keto acids,rather than amino acids,are the likely precursors for the branched chain flavor volatiles.

  19. Branched-chain amino acids and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, John D

    2005-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) influence brain function by modifying large, neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport at the blood-brain barrier. Transport is shared by several LNAAs, notably the BCAAs and the aromatic amino acids (ArAAs), and is competitive. Consequently, when plasma BCAA concentrations rise, which can occur in response to food ingestion or BCAA administration, or with the onset of certain metabolic diseases (e.g., uncontrolled diabetes), brain BCAA concentrations rise, and ArAA concentrations decline. Such effects occur acutely and chronically. Such reductions in brain ArAA concentrations have functional consequences: biochemically, they reduce the synthesis and the release of neurotransmitters derived from ArAAs, notably serotonin (from tryptophan) and catecholamines (from tyrosine and phenylalanine). The functional effects of such neurochemical changes include altered hormonal function, blood pressure, and affective state. Although the BCAAs thus have biochemical and functional effects in the brain, few attempts have been made to characterize time-course or dose-response relations for such effects. And, no studies have attempted to identify levels of BCAA intake that might produce adverse effects on the brain. The only "model" of very high BCAA exposure is a very rare genetic disorder, maple syrup urine disease, a feature of which is substantial brain dysfunction but that probably cannot serve as a useful model for excessive BCAA intake by normal individuals. Given the known biochemical and functional effects of the BCAAs, it should be a straightforward exercise to design studies to assess dose-response relations for biochemical and functional effects and, in this context, to explore for adverse effect thresholds. PMID:15930466

  20. THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTITYPE CANONICAL MARKOV BRANCHING CHAINS IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The investigation for branching processes has a long history by their strong physics background, but only a few authors have investigated the branching processes in random environments. First of all, the author introduces the concepts of the multitype canonical Markov branching chain in random environment (CMBCRE) and multitype Markov branching chain in random environment (MBCRE) and proved that CMBCRE must be MBCRE, and any MBCRE must be equivalent to another CMBCRE in distribution. The main results of this article are the construction of CMBCRE and some of its probability properties.

  1. Planar detonation structure for chain-branching kinetics with large activation energy and small initiation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Z.; Bédard-Tremblay, L.; Bauwens, L

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the steady planar detonation wave is analyzed for three-step chain-branching kinetics consistent with hydrogen–air chemistry. The initiation and chain-branching steps are described by an Arrhenius rate. Both are thermally neutral, so that heat release is due to termination. The initiation rate is typically very low and very stiff. As a result, a small fraction of the reactant is consumed in the initiation region, which is very long but ends in an exponential chain-branching e...

  2. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction with neurological and psychiatric changes associated with liver insufficiency or portal-systemic shunting. The severity ranges from minor symptoms to coma. A Cochrane systematic review including 11 randomised clinical trials on branched-ch...

  3. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Gai, CS; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-08-04

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis.

  4. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jingnan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brigham, Christopher J.; Gai, Claudia S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sinskey, Anthony J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Health Sciences and Technology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Engineering Systems Div.

    2012-10-15

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. (orig.)

  5. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo;

    2015-01-01

    -chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through...

  6. Converging from Branching to Linear Metrics on Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    We study the strong and strutter trace distances on Markov chains (MCs). Our interest in these metrics is motivated by their relation to the probabilistic LTL-model checking problem: we prove that they correspond to the maximal differences in the probability of satisfying the same LTL and LTL...

  7. Communication: Role of short chain branching in polymer structure and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of chain-branching effects, essential for establishing general knowledge of the structure-property-phenomenon relationship in polymer science, has not yet been found, due to a critical lack of knowledge on the role of short-chain branches, the effects of which have mostly been neglected in favor of the standard entropic-based concepts of long polymers. Here, we show a significant effect of short-chain branching on the structural and dynamical properties of polymeric materials, and reveal the molecular origins behind the fundamental role of short branches, via atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and mesoscopic Brownian dynamics by systematically varying the strength of the mobility of short branches. We demonstrate that the fast random Brownian kinetics inherent to short branches plays a key role in governing the overall structure and dynamics of polymers, leading to a compact molecular structure and, under external fields, to a lesser degree of structural deformation of polymer, to a reduced shear-thinning behavior, and to a smaller elastic stress, compared with their linear analogues. Their fast dynamical nature being unaffected by practical flow fields owing to their very short characteristic time scale, short branches would substantially influence (i.e., facilitate) the overall relaxation behavior of polymeric materials under various flowing conditions.

  8. Branched chain amino acid transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in the brain, liver and skele­tal muscle of acute hepatic failure rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takei,Nobuyuki

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Branched chain amino acid (BCAA transaminase activity increased in both the mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of brain from hepatic failure rats, in which a partial hepatectomy was performed 24h following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration, although the activity of liver and skeletal muscle was the same as in control rats. The elevation of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase activity in liver-injured rats was partly due to increased activity of brain specific Type III isozyme. Branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA dehydrogenase in the brain homogenates was not significantly altered in acute hepatic failure rats, while the liver enzyme activity was markedly diminished. BCKA dehydrogenase activity in the brain homogenates was inhibited by adding ATP to the assay system, and was activated in vitro by preincubating the brain homogenate at 37 degrees C for 15 min. These findings suggest that brain BCAA catabolism is accelerated in acute hepatic failure rats.

  9. Physiological covalent regulation of rat liver branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical assay was developed for measuring branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity of Triton X-100 extracts of freeze-clamped rat liver. The proportion of active (dephosphorylated) enzyme was determined by measuring enzyme activities before and after activation of the complex with a broad-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase. Hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in normal male Wistar rats was 97% active but decreased to 33% active after 2 days on low-protein (8%) diet and to 13% active after 4 days on the same diet. Restricting protein intake of lean and obese female Zucker rats also caused inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Essentially all of the enzyme was in the active state in rats maintained for 14 days on either 30 or 50% protein diets. This was also the case for rats maintained on a commercial chow diet (minimum 23% protein). However, maintaining rats on 20, 8, and 0% protein diets decreased the percentage of the active form of the enzyme to 58, 10, and 7% of the total, respectively. Fasting of chow-fed rats for 48 h had no effect on the activity state of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, i.e., 93% of the enzyme remained in the active state compared to 97% for chow-fed rats. However, hepatic enzyme of rats maintained on 8% protein diet was 10% active before starvation and 83% active after 2 days of starvation. Thus, dietary protein deficiency results in inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, presumably as a consequence of low hepatic levels of branched-chain alpha-ketoacids

  10. Electron beam curable branched chain polyurethane acrylates for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam curable binder resins have been studied to realize the high quality magnetic coatings. It was supposed that resins with a higher crosslink density could lead to magnetic coatings with higher abrasion resistance. Branched chain polyurethane acrylates show a higher degree of cure by irradiation with an electron beam in comparison with linear polyurethane acrylates. This paper describes the potential wear resistance between properties of magnetic coatings and the physical properties of the cured unpigmented branched chain polyurethane acrylates that were used as the binder resins. (author)

  11. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  12. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ∼0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes

  13. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-01

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ˜0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  14. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenbos, G., E-mail: dorenbos@ny.thn.ne.jp [Sano 1107-2, Belle Crea 502, Susono 410-1118 (Japan)

    2015-06-14

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ∼0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  15. The characterization of modified starch branching enzymes: toward the control of starch chain-length distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    Full Text Available Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality.

  16. Effect of Cholesterol on the Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport System of Streptococcus cremoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tan; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was studied in membrane vesicles of S. cremoris fused with liposomes made of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, soybean phosphatidylethanolamine, and various amounts of cholesterol. Chole

  17. Branched chain amino acid metabolism profiles in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lake, A.D.; Novák, Petr; Shipkova, P.; Aranibar, N.; Robertson, D.G.; Reily, M.D.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Vaillancourt, R.R.; Cherrington, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 603-615. ISSN 0939-4451 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Branched chain amino acid * nonalcoholic fatty liver disease * nonalcoholic steatohepatitis * metabolomics and transcriptomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.293, year: 2014

  18. Enzymology of the branched-chain amino acid oxidation disorders: the valine pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Duran, Marinus; Loupatty, Ference J.

    2010-01-01

    Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids which undergoes oxidation within mitochondria. In this paper, we describe the current state of knowledge with respect to the enzymology of the valine oxidation pathway and the different disorders affecting oxidation.

  19. Shear-induced enhancements of crystallization kinetics and morphological transformation for long chain branched polylactides with different branching degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junyang; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Yaqiong; Fang, Huagao; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    The effects of long chain branching (LCB) degree on the shear-induced isothermal crystallization kinetics of a series of LCB polylactides (LCB PLAs) have been investigated by using rotational rheometer, polarized optical microscopy (POM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dynamic viscoelastic properties obtained by small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) tests indicate that LCB PLAs show more broadened relaxation time spectra with increasing LCB degree. Upon a pre-shear at the shear rate of 1 s‑1 LCB PLAs show much faster crystallization kinetics than linear PLA and the crystallization kinetics is enhanced with increasing LCB degree. By modeling the system as a suspension the quantitative evaluation of nucleation density can be derived from rheological experiments. The nucleation density is greatly enhanced with increasing LCB degree and a saturation in shear time is observed. Crystalline morphologies for LCB PLAs observed by POM and SEM demonstrate the enhancement of nucleation density with increasing LCB degree and a transformation from spherulitic to orientated crystalline morphologies. The observation can be ascribed to longer relaxation time of the longest macromolecular chains and broadened, complex relaxation behaviors due to the introduction of LCB into PLA, which is essential in stabilizing the orientated crystal nuclei after pre-shear.

  20. Plasma branched chain amino acid abnormalities in sake-treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma amino acid abnormalities in rats treated with large doses of sake and whisky for 3 days were investigated under adequate nutritional conditions. A significant decrease in plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA levels was observed in sake- but not whisky-treated rats. However, known factors affecting BCAA levels, such as serum insulin and plasma glucagon levels ahd BCAA-metabolizing enzyme (BCAA transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activities in the liver and skeletal muscle, were not significantly altered in the sake group. Furthermore, ethanol-metabolizing enzyme (alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system activities in the liver were not altered in the sake group. Other mechanisms need to be considered for explaining the diminished levels of plasma BCAA in sake-treated rats.

  1. Chain branching detection by Cole–Cole modeling of rheological properties changes during PET mechanical recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Nait-Ali, K.L; Bergeret, A.; Ferry, L; Colin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    International audience The detection of branched chains in thermally degraded thermoplastic polymers is far from simple, especially at a low conversion ratio, mainly because of the low sensitivity of commonly used laboratory analytical techniques. The objective of this article is to present an approach able to demonstrate the formation of such macromolecular structures during thermal degradation of molten PET at low oxygen partial pressures (typically for pressures lower than 9% of atmosph...

  2. Internal logistics as a part of supply chain : case : Nokia-China, Dongguang Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Ran

    2009-01-01

    Internal logistics is one of the most important sections within enterprises, especially in the large manufacturing companies. It manages, arranges, plans and delivers the finished products. It is an indispensable part of the supply chain, as well as reflects the result of implementation company strategy. This study focuses on finding the possible ways to improve the operation process of Nokia-China internal logistics by looking into Nokia-China’s internal logistics in Dongguan Branch- Su...

  3. Branched-Chain Aminotransferases Control TORC1 Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT, which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively. BCAT yeast mutants exhibit severely compromised TORC1 activity, which is partially restored by expression of Bat1 active site mutants, implicating both catalytic and structural roles of BCATs in TORC1 control. We find that Bat1 interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolic enzymes and, in a leucine-dependent fashion, with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA-cycle enzyme aconitase. BCAT mutation perturbed TCA-cycle intermediate levels, consistent with a TCA-cycle block, and resulted in low ATP levels, activation of AMPK, and TORC1 inhibition. We propose the biosynthetic capacity of BCAT and its role in forming multicomplex metabolons connecting branched-chain amino acids and TCA-cycle metabolism governs TCA-cycle flux to activate TORC1 signaling. Because mammalian mitochondrial BCAT is known to form a supramolecular branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex that links leucine metabolism to the TCA-cycle, these findings establish a precedent for understanding TORC1 signaling in mammals.

  4. Involvement of a Branched-Chain Aminotransferase in Production of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat Bondar, Daniela; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of l-methionine and the subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are essential for the development of the typical flavor in cheese. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the degradation of l-methionine was accompanied by the formation of the transamination product 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid. A branched-chain aminotransferase gene (YlBCA1) of Y. lipolytica was amplified, and the l-methionine-degrading activity and the aminotransferase activity were mea...

  5. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.

    1987-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH/sub 4/Cl x 100 g body wt/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-(1-/sup 14/C)-valine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase.

  6. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in leg muscles from tail-cast suspended intact and adrenalectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik; Jacob, Stephan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of muscle unloading, adrenalectomy, and cortisol treatment on the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus of tail-cast suspended rats were investigated using C-14-labeled lucine, isoleucine, and valine in incubation studies. It was found that, compared to not suspended controls, the degradation of branched-chain amino acids in hind limb muscles was accelerated in tail-cast suspended rats. Adrenalectomy was found to abolish the aminotransferase flux and to diminish the dehydrogenase flux in the soleus. The data also suggest that cortisol treatment increases the rate of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids at the dehydrogenase step.

  7. Ultrafast energy transfer from rigid, branched side-chains into a conjugated, alternating copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Graham B.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Linkin, Alexander; McGillicuddy, Ryan D.; Engel, Gregory S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Lundin, Pamela M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stauffer III, 381 North-South Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); A. R. Smith Department of Chemistry, Appalachian State University, 417 CAP Building, 525 Rivers Street, Boone, North Carolina 28608 (United States); Bao, Zhenan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stauffer III, 381 North-South Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a benzodithiophene/thiophene alternating copolymer decorated with rigid, singly branched pendant side chains. We characterize exciton migration and recombination dynamics in these molecules in tetrahydrofuran solution, using a combination of static and time-resolved spectroscopies. As control experiments, we also measure electronic relaxation dynamics in isolated molecular analogues of both the side chain and polymer moieties. We employ semi-empirical and time-dependent density functional theory calculations to show that photoexcitation of the decorated copolymer using 395 nm laser pulses results in excited states primarily localized on the pendant side chains. We use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that excitations are transferred to the polymer backbone faster than the instrumental response function, ∼250 fs.

  8. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials. PMID:27241180

  9. Whole-body nitrogen and tyrosine metabolism in surgical patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.P.; Bistrian, B.R.; Moldawer, L.L.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1985-12-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity received preoperatively a standard crystalline amino acid solution containing 15.6% branched-chain amino acids. During the first five postoperative days, the patients were randomized to receive one of three amino acid solutions of different branched-chain amino acid content. Whole-body amino acid appearance and oxidation were estimated using a continuous intravenous infusion of L-(U-/sup 14/C)-tyrosine preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. This study suggests that an adequate nitrogen intake of a balanced amino acid mixture, as well as a solution enriched with branched-chain amino acids, maintains protein homeostasis and supports protein synthesis similarly in well-nourished patients following major abdominal surgery. A diet containing only branched-chain amino acids in isomolar ratios was as effective at maintaining protein retention and whole-body protein synthesis and albumin renewal postoperatively when compared with a standard amino acid formula.

  10. Whole-body nitrogen and tyrosine metabolism in surgical patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity received preoperatively a standard crystalline amino acid solution containing 15.6% branched-chain amino acids. During the first five postoperative days, the patients were randomized to receive one of three amino acid solutions of different branched-chain amino acid content. Whole-body amino acid appearance and oxidation were estimated using a continuous intravenous infusion of L-(U-14C)-tyrosine preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. This study suggests that an adequate nitrogen intake of a balanced amino acid mixture, as well as a solution enriched with branched-chain amino acids, maintains protein homeostasis and supports protein synthesis similarly in well-nourished patients following major abdominal surgery. A diet containing only branched-chain amino acids in isomolar ratios was as effective at maintaining protein retention and whole-body protein synthesis and albumin renewal postoperatively when compared with a standard amino acid formula

  11. Analysis of critical parameters for branched-chain thermal explosion between parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a mathematical model describing temperature in a combustible gas mixture between infinite parallel planes. We find the first order approximation in the Frank-Kamenetskii's limit employing the homotopy perturbation technique. Critical values for the modified Frank-Kamenetskii's parameter δ and the dimensionless central temperature θmax have been evaluated numerically for realistic values of constant dimensionless initiation rate (compared with the diffusion coefficient), a and order of the branching reaction, n. The analysis from discontinuity to continuity is quantified by monitoring the dimensionless measure of the activation energy β, δ and θmax as functions of a and n. The results help to enhance the interplay between thermal explosion and branched-chain thermal explosion. (author)

  12. PGC-1α-mediated branched-chain amino acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukino Hatazawa

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellular signaling, and transcriptional responses. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism mainly occurs in skeletal muscle mitochondria, and enzymes related to BCAA metabolism are increased by exercise. Using murine skeletal muscle overexpressing PGC-1α and cultured cells, we investigated whether PGC-1α stimulates BCAA metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes involved in BCAA metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α specifically in the skeletal muscle had increased the expression of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT 2, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, which catabolize BCAA. The expression of BCKDH kinase (BCKDK, which phosphorylates BCKDH and suppresses its enzymatic activity, was unchanged. The amount of BCAA in the skeletal muscle was significantly decreased in the transgenic mice compared with that in the wild-type mice. The amount of glutamic acid, a metabolite of BCAA catabolism, was increased in the transgenic mice, suggesting the activation of muscle BCAA metabolism by PGC-1α. In C2C12 cells, the overexpression of PGC-1α significantly increased the expression of BCAT2 and BCKDH but not BCKDK. Thus, PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle is considered to significantly contribute to BCAA metabolism.

  13. SOLUTION CRYSTALLIZATION OF METALLOCENE SHORT CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE: MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Fu; Rong-ni Du; Fang-Chyou Chiu

    2000-01-01

    Solution crystallization of metallocene short chain branched polyethylene (SCBPE) was carried out and very nice single crystals were obtained. Compared with single crystals grown from linear polyethylene, SCBPE single crystals are dirty due to intermolecular heterogeneity The crystal morphology changes with crystallization temperatures. Lozenge, truncated lozenge, hexagonal, rounded and elongated crystal morphologies have been found at much lower crystallization temperature than in linear polyethylene. The electron diffraction shows there is a possibility that the single crystals may have hexagonal packing in a crystallization temperature range. The lateral habits of single crystal are discussed based on roughening theories.

  14. A safety assessment of branched chain saturated alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsito, D.; Bickers, D.; Bruze, M.;

    2010-01-01

    The Branched Chain Saturated Alcohol (BCSA) group of fragrance ingredients was evaluated for safety. In humans, no evidence of skin irritation was found at concentrations of 2-10%. Undiluted, 11 materials evaluated caused moderate to severe eye irritation. As current end product use levels are...... carcinogenicity study showed that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is a weak inducer of liver tumors in female mice, however, the relevance of this effect and mode of action to humans is still a matter of debate. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding BCSA under the present levels of use and...

  15. Instability Criterion of One-Dimensional Detonation Wave with Three-Step Chain Branching Reaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Hong-Hui; JIANG Zong-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ One-dimensional detonation waves are simulated with the three-step chain branching reaction model, and the instability criterion is studied.The ratio of the induction zone length and the reaction zone length may be used to decide the instability, and the detonation becomes unstable with the high ratio.However, the ratio is not invariable with different heat release values.The critical ratio, corresponding to the transition from the stable detonation to the unstable detonation, has a negative correlation with the heat release.An empirical relation of the Chapman-Jouguet Mach number and the length ratio is proposed as the instability criterion.

  16. Purification of a branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokatch, J R; McCully, V; Roberts, C M

    1981-01-01

    We purified branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase to a specific activity of 10 mumol/min per mg of protein from Pseudomonas putida grown on valine. The purified enzyme was active with 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoisocaproate, and 2-keto-3-methylvalerate in a ratio of 1.0:0.8:0.7 but showed no activity with either pyruvate or 2-ketoglutarate. There were four polypeptides in the purified enzyme (molecular weights, 49,000, 46,000, 39,000, and 37,000). The purified enzyme was deficient in the specif...

  17. Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport in Bacillus subtilis CodY Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Belitsky, Boris R.

    2015-01-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid-responsive transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several dozen transcription units in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of isoleucine, valine, and leucine in the growth medium is essential for achieving high activity of CodY and for efficient regulation of the target genes. We identified three permeases—BcaP, BraB, and BrnQ—that are responsible for the bulk of isoleucine and valine uptake and are also involved in leucine uptake. At least o...

  18. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level. PMID:18568754

  19. The Complex Role of Branched Chain Amino Acids in Diabetes and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. O'Connell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The obesity and diabetes epidemics are continuing to spread across the globe. There is increasing evidence that diabetes leads to a significantly higher risk for certain types of cancer. Both diabetes and cancer are characterized by severe metabolic perturbations and the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs appear to play a significant role in both of these diseases. These essential amino acids participate in a wide variety of metabolic pathways, but it is now recognized that they are also critical regulators of a number of cell signaling pathways. An elevation in branched chain amino acids has recently been shown to be significantly correlated with insulin resistance and the future development of diabetes. In cancer, the normal demands for BCAAs are complicated by the conflicting needs of the tumor and the host. The severe muscle wasting syndrome experience by many cancer patients, known as cachexia, has motivated the use of BCAA supplementation. The desired improvement in muscle mass must be balanced by the need to avoid providing materials for tumor proliferation. A better understanding of the complex functions of BCAAs could lead to their use as biomarkers of the progression of certain cancers in diabetic patients.

  20. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Landa Cavallaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective: To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design: Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]. All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all. Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02 and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion: Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.

  1. Nonlinear rheology and strain recovery of short chain branched polyolefin elastomers and thermoplastic olefin blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patham, Bhaskar

    Polyolefin elastomers are random copolymers having a polyethylene backbone with the higher olefinic comonomer incorporated as short-chain branches. These random copolymers are widely used as polymer modifiers for thermoplastic materials such as polypropylenes, resulting in thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends. This thesis addresses the nonlinear rheological behavior of the elastomers and then of the TPO blends. The effects of varying short chain branch density (SCB) on the melt rheology of three ethylene-octene random copolymers have been investigated. In particular, the strain-hardening behavior in extensional flow and strain recovery following nonlinear shear creep has been evaluated. The zero-shear viscosity followed trends in the backbone molecular weight closely. While the three copolymers were indistinguishable in linear viscoelastic creep and recovery, recovery following nonlinear shear creep decreased progressively with increasing SCB density. This reveals that the extent of rapid chain equilibration that occurs over Rouse time scales at higher strains was progressively lower with increasing SCB density. Strain hardening in uniaxial extensional flow was observed for all three copolymers. At strain rates below the primitive chain equilibration rates, strain hardening increases progressively with increasing SCB density. At higher rates, upon onset of primitive chain stretch, the strain hardening behavior for the three melts merges. Two thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends were characterized in the context of injection molding; the surface morphology of injection molded tensile bars with these materials showed surface defects or flow marks to different extents. The flow marks were traced to different degrees of strain recovery in the dispersed phases of the two blends. This recovery occurred over injection molding timescales of the order of a few seconds. Strain recovery after shear creep was higher in the blend that displayed more severe flow marks in injection

  2. Infusion of branched-chain enriched amino acid solution in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H; Dienstag, J; Lehrich, J; Yoshimura, N; Bradford, R R; Rosen, H; Atamian, S; Slemmer, E; Holroyde, J; Fischer, J E

    1982-08-01

    Hospitalized patients with hepatic insufficiency often suffer from severe catabolic states and are in urgent need of nutritional support during their acute illness. Protein intolerence, however, remains a significant problem with respect to the provision of adequate nutrition, either enterally or parenterally. The following report is an anecdotal series of 63 consecutive patients in a large urban hospital treated prospectively with nutritional support using a prototype high branched-chain amino acid solution (FO80) given by technique of total parenteral nutrition by the subclavian or internal jugular route with hypertonic dextrose. Sixty-three patients, of which 42 had chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) with acute decompensation and 17 with acute hepatic injury as well as four with hepatorenal syndrome, are the subject of this report. All required intravenous nutritional support and were either intolerant to commercially available parenteral nutrition solutions or were in hepatic encephalopathy at the time they were initially seen. The cirrhotic patients had been hospitalized for a mean of 14.5 +/- 1.9 days before therapy, had a mean bilirubin of 13 mg/100 ml, and had been in coma for 4.8 +/- 0.7 days despite standard therapy. Patients with acute hepatitis had been in the hospital for 16.2 +/- 4.1 days before therapy, had a mean bilirubin of 25 mg/100 ml, and had been in coma 5.2 +/- 1.6 days before therapy. Routine tests of liver function, blood chemistries, amino acids, EEGs, and complex neurological testing including Reitan trailmaking tests were used in the evaluation of these patients. Up to 120 grams of synthetic amino acid solution with hypertonic dextrose was tolerated in these patients with improvement noted in encephalopathy of at least one grade in 87% of the patients with cirrhosis and 75% of the patients with hepatitis. Nitrogen balance was achieved when 75 to 80 grams of synthetic amino acids were administered. Survival was 45% in the cirrhotic group

  3. Differential redox potential between the human cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven J. Coles; John T. Hancock; Myra E. Conway

    2012-01-01

    The human branched-chain aminotransferase (hBCAT) isoenzymes are CXXC motif redox sensitive homodimers central to glutamate metabolism in the central nervous system.These proteins respond differently to oxidation by H2O2,NO,and S-glutathionylation,suggesting that the redox potential is distinct between isoenzymes.Using various reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH:GSSG) to alter the redox environment,we demonstrate that hBCATc (cytosolic) has an overall redox potential that is 30 mV lower than hBCATm (mitochondrial).Furthermore,the CXXC motif of hBCATc was estimated to be 80 mV lower,suggesting that hBCATm is more oxidizing in nature.Western blot analysis revealed close correlations between hBCAT S-glutathionylation and the redox status of the assay environment,offering the hBCAT isoenzymes as novel biomarkers for cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characteristics of seven novel mutations causing branched-chain organic acidurias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, M; Klaassen, K; Djordjevic, M; Sarajlija, A; Brasil, S; Kecman, B; Grkovic, S; Kostic, J; Rodriguez-Pombo, P; Desviat, L R; Pavlovic, S; Perez, B

    2016-09-01

    Specific mitochondrial enzymatic deficiencies in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids cause methylmalonic aciduria (MMA), propionic acidemia (PA) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Disease-causing mutations were identified in nine unrelated branched-chain organic acidurias (BCOA) patients. We detected eight previously described mutations: p.Asn219Tyr, p.Arg369His p.Val553Glyfs*17 in MUT, p.Thr198Serfs*6 in MMAA, p.Ile144_Leu181del in PCCB, p.Gly288Valfs*11, p.Tyr438Asn in BCKDHA and p.Ala137Val in BCKDHB gene. Interestingly, we identified seven novel genetic variants: p.Leu549Pro, p.Glu564*, p.Leu641Pro in MUT, p.Tyr206Cys in PCCB, p.His194Arg, p.Val298Met in BCKDHA and p.Glu286_Met290del in BCKDHB gene. In silico and/or eukaryotic expression studies confirmed pathogenic effect of all novel genetic variants. Aberrant enzymes p.Leu549Pro MUT, p.Leu641Pro MUT and p.Tyr206Cys PCCB did not show residual activity in activity assays. In addition, activity of MUT enzymes was not rescued in the presence of vitamin B12 precursor in vitro which was in accordance with non-responsiveness or partial responsiveness of patients to vitamin B12 therapy. Our study brings the first molecular genetic data and detailed phenotypic characteristics for MMA, PA and MSUD patients for Serbia and the whole South-Eastern European region. Therefore, our study contributes to the better understanding of molecular landscape of BCOA in Europe and to general knowledge on genotype-phenotype correlation for these rare diseases. PMID:26830710

  5. Model-Based Reactor Design in Free-Radical Polymerization with Simultaneous Long-Chain Branching and Scission

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetaka Tobita

    2015-01-01

    Polymers are the products of processes and their microstructure can be changed significantly by the reactor systems employed, especially for nonlinear polymers. The Monte Carlo simulation technique, based on the random sampling technique, is used to explore the effect of reactor types on the branched polymer structure, formed through free-radical polymerization with simultaneous long-chain branching and scission, as in the case of low-density polyethylene synthesis. As a simplified model for...

  6. Murine branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase; cDNA cloning, tissue distribution, and temporal expression during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, C B; Coursey, C; Spangler, W; Danner, D J

    1998-06-01

    These studies were designed to demonstrate the structural and functional similarity of murine branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and its regulation by the complex-specific kinase. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence for the kinase cDNA demonstrate a highly conserved coding sequence between mouse and human. Tissue-specific expression in adult mice parallels that reported in other mammals. Kinase expression in female liver is influenced by circadian rhythm. Of special interest is the fluctuating expression of this kinase during embryonic development against the continuing increase in the catalytic subunits of this mitochondrial complex during development. The need for regulation of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex by kinase expression during embryogenesis is not understood. However, the similarity of murine branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and its kinase to the human enzyme supports the use of this animal as a model for the human system. PMID:9611264

  7. Stereoselective synthesis of 2,2-bis(C-branched-chain) glucopyranosid-3-ulose via autoxidation reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-Min; ZHANG Fuyi; TAO Jing-Chao

    2004-01-01

    Many different approaches for synthesis of branched chain sugars have beenestablished,1 because they are very useful intermediates for synthesis of other non-sugar chiralmolecules, and usually occur in nature. Branched chain glycosidulose can be used for construction offive- and six-membered carbocyclic rings to which two chiral carbons of sugar are incorporated byintramolecular aldol condensation and Robinson annulation,2 Therefore they are useful in thesynthesis of natural products which consist of annulated carbohydrates or where a highlyfunctionalised enantiomerically pure cyclopentane or cyclohexane is required. Also, this type ofbranched chain sugar can be considered as the synthons of monoterpenoid natural products of theiridoid class which have the cyclopentan-(c)-pyran structure. In view of the importance of branchedchain glycosiduloses, it is desirable to have a general, convenient methodology to their synthesis.However, none of the literature methods was reported on their synthesis by a nuclephilic addition toa partially protected glycosidulose, due to the fact that these glycosiduloses are very difficult tosynthesize selectively and unstable;3 and what is more, one-step synthesis branched chainglycosidulose using this method is almost impossible.In this paper, we report on a general, convenient method for stereoselective syntheses of2,2-bis(C-branched-chain)glucopyranosid-3-uloses by the new reaction of 1 with various activemethylene compounds. The generality of this method was examined in detail. The optimumtemperature was 18-25℃. The solvent DMF was better than the others. In all cases he yields werehigher than 60%.All the 2,2-bis(C-branched-chain)glucopyranosid-3-uloses were characterized by X-raycrystallographic analyses. In addition, the important iintermediate in this reaction was isolated,which is the product of autoxidation of 1 at C-3 position. Thus the reaction mechanism for thesynthesis of 2,2-bis(C-branched-chain) glucopyranosid-3-uloses

  8. Rheological properties of long-chain branched chlorinated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene)-graft-polybutadiene terpolymers (CIIR-g-BR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendorek, Jerzy (George)

    Anionically polymerized "living" polybutadiene (BR) was grafted onto chlorinated poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene) (CIIR) to form a series of elastomeric graft copolymers (CIIR-g-BR) of comb-type, long-chain branching structure (LCB) with systematically varying length and number of branches. A comprehensive program of analytical characterization of the structure and morphology of these materials using SEC/DRI-DV, NMR, FT-IR, DSC, TGA, TEM and other techniques, was designed to determine all relevant structural variables and parameters, as well as to exclude the presence of the potential compositional interferences (gel, residual solvent, unattached branch parent polymer, etc.) for intended correlations between branching structure and rheological properties. The principal branching characteristics of comb-like long-chain branched structures were derived from the stoichiometry of the grafting reaction, confirmed by compositional analysis using a combination of NMR/FT-IR/SEC and supplemented by SEC characterization of the parent linear polymers constituting the backbone (CIIR) and the branch of the graft (BR), respectively. Linear viscoelastic properties of these materials were determined by a Rheometrics Mechanical Spectrometer (RMS-800) using small amplitude, dynamic (sinusoidal oscillatory) shear. These measurements were supplemented by Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA 2000sp{TM}) testing in a comparable range of strain amplitudes, frequencies and temperatures. Stress relaxation experiments, following small amplitude step-strain in shear, complemented the dynamic mechanical measurement. Non-linear viscoelastic properties in shear were investigated in a series of isothermal strain and frequency sweeps using large strain (up to 800%) oscillations (RPA 2000), and by stress following a large-amplitude (˜75%) step shear strain, using the Dynamic Stress Relaxometer (DSR). An insight into the morphology of the grafts by means of the TEM and DSC has been compared to the results of

  9. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism fuels adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Courtney R; Wallace, Martina; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Phillips, Susan A; Murphy, Anne N; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Metallo, Christian M

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays important roles in regulating carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis, but less is known about the regulation of amino acid metabolism in adipocytes. Here we applied isotope tracing to pre-adipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to quantify the contributions of different substrates to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism and lipogenesis. In contrast to proliferating cells, which use glucose and glutamine for acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) generation, differentiated adipocytes showed increased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic flux such that leucine and isoleucine from medium and/or from protein catabolism accounted for as much as 30% of lipogenic AcCoA pools. Medium cobalamin deficiency caused methylmalonic acid accumulation and odd-chain fatty acid synthesis. Vitamin B12 supplementation reduced these metabolites and altered the balance of substrates entering mitochondria. Finally, inhibition of BCAA catabolism compromised adipogenesis. These results quantitatively highlight the contribution of BCAAs to adipocyte metabolism and suggest that BCAA catabolism has a functional role in adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26571352

  10. Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin in rats with chronic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Katsukawa, Misaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yasushi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether continuous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6, a downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin, and improves hypoalbuminemia of rats with chronic liver disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a casein diet (control group) or a branched-chain amino acid-supplemented casein diet (branched-chain amino acid group) for 11 weeks with repeated injections of carbon tetrachloride. Throughout this experimental period, no signific...

  11. Effects of glucose, glucose plus branched-chain amino acids, or placebo on bike performance over 100 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Klavs; MacLean, David A; Kiens, Bente;

    1996-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of ingesting either glucose (trial G) or glucose plus branched-chain amino acids (BCAA: trial B), compared with placebo (trial P), during prolonged exercise. Nine well-trained cyclists with a maximal oxygen uptake of 63.1 +/- 1.5 ml O2. min-1.kg-1...

  12. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-[p-(iodophenyl)]-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM) to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction

  13. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Contributes Significantly to Synthesis of Odd-Chain and Even-Chain Fatty Acids in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Crown

    Full Text Available The branched chain amino acids (BCAA valine, leucine and isoleucine have been implicated in a number of diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Adipose tissue plays an important role in BCAA homeostasis by actively metabolizing circulating BCAA. In this work, we have investigated the link between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using parallel 13C-labeling experiments, mass spectrometry and model-based isotopomer data analysis. Specifically, we performed parallel labeling experiments with four fully 13C-labeled tracers, [U-13C]valine, [U-13C]leucine, [U-13C]isoleucine and [U-13C]glutamine. We measured mass isotopomer distributions of fatty acids and intracellular metabolites by GC-MS and analyzed the data using the isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA framework. We demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate significant amounts of even chain length (C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0 and odd chain length (C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids under standard cell culture conditions. Using a novel GC-MS method, we demonstrate that propionyl-CoA acts as the primer on fatty acid synthase for the production of odd chain fatty acids. BCAA contributed significantly to the production of all fatty acids. Leucine and isoleucine contributed at least 25% to lipogenic acetyl-CoA pool, and valine and isoleucine contributed 100% to lipogenic propionyl-CoA pool. Our results further suggest that low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and mass action kinetics of propionyl-CoA on fatty acid synthase result in high rates of odd chain fatty acid synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overall, this work provides important new insights into the connection between BCAA catabolism and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes and underscores the high capacity of adipocytes for metabolizing BCAA.

  14. Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutant-containing AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Direct evidence for the inactivation of branched-chain oxo-acid dehydrogenase by enzyme phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branched-chain 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase (BCOAD) from mitochondria of several different rat tissues is inactivated by ATP and can be reactivated by incubation in Mg2+-containing buffers. Work carried out on the system from skeletal muscle mitochondria has shown that inactivation requires the cleavage of the γ-phosphate group of ATP and that modification is covalent. The non-metabolized ATP analog, p[NH]ppA, can block the inhibitory effect of ATP when added prior to ATP addition, but cannot reverse the inhibition of the inactivated dehydrogenase. These and other data raise the possibility that BCOAD may be regulated by enzyme phosphorylation. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that various procedures which separate the enzyme from its mitochondrial environment (e.g. detergent treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation and freeze-thawing) do not alter the degree of inhibition induced by ATP in the mitochondrial preincubation. These experiments suggested the feasibility of labelling the enzyme with 32P and purifying it. (Auth.)

  16. Biochemical Characterization of Branched Chain Amino Acids Uptake in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola, Nubia C; Rapado, Ludmila N; Barisón, María J; Silber, Ariel M

    2016-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. During its life cycle, it alternates among vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Metabolic flexibility is a main biochemical characteristic of this parasite, which is able to obtain energy by oxidizing a variety of nutrients that can be transported from the extracellular medium. Moreover, several of these metabolites, more specifically amino acids, have a variety of functions beyond being sources of energy. Branched chain amino acids (BCAA), beyond their role in ATP production, are involved in sterol biosynthesis; for example, leucine is involved as a negative regulator of the parasite differentiation process occurring in the insect midgut. BCAA are essential metabolites in most nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes, including trypanosomes. In view of this, the metabolism of BCAA in T. cruzi depends mainly on their transport into the cell. In this work, we kinetically characterized the BCAA transport in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Our data point to BCAA as being transported by a single saturable transport system able to recognize leucine, isoleucine and valine. In view of this, we used leucine to further characterize this system. The transport increased linearly with temperature from 10 to 45 °C, allowing the calculation of an activation energy of 51.30 kJ/mol. Leucine uptake was an active process depending on ATP production and a H(+) gradient, but not on a Na(+) or K(+) gradient at the cytoplasmic membrane level. PMID:26496801

  17. Transamination of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) in rat adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most extrahepatic tissues, adipose tissue can transaminate the BCAA faster than they are oxidized. Catabolism of the BCAA by adipose tissue appears to be limited by the activity of branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH). Conditions which stimulate the activity of this intramitochondrial enzyme in tissue extracts also increase the rate at which [1-14C]leucine (L) and [1-14C]valine (V) are oxidized by tissue segments. However, when maximum rates of oxidation were measured, 10 mM L was oxidized to 14CO2 5 times faster than 10 mM V (30 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 1 nmol min-1 g tis-1). In contrast, the α-keto analogs of L and V were oxidized by tissue segments at nearly equal rates which slightly exceeded the rate of L oxidation. These results suggested that transamination might limit the catabolism of V, perhaps due to its inaccessibility to transaminase. The distribution of transaminase activity in tissue extracts was determined after centrifugation to obtain mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. L and V were transaminated at similar rates by enzymes in both fractions. Transaminase activity in the mitochondrial fraction was greater than that of the cytosol and exceeded the capacity of the tissue to oxidize L. Catabolism of BCAA may depend upon intramitochondrial transamination and oxidation of V may be slower than that of L because uptake of V by mitochondria may be slower than that of L

  18. Transamination of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) in rat adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, G.P.; Goodman, H.M.

    1986-03-05

    Like most extrahepatic tissues, adipose tissue can transaminate the BCAA faster than they are oxidized. Catabolism of the BCAA by adipose tissue appears to be limited by the activity of branched chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH). Conditions which stimulate the activity of this intramitochondrial enzyme in tissue extracts also increase the rate at which (1-/sup 14/C)leucine (L) and (1-/sup 14/C)valine (V) are oxidized by tissue segments. However, when maximum rates of oxidation were measured, 10 mM L was oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ 5 times faster than 10 mM V (30 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 1 nmol min/sup -1/ g tis/sup -1/). In contrast, the ..cap alpha..-keto analogs of L and V were oxidized by tissue segments at nearly equal rates which slightly exceeded the rate of L oxidation. These results suggested that transamination might limit the catabolism of V, perhaps due to its inaccessibility to transaminase. The distribution of transaminase activity in tissue extracts was determined after centrifugation to obtain mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. L and V were transaminated at similar rates by enzymes in both fractions. Transaminase activity in the mitochondrial fraction was greater than that of the cytosol and exceeded the capacity of the tissue to oxidize L. Catabolism of BCAA may depend upon intramitochondrial transamination and oxidation of V may be slower than that of L because uptake of V by mitochondria may be slower than that of L.

  19. Branched-chain Amino Acid Biosensing Using Fluorescent Modified Engineered Leucine/Isoleucine/Valine Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sode

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluorescence sensing system for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAswas developed based on engineered leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding proteins (LIVBPsconjugated with environmentally sensitive fluorescence probes. LIVBP was cloned fromEscherichia coli and Gln149Cys, Gly227Cys, and Gln254Cys mutants were generated bygenetic engineering. The mutant LIVBPs were then modified with environmentallysensitive fluorophores. Based on the fluorescence intensity change observed upon thebinding of the ligands, the MIANS-conjugated Gln149Cys mutant (Gln149Cys-M showedthe highest and most sensitive response. The BCAAs Leu, Ile, and Val can each bemonitored at the sub-micromolar level using Gln149Cys-M. Measurements were alsocarried out on a mixture of BCAFAs and revealed that Gln149Cys-M-based measurementis not significantly affected by the change in the molar ratio of Leu, Ile and Val in thesample. Its high sensitivity and group-specific molecular recognition ability make the newsensing system ideally suited for the measurement of BCAAs and the determination of theFischer ratio, an indicator of hepatic disease involving metabolic dysfunction.

  20. Vibrational nonequilibrium in chain branching reactions of hydrogen combustion using quasi-classical trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Stephen; Raman, Venkat; Varghese, Philip

    2015-11-01

    In high-speed reactive flows in scramjets, thermal nonequilibrium is introduced in the flow via shock waves. Though rotational and translational energy modes relax back to equilibrium quickly, vibrational relaxation is comparable to the bulk mixing and reaction timescales. The discrepancy between vibration and rotation/translation energy distributions can dramatically alter on the initiation of the fuel oxidation process. For continuum-scale applications, thermal nonequilibrium effects are derived from the rovibrational state-specific reaction and scattering rates associated with the chemical mechanism. In this work, the state-specific reaction rates are calculated for the chain branching reactions in the hydrogen combustion mechanism using a quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) framework. The state-specific rates are incorporated into a multiple temperature continuum-scale model whereby each species is characterized by a Boltzmann distribution parametrized by its own vibrational temperature. The flame ignition rates are implemented in a CFD code to simulate a reactive coflow. Funded by AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0460.

  1. Efficacy, dosage, and duration of action of branched chain amino Acid therapy for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, Jaclynn A; Lim, Miranda M; Johnson, Brian N; Palmer, Chris P; Putnam, Brendan J; Kirschen, Matthew P; Cohen, Akiva S

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in long-lasting cognitive impairments for which there is currently no accepted treatment. A well-established mouse model of mild to moderate TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), shows changes in network excitability in the hippocampus including a decrease in net synaptic efficacy in area CA1 and an increase in net synaptic efficacy in dentate gyrus. Previous studies identified a novel therapy consisting of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), which restored normal mouse hippocampal responses and ameliorated cognitive impairment following FPI. However, the optimal BCAA dose and length of treatment needed to improve cognitive recovery is unknown. In the current study, mice underwent FPI then consumed 100 mM BCAA supplemented water ad libitum for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 days. BCAA therapy ameliorated cognitive impairment at 5 and 10 days duration. Neither BCAA supplementation at 50 mM nor BCAAs when dosed 5 days on then 5 days off was sufficient to ameliorate cognitive impairment. These results suggest that brain injury causes alterations in hippocampal function, which underlie and contribute to hippocampal cognitive impairment, which are reversible with at least 5 days of BCAA treatment, and that sustaining this effect is dependent on continuous treatment. Our findings have profound implications for the clinical investigation of TBI therapy. PMID:25870584

  2. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the overproduction of short branched-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Juwono, Nina Kurniasih Pratomo; Foo, Jee Loon; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-03-01

    Short branched-chain fatty acids (SBCFAs, C4-6) are versatile platform intermediates for the production of value-added products in the chemical industry. Currently, SBCFAs are mainly synthesized chemically, which can be costly and may cause environmental pollution. In order to develop an economical and environmentally friendly route for SBCFA production, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic microorganism of industrial significance, for the overproduction of SBCFAs. In particular, we employed a combinatorial metabolic engineering approach to optimize the native Ehrlich pathway in S. cerevisiae. First, chromosome-based combinatorial gene overexpression led to a 28.7-fold increase in the titer of SBCFAs. Second, deletion of key genes in competing pathways improved the production of SBCFAs to 387.4 mg/L, a 31.2-fold increase compared to the wild-type. Third, overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter PDR12 increased the secretion of SBCFAs. Taken together, we demonstrated that the combinatorial metabolic engineering approach used in this study effectively improved SBCFA biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae through the incorporation of a chromosome-based combinatorial gene overexpression strategy, elimination of genes in competitive pathways and overexpression of a native transporter. We envision that this strategy could also be applied to the production of other chemicals in S. cerevisiae and may be extended to other microbes for strain improvement. PMID:26721212

  3. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF METALLOCENE SHORT CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE WITH CONVENTIONAL POLYOLEFINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Peng; Qiang Fu

    2004-01-01

    Metallocene-catalyzed short chain branched polyethylene (SCBPE) was blended with LDPE, HDPE, PS, EPDM and iPP in the weight proportions of 80 and 20. The crystallization and mechanical properties of these blends were studied by PLM, DSC and DMA. It has been observed in PLM that SCBPE/LDPE, SCBPE/HDPE and SCBPE/EPDM can form band spherulites whose band width and size are both smaller than that of the pure SCBPE. Tiny crystallites are observed in the completely immiscible SCBPE/PS blend. The crystallites in SCBPE/iPP are very small and only irregular spherulites are seen. The crystallization kinetics and mechanical properties of SCBPE are greatly affected by the second polyolefin, but in a different way, depending on the phase behavior and the modulus of the second components. SCBPE may be phase miscible in the melt with HDPE, LDPE and EPDM and co-crystallize together with HDPE or LDPE during cooling. A big change of crystal morphology and crystallization kinetics is seen in SCBPE/iPP blend compared with pure SCBPE and the lowest tanδ is also seen for this system. DMA results show that the tensile modulus of the blends has nothing to do with phase behavior,but only depends on the modulus of the second component.

  4. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

    2008-10-31

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

  5. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P  0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  6. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  7. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition. PMID:17978515

  8. Mechanisms of activation of muscle branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase during exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; MacLean, D A; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1. Exercise leads to activation (dephosphorylation) of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH). Here we investigate the effect of low pre-exercise muscle glycogen content and of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) ingestion on the activity of BCKADH at rest and after 90 min of one......-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65% maximal one-leg power output in five subjects. 2. Pre-exercise BCAA ingestion (308 mg BCAAs (kg body wt)-1) caused an increased muscle BCAA uptake, a higher intramuscular BCAA concentration and activation of BCKADH both at rest (9 +/- 1 versus 25 +/- 5% for the control and...... BCAA test, respectively) and after exercise (27 +/- 4 versus 54 +/- 7%). 3. At rest the percentage active BCKADH was not different, 6 +/- 2% versus 5 +/- 1%, in the normal and low glycogen content leg (392 +/- 21 and 147 +/- 34 mumol glycosyl units (g dry muscle)-1, respectively). The post...

  9. The Discovery of in Vivo Active Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase (BCATm) Inhibitors by Hybridizing Fragment and HTS Hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie M; Ancellin, Nicolas; Beaufils, Benjamin; Bingham, Ryan P; Borthwick, Jennifer A; Boullay, Anne-Bénédicte; Boursier, Eric; Carter, Paul S; Chung, Chun-wa; Churcher, Ian; Dodic, Nerina; Fouchet, Marie-Hélène; Fournier, Charlène; Francis, Peter L; Gummer, Laura A; Herry, Kenny; Hobbs, Andrew; Hobbs, Clare I; Homes, Paul; Jamieson, Craig; Nicodeme, Edwige; Pickett, Stephen D; Reid, Iain H; Simpson, Graham L; Sloan, Lisa A; Smith, Sarah E; Somers, Donald O'N; Spitzfaden, Claus; Suckling, Colin J; Valko, Klara; Washio, Yoshiaki; Young, Robert J

    2015-09-24

    The hybridization of hits, identified by complementary fragment and high throughput screens, enabled the discovery of the first series of potent inhibitors of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) based on a 2-benzylamino-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone-3-carbonitrile template. Structure-guided growth enabled rapid optimization of potency with maintenance of ligand efficiency, while the focus on physicochemical properties delivered compounds with excellent pharmacokinetic exposure that enabled a proof of concept experiment in mice. Oral administration of 2-((4-chloro-2,6-difluorobenzyl)amino)-7-oxo-5-propyl-4,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carbonitrile 61 significantly raised the circulating levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine in this acute study. PMID:26090771

  10. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  11. Expression of Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and α-Keto-Acid Dehydrogenase in Rat Brain: Implications for Neurotransmitter Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The BCATs are thought to participate in an α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from -ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC catalyzes the second and first irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron.

  12. A new look at kinetic modeling of nonlinear free radical polymerizations with terminal branching and chain transfer to polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2003-01-01

    The authors' previously developed method for the general kinetic analysis of nonlinear irreversible polymerizations based on moment generating functions is used for simulating free radical polymerization systems in which terminal branching and chain transfer to polymer are present, leading possibly to gel formation. The numerical solution of the equations needed for postgel predictions of sol fraction and average molecular weights (a major difficulty) is discussed with some detail. Finally, s...

  13. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; SATO, JUICHI; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10–90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrati...

  14. Model-Based Reactor Design in Free-Radical Polymerization with Simultaneous Long-Chain Branching and Scission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Tobita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are the products of processes and their microstructure can be changed significantly by the reactor systems employed, especially for nonlinear polymers. The Monte Carlo simulation technique, based on the random sampling technique, is used to explore the effect of reactor types on the branched polymer structure, formed through free-radical polymerization with simultaneous long-chain branching and scission, as in the case of low-density polyethylene synthesis. As a simplified model for a tower-type multi-zone reactor, a series of continuous stirred-tank reactors, consisting of one big tank and the same N-1 small tanks is considered theoretically. By simply changing the tank arrangement, various types of branched polymers, from star-like globular structure to a more randomly branched structure, can be obtained, while keeping the following properties of the final products, the monomer conversion to polymer, the average branching and scission densities, and the relationship between the mean-square radius of gyration and molecular weight.

  15. Branching Processes and Evolution at the Ends of a Food Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Caldarelli, G.; Tebaldi, C.; A. L. Stella(GNSM, Univ. and INFN, Padova)

    1996-01-01

    In a critically self--organized model of punctuated equilibrium, boundaries determine peculiar scaling of the size distribution of evolutionary avalanches. This is derived by an inhomogeneous generalization of standard branching processes, extending previous mean field descriptions and yielding $\

  16. Origin of Broad Visible Emission from Branched Polysilane and Polygermane Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Takaaki; Matsuda, Minoru

    2001-11-01

    The emission properties of branched polysilane and polygermane are studied using time-resolved emission spectroscopy. As branched polymers, the organosilicon cluster (OSI) and organogermanium cluster (OGE) are investigated, which are prepared from tetrachlorosilane and tetrachlorogermane, respectively, and have a hyperbranched structure. The broad visible emissions of OSI and OGE are explained by the energy diagram based on a configuration coordinate model, and the excited states are attributed to a localized state around the branching point. The molecular orbital (MO) calculation suggested the formation of a localized state by the distortion around the branching point in the excited state. The potential barrier for the nonradiative relaxation process was determined from the temperature dependence of the emission lifetime.

  17. Asymptotic study of pulsating evolution of overdriven and CJ detonation with a chain-branching kinetics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsating dynamics of gaseous detonations with a model two-step chain-branching kinetic mechanism are studied both numerically and asymptotically. The model studied here was also used in [4], [3] and [2] and mimics the attributes of some chain-branching reaction mechanisms. Specifically, the model comprises a chain-initiationlbranching zone with an Arrhenius temperature-sensitive rate behind the detonation shock where fuel is converted into chain-radical with no heat release. This is followed by a chain-termination zone having a temperature insensitive rate where the exothermic heat of reaction is released. The lengths of these two zones depend on the relative rates of each stage. It was determined in [4] and [3] via asymptotic and numerical analysis that the ratio of the length of the chain-branching zone to that of the chain-initation zone relative to the size of the von Neumann state scaled activation energy in the chain initiation/branching zone has a primary influence of the stability of one-dimensional pulsating instability behavior for this model. In [2], the notion of a specific stability parameter related to this ratio was proposed that determines the boundary between stable and unstable waves. In [4], a slow-time varying asymptotic study was conducted of pulsating instability of Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonations with the above two-step rate model, assuming a large activation energy for the chain-initiation zone and a chain-termination zone longer than the chain-initiation zone. Deviations Dn(1) (τ) of the detonation velocity from Chapman-Jouguet were of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy. Solutions were sought for a pulsation timescale of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy times the particle transit time through the induction zone. On this time-scale, the evolution of the chain-initation zone is quasi-steady. In [4], a time-dependent non-linear evolution equation for Dn(1) (τ) was then constructed via a perturbation

  18. Asymptotic study of pulsating evolution of overdriven and CJ detonation with a chain-branching kinetics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chliquete, Carlos [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    The pulsating dynamics of gaseous detonations with a model two-step chain-branching kinetic mechanism are studied both numerically and asymptotically. The model studied here was also used in [4], [3] and [2] and mimics the attributes of some chain-branching reaction mechanisms. Specifically, the model comprises a chain-initiationlbranching zone with an Arrhenius temperature-sensitive rate behind the detonation shock where fuel is converted into chain-radical with no heat release. This is followed by a chain-termination zone having a temperature insensitive rate where the exothermic heat of reaction is released. The lengths of these two zones depend on the relative rates of each stage. It was determined in [4] and [3] via asymptotic and numerical analysis that the ratio of the length of the chain-branching zone to that of the chain-initation zone relative to the size of the von Neumann state scaled activation energy in the chain initiation/branching zone has a primary influence of the stability of one-dimensional pulsating instability behavior for this model. In [2], the notion of a specific stability parameter related to this ratio was proposed that determines the boundary between stable and unstable waves. In [4], a slow-time varying asymptotic study was conducted of pulsating instability of Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonations with the above two-step rate model, assuming a large activation energy for the chain-initiation zone and a chain-termination zone longer than the chain-initiation zone. Deviations D{sub n}{sup (1)} ({tau}) of the detonation velocity from Chapman-Jouguet were of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy. Solutions were sought for a pulsation timescale of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy times the particle transit time through the induction zone. On this time-scale, the evolution of the chain-initation zone is quasi-steady. In [4], a time-dependent non-linear evolution equation for D{sub n}{sup (1)} ({tau}) was then

  19. 1H NMR analysis of long-chain-branched strong polyelectrolytes obtained by vinyl/divinyl monomer copolymerization in aqueous medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Jiří; Spěváček, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2013), s. 557-565. ISSN 1023-666X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long-chain branching * NMR * polyelectrolytes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  20. Genes Involved in Formation and Attachment of a Two-Carbon Chain as a Component of Eurekanate, a Branched-Chain Sugar Moiety of Avilamycin A

    OpenAIRE

    Treede, Irina; Hauser, Gerd; Mühlenweg, Agnes; Hofmann, Carsten; Schmidt, Maraike; Weitnauer, Gabriele; Glaser, Steffen; Bechthold, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Eurekanate belongs to the important class of branched-chain carbohydrates present in a wide variety of natural sources. It is a component of avilamycin A, a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis targeting the 50S ribosomal subunit. The present work provides experimental proof for the function of two genes of the avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster, aviB1 and aviO2, that are both involved in avilamycin structure modification. The functions of both genes were identified by gene inact...

  1. Cloning and inactivation of a branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase gene from Staphylococcus carnosus and characterization of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren M; Beck, Hans Christian; Ravn, Peter; Vrang, Astrid; Hansen, Anne Maria; Israelsen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus are widely used as aroma producers in the manufacture of dried fermented sausages. Catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by these strains contributes to aroma formation by production of methyl-branched aldehydes and carboxy acids. The...... first step in the catabolism is most likely a transamination reaction catalyzed by BCAA aminotransferases (IlvE proteins). In this study, we cloned the ilvE gene from S. carnosus by using degenerate oligonucleotides and PCR. We found that the deduced amino acid sequence was 80% identical to that of the...... corresponding enzyme in Staphylococcus aureus and that the ilvE gene was constitutively expressed as a monocistronic transcript. To study the influence of ilvE on BCAA catabolism, we constructed an ilvE deletion mutant by gene replacement. The IlvE protein from S. carnosus was shown mainly to catalyze the...

  2. Subcellular localization of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase C4 in rat and mouse spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montamat, E E; Vermouth, N T; Blanco, A

    1988-11-01

    Spermatozoa isolated from rat and mouse epididymes show a relatively high branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (leucine aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.6) activity. There is a significant reduction of leucine aminotransferase and of the isoenzyme C4 of lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) in the gametes during their epididymal transit. Studies of patterns of liberation of the leucine aminotransferase and of the lactate dehydrogenase C4 from intact spermatozoa, treated with increasing concentrations of digitonin, indicate that both enzymes have the same dual subcellular location, i.e. in the cytosol and in the mitochondria. PMID:3214422

  3. Volatile profiling reveals intracellular metabolic changes in Aspergillus parasiticus: veA regulates branched chain amino acid and ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roze Ludmila V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine; we also identified alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and lipid-derived volatiles. The number and quantity of the volatiles produced depended on media composition, time of incubation, and light-dark status. A block in aflatoxin biosynthesis or disruption of the global regulator veA affected the volatile profile. In addition to its multiple functions in secondary metabolism and development, VeA negatively regulated catabolism of branched chain amino acids and synthesis of ethanol at the transcriptional level thus playing a role in controlling carbon flow within the cell. Finally, we demonstrated that volatiles generated by a veA disruption mutant are part of the complex regulatory machinery that mediates the effects of VeA on asexual conidiation and sclerotia formation. Conclusions 1 Volatile profiling provides a rapid, effective, and powerful approach to identify changes in intracellular metabolic networks in filamentous fungi. 2 VeA coordinates the

  4. Designing greener plasticizers: Effects of alkyl chain length and branching on the biodegradation of maleate based plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Brown, Tobin; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Cooper, David G; Leask, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    The ubiquitous presence of the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the environment is of concern due to negative biological effects associated with it and its metabolites. In particular, the metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is a potential endocrine disruptor. Earlier work had identified the diester di (2-ethylhexyl) maleate (DEHM) as a potential greener candidate plasticizer to replace DEHP, yet its biodegradation rate was reported to be slow. In this study, we modified the side chains of maleate diesters to be linear (i.e., unbranched) alkyl chains that varied in length from ethyl to n-octyl. The plasticization efficiency of these compounds blended into PVC at 29 wt.% increased with the overall length of the molecule, but all compounds performed as well as or better than comparable samples with DEHP. Tests conducted with the equally long DEHM and dihexyl maleate (DHM) showed that branching has no effect on glass transition temperature (Tg) reduction efficiency. Biodegradation experiments with the common soil bacterium Rhodococcus rhodocrous in the presence of the plasticizer showed acceptable hydrolysis rates of maleates with unbranched side chains, while the branched DEHM showed almost no degradation. The addition of hexadecane as auxiliary carbon source improved hydrolysis rates. Temporary buildup of the respective monoester of the compounds were observed, but only in the case of the longest molecule, dioctyl maleate (DOM), did this buildup lead to growth inhibition of the bacteria. Maleates with linear side chains, if designed and tested properly, show promise as potential candidate plasticizers as replacements for DEHP. PMID:25917507

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes (chemical group 2 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 2 consists of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes, of which 34 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of 2-methylpropionic acid, isopentyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl butyrate and 2-methylbutyl acetate is safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and at 5 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. 2-Methylpropan-1-ol, isopentanol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylvaleric acid, 2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid, 4-methyloctanoic acid, isobutyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, 3-methylbutyl propionate, 3-methylbutyl formate, glyceryl tributyrate, isobutyl isobutyrate, isopentyl isobutyrate, isobutyl isovalerate, isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate and 2-methylbutyl butyrate are safe at the proposed use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for all animal species. 3,7-Dimethyloctan-1-ol, 2-methylundecanal, 4-methylnonanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl dodecanoate, 3-methylbutyl octanoate and 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate are safe at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals and of 1.0 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  6. Synthesis and myocardial kinetics of N-13 and C-11 labeled branched-chain L-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose supports, was used with N-13 ammonia to aminate α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), and α-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV) to produce N-13-labeled branched-chain L-amino acids with radiochemical yields ranging from 29% to 35%. From kinetic and practical cosiderations, pH 7.5 to 8.0 was established to be optimal for the synthesis of N-13-labeled branched-chain-L-amino acids. Myocardial time-activity curves in dogs at control, during low-flow ischemia, reperfusion, and after transaminase inhibition following intracoronary bolus injection of the N-13 labeled amino acids were biexponential. Higher retention of N-13 activity was observed in ischemic segments both during low-flow ischemia (29.2%) and reperfusion (23.2%) when compared with controls (20.0%), (n-4). On the other hand, transaminase inhibition decreased residue fractions from 21.0% at control to 13.9% (n=4). The residual activity with L-[1-11C]leucine allows for the calculation of protein synthesis rates

  7. The antifungal eugenol perturbs dual aromatic and branched-chain amino acid permeases in the cytoplasmic membrane of yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Darvishi

    Full Text Available Eugenol is an aromatic component of clove oil that has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, although its mode of action and precise cellular target(s remain ambiguous. To address this knowledge gap, a chemical-genetic profile analysis of eugenol was done using ∼4700 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutants to reveal 21 deletion mutants with the greatest degree of susceptibility. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants indicate that the main targets for eugenol include pathways involved in biosynthesis and transport of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Follow-up analyses showed inhibitory effects of eugenol on amino acid permeases in the yeast cytoplasmic membrane. Furthermore, phenotypic suppression analysis revealed that eugenol interferes with two permeases, Tat1p and Gap1p, which are both involved in dual transport of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids through the yeast cytoplasmic membrane. Perturbation of cytoplasmic permeases represents a novel antifungal target and may explain previous observations that exposure to eugenol results in leakage of cell contents. Eugenol exposure may also contribute to amino acid starvation and thus holds promise as an anticancer therapeutic drug. Finally, this study provides further evidence of the usefulness of the yeast Gene Deletion Array approach in uncovering the mode of action of natural health products.

  8. Sulfate-ion-assisted galvanic replacement tuning of silver dendrites to highly branched chains for effective SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxia; Sun, Shaodong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Tang, Linli; Song, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhimao

    2014-09-21

    Morphology is a primary part of designing metal nanocrystals and nanomaterials with controlled functional properties. Here, we demonstrate the potential of foreign sulfate ions to tune the silver dendrites to highly branched chains through a simple galvanic replacement reaction without introducing any organic surfactants. We further illustrate the underlying mechanism according to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in the presence of sulfate ions. The special aspects of this simple synthetic strategy are the control of both the nucleation process and the subsequent crystal growth stage by using sulfate ions as the ionic surfactants thereby tuning the total surface energies on various crystal facets in solution and transforming crystal growth habits of the products. Moreover, the highly branched silver chains (HBSCs) with pure surfaces have been successfully employed as a Raman probe for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic analysis of rhodamine 6G (R6G). The particular morphology of those HBSCs also makes them find potential applications in biosensing, catalysis and optics. PMID:25084025

  9. Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids but is not essential for fusel alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Schure, E G; Flikweert, M T; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T; Verrips, C T

    1998-04-01

    The fusel alcohols 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-propanol are important flavor compounds in yeast-derived food products and beverages. The formation of these compounds from branched-chain amino acids is generally assumed to occur via the Ehrlich pathway, which involves the concerted action of a branched-chain transaminase, a decarboxylase, and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Partially purified preparations of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) have been reported to catalyze the decarboxylation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids formed upon transamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Indeed, in a coupled enzymatic assay with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, cell extracts of a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain exhibited significant decarboxylation rates with these branched-chain 2-oxo acids. Decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids was not detectable in cell extracts of an isogenic strain in which all three PDC genes had been disrupted. Experiments with cell extracts from S. cerevisiae mutants expressing a single PDC gene demonstrated that both PDC1- and PDC5-encoded isoenzymes can decarboxylate branched-chain 2-oxo acids. To investigate whether pyruvate decarboxylase is essential for fusel alcohol production by whole cells, wild-type S. cerevisiae and an isogenic pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain were grown on ethanol with a mixture of leucine, isoleucine, and valine as the nitrogen source. Surprisingly, the three corresponding fusel alcohols were produced in both strains. This result proves that decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids via pyruvate decarboxylase is not an essential step in fusel alcohol production. PMID:9546164

  10. Self-assembly of long chain fatty acids: Effect of a methyl branch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljeblad, Jonathan F. D.; Tyrode, Eric; Thormann, Esben;

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and molecular conformation of Langmuir-Blodgett deposited and floating monolayers of a selection of straight chain (eicosanoic acid, EA), iso (19-methyl eicosanoic acid, 19-MEA), and anteiso (18-methyl eicosanoic acid, 18-MEA) fatty acids have been investigated by Vibrational Sum F...

  11. Weight gain in anorexia nervosa does not ameliorate the faecal microbiota, branched chain fatty acid profiles, and gastrointestinal complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Isabelle; Cuntz, Ulrich; Grämer, Claudia; Niedermaier, Sabrina; Pohl, Charlotte; Schwiertz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Kurt; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Penders, John

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota not only influences host metabolism but can also affect brain function and behaviour through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To explore the potential role of the intestinal microbiota in anorexia nervosa (AN), we comprehensively investigated the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in these patients before (n = 55) and after weight gain (n = 44) in comparison to normal-weight participants (NW, n = 55) along with dietary intake and gastrointestinal complaints. We show profound microbial perturbations in AN patients as compared to NW participants, with higher levels of mucin-degraders and members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XVIII and reduced levels of the butyrate-producing Roseburia spp. Branched-chain fatty acid concentrations, being markers for protein fermentation, were elevated. Distinct perturbations in microbial community compositions were observed for individual restrictive and binge/purging AN-subtypes. Upon weight gain, microbial richness increased, however perturbations in intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acid profiles in addition to several gastrointestinal symptoms did not recover. These insights provide new leads to modulate the intestinal microbiota in order to improve the outcomes of the standard therapy. PMID:27229737

  12. Weight gain in anorexia nervosa does not ameliorate the faecal microbiota, branched chain fatty acid profiles, and gastrointestinal complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Isabelle; Cuntz, Ulrich; Grämer, Claudia; Niedermaier, Sabrina; Pohl, Charlotte; Schwiertz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Kurt; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul; Penders, John

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota not only influences host metabolism but can also affect brain function and behaviour through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To explore the potential role of the intestinal microbiota in anorexia nervosa (AN), we comprehensively investigated the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in these patients before (n = 55) and after weight gain (n = 44) in comparison to normal-weight participants (NW, n = 55) along with dietary intake and gastrointestinal complaints. We show profound microbial perturbations in AN patients as compared to NW participants, with higher levels of mucin-degraders and members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XVIII and reduced levels of the butyrate-producing Roseburia spp. Branched-chain fatty acid concentrations, being markers for protein fermentation, were elevated. Distinct perturbations in microbial community compositions were observed for individual restrictive and binge/purging AN-subtypes. Upon weight gain, microbial richness increased, however perturbations in intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acid profiles in addition to several gastrointestinal symptoms did not recover. These insights provide new leads to modulate the intestinal microbiota in order to improve the outcomes of the standard therapy. PMID:27229737

  13. Characterization of a novel debranching enzyme from Nostoc punctiforme possessing a high specificity for long branched chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel debranching enzyme from Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102 (NPDE) exhibits hydrolysis activity toward both α-(1,6)- and α-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages. The action patterns of NPDE revealed that branched chains are released first, and the resulting maltooligosaccharides are then hydrolyzed. Analysis of the reaction with maltooligosaccharide substrates labeled with 14C-glucose at the reducing end shows that NPDE specifically liberates glucose from the reducing end. Kinetic analyses showed that the hydrolytic activity of NPDE is greatly affected by the length of the substrate. The catalytic efficiency of NPDE increased considerably upon using substrates that can occupy at least eight glycone subsites such as maltononaose and maltooctaosyl-α-(1,6)-β-cyclodextrin. These results imply that NPDE has a unique subsite structure consisting of -8 to +1 subsites. Given its unique subsite structure, side chains shorter than maltooctaose in amylopectin were resistant to hydrolysis by NPDE, and the population of longer side chains was reduced.

  14. Branched chain enriched amino acid versus glucose treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind study of 65 patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Hendrik; Gluud, C; Hardt, F;

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients), or i...... the amino acid group, but not in the glucose group. Thus, the branched chain enriched amino acid supplement did not change the prognosis for wake-up, but had other effects on the cerebral state and on nitrogen homeostasis.......We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients), or...... isocaloric glucose (33 patients) for a maximum of 16 days. The regimens further included glucose infusion to a total of 26.5 kcal/kg per day and lactulose. The patients took part in the study for 5-6 days. In each group 17 patients woke up. In the amino acid group eleven died and four developed renal failure...

  15. Insulinotropic and Muscle Protein Synthetic Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Potential Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren G. Candow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to habitual feeding, possibly due to a reduction in postprandial insulin release and an increase in insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis through insulin-dependent and independent mechanisms, which may help counteract the “anabolic resistance” to feeding in older adults. Leucine exhibits strong insulinotropic characteristics, which may increase amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, reduce muscle protein breakdown, and enhance glucose disposal to help maintain blood glucose homeostasis.

  16. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Claudia R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK, aldolase, myoglobin, soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.

  17. Does Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation Modulate Skeletal Muscle Remodeling through Inflammation Modulation? Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nicastro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle protein turnover is modulated by intracellular signaling pathways involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and inflammation. The proinflammatory status of muscle cells, observed in pathological conditions such as cancer, aging, and sepsis, can directly modulate protein translation initiation and muscle proteolysis, contributing to negative protein turnover. In this context, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, especially leucine, have been described as a strong nutritional stimulus able to enhance protein translation initiation and attenuate proteolysis. Furthermore, under inflammatory conditions, BCAA can be transaminated to glutamate in order to increase glutamine synthesis, which is a substrate highly consumed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages. The present paper describes the role of inflammation on muscle remodeling and the possible metabolic and cellular effects of BCAA supplementation in the modulation of inflammatory status of skeletal muscle and the consequences on protein synthesis and degradation.

  18. Branched-chain amino acids are associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles found already in lean, overweight and obese young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Prüller, Florian; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Weghuber, Daniel; Enko, Dietmar; Bergsten, Peter; Haybaeck, Johannes; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular risk is increased in obese subjects. Nevertheless, some overweight and obese remain cardiometabolically healthy (CMH), and normal-weight persons develop cardiovascular disease (CVD). Herein, we investigate the potential of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to identify an increased CVD risk in a cross-sectional study of 666 adults and juveniles (age 25.3±12.8years), classified as lean, overweight or obese. Cardiometabolic groups were defined by cutoffs of systolic blood pressure40mg/dl (males), HDL-cholesterol>50mg/dl (females) and HOMA-IRlean (P=.024, P=.012, respectively) CMA compared to CMH subjects. Isoleucine showed except of the lean group the same results. Taken together, BCAAs, especially valine and leucine, are proposed as a cardiometabolic risk marker independent of body mass index (BMI) category. PMID:27142745

  19. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H;

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs...... tryptophan ingestion caused a 7- to 20-fold increase. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different between treatments (122 +/- 3 min). 3. The data suggest that manipulation of tryptophan supply to the brain either has no additional effect upon serotoninergic activity during prolonged exhaustive exercise......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1...

  20. In vitro transcriptional studies of the bkd operon of Pseudomonas putida: L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, K T; Luo, J; Sokatch, J R

    1999-05-01

    BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5' region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for transcription. In vitro transcription of the bkd operon was obtained by using a vector containing the bkdR-bkdA1 intergenic region plus the putative rho-independent terminator of the bkd operon. Substrate DNA, BkdR, and any of the L-branched-chain amino acids or D-leucine was required for transcription. Branched-chain keto acids, D-valine, and D-isoleucine did not promote transcription. Therefore, the L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers of the bkd operon. The concentration of L-valine required for half-maximal transcription was 2.8 mM, which is similar to that needed to cause half-maximal proteolysis due to a conformational change in BkdR. A model for transcriptional activation of the bkd operon by BkdR during enzyme induction which incorporates these results is presented. PMID:10217783

  1. Transient overshoot extensional rheology of long-chain branched polyethylenes: Experimental and numerical comparisons between filament stretching and cross-slot flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyle, D.M.; Huang, Qian; Auhl, D.;

    2013-01-01

    This work analyses the high-strain extensional behavior of long-chain branched polyethylenes, employing two novel extensional rheometer devices, the filament stretching rheometer and the cross-slot extensional rheometer. The filament stretching rheometer uses an active feedback loop to control th...... confirming the agreement between the two experimental techniques. © 2013 The Society of Rheology....

  2. Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency due to an IVS3+3A>G mutation that causes exon skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pia Pinholt; Kibaek, Maria; Roca, Xavier;

    2006-01-01

    Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of L: -isoleucine catabolism. Little is known about the clinical presentation associated with this enzyme defect, as it has been reported in only a limited number of patients. Because the presence o...

  3. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. PMID:26616144

  4. NUTRITIONAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ZINC AND BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID (BCAA SUPPLEMENT IN RATS: A MULTICOMPARTMENT MODELING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIR RODRIGUES GARCIA-JÊNIOR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The influence of supplementary-branched chain amino acids (BCAA on 65Zn metabolism in rats was investigated in this study. Nutritional indicators of Zn, as absorption, body retention and secretion, were estimated using a multicompartment model. Two groups of eight male rats were force-fed a zinc-adequate diet (control group and a zinc-adequate diet plus 0.52 9 BCAA/kg diet during 15 days. There was no significant difference for intake of Zn, absorption (34%, intestinal transit (tso and the leveI of Zn in the intravascular compartment (plasma. On the other hand the extravascular compartment (organs and specific concentration of Zn per 9 of tissue decreased after experimental period (p < 0.05 The rats supplememted with BCAA secreted Zn by urine twice faster than controls, but the secrotion of zinc by endogen feces were not decreased in this group. Thus, BCAA supplement changed the kinetic of Zn, increasing the urinary secretion and the loss of Zn from the body.

  5. Branched-Chain Amino Acids as New Biomarkers of Major Depression - A Novel Neurobiology of Mood Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Andreas; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; von Lewinski, Dirk; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd; Theokas, Simon; Robier, Christoph; Mangge, Harald; Reicht, Gerhard; Hlade, Peter; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine might play an unrecognised crucial role in the development of depression through their activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. The aim of this research project is to evaluate whether BCAAs are altered in patients with major depression and might thus be appropriate biomarkers for major depression. Methods The concentrations of valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Psychiatric and laboratory assessments were obtained at the time of in-patient admittance. Results The BCAAs are significantly decreased in patients with major depression in comparison with healthy subjects (valine: Mann-Whitney-U: 968.0; p Inventory (BDI-II) scores. Conclusions Our study results are strong evidence that in patients with major depression, BCAAs might be appropriate biomarkers for depression. Reduced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) due to a reduction of BCAAs might play a crucial unrecognised factor in the etiology of depression and may evoke depressive symptomatology and lower energy metabolism in patients with major depression. In the future, mTor and its up- and downstream signalling partners might be important targets for the development of novel antidepressants. PMID:27490818

  6. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, M; Giardina, S; Marzani, B; Marzatico, F

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1980's there has been high interest in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by sports nutrition scientists. The metabolism of BCAA is involved in some specific biochemical muscle processes and many studies have been carried out to understand whether sports performance can be enhanced by a BCAA supplementation. However, many of these researches have failed to confirm this hypothesis. Thus, in recent years investigators have changed their research target and focused on the effects of BCAA on the muscle protein matrix and the immune system. Data show that BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis. Muscle damage develops delayed onset muscle soreness: a syndrome that occurs 24-48 h after intensive physical activity that can inhibit athletic performance. Other recent works indicate that BCAA supplementation recovers peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogens after a long distance intense exercise, as well as plasma glutamine concentration. The BCAA also modifies the pattern of exercise-related cytokine production, leading to a diversion of the lymphocyte immune response towards a Th1 type. According to these findings, it is possible to consider the BCAA as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for sports events. PMID:18974721

  7. The Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline Improves Endurance Exercise Performance in Two Consecutive Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Shiung Cheng, Yi-Wen Wang, I-Fan Chen, Gi-Sheng Hsu, Chun-Fang Hsueh, Chen-Kang Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system plays a crucial role in fatigue during endurance exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA could reduce cerebral serotonin synthesis by competing with its precursor tryptophan for crossing the blood brain barrier. Arginine and citrulline could prevent excess hyperammonemia accompanied by BCAA supplementation. This study investigated the combination of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on endurance performance in two consecutive days. Seven male and three female endurance runners ingested 0.17 g·kg-1 BCAA, 0.05 g·kg-1 arginine and 0.05 g·kg-1 citrulline (AA trial or placebo (PL trial in a randomized cross-over design. Each trial contained a 5000 m time trial on the first day, and a 10000 m time trial on the second day. The AA trial had significantly better performance in 5000 m (AA: 1065.7 ± 33.9 s; PL: 1100.5 ± 40.4 s and 10000 m (AA: 2292.0 ± 211.3 s; PL: 2375.6 ± 244.2 s. The two trials reported similar ratings of perceived exertion. After exercise, the AA trial had significantly lower tryptophan/BCAA ratio, similar NH3, and significantly higher urea concentrations. In conclusion, the supplementation could enhance time-trial performance in two consecutive days in endurance runners, possibly through the inhibition of cerebral serotonin synthesis by BCAA and the prevention of excess hyperammonemia by increased urea genesis.

  8. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio value as a potential prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on tumor extension as well as hepatic function.Hepatic functional reserve is recognized as a factor affecting survival in the treatment of HCC; the ChildPugh classification system is the most extensively used method for assessing hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease,using serum albumin level to achieve accurate assessment of the status of protein metabolism.However,insufficient attention has been given to the status of amino acid (AA) metabolism in chronic liver disease and HCC.Fischer's ratio is the molar ratio of branched-chain AAs (BCAAs:leucine,valine,isoleucine) to aromatic AAs (phenylalanine,tyrosine) and is important for assessing liver metabolism,hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction.Although this ratio is difficult to determine in clinical situations,BCAAs/tyrosine molar concentration ratio (BTR) has been proposed as a simpler substitute.BTR correlates with various liver function examinations,including markers of hepatic fibrosis,hepatic blood flow and hepatocyte function,and can thus be considered as reflecting the degree of hepatic impairment.This manuscript examines the literature to clarify whether BTR can serve as a prognostic factor for treatment of HCC.

  9. INVERSION SYMMETRY, ARCHITECTURE AND DISPERSITY, AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THERMODYNAMICS IN BULK AND CONFINED REGIONS: FROM RANDOMLY BRANCHED POLYMERS TO LINEAR CHAINS, STARS AND DENDRIMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.Gujrati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical evidence is presented in this review that architectural aspects can play an important role, not only in the bulk but also in confined geometries by using our recursive lattice theory, which is equally applicable to fixed architectures (regularly branched polymers, stars, dendrimers, brushes, linear chains, etc. and variable architectures, i.e. randomly branched structures. Linear chains possess an inversion symmetry (IS of a magnetic system (see text, whose presence or absence determines the bulk phase diagram. Fixed architectures possess the IS and yield a standard bulk phase diagram in which there exists a theta point at which two critical lines C and C' meet and the second virial coefficient A2 vanishes. The critical line C appears only for infinitely large polymers, and an order parameter is identified for this criticality. The critical line C' exists for polymers of all sizes and represents phase separation criticality. Variable architectures, which do not possess the IS, give rise to a topologically different phase diagram with no theta point in general. In confined regions next to surfaces, it is not the IS but branching and monodispersity, which becomes important in the surface regions. We show that branching plays no important role for polydisperse systems, but become important for monodisperse systems. Stars and linear chains behave differently near a surface.

  10. Effects of carbohydrate, branched-chain amino acids, and arginine in recovery period on the subsequent performance in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Tsong-Rong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many athletes need to participate in multiple events in a single day. The efficient post-exercise glycogen recovery may be critical for the performance in subsequent exercise. This study examined whether post-exercise carbohydrate supplementation could restore the performance in the subsequent simulated wrestling match. The effect of branched-chain amino acids and arginine on glucose disposal and performance was also investigated. Nine well-trained male wrestlers participated in 3 trials in a random order. Each trial contained 3 matches with a 1-hr rest between match 1 and 2, and a 2-hr rest between match 2 and 3. Each match contained 3 exercise periods interspersed with 1-min rests. The subjects alternated 10-s all-out sprints and 20-s rests in each exercise period. At the end of match 2, 3 different supplementations were consumed: 1.2 g/kg glucose (CHO trial, 1 g/kg glucose + 0.1 g/kg Arg + 0.1 g/kg BCAA (CHO+AA trial, or water (placebo trial. The peak and average power in the 3 matches was similar in the 3 trials. After the supplementation, CHO and CHO+AA trial showed significantly higher glucose and insulin, and lower glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations than the placebo trial. There was no significant difference in these biochemical parameters between the CHO and CHO+AA trials. Supplementation of carbohydrate with or without BCAA and arginine during the post-match period had no effect on the performance in the following simulated match in wrestlers. In addition, BCAA and arginine did not provide additional insulinemic effect.

  11. Usefulness of Levocarnitine and/or Branched-Chain Amino Acids during Invasive Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Motoh; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Sekoguchi-Fujikawa, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are effective treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the extent of treatment depends on hepatic functional reserve. L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like substance and several reports have described the usefulness of L-carnitine supplementation in cases of cirrhosis, with confirmed effectiveness against refractory hepatic encephalopathy. On the other hand, we have previously reported that in patients who underwent TACE or RFA, administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) pre-intervention significantly reduced inflammatory reactions. We first determined serum levels of total, free, and acyl-carnitine before and at 7 d after performing TACE in 10 HCC patients. We administered levocarnitine (L-carnitine chloride, a biologically active form of carnitine) at 900 mg/d to 69 consecutive HCC patients hospitalized to undergo TACE and/or RFA, and compared changes in blood test values with those in 119 consecutive patients not administered this drug. Sixty-seven patients had a history of using BCAAs at the time of admission. We found that after 7 d of TACE, serum levels of total and acyl-carnitine are significantly decreased. On comparing the four groups, the carnitine+BCAA, carnitine-alone, and BCAA-alone groups showed significantly higher values for changes in NH3 when compared with the non-dosed group. The decrease in albumin (Alb) was significantly suppressed in the carnitine+BCAA and BCAA-alone groups. We also conducted the same examinations in a subset of patients classified as Child-Pugh class A, and noted the same trends. Administration of levocarnitine and/or BCAAs during invasive treatments reduced blood NH3 concentrations and suppressed decreases in Alb. PMID:26875483

  12. Design, Synthesis and Properties of Branch-chained Maltoside Detergents for Stabilization and Crystallization of Integral Membrane Proteins: Human Connexin 26

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Wen-Xu; Baker, Kent A.; Ma, Xingquan; Stevens, Raymond C.; Yeager, Mark; Zhang, Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    A challenging requirement for structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) is the use of amphiphiles that replicate the hydrophobic environment of membranes. Progress has been impeded by the limited number of useful detergents and the need for a deeper understanding of their structure-activity relationships. To this end, we designed a family of detergents containing short, branched alkyl chains at the interface between the polar head and apolar tail. This design mimics the second a...

  13. Branched-chain amino acids, arginine, citrulline alleviate central fatigue after 3 simulated matches in taekwondo athletes: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I-Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background The decline in cognitive performance has been shown after fatiguing exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been suggested to alleviate exercise-induced central fatigue. Arginine and citrulline could remove the excess NH3 accumulation accompanied with BCAA supplementation by increasing nitric oxide biosynthesis and/or urea cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on central fatigue after...

  14. Valine, a Branched-Chain Amino Acid, Reduced HCV Viral Load and Led to Eradication of HCV by Interferon Therapy in a Decompensated Cirrhotic Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Torimura, Takuji; Takata, Akio; Satomi, Susumu; Sata, Michio

    2012-01-01

    A decreased serum level of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is a distinctive metabolic disorder in patients with liver cirrhosis. Recently, BCAA has been reported to exert various pharmacological activities, and valine, which is a BCAA, has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and the immune system in in vivo experiments. However, the clinical impact of valine supplementation on viral hepatitis C virus (HCV) load has never been reported. Here, we first describe a case of HCV-related advanced...

  15. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.

    2015-06-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.

  16. Effects of leucine supplementation and serum withdrawal on branched-chain amino acid pathway gene and protein expression in mouse adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrazak Kitsy

    Full Text Available The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2 and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4 compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our

  17. Branched-chain amino acid requirements for enterally fed term neonates in the first month of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Maingay-de Groof (Femke); L. Huang; I. van Vliet (Ineke); G.J. Voortman (Gardi); H. Schierbeek (Henk); L.C.W. Roksnoer (Lodi); A. Vermes (Andras); C. Chen (Chao); Y. Huang (Ying); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Knowledge of essential amino acid requirements in infants is important because excessive intake of protein can lead to increased long-term morbidity such as obesity. A deficient intake may lead to suboptimal growth and impaired neurodevelopment. The current recommended branch

  18. Prevention of methionine and ammonia-induced coma by intravenous infusion of a branched chain amino acid solution to rats with liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiota,Tetsuya

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of hepatic encephalopathy by the intravenous infusion of a branched chain amino acid (BCAA-enriched solution was investigated in methionine and ammonium acetate-treated rats whose liver was already injured with carbon tetrachloride. A BCAA-enriched solution protected the rats from entering a coma. The brain BCAA contents became higher, and the brain methionine and tyrosine levels and the ratio of glutamine to glutamic acid in the brain diminished after administering the BCAA-enriched solution.

  19. In Vitro Transcriptional Studies of the bkd Operon of Pseudomonas putida: l-Branched-Chain Amino Acids and d-Leucine Are the Inducers

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhan, Kunapuli T.; Luo, Jinhe; Sokatch, John R.

    1999-01-01

    BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5′ region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for...

  20. Evaluation of branched chain fatty acid, BMIPP (. beta. -methyl-. omega. -(p-iodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid) for the myocardial imaging. Basic experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yasuaki; Morishita, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Junichi and others

    1988-11-01

    Iodine-123 labeled branched chain fatty acid BMIPP (/sup ..beta../-methyl-..omega..-(p-iodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid) was evaluated for the myocardial imaging experimentally. /sup 123/I-BMIPP was accumulated in the heart at 2 - 4 minutes after injection and retention in the heart was remarkable at 30 minutes. In the acute canine infarction model, infarcted area was recognized as a defect. Furthermore, in comparison between /sup 123/I-BMIPP and /sup 201/Tl-Cl, discrepancy between these images was recognized in the ischemic and infarcted area. BMIPP is of use in not only cardiomyopathy and hypertension, but ischemic heart desease.

  1. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acids on the Performance and Fatigue Mechanisms of Rats Submitted to Prolonged Physical Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Inar Alves Castro; Eivor Martins Junior; Rogério Graça Pedrosa; Ivanir Santana de Oliveira Pires; Marcelo Macedo Rogero; Jonas Alves de Araújo Junior; Gina Falavigna; Julio Tirapegui

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks). The animals received a control diet (C) (n = 12), a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1) (n = 12), or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2) (n = 12). On the last d...

  2. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord; Ott, Peter; Buhl, Mads; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby; Schousboe, Arne; Møller, Niels; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in attempts to reduce blood ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and intermittent hepatic encephalopathy based on the hypothesis that BCAA stimulate muscle ammonia detoxification. We studied the effects of an oral dose of BCAA on the skeletal muscle...... metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in 14 patients with cirrhosis and in 7 healthy subjects by combining [(13)N]ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) of the thigh muscle with measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous (A-V) concentrations of ammonia and amino acids. PET was used to measure the...

  3. Low half-wave voltage Y-branch electro-optic polymer modulator based on side-chain polyurethane-imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Wang, Long-De; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tong

    2016-06-01

    A Y-branch electro-optic (EO) polymer modulator has been designed and fabricated. High performance side-chain polyurethane-imide (PUI) with a high EO coefficient of larger than 50 pm/V and a moderate glass-transition temperature (Tg) of 206∘C is used as EO polymer core layer of the modulator. The fabricated phase modulator exhibits a low half-wave voltage of 1.94 V at 1550 nm in single arm modulation with 1 cm EO interaction length and 2 cm total length. The results show that the modulator fabricated by side-chain PUI EO materials possesses potential applications in low driving voltage and low cost optical systems.

  4. Solid-State Organization and Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors of Benzothiadiazole-Cyclopentadithiophene Copolymer with Long Branched Alkyl Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baumgarten

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state organization of a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene copolymer with long, branched decyl-tetradecyl side chains (CDT-BTZ-C14,10 is investigated. The C14,10 substituents are sterically demanding and increase the π-stacking distance to 0.40 nm from 0.37 nm for the same polymer with linear hexadecyls (C16. Despite the bulkiness, the C14,10 side chains tend to crystallize, leading to a small chain-to-chain distance between lamellae stacks and to a crystal-like microstructure in the thin film. Interestingly, field-effect transistors based on solution processed layers of CDT-BTZ-C14,10 show ambipolar behavior in contrast to CDT-BTZ-C16 with linear side chains, for which hole transport was previously observed. Due to the increased π-stacking distance, the mobilities are only 6 × 10−4 cm²/Vs for electrons and 6 × 10−5 cm²/Vs for holes, while CDT-BTZ-C16 leads to values up to 5.5 cm²/Vs. The ambipolarity is attributed to a lateral shift between stacked backbones provoked by the bulky C14,10 side chains. This reorganization is supposed to change the transfer integrals between the C16 and C14,10 substituted polymers. This work shows that the electronic behavior in devices of one single conjugated polymer (in this case CDT-BTZ can be controlled by the right choice of the substituents to place the backbones in the desired packing.

  5. Does the fat tailed Damara ovine breed have a distinct lipid metabolism leading to a high concentration of branched chain fatty acids in tissues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B; Quaresma, Mário A G; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Oldham, Chris; Milton, John; Greeff, Johan; Almeida, André M

    2013-01-01

    Fat tailed sheep breeds are known for their adaptation to nutritional stress, among other harsh production conditions. Damara sheep, native to Southern Africa, have recently been exported to other areas of the world, particularly Australia, aiming to produce lamb in semi-arid regions. Damaras have a unique hanging fat tail, a fat depot able to be mobilized under nutritional stress. In this article we perform an in-depth characterization of the fatty acid profiles of the fat tail in underfed and control Damara rams. Profiles were very similar between experimental groups, with the exception of palmitic acid (16:0) that was lower (P = 0.014) in underfed animals. However, the most striking result was the very high proportions of non-terminal branched chain fatty acids found in the fat tail adipose tissue, as well as the gastrocnemius muscle of Damara rams. The muscle of Dorper and Merino rams used in the same experiment did not present non-terminal branched chain fatty acids, suggesting that Damara rams have a unique lipid metabolism. Herein, we interpret this trait relating it to a higher ability of Damara sheep to digest fibrous fodder and to putative differences in the propionate metabolism by comparison to other sheep breeds. PMID:24204803

  6. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  7. Structural determination of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) containing high degree of controlled long-chain branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Susanta; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg;

    2009-01-01

    ) equipped with triple detector system was used to determine the molar mass (both absolute and relative) and polydispersity index (PDI). Presence of branching was also detected using sec-viscometry. Rheological analysis has also been used for characterizing LCB. Finally, on the basis of the experimental...... findings and the available theories, an attempt was made to identify the chemical nature and degree of LCB. This study reveals the possibility of detailed characterization of molecular architecture of EPDM containing LCB by comparing with an essentially linear EPDM in light of an existing theory. © 2009...

  8. The influence of environmental parameters on the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    ionization detection (GC/FID). Main volatile catabolic products of leucine, isoleucine and valine were 3-methylbutanoic, 2-methylbutanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids, respectively. The generation of branched flavour compounds was influenced significantly by most of the investigated environmental parameters....... The environmental conditions studied were temperature (12-28degreesC), NaCl concentration (4.0-12.0% (w/w)) acidity (pH 4.8-5.8) and addition of manganese (0-2.5mg Mn/kg). Flavour compounds were sampled by automatic static headspace collection and separated/quantified using gas chromatography/flame...

  9. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  10. Control of the anchoring behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: effect of branching in the side chains of polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2002-08-28

    A temperature-driven anchoring transition in a polymer/nematic fluid composite that is far from the bulk nematic-isotropic transition temperature is reported. A series of poly(methylheptyl acrylates) were studied to probe the subtle effects of the side chain structure of the polymer on control of the anchoring. A polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film made from TL205 and 1-methylheptyl acrylate shows only planar anchoring over the temperature range studied, while the films made from TL205 and each of the other methylheptyl acrylates or n-heptyl acrylate show the homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition at temperatures between 70 and 78 degrees C. An interfacial model is proposed in which the different conformation of the side chains is suggested as the cause for the dramatic difference in the observed anchoring behavior. PMID:12188649

  11. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL) using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3888 were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in

  12. Stabilization of bacterially expressed erythropoietin by single site-specific introduction of short branched PEG chains at naturally occurring glycosylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, E; Streichert, K; Nischan, N; Seitz, C; Brunner, T; Schwagerus, S; Hackenberger, C P R; Rubini, M

    2016-05-24

    The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic proteins can improve their physicochemical properties. In this work we utilized the non-natural amino acid p-azidophenylalanine (pAzF) in combination with the chemoselective Staudinger-phosphite reaction to install branched PEG chains to recombinant unglycosylated erythropoietin (EPO) at each single naturally occurring glycosylation site. PEGylation with two short 750 or 2000 Da PEG units at positions 24, 38, or 83 significantly decreased unspecific aggregation and proteolytic degradation while biological activity in vitro was preserved or even increased in comparison to full-glycosylated EPO. This site-specific bioconjugation approach permits to analyse the impact of PEGylation at single positions. These results represent an important step towards the engineering of site-specifically modified EPO variants from bacterial expression with increased therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26776361

  13. Unusual one-dimensional branched-chain structures assembled by a novel imidazole-containing tripodal ligand with cadmium(II) salts and their fluorescent property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three novel coordination polymers [Cd3(L)2(μ-Br)(μ-Cl)Br3Cl] (1), [Cd3(L)2(μ-Cl)2Cl4] (2) and [Cd(L)Cl]2[CdCl4].H2O (3) were obtained by reactions of an imidazole-containing tripodal ligand N 1-(2-aminoethyl)-N 1-(2-imidazolethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (L) with Cd(II) salts. Their structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystal data for 1, monoclinic system, P21/c, a=7.752(4) A, b=31.70(2) A, c=14.012(7) A, β=109.439(7)o, V=3247(3) A3, Z=4. 2, monoclinic system, P21/c, a=7.6564(15) A, b=31.433(6) A, c=13.925(3) A, β=109.89(3)o, V=3151.1(11) A3, Z=4. 3, orthorhombic system, Pbcn, a=22.950(2) A, b=8.435(7) A, c=17.360(2) A, V=3360.3(51) A3, Z=4. Complexes 1 and 2 have similar one-dimensional (1D) branched-chain structure while complex 3 features a 1D zigzag cationic chain with [CdCl4]2- serving as counter anion. The photoluminescent measurements reveal that all the complexes exhibit blue fluorescence at room temperature in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: Three novel coordination polymers [Cd3(L)2(μ-Br)(μ-Cl)Br3Cl] (1), [Cd3(L)2(μ-Cl)2Cl4] (2) and [Cd(L)Cl]2[CdCl4].H2O (3) with one dimensional branched chain and zigzag chain structures were obtained by reactions of an imidazole-containing tripodal ligand N 1-(2-aminoethyl)-N 1-(2-imidazolethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (L) with Cd(II) salts

  14. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 (α2β2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex

  15. A small-angle X-ray scattering study of the effect of chain architecture on the shear-induced crystallization of branched and linear poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, T.; Sutton, D.; Heeley, E; Moad, G.; KNOTT, R.

    2007-01-01

    The synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique was used to investigate the shear-induced crystallization kinetics of branched/unbranched poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Reactive extrusion of bottle-grade PET with the branching and chain-extension agents pyromellitic dianhydride and pentaerythritol results in enhanced rheological properties, such as higher melt strength and higher viscosity. In this study, six samples of PET were investigated: linear PET [intrinsic vis...

  16. Chain extension and branching of poly(L-lactic acid produced by reaction with a DGEBA-based epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dicarboxylated poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA was synthesized by reacting succinic anhydride with L-lactic acid prepolymer prepared by melt polycondensation. PLLA and epoxy resin based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA copolymers were prepared by chain extension of dicarboxylated PLLA with DGEBA. Infrared spectra confirmed the formation of dicarboxylated PLLA and PLLA/DGEBA copolymer. Influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, and the amount of DGEBA on the molecular weight and gel content of PLLA/DGEBA copolymer were studied. The viscosity average molecular weight of PLLA/DGEBA copolymer reached 87 900 when reaction temperature, reaction time, and mol ratio of dicarboxylated PLLA to DGEBA is 150°C, 30 min, and 1:1 respectively, while gel content of PLLA/DGEBA copolymer is almost zero.

  17. Aspectos atuais sobre aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada e exercício físico Current aspects of branched chain amino acid and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Em humanos saudáveis, nove aminoácidos são considerados essenciais, uma vez que não podem ser sintetizados endogenamente e, portanto, devem ser ingeridos por meio da dieta. Dentre os aminoácidos essenciais, se incluem os três aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada, ou seja, leucina, valina e isoleucina. Esses aminoácidos participam da regulação do balanço protéico corporal além de serem fonte de nitrogênio para a síntese de alanina e glutamina. No tocante à regulação da síntese protéica muscular, verifica-se que a leucina age estimulando a fase de iniciação da tradução do RNA-mensageiro em proteína, por mecanismos tanto dependentes quanto independentes de insulina. No que concerne ao exercício físico, supõe-se que esses aminoácidos estejam envolvidos na fadiga central, no balanço protéico muscular, na secreção de insulina, na modulação da imunocompetência, no aumento da performance de indivíduos que se exercitam em ambientes quentes e na diminuição do grau de lesão muscular. Nesse contexto, essa revisão aborda os aspectos atuais do metabolismo e da suplementação de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada no exercício físico.In healthy humans, nine amino acids are considered to be essential once they cannot be endogenously synthesised and must therefore be ingested in the diet. Amongst the essential amino acids are the three branched chain amino acids, namely, leucine, valine and isoleucine. These amino acids participate in the regulation of protein balance in addition to being nitrogen sources for the synthesis of alanine and glutamine. As to the regulation of muscle protein synthesis, leucine acts in the stimulation of initiation of mRNA translation into protein, both through mechanisms that are dependent and independent of insulin. In the physiology of physical exercise, these branched amino acids play a role in central fatigue hypothesis, in muscle protein balance, in the secretion of insulin, in the

  18. Activities of the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway and formation of branched-chain alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis grown in continuous culture on valine or ammonium as sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, S; Large, P J

    1993-11-01

    Valine aminotransferase, a key enzyme in both biosynthesis and breakdown of branched-chain amino acids, showed consistently higher activity in Candida utilis grown in continuous culture than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the other two enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway of branched-chain alcohol formation, were lower in activity. By spheroplast lysis, it was shown that valine aminotransferase followed the distribution of pyruvate decarboxylase in being located in the cytosol. Replacement of ammonium as nitrogen source by valine during conditions of carbon or nitrogen limitation caused increased specific activities of these three enzymes in S. cerevisiae, but (with one exception) decreased those of C. utilis. Of the metabolites accumulating in the culture medium, little or no ethanol or branched-chain alcohols were present during carbon-limited growth of either organism, but the change to nitrogen limitation resulted in increases in concentration of 20- to 100-fold in pyruvate, acetate and non-pyruvate keto acids as well as the accumulation of branched-chain alcohols in both organisms, and of ethanol, ethyl acetate and glycerol in S. cerevisiae. When valine was the limiting nitrogen source, there was an increase in non-pyruvate keto acids and a 10- to 16-fold increase in 2-methylpropanol. Total branched-chain alcohols formed under nitrogen limitation were 2-fold higher in S. cerevisiae than in C. utilis, irrespective of nitrogen source. Accumulation of branched-chain alcohols, ethanol, acetate and glycerol was also observed during carbon-limited growth of S. cerevisiae with valine as nitrogen source at dilution rates above the critical rate for transition to respirofermentative growth. Less than 70% of the valine carbon metabolized during growth of S. cerevisiae and only 15% of that used during growth of C. utilis was recovered in identified metabolic products. Even allowing for losses by volatilization during

  19. P-type ATPase TAT-2 negatively regulates monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid mediated function in post-embryonic growth and development in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylie Seamen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs are essential for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development. To identify factors acting downstream of mmBCFAs for their function in growth regulation, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 arrest that occurs in animals depleted of the 17-carbon mmBCFA C17ISO. Three of the suppressor mutations defined an unexpected player, the P-type ATPase TAT-2, which belongs to the flippase family of proteins that are implicated in mediating phospholipid bilayer asymmetry. We provide evidence that TAT-2, but not other TAT genes, has a specific role in antagonizing the regulatory activity of mmBCFAs in intestinal cells. Interestingly, we found that mutations in tat-2 also suppress the lethality caused by inhibition of the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We further showed that the fatty acid side-chains of glycosylceramides contain 20%-30% mmBCFAs and that this fraction is greatly diminished in the absence of mmBCFA biosynthesis. These results suggest a model in which a C17ISO-containing sphingolipid may mediate the regulatory functions of mmBCFAs and is negatively regulated by TAT-2 in intestinal cells. This work indicates a novel connection between a P-type ATPase and the critical regulatory function of a specific fatty acid.

  20. Comparison of the Photovoltaic Characteristics and Nanostructure of Fullerenes Blended with Conjugated Polymers with Siloxane-Terminated and Branched Aliphatic Side Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Hwan

    2013-02-12

    All-organic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymers with fullerenes have recently surpassed the 8% efficiency mark and are well on their way to the industrially relevant ∼15% threshold. Using a low band-gap conjugated polymer, we have recently shown that polymer side chain engineering can lead to dramatic improvement in the in-plane charge carrier mobility. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of siloxy side chain derivatization in controlling the photovoltaic performance of polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blends and hence its influence on charge transport in the out-of-plane direction relevant for organic solar cells. We find that, in neat blends, the photocurrent of the polymer with siloxy side chains (PII2T-Si) is 4 times greater than that in blends using the polymer with branched aliphatic side chains (PII2T-ref). This difference is due to a larger out-of-plane hole mobility for PII2T-Si brought about by a largely face-on crystallite orientation as well as more optimal nanoscale polymer:PC71BM mixing. However, upon incorporating a common processing additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), into the spin-casting blend solution and following optimization, the PII2T-ref:PC71BM OPV device performance undergoes a large improvement and becomes the better-performing device, almost independent of DIO concentration (>1%). We find that the precise amount of DIO plays a larger role in determining the efficiency of PII2T-Si:PC71BM, and even at its maximum, the device performance lags behind optimized PII2T-ref:PC71BM blends. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, we are able to elucidate the morphological modifications associated with the DIO-induced changes in both the nanoscale morphology and the molecular packing in blend films. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Merino, D; Béquet, F; Berthelot, M; Riverain, S; Chennaoui, M; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-07-01

    The branched-chain amino acid L-valine competes with tryptophan for transport into the brain and has previously been shown to decrease brain 5-HT synthesis. The purpose of this study was to assess, using a combined venous catheterization and in vivo microdialysis method, the effect of pre-exercise L-valine administration on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the ventral hippocampus of rats submitted to an acute intensive treadmill running (120 min at 25 m x min(-1) followed by 150 min of recovery). The presented results include measurement of extracellular tryptophan (TRP), the 5-HT precursor, and extracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the 5-HT metabolite. The data clearly demonstrate that exercise induces 5-HT release in the rat hippocampus: in control group, hippocampal 5-HT levels increase from 123.7 +/- 6.4% at the end of exercise to 133.9 +/- 6.4% after 60 min of recovery. Moreover, two hours of intensive running induced significant increases both in extracellular TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to 30 min of recovery) and 5-HIAA levels (from 90 min of exercise to 90 min of recovery). Pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents significantly the exercise-induced 5-HT release: 5-HT levels are maintained to baseline during exercise and recovery. With regard to the competitive effect of L-valine with TRP, we could observe a treatment-induced decrease in brain TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to the end of recovery). Besides, L-valine does not prevent exercise-induced increase in 5-HIAA levels. The present study evidences that an acute intensive exercise stimulates 5-HT metabolism in the rat hippocampus, and that a pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents, via a limiting effect on 5-HT synthesis, exercise-induced 5-HT release. This study provides some anwers to previous human and animal investigations, showing physiological and psychological benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on performance. PMID:11510866

  2. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain [alpha]-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T. (AS); (UTSMC)

    2012-02-27

    The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.

  3. Branched-chain amino acids ameliorate fibrosis and suppress tumor growth in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Cha

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA reduce the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with obesity and hepatitis C virus infection by improving insulin resistance (IR. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic effects of BCAA on the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN-induced HCC and liver cirrhosis in a rat model. METHODS: Male SD rats received weekly intraperitoneal injections of DEN (50 mg/kg of body weight for 16 weeks to induce HCC. They were fed a diet containing 3% casein, 3% or 6% BCAA for 13 weeks beginning 6 weeks after DEN administration. DEN was used to induce HCC through stepwise development from cirrhosis to HCC. The effect of BCAA was evaluated in tumor tissues by histopathologic analyses, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. RESULTS: The mean area and number of dysplastic nodules (DNs and tumors in the casein group tended to be larger than those in the BCAA group 16 weeks after DEN administration. The mean fibrotic area in the BCAA group was smaller than that in the casein group. The BCAA group showed decreased mRNA levels for markers of fibrosis, angiogenesis, and apoptosis inhibition. Compared with the casein group, the BCAA group had lower levels of α-smooth muscle actin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p-β-catenin, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and caspase-3 protein expression, as well as a higher level of cleaved caspase-3 protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA supplementation of the diet ameliorated liver fibrosis and HCC development in a DEN-induced rat model of HCC with liver cirrhosis, but not in the IR model. These results provide a rationale for anti-fibrosis and chemoprevention using BCAA treatment for HCC with liver cirrhosis, as well as decreasing the ammonia level.

  4. Effects of kinase inhibitors and potassium phosphate (KPi) on site-specific phosphorylation of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BCKDH is phosphorylated by a copurifying kinase at two serine residues on the Elα subunit. Phosphorylation of both sites occurs at about the same rate initially, but inactivation is believed associated only with site 1 phosphorylation. The effects of KPi and known inhibitors of BCKDH kinase, α-chloroisocaproate (CIC) and branched chain α-ketoacids (BCKA), on the phosphorylation of purified rat liver BCKDH were studied. Site-specific phosphorylation was quantitated by thin-layer electrophoresis of tryptic peptides followed by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms. Addition of 5 mM KPi was found necessary to stabilize the BCKDH activity at 370C. Increasing the KPi to 50 mM dramatically increased the CIC and BCKA inhibition of site 1 and site 2 phosphorylation. The finding of enhanced sensitivity of inhibitors with 50 mM KPi may facilitate identification of physiologically important kinase effectors. Regardless of the KPi concentration, CIC and the BCKA showed much more effective inhibition of site 2 than site 1 phosphorylation. Although site 1 is the primary inactivating site, predominant inhibition of site 2 phosphorylation may provide a means of modulating kinase/phosphatase control of BCKDH activity under steady state conditions

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel N-substituted branched-chain l-amino-acid dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffraction data were collected to a limiting resolution of 2.4 Å from a crystal of selenomethionyl-labelled SadA, an l-amino-acid dioxygenase. Ferrous ion- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD (SadA) catalyzes the C3-hydroxylation of N-substituted branched-chain l-amino acids, especially N-succinyl-l-leucine, coupled to the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinate and CO2. SadA was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Crystals of selenomethionine-substituted SadA were obtained using a reservoir solution containing PEG 3000 as the precipitant at pH 9.5 and diffracted X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.3, b = 70.9, c = 148.2 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM = 2.1 Å3 Da−1, 41% solvent content) suggested that the crystal contains two molecules per asymmetric unit

  6. Different Lipopolysaccharide Branched-Chain Amino Acids Modulate Porcine Intestinal Endogenous β-Defensin Expression through the Sirt1/ERK/90RSK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Man; Zhang, Shihai; Liu, Xutong; Li, Shenghe; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-05-01

    Nutritional induction of endogenous antimicrobial peptide expression is considered a promising approach to inhibit the outgrowth and infection of pathogenic microbes in mammals. The present study investigated possible regulation of porcine epithelial β-defensins in response to branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in vivo and in vitro. BCAA treatment increased relative mRNA expression of jejunal and ileal β-defensins in weaned piglets. In IPEC-J2 cells, isoleucine, leucine, and valine could stimulate β-defensin expression, possibly associated with stimulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Sirt1 and ERK completely blocked the activation of ERK and 90RSK protein by isoleucine, simultaneously decreasing defensin expression. BCAA stimulate expression of porcine intestinal epithelial β-defensins with isoleucine the most, potent possibly through activation of the Sirt1/ERK/90RSK signaling pathway. The β-defensins regulation of lipopolysaccharide was related with an ERK-independent pathway. BCAA modulation of endogenous defensin might be a promising approach to enhance disease resistance and intestinal health in young animals and children. PMID:27083206

  7. Complete amino acid sequence of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (transaminase B) of Salmonella typhimurium, identification of the coenzyme-binding site and sequence comparison analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete amino acid sequence of the subunit of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase of Salmonella typhimurium was determined by automated Edman degradation of peptide fragments generated by chemical and enzymatic digestion of S-carboxymethylated and S-pyridylethylated transaminase B. Peptide fragments of transaminase B were generated by treatment of the enzyme with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, endoproteinase Lys-C, and cyanogen bromide. Protocols were developed for separation of the peptide fragments by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion-exchange HPLC, and SDS-urea gel electrophoresis. The enzyme subunit contains 308 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 33,920 daltons. The coenzyme-binding site was determined by treatment of the enzyme, containing bound pyridoxal 5-phosphate, with tritiated sodium borohydride prior to trypsin digestion. Monitoring radioactivity incorporation and peptide map comparisons with an apoenzyme tryptic digest, allowed identification of the pyridoxylated-peptide which was isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and sequenced. The coenzyme-binding site is a lysyl residue at position 159. Some peptides were further characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

  8. Effect of a branched chain amino acid-enriched nutritional product on the pathophysiology of the liver and nutritional state of patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available A new nutritional product (SF-1008C containing a high proportion of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and low proportion of aromatic amino acids (AAA and methionine was tested to see its effect on the impaired protein metabolism and abnormal nutritional state frequently observed in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. A sharp increase in plasma BCAA levels and fall of AAA and methionine levels were found following the administration of an SF-1008C-supplemented diet to healthy controls and cirrhotic patients, which the BCAA levels increased only slightly following an isocaloric control diet. Blood ammonia levels increased within the normal range transiently following the diets. The SF-1008C-supplemented diet was given for 2 weeks to cirrhotic patients with histories of hepatic encephalopathy, who were taking a low-protein diet because of hyperammonemia. Serum prealbumin levels, nitrogen balance, molar ratio of plasma BCAA/phenylalanine and tyrosine, the number connection test and electroencephalograms improved during the period of the experimental diet. The results, therefore, indicate that a BCAA-supplemented diet is well tolerated by patients with advanced cirrhosis and useful for treatment of impaired protein metabolism. Furthermore, this product is beneficial in preventing hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotics.

  9. High-Speed Microdialysis-Capillary Electrophoresis Assays for Measuring Branched Chain Amino Acid Uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, Rachel K; Bowser, Michael T

    2016-08-16

    We have developed a high-throughput microdialysis-capillary electrophoresis (MD-CE) assay for monitoring branched chain amino acid (BCAA) uptake/release dynamics in 3T3-L1 cells. BCAAs (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and their downstream metabolites (i.e., alanine, glutamine, and glutamate) are important indicators of adipocyte lipogenesis. To perform an analysis, amino acids were sampled using microdialysis, fluorescently labeled in an online reaction, separated using CE, and detected using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a sheath flow cuvette. Separation conditions were optimized for the resolution of the BCAAs isoleucine, leucine, and valine, as well as 13 other amino acids, including ornithine, alanine, glutamine, and glutamate. CE separations were performed in <30 s, and the temporal resolution of the online MD-CE assay was <60 s. Limits of detection (LOD) were 400, 200, and 100 nM for isoleucine, leucine, and valine, respectively. MD-CE dramatically improved throughput in comparison to traditional offline CE methods, allowing 8 replicates of 15 samples (i.e., 120 analyses) to be assayed in <120 min. The MD-CE assay was used to assess the metabolism dynamics of 3T3-L1 cells over time, confirming the utility of the assay. PMID:27398773

  10. Effects of diets supplemented with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and fatigue mechanisms of rats submitted to prolonged physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Gina; Alves de Araújo, Jonas; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Pires, Ivanir Santana de Oliveira; Pedrosa, Rogério Graça; Martins, Eivor; Alves de Castro, Inar; Tirapegui, Julio

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks). The animals received a control diet (C) (n = 12), a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1) (n = 12), or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2) (n = 12). On the last day of the training protocol, half the animals in each group were sacrificed after one hour of swimming (1H), and the other half after a swimming exhaustion test (EX). Swimming time until exhaustion was increased by 37% in group S1 and reduced by 43% in group S2 compared to group C. Results indicate that the S1 diet had a beneficial effect on performance by sparing glycogen in the soleus muscle (p rats subjected to a swimming test to exhaustion. However, this is a dose-dependent effect, since chronic ingestion of elevated quantities of BCAA led to a reduction in performance. PMID:23201847

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Voluntary Running Improves Body Composition in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Shertzer, Howard G; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an inexpensive intervention that may be used to reduce obesity and its consequences. In addition, many individuals who regularly exercise utilize dietary supplements to enhance their exercise routine and to accelerate fat loss or increase lean mass. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a popular supplement and have been shown to produce a number of beneficial effects in rodent models and humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in mice with and without access to exercise. We subjected 80 female C57BL/6 mice to a paradigm of HFD feeding, exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running, and BCAA supplementation in the drinking water for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). Body weight was monitored weekly, while food and water consumption were recorded twice weekly. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance and body composition were analyzed. Exercise significantly improved glucose tolerance in both control-fed and HFD-fed mice. BCAA supplementation, however, did not significantly alter glucose tolerance in any treatment group. While BCAA supplements did not improve lean to fat mass ratio in sedentary mice, it significantly augmented the effects of exercise on this parameter. PMID:26716948

  12. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav

    Berlin : Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007, s. 129-162. ISBN 978-3-540-48595-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : amino acids * homologous reactions Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  14. Effect of chronic supplementation with branched-chain amino acids on the performance and hepatic and muscle glycogen content in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jonas A; Falavigna, Gina; Rogero, Marcelo M; Pires, Ivanir S O; Pedrosa, Rogerio G; Castro, Inar A; Donato, Jose; Tirapegui, Julio

    2006-08-29

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; 3.57% and 4.76%) on the performance and glycogen metabolism of trained rats. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats received the control diet (AIN-93M) (n=12) and two diets supplemented with BCAA (S1: AIN-93M+3.57% BCAA, n=12, and S2: AIN-93M+4.76% BCAA, n=12) for 6 weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (60 min day(-1)) for 6 weeks at intensities close to the lactate threshold. On the last day of the experiment, all groups were trained for 1 h (1H) or were submitted to the exhaustion test (EX). The time to exhaustion did not differ between groups. The groups submitted to the exhaustion test presented a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in plasma ammonia and blood lactate concentrations compared to the 1H condition. In the 1H condition, hepatic glycogen concentration was significantly higher in group S2 compared to the control diet and S1 groups (132% and 44%, respectively). Group S2 in the 1H condition presented a higher muscle glycogen concentration (45%) compared to the control diet group. In the EX condition, a significantly higher hepatic glycogen concentration was observed for group S2 compared to the control diet and S1 groups (262% and 222%, respectively). Chronic supplementation with BCAA promoted a higher hepatic and muscle glycogen concentration in trained animals, with this effect being dose dependent. PMID:16698042

  15. Efficient synthesis of D-branched-chain amino acids and their labeled compounds with stable isotopes using D-amino acid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Hironaga; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2014-02-01

    D-Branched-chain amino acids (D-BCAAs) such as D-leucine, D-isoleucine, and D-valine are known to be peptide antibiotic intermediates and to exhibit a variety of bioactivities. Consequently, much effort is going into achieving simple stereospecific synthesis of D-BCAAs, especially analogs labeled with stable isotopes. Up to now, however, no effective method has been reported. Here, we report the establishment of an efficient system for enantioselective synthesis of D-BCAAs and production of D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes. This system is based on two thermostable enzymes: D-amino acid dehydrogenase, catalyzing NADPH-dependent enantioselective amination of 2-oxo acids to produce the corresponding D-amino acids, and glucose dehydrogenase, catalyzing NADPH regeneration from NADP(+) and D-glucose. After incubation with the enzymes for 2 h at 65°C and pH 10.5, 2-oxo-4-methylvaleric acid was converted to D-leucine with an excellent yield (>99 %) and optical purity (>99 %). Using this system, we produced five different D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes: D-[1-(13)C,(15)N]leucine, D-[1-(13)C]leucine, D-[(15)N]leucine, D-[(15)N]isoleucine, and D-[(15)N]valine. The structure of each labeled D-amino acid was confirmed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. These analyses confirmed that the developed system was highly useful for production of D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes, making this the first reported enzymatic production of D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes. Our findings facilitate tracer studies investigating D-BCAAs and their derivatives. PMID:23661083

  16. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acids on the Performance and Fatigue Mechanisms of Rats Submitted to Prolonged Physical Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inar Alves de Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks. The animals received a control diet (C (n = 12, a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1 (n = 12, or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2 (n = 12. On the last day of the training protocol, half the animals in each group were sacrificed after one hour of swimming (1H, and the other half after a swimming exhaustion test (EX. Swimming time until exhaustion was increased by 37% in group S1 and reduced by 43% in group S2 compared to group C. Results indicate that the S1 diet had a beneficial effect on performance by sparing glycogen in the soleus muscle (p < 0.05 and by inducing a lower concentration of plasma ammonia, whereas the S2 diet had a negative effect on performance due to hyperammonemia (p < 0.05. The hypothalamic concentration of serotonin was not significantly different between the 1H and EX conditions. In conclusion, chronic BCAA supplementation led to increased performance in rats subjected to a swimming test to exhaustion. However, this is a dose-dependent effect, since chronic ingestion of elevated quantities of BCAA led to a reduction in performance.

  17. Intake of branched-chain or essential amino acids attenuates the elevation in muscle levels of PGC-1α4 mRNA caused by resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Hedvig; Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-07-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α is recognized as the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, recently a novel isoform, PGC-1α4, that specifically regulates muscle hypertrophy was discovered. Because stimulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is tightly coupled to hypertrophy, we hypothesized that activation of this pathway would upregulate PGC-1α4. Eight male subjects performed heavy resistance exercise (10 × 8-12 repetitions at ∼75% of 1 repetition maximum in leg press) on four different occasions, ingesting in random order a solution containing essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, or flavored water (placebo) during and after the exercise. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and immediately after exercise, as well as following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Signaling through mTORC1, as reflected in p70S6 kinase phosphorylation, was stimulated to a greater extent by the EAA and BCAA than the leucine or placebo supplements. Unexpectedly, intake of EAA or BCAA attenuated the stimulatory effect of exercise on PGC-1α4 expression by ∼50% (from a 10- to 5-fold increase with BCAA and EAA, P Muscle glycogen levels were reduced and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 activity and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhanced to the same extent with all four supplements. In conclusion, induction of PGC-1α4 does not appear to regulate the nutritional (BCAA or EAA)-mediated activation of mTORC1 in human muscle. PMID:27245337

  18. Polyurethane foams based on crude glycerol-derived biopolyols: One-pot preparation of biopolyols with branched fatty acid ester chains and its effects on foam formation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cong; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Tao; Tong, Xinjie; Li, Yebo

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally friendly biopolyols have been produced with crude glycerol as the sole feedstock using a one-pot thermochemical conversion process without the addition of extra catalysts and reagents. Structural features of these biopolyols were characterized by rheology analysis. Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were obtained from these crude glycerol-based biopolyols and the foaming mechanism was explored. Investigations revealed that partial carbonyl groups hydrogen-bonded with NeH were replaced by aromatic rings after the introduction of branched fatty acid ester chains in the “urea rich” phase, and that distinct microphases had formed in the foams. Studies showed that branched fatty acid ester chains in the biopolyols played an important role in reducing the degree of microphase separation and stabilizing bubbles during foaming processes. PU foams with thermal conductivity comparable to commercial products made from petroleum-based polyols were obtained. These studies show the potential for development of PU foams based on crude glycerol, a renewable resource.

  19. Analysis of the LIV System of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Alternative Roles for LivJ and LivK in Commensalism beyond Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ribardo, Deborah A.; Hendrixson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion in Cjj81176_1038, encoding a homolog of the Escherichia coli LivJ periplasmic binding protein of the leucine, isoleucine, and valine (LIV) branched-chain amino aci...

  20. Growth of the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in microtiter plates: effects of NaCl, pH and temperature on growth and fusel alcohol production from branched-chain amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michael; Veurink, Janine H; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2003-05-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a salt-tolerant yeast isolated from the soy sauce process, produces fusel alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol) from branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine, respectively) via the Ehrlich pathway. Using a high-throughput screening approach in microtiter plates, we have studied the effects of pH, temperature and salt concentration on growth of Z. rouxii and formation of fusel alcohols from branched-chain amino acids. Application of minor variations in pH (range 3-7) and NaCl concentrations (range 0-20%) per microtiter plate well allowed a rapid and detailed evaluation of fermentation conditions for optimal growth and metabolite production. Conditions yielding the highest cell densities were not optimal for fusel alcohol production. Maximal fusel alcohol production occurred at low pH (3.0-4.0) and low NaCl concentrations (0-4%) at 25 degrees C. At pH 4.0-6.0 and 0-18% NaCl, considerable amounts of alpha-keto acids, the deaminated products from the branched-chain amino acids, accumulated extracellularly. The highest cell densities were obtained in plates incubated at 30 degrees C. The results obtained under various incubation conditions with (deep-well) microtiter plates were validated in Erlenmeyer shake-flask cultures. PMID:12689638

  1. Effect of branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutritional supplementation on interferon therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA with zinc component (Aminofeel® on adherence to and outcome of therapy in patients treated with interferon (IFN for chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis and to determine whether to recommend the supplement. Methods In this retrospective study, 51 patients who received IFN therapy were investigated among 203 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and were advised regarding the potential benefit of taking Aminofeel®. Each patient was free to choose whether to purchase and take Aminofeel®. Results Twenty four patients (group 1-A took Aminofeel® during standard IFN therapy and 13 (group 1-B did not. Low-dose, long-term IFN (maintenance therapy, mainly peglated (Peg-IFN alpha 2a, was administered to 14 patients who were difficult to treat, because of no effect or harmful side effects with standard IFN therapy, and who had advanced liver fibrosis. Among the 14, 11 patients (group 2-A took Aminofeel® and 3 (group 2-B did not. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher (P=0.04 in group 1-A than in group 1-B. The rate of adherence to IFN therapy was higher in group 1-A (83.3% than in group 1-B (53.8%, P=0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of sustained virological response (SVR to IFN therapy. According to multivariate analysis, two factors, SVR and intake of Aminofeel®, were associated with successful adherence to IFN therapy. The adjusted odds ratios for these two factors were 13.25 and 12.59, respectively, and each was statistically significant. The SVR rate of maintenance IFN therapy was in 18.2% group 2-A and 0% in group 2-B. Conclusion Our data show that BCAA intake is useful for adherence to and effect of IFN therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Nutritional supplementation with BCAA seems to be useful for HCV-infected patients receiving

  2. Effects of supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to low-protein diets on expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yehui; Duan, Yangmiao; Li, Fengna; Li, Yinghui; Guo, Qiuping; Ji, Yujiao; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), play critical roles in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism in addition to their other functions, such as in protein metabolism. This study investigated the effects of different dietary BCAA ratios on the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition in different location of skeletal muscles, including the longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF), and psoas major (PM) muscles of growing pigs, and also examined the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in these muscle tissues. The experiment was performed on 40 growing pigs (Large White × Landrace) with a similar initial weight (9.85 ± 0.35 kg). The pigs were randomly assigned to one of five diets: diet A was a positive control and contained 20 % crude protein (CP) with a Leu:Ile:Val ratio of 1:0.51:0.63 according to the recommendation of the National Research Council (NRC); for diets B to E, the CP level was reduced to 17 %, and the Leu:Ile:Val ratios were 1:1:1, 1:0.75:0.75, 1:0.51:0.63, and 1:0.25:0.25, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the average feed intake and feed efficiency of the pigs fed the low protein diet (17 % CP) with BCAA treatments relative to the positive control. However, there was a tendency for increased feed efficiency of the 1:0.75:0.75 group compared with the 1:1:1 group (P = 0.09). The BCAA ratio of 1:0.75:0.75 (17 % CP) increased the IMF content of BF muscle (P protein level had different effects on the fatty acid composition of the LD, BF, and PM muscles. The BCAA ratio of 1:0.51:0.63-1:0.75:0.75 (17 % CP) significantly lowered the ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in these muscles compared with the positive control group (20 % CP). This effect was associated with an increase in mRNA expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid transport protein, and fatty acid binding

  3. Combined urea-thin layer chromatography and silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography for micro separation and determination of hard-to-detect branched chain fatty acids in natural lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yijun; Xiang, Jingying; Wang, Xiaosan; Zhang, Huijun; Yao, Yunping; Liu, Ruijie; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe

    2015-12-18

    A simple, fast and efficient procedure was developed for micro separation and enrichment of branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) from natural products using successive thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique coupling novel urea-TLC with AgNO3-TLC, which rely on the formation of urea adduction and AgNO3 bonding in methanol. These natural lipids contain a significant amount of straight chain fatty acids (FA). Fresh and fast urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC plate making techniques were developed with more even coating and less coating material contamination before being utilized for separation. Goat milk fat was used as a model. Various experimental parameters that affect urea-TLC and AgNO3-TLC separation of BCFA were investigated and optimized, including coating of urea, concentration of original oil sample, mobile phase and sample application format. High efficiency of removal of straight chain FA was achieved with a low amount of sample in an easy and fast way. A total BCFA mix with much higher purity than previous studies was successfully achieved. The developed method has also been applied for the concentration and analysis of BCFA in cow milk fat and Anchovy oil. PMID:26614174

  4. Structure of pestalotan, a highly branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan elaborated by Pestalotia sp. 815, and the enhancement of its antitumor activity by polyol modification of the side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, A; Kawaguchi, K; Miyaji, H; Nagae, H; Hokkoku, S; Kakuta, M; Sasaki, T

    1984-07-01

    Pestalotia sp. 815, a newly isolated fungus, produces extracellularly a highly (1----6)-branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan in high yield when grown in a D-glucose-containing medium. This extracellular glucan, designated "Pestalotan", has [alpha]25D-0.1 degree (c 0.5, M NaOH) and a molecular weight greater than 2 X 10(6). Chemical and enzymic studies indicated that pestalotan has a very highly branched structure containing a back-bone chain of beta-D-(1----3)-linked D-glucosyl residues, and three out of five D-glucosyl residues are substituted at O-6, mostly with single D-glucosyl groups, and a very few with short beta-(1----6)-linked oligosaccharide units. This D-glucan becomes water-insoluble after isolation from the culture filtrate followed by dehydration, and shows moderate growth-inhibitory activities against mouse-implanted tumors. However, when the D-glucosyl groups of the side chains were modified by periodate oxidation and borohydride reduction, the resulting, still water-insoluble, D-glucan polyol exhibited potent antitumor activities, confirming that the attachment of many polyhydroxy groups to the beta-D-(1----3)-linked D-glucan back-bone gives a remarkable enhancement effect on the antitumor activity of the branched D-glucan. Prolonged treatment of the D-glucan polyol by ultrasonic irradiation afforded a low-molecular-weight D-glucan polyol (SD-pestalotan polyol), without alteration of its chemical structure. The water-soluble, SD-pestalotan polyol, having a molecular weight of 4.7 X 10(5), exhibited remarkable antitumor activities against both allogeneic and syngeneic, mouse-implanted tumors, at small dosages (1-5 mg/kg for 10 days) by intraperitoneal administration. A comparison of values of the molecular weight of SD-pestalotan polyol, estimated by 3-MPa l.c. for the aqueous solution and the dimethyl sulfoxide solution, strongly suggested that the D-glucan polyol must form a triple-chain conformation in aqueous solution. PMID:6547877

  5. Linear, branched and network polysilanes with thienyl/furyl substituted sila-alkyl side chains and their applications for the synthesis of fluorescent silver nanoparticles/clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi Shankar; Usharani Sahoo; Vandana Shahi; Manchal Chaudhary

    2012-11-01

    The scope of Wurtz coupling and catalytic dehydrocoupling methods for the synthesis of functional polysilanes of compositions, [RR'Si] (linear), [(PhMeSi)-co-(RSi)1−] (branched) and [RSi] (network) [R = Et3SiCH2CH2, 2-Fu/2-ThMe2SiCH2CH2 (Fu = Furyl, Th = Thienyl), -Hex or Ph; R' = H or Me] is presented. By virtue of -delocalized silicon backbone and variable HOMO-LUMO band gap energies, these polymers are found to be promising candidates as reducing agents for Ag(I) ions in toluene/cyclo-hexane and provide a simple approach for ‘size-controlled’ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as fluorescent polymer-silver nanocomposites.

  6. Comparative study of amino acid, ammonia and pancreatic hormone levels in the blood of cirrhotic patients following intragastric and intravenous administration of a branched-chain amino acid-enriched solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood levels of amino acids, ammonia and pancreatic hormones following the intragastric and intravenous administration of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-enriched solution were comparatively investigated in control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis. There was no essential difference in the time course of serum amino acid and blood ammonia levels between the intragastric and intravenous infusions. Elevation of serum insulin concentrations in cirrhotic patients was significant only immediately after the administration through the enteral route. However, plasma glucagon levels increased similarly when the BCAA-enriched solution was administered through either route. The results indicate that both enteral and intravenous infusions will have similar therapeutic effects on the impaired protein metabolism in cirrhotic patients with protein-calorie malnutrition.

  7. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  8. Multiple shape-memory behavior and thermal-mechanical properties of peroxide cross-linked blends of linear and short-chain branched polyethylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermally induced shape-memory effect (SME in tensile mode was investigated in binary and ternary blends of two ethylene-1-octene copolymers with a degree of branching of 30 and 60 CH3/1000C and/or nearly linear polyethylene cross-linked after melt mixing with 2 wt% of liquid peroxide 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(tert.butylperoxy-hexane at 190°C. The average cross-link density estimated by means of the Mooney-Rivlin equation on the basis of tensile test data was characterized between 130 and 170 mol•m–3 depending on the blend composition. Thermal analysis points out multiple crystallization and melting behavior of blends caused by the existence of several polyethylene crystal populations with different perfection, size and correspondingly different melting temperature of crystallites. That agrees well with the diversity of blends phase morphology characterized by atomic force microscopy. However, triple- and quadruple-SME could be observed only after two- and accordingly three-step programming of binary and tertiary blends, respectively, at suitable temperatures and strains. Compared to performances obtained for the same blend after single-step programming above the maximal melting temperature the significantly poorer characteristics of SME like strain fixity and strain recovery ratio as well as recovery strain rate occurred after multi-step programming.

  9. Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Krych, Lukasz; Röytiö, Henna; Forssten, Sofia; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren; Svensson, Birte; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is synbiotics, have been reported to modulate gut microbiota of humans. In this study, effects of a novel synbiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of human gut microbiota were investigated. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled cross-over study and received synbiotic [Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (10(9) CFU) and cellobiose (5 g)] or placebo daily for 3 weeks. Fecal samples were collected and lactobacilli numbers were quantified by qPCR. Furthermore, 454 tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. The synbiotic increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. and relative abundances of the genera Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Eubacterium while the genus Dialister was decreased (P < 0.05). No other effects were found on microbiota composition. Remarkably, however, the synbiotic increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, measured by gas chromatography, while short-chain fatty acids were not affected. PMID:25098489

  10. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  11. Thiophene-Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Quinoidal Small Molecules as Solution-Processable and Air-Stable Organic Semiconductors: Tuning of the Length and Branching Position of the Alkyl Side Chain toward a High-Performance n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Qin, Yunke; Sun, Yuanhui; Guan, Ying-Shi; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-07-29

    A series of thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based quinoidal small molecules (TDPPQ-2-TDPPQ-5) bearing branched alkyl chains with different side-chain lengths and varied branching positions are synthesized. Field-effect transistor (FET) measurement combined with thin-film characterization is utilized to systematically probe the influence of the side-chain length and branching position on the film microstructure, molecular packing, and, hence, charge-transport property. All of these TDPPQ derivatives show air-stable n-channel transporting behavior in spin-coated FET devices, which exhibit no significant decrease in mobility even after being stored in air for 2 months. Most notably, TDPPQ-3 exhibits an outstanding n-channel semiconducting property with electron mobilities up to 0.72 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for spin-coated DPP-based n-type semiconducting small molecules. A balance of high crystallinity, satisfactory thickness uniformity and continuity, and strong intermolecular interaction accounts for the superior charge-transport characteristics of TDPPQ-3 films. Our study demonstrates that tuning the length and branching position of alkyl side chains of semiconducting molecules is a powerful strategy for achieving high FET performance. PMID:26134920

  12. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC. Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI (r = −0.197, p < 0.001 or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001. Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972 and 0.389 (0.193–0.783, respectively (all p < 0.05. After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845 and 0.376 (0.161–0.876, respectively (all p < 0.05. This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  13. A Rapid and Sensitive UPLC-MS/MS-Method for the Separation and Quantification of Branched-Chain Amino Acids from Dried Blood Samples of Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Fingerhut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening for MSUD is a special challenge since patients with MSUD can metabolically decompensate rapidly without adequate treatment within the first two weeks of life. However, the screening method does not detect the actual marker metabolite (alloisoleucine specifically, but only as part of the group of the other isobaric amino acids leucine, isoleucine and hydroxyproline. We describe a sensitive and rapid second-tier UPLC-MS/MS method to determine branched-chain amino acids from the initial extraction of the screening sample. Quantification is based on a seven-point calibration curve. Reference ranges (mean ± SD in µmol/L were determined from 179 normal, not pre-selected samples from the newborn screening: leucine: 72 ± 27; isoleucine: 37 ± 19; valine: 98 ± 46; hydroxyproline: 23 ± 13. The concentration of alloisoleucine was below the detection limit in about 55% of the cases, and the highest concentration was 1.9 µmol/L. In all 30 retrospectively studied screening samples from patients with confirmed MSUD the concentration of alloisoleucine was significantly increased. In 238 samples with false-positive newborn screening due to a significant increase in the combined concentration of leucine + isoleucine + alloisoleucine + hydroxyproline (400 to >4000 µmol/L, alloisoleucine was below 6.5 µmol/L (n = 57 or not detectable (n = 181. The application of this assay markedly reduces the false-positive rate and the associated anxiety and costs. It is also suitable for routinely monitoring blood spots of patients with MSUD.

  14. Maple syrup urine disease: The E1{beta} gene of human branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex has 11 rather than 10 exons, and the 3{prime} UTR in one of the two E1{beta} mRNAs arises from intronic sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, J.L.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or branched-chain ketoaciduria is caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. The clinical manifestations are characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino and {alpha}-ketoacids, which leads to severe cerebral edema with seizures, ketoacidosis, and mental retardation. The BCKAD complex comprises three catalytic components, i.e., a decarboxylase (E1) consisting of two E1{alpha} (M{sub r} = 46,000) and two E1{Beta} (M{sub r} = 37,500) subunits, a transacylase (E2) that contains 24 lipoic acid-bearing subunits, and a dehydrogenase (E3), which is a homodimeric flavoprotein. MSUD is genetically heterogeneous, since mutations in the E1{alpha} subunit (type IA MSUD), the E1{Beta} subunit (type IB), the E2 subunit (type II) and the E3 subunit (type III) have been described. The functional consequences of certain mutations in the BCKAD complex have been studied. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  16. Consumo de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada não afeta o desempenho de endurance Branched-chain amino acids ingestion does not affect endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carlos Uchida

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A suplementação com aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada (BCAA é uma das manipulações dietéticas mais populares entre atletas engajados em atividades de endurance. Entretanto, o papel ergogênico destes aminoácidos ainda não está totalmente estabelecido. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do consumo de BCAA sobre o exercício de endurance realizado até a exaustão. A fim de provocar redução do estoque de glicogênio muscular e, por conseguinte, maximizar a utilização dos BCAA, os sujeitos (n=17 foram submetidos a uma sessão prévia de exercício (corrida realizada a 75% do VO2max por 40 min seguida por 2 tiros a 90% do VO2max por 10 min cada um. Subseqüentemente, após o consumo aleatório de BCAA (77 mg.kg-1 ou placebo, seguindo modelo duplo cego cruzado, os participantes executaram um teste para determinação da capacidade de endurance (corrida a 90% do Limiar anaeróbio até a exaustão. Ambos os experimentos, BCAA e placebo, foram separados por uma semana. Com relação ao tempo até a exaustão e a distância percorrida, nenhuma diferença foi detectada entre as condições experimentais. (Placebo: 50,1±8,9 vs BCAA: 52,4±4,5 min, respectivamente (Placebo: 8,8±1,3 vs BCAA: 9,1±0,6 km, respectivamente. Além disto, também não foi evidenciada diferença na concentração plasmática de glicose, de lactato e de amônia entre ambas condições experimentais. Em conclusão, a suplementação de BCAA não afetou o desempenho de endurance em um teste de corrida até a exaustão.Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation is one of the most popular dietary manipulations used by endurance athletes. However, the ergogenic role of these amino acids in endurance exercise is not well established yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of BCAA supplementation upon endurance exercise performed until exhaustion. In order to induce glycogen supply reduction, and thus maximize BCAA

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Processing-structure-property studies of: (I) submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning and (II) films of linear low density polyethylenes as influenced by the short chain branch length in copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene and ethylene/1-octene synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj

    The overall theme of the research discussed in this dissertation has been to explore processing-structure-property relationships for submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning (Part I) and to ascertain whether or not the length of the short chain branch has any effect on the physical properties of films of linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPEs) (Part II). The research efforts discussed in Part I of this dissertation relate to some fundamental as well as more applied investigations involving electrospinning. These include investigating the effects of solution rheology on fiber formation and developing novel methodologies to fabricate polymeric mats comprising of high specific surface submicron fibers of more than one polymer, high chemical resistant substrates produced by in situ photo crosslinking during electrospinning, superparamagnetic flexible substrates by electrospinning a solution of an elastomeric polymer containing ferrite nanoparticles of Mn-Zn-Ni and substrates for filtration applications. Bicomponent electrospinning of poly(vinyl chloride)-polyurethane and poly(vinylidiene fluoride)-polyurethane was successfully performed. In addition, filtration properties of single and bicomponent electrospun mats of polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene were investigated. Results indicated lower aerosol penetration or higher filtration efficiencies of the filters based on submicron electrospun fibers in comparison to the conventional filter materials. In addition, Part II of this dissertation explores whether or not the length of the short chain branch affects the physical properties of blown and compression molded films of LLDPEs that were synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst. Here, three resins based on copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene, and ethylene/1-octene were utilized that were very similar in terms of their molecular weight and distribution, melt rheology, density, crystallinity and short chain branching content and

  20. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Relationship between branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) and porta-systemic shunt in the child-pugh grade a cirrhosis determined by per-rectal portal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It has been reported that the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to aromatic amino acid (AAA) ratio (Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio) is an important prognostic factor in cirrhosis. The clinical significance of the ratio of serum molar concentration of BCAA to that of tyrosine (BCAA to tyrosine ratio; BTR) resembles that of Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio, In Japan, because determination of BTR simpler and cheaper than that of Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio, BTR is now widely used for assessment of abnormality of amino acid metabolism in cirrhosis. In this study, we examined the difference between early cirrhotic patients with lower BTR and higher BTR in portal circulation using per-rectal portal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with Child-Pugh grade A cirrhosis and serum albumin level between 3.5 g/dl and 3.9 g/dl were enrolled in this study. Sixteen patients were infected with HBV and 24 with HCV. At entry, we measured the ratio of serum molar concentration of BCAA to that of tyrosine (BTR). BTR was measured by an enzymatic method (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Thirteen patients had BTR 4.0. At the same time, we measured serum albumin, platelets, total bilirubin, prothrombin test, retention of indocyanine green in plasma after 15 minutes (ICGR-15) and NH3. To evaluate the portal circulation, all patients underwent per-rectal portal scintigraphy. A 370 MBq portion of 99mTc-pertechnetate (2 ml) was first given per rectum through a polyethylene tube, followed by 15 ml of air. Then time-activity curves for the heart and liver areas were obtained every 4 sec. At the enol of the 5 min-examinations, the 5-min summed image displayed in color was recorded. To evaluate the extent of porta-systemic shunt by shunt index (SI), we calculated the ratio of counts for the liver to counts for the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. Results: Shunt index obtained

  2. Highly branched dextrin prepared from high-amylose maize starch using waxy rice branching enzyme (WRBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaoqi; Chen, Huangli; Zhang, Xiwen; Zhan, Jinling; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Jinpeng

    2016-07-15

    Branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18) was isolated from the developing waxy rice endosperm and used to prepare a highly branched dextrin based on high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) as a substrate. The molecular mass of the starch initially degraded quickly from 2.5×10(7) to 4.1×10(5)Da, and then stabilized, with a minimal increase during the BE treatment. The resultant branched dextrin had a narrow size distribution, with a mean molecular weight of 5.1×10(5)Da and a polydispersity index (PI) of 1.567. The results of high-performance anion exchange chromatography indicated that the degree of polymerization (DP) of the branched chains ranged from 3 to 27; approximately 75.26% of these chains were short (DP<10). These findings suggest that the isolated BE can cleave long chains into oligosaccharides, subsequently transferring oligosaccharides into highly branched dextrins with a narrow size distribution and short side chains. PMID:26948647

  3. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  4. Structural analysis of the sialylated N- and O-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Sialylation patterns and branch location of dimeric N-acetyllactosamine units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Hokke, C.H.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Dedem, G.W.K. van; Kamerling, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via F

  5. Direct and Indirect Determinations of Elementary Rate Constants H + O2: Chain Branching; the Dehydration of tertiary-Butanol; the Retro Diels-Alder Reaction of Cyclohexene; the Dehydration of Isopropanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Joshua S.

    Due to growing environmental concern over the continued use of fossil fuels, methods to limit emissions and partially replace fossil fuel use with renewable biofuels are of considerable interest. Developing chemical kinetic models for the chemistry that affects combustion properties is important to understanding how new fuels affect combustion energy conversion processes in transportation devices. This thesis reports the experimental study of several important reactions (the H + O2 branching reaction, the key decomposition reactions of tertiary-butanol, the dehydration reaction of isopropanol, and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene) and develops robust analysis methods to estimate the absolute uncertainties of specific elementary rate constants derived from the experimental data. In the study of the above reactions, both a direct and indirect rate constant determination technique with associated uncertainty estimation methodologies are developed. In the study of the decomposition reactions, a direct determination technique is applied to experimental data gathered in preparation of this thesis. In the case of the dehydration reaction of tertiary-butanol and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene, both of which are used as internal standards for relative rate studies (Herzler et al. 1997) and chemical thermometry (Rosado-Reyes et al. 2013) , analysis showed an ˜20 K difference in the reaction rate between the reported results and the previous recommendations. In light of these discrepancies, an uncertainty estimation of previous recommendations illuminated an uncertainty of at least 20 K for the dehydration reaction of tertiary-butanol and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene, thus resolving the discrepancies. The determination of the H + O2 branching reaction and decomposition reactions of isopropanol used an indirect determination technique. The uncertainty of the H + O2 branching reaction rate is shown to be underestimated by previous

  6. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  7. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  8. The Olive Branch Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  9. Koenigs function and branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tchikilev, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  10. Recurrence and Transience for Branching Random Walks in an iid Random Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    We give three different criteria for transience of a Branching Markov Chain. These conditions enable us to give a classification of Branching Random Walks in Random Environment (BRWRE) on Cayley Graphs in recurrence and transience. This classification is stated explicitly for BRWRE on $\\Z^d.$ Furthermore, we emphasize the interplay between Branching Markov Chains and the spectral radius. We prove properties of the spectral radius of the Random Walk in Random Environment with the help of appro...

  11. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  12. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  13. Single-chain antibody-fragment M6P-1 possesses a mannose 6-phosphate monosaccharide-specific binding pocket that distinguishes N-glycan phosphorylation in a branch-specific manner†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackler, Ryan J; Evans, Dylan W; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D; Brooks, Cory L; Braulke, Thomas; Liu, Xinyu; Evans, Stephen V; Müller-Loennies, Sven

    2016-02-01

    The acquisition of mannose 6-phosphate (Man6P) on N-linked glycans of lysosomal enzymes is a structural requirement for their transport from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes mediated by the mannose 6-phosphate receptors, 300 kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR300) and 46 kDa cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR46). Here we report that the single-chain variable domain (scFv) M6P-1 is a unique antibody fragment with specificity for Man6P monosaccharide that, through an array-screening approach against a number of phosphorylated N-glycans, is shown to bind mono- and diphosphorylated Man6 and Man7 glycans that contain terminal αMan6P(1 → 2)αMan(1 → 3)αMan. In contrast to MPR300, scFv M6P-1 does not bind phosphodiesters, monophosphorylated Man8 or mono- or diphosphorylated Man9 structures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to 2.7 Å resolution of Fv M6P-1 in complex with Man6P reveals that specificity and affinity is achieved via multiple hydrogen bonds to the mannose ring and two salt bridges to the phosphate moiety. In common with both MPRs, loss of binding was observed for scFv M6P-1 at pH values below the second pKa of Man6P (pKa = 6.1). The structures of Fv M6P-1 and the MPRs suggest that the change of the ionization state of Man6P is the main driving force for the loss of binding at acidic lysosomal pH (e.g. lysosome pH ∼ 4.6), which provides justification for the evolution of a lysosomal enzyme transport pathway based on Man6P recognition. PMID:26503547

  14. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  15. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacr...

  16. Effect of methyl-branched fatty acids on the structure of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poger, David; Caron, Bertrand; Mark, Alan E

    2014-12-01

    Methyl-branched fatty acids are widespread in prokaryotic membranes. Although anteiso and iso branching (that is on the antepenultimate and penultimate carbons) and the presence of multiple methyl branches in the phytanoyl chain are known to modify the thermotropic behavior and enhance the fluidity of lipid bilayers, little is known about the effect of methyl branching on the structure of lipid bilayers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine systematically the impact of one or more methyl branches at different positions along the sn-1 palmitoyl chain on the structural properties of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer. It is found that methyl branching reduces lipid condensation, decreases the bilayer thickness, and lowers chain ordering. Branching also results in the formation of kinks at the branching point, thereby enhancing the fluidity of lipid bilayers. Furthermore, this effect varies in a methyl-position-dependent fashion. In the case of polymethylated chains, the simulations suggest that if the gap between the methyl groups is sufficient (two or three carbons), the effects of the methyl branches are additive and equivalent to the combined effect of the corresponding monomethyl-branched lipids. PMID:25380125

  17. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  18. Holographic Coulomb branch vevs

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.

  19. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  20. Characteristics of a chain thermal explosion as a function of the kinetic properties of reaction chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatyan, V. V.; Piloyan, A. A.; Saikova, G. R.; Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Study of the combustion and explosion of hydrogen‒carbon oxide‒air mixtures shows that the sharpness of a chain thermal explosion depends on the frequency of branching in a given branch of a reaction chain. It is established that varying the CO: H2 concentration allows us to observe and eliminate the degeneration of an explosion while maintaining the regimes of ignition and deflagration.

  1. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  2. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  3. Changes in fatty acid branching and unsaturation of Streptomyces griseus and Brevibacterium fermentans as a response to growth temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, M; Laakso, S

    1992-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus showed three different modes of changing fatty acids in response to temperature change. In Brevibacterium fermentans, two such responses were found. The responses involved changes in fatty acid branching, unsaturation, or chain length, depending on growth temperature range. Changes in unsaturation of branched-chain acids were characteristic at low growth temperatures.

  4. Starbucks Branches Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charies; Wang

    2006-01-01

    With 59 cafes in Beijing and Tianjin, Beijing Meida Coffee Co. Ltd. is an authorized licensee of Starbucks Coffee International Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Seattle-based Starbucks Corp. Meida President Charles Wang spoke about the coffee chain's profits in China and its future plans in an interview with Beijing Review reporter Lan Xinzhen.

  5. Hydrocarbon metabolism by Brevibacterium erythrogenes: normal and branched alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnik, M P; Atlas, R M; Bartha, R

    1974-09-01

    Branched- and straight-chain alkanes are metabolized by Brevibacterium erythrogenes by means of two distinct pathways. Normal alkanes (e.g., n-pentadecane) are degraded, after terminal oxidation, by the beta-oxidation system operational in fatty acid catabolism. Branched alkanes like pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) and 2-methylundecane are degraded as dicarboxylic acids, which also undergo beta-oxidation. Pristane-derived intermediates are observed to accumulate, with time, as a series of dicarboxylic acids. This dicarboxylic acid pathway is not observed in the presence of normal alkanes. Release of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]pristane is delayed, or entirely inhibited, in the presence of n-hexadecane, whereas CO(2) release from n-hexadecane remains unaffected. These results suggest an inducible dicarboxylic acid pathway for degradation of branched-chain alkanes. PMID:4852318

  6. Dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.; Baron, L.; Baron, P.; White, F.; Banks, W.L. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of high dietary BCAA on tumor growth was examined in adult male Fischer 344 rats inoculated with 10/sup 6/ viable MCA fibrosarcoma cells. Ten days after tumor inoculation, when tumors were of palpable size, rats were divided into two groups at random. The experimental(E) group was fed the AIN-76 diet supplemented with 4X the BCAA content of diet casein and the control(C) group was fed the AIN-76 made isonitrogenous with the E diet by glutamic acid supplementation. Five rats from each group were killed at days 0,3,6, and 9. Rats were injected with /sup 14/C-Tyrosine and /sup 3/H-Thymidine i.p. (2 and 4 uCi/100g BW, respectively) an hour before they were killed. The incorporation of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H into the acid insoluble fraction of the tumor tissues samples were measured. Single cell suspension of tumor were prepared for cell cycle kinetics analysis using a Coulter EPICS IV flow microflorometer. The percentage of normal and hyperdiploid cells were analyzed. Results showed that both tumor size and weight were doubled at each time point the rats were killed. At day 0, the /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C incorporation were 32 +/- 10dpm and 27 +/- 4dpm/mg tumor, respectively. The /sup 3/H incorporation dropped in both diet groups at days 6 and 9 but the /sup 14/C incorporation showed a decrease only at day 9. These changes were statistically significant, P>0.05. No difference in the tumor growth parameters used in this study can be attributed to the high dietary BCAA.

  7. Branched chain amino acids requirements and metabolism in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    investigation. A non-targeted metabolomics study was thereafter conducted in order to screen the bio-fluids of pigs for discriminating metabolites and identify biomarkers of BCAA, when the pigs were fed the optimum level of BCAA for the highest growth performance. The results of the Ile dose-response study...... requirements at 0.93. Metabolomics, one of the last “-omics”, is a global analysis and interpretation of metabolome in specific health or nutritional status. Non-targeted metabolomics is used for screening the metabolic profile, and the metabolic signature could be used for hypothesis generation. The results...... of a non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics approach in the current study provided novel knowledge of the metabolic response of pigs to increasing dietary BCAA and enabled us to identify the biomarkers of BCAA in plasma and urine of pigs when fed the optimum dietary Ile, Val, and Leu for the highest growth...

  8. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  9. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;

    after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...

  10. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  11. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  12. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84. ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2014

  13. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborieau, Marianne; Castignolles, Patrice

    2011-02-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. PMID:20967430

  14. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  15. Separation of complex branched polymers by size-exclusion chromatography probed with multiple detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborieau, Marianne; Nicolas, Julien; Save, Maud; Charleux, Bernadette; Vairon, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Robert G; Castignolles, Patrice

    2008-05-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) separates polymers by hydrodynamic volume (the universal calibration principle). Molecular weights can be determined using viscometry (relying on universal calibration) and light scattering (independent of universal calibration). In the case of complex branched polyacrylates with tetrahydrofuran as eluent, universal calibration is valid, although the separation in term of molecular weight is incomplete: a given elution slice contains a range of molecular weights, described in terms of a 'local polydispersity'. The local polydispersity index decreases when the number of branches per chain increases and complete separation is reached for highly branched chains. PMID:18378255

  16. Branched polymers in restricted geometry : Flory theory, scaling and blobs

    OpenAIRE

    Vilgis, T.; Haronska, P.; Benhamou, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavior of polymers with arbitrary connectivity in restricted geometries, such as pores and slaps. The use of Flory theories, blob models and scaling theories for linear chains is well-known and does not lead to any problems, i.e. all three approaches agree with each other. In the case of branched molecules this is not the case and e.g. no blob model exists. Indeed Flory free energies and scaling theories may lead to contradictions, when applied to branched objects a...

  17. The Observation on Clinical Application of Sugar, Whey Protein, and Branched- Chain Amino Acids Supplement for Athletes%运动员补糖、支链氨基酸和乳清蛋白的临床应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 侯菊花; 张立新

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the supplement of sugar drinks, whey protein, bran6hed - chain amino acids and other substances on the stage of the heavy load training to maintain or improve physical function and fatigue recovery. Methods : Arranged 10 athletes in the 30d Sanda physical training phase of the winter training stage, ac- cording to the nutritional supplement program for energy supplement, Selected the indexes of the output of the total body anaerobic power, maximum power, fatigue index, a ability to pull oxygen paddle time, power, paddle fre- quency, biochemical indicators of blood lactate (LA) blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (GL), creatine ki- nase (CK) as the observation, Alternative 10 teammates as the control group, and observed the different before and after the training. Results: The total output power, maximum power after the training had significantly in- creased (P 〈 0.01 ) than before added of the observed team. Compared with the control group after added the ath- letes fatigue index and the paddle frequency was also improved significantly (P 〈 O. 05), and after -school train- ing blood glucose levels also had significantly increased (P 〈 0.05). The blood BUN and the recovery had signif- icant improvement (P 〈0. 001 ) more than the control groups after added whey protein, branched- chain amino acids. Conclusion: The training period added sugar, whey protein, branched -chain amino acids and substances such as energy, could significantly improve the athlete's aerobic capacity and anaerobic exercise performance, could significantly delayed the occurrence of exercise - induced fatigue and accelerate recovery of the exercise - induced fatigue.%目的:观察补充糖饮料、支链氨基酸和乳清蛋白等能量物质对阶段性大运动量训练维持或提高运动员身体机能和疲劳恢复的影响。方法:根据冬训阶段性训练计划安排,对10名散打运动员在30d的体能训

  18. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  19. 补充支链氨基酸对失眠老年大鼠行为和糖代谢的影响%Effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on behaviour and glucose metabolism in aged rats subjected to in- somnia(

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳儒颖; 张济生; 蔡懿灵

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effects of branched-chain amino acids( BCAA) supplementation on behaviour and glucose metabolism in aged rats subjected to isomnia.Methods Experimental model of isomnia was established by use of sleep deprivation method(flower pot),thirty aged male rats were divided into five groups randomly:C(control)group, 6h(6 hours sleep per day) group, 6hB(6 hours sleep per day and fed fodder enriched with BCAA)group,4h(4 hours sleep per day)group and 4hB group.Re-sults Time of resting on the center lattic,number of make-up and number of excrete were significantly increased in experimental groups compared with C group(PC group>4h group(P0.05).Conpared with C group,the level of FPG in experimential groups were increased apparently (P4h (P<0.05).Conclusions supplementation of BCAA may ameliorates behavior and glucose metabolism in aged rats subjected to isomnia.%目的:探讨补充支链氨基酸( branched-chain amino acids,BCAA)对失眠老年大鼠行为和糖代谢的影响。方法采用小平台水环境的睡眠剥夺方法建立动物失眠模型,30只雄性老年大鼠随机分为对照组( C组)、6h组(每天6小时睡眠组)、6hB组(每天睡眠6小时,进食添加BCAA的饲料),4h组(每天睡眠4小时),4hB组(每天睡眠4小时,进食添加BCAA的饲料)。结果实验组大鼠的修饰行为次数、中央格停留时间、粪便颗粒数均高于C组,差异具有显著性( P<0.05)。且修饰行为次数、中央格停留时间4hB组<4h组(P<0.05);旷场实验得分6h组>C组>4h组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。但旷场实验得分、粪便颗粒数6h组与6hB组,4h组与4hB组比较无差异(P>0.05)。与C组比较,实验组的FPG水平显著升高(P<0.05);但4hB组<4h组(P<0.05)。与C组比较4h组和4hB组的血清INS水平显著升高(P<0.05),且4hB组<4h组(P<0.05)。与C组比较,

  20. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  1. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......This report presents the analyses of the shaping, implementation and embedding of eight types of environmental initiatives in product chains. The analyses focus on • the role of the type of product and branch, of the size of the companies and of governmental regulation • the focus...... of the environmental concerns and the reductions in environmental impact • organisational changes which have been part of the embedding of the initiatives The analyses are based on 25 cases from national and international product chains involving one or more Danish companies. Based on the analyses of the eight types...

  2. A Monte Carlo simulation study of branched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yethiraj, Arun

    2006-11-28

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the static properties of highly branched polymer molecules. The molecules consist of a semiflexible backbone of hard-sphere monomers with semiflexible side chains, also composed of hard-sphere monomers, attached to either every backbone bead or every other backbone bead. The conformational properties and structure factor of this model are investigated as a function of the stiffness of the backbone and side chains. The average conformations of the side chains are similar to self-avoiding random walks. The simulations show that there is a stiffening of the backbone as degree of crowding is increased, for example, if the branch spacing is decreased or side chain length is increased. The persistence length of the backbone is relatively insensitive to the stiffness of the side chains over the range investigated. The simulations reproduce most of the qualitative features of the structure factor observed in experiment, although the magnitude of the stiffening of the backbone is smaller than in experiment. PMID:17144734

  3. Chain Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-er

    2004-01-01

    By means of the idea of measurements on the crossed space-time nonlocal observables, we extend the mechanism for the two-way quantum teleportation to the chain teleportation among N spatially separated spin-1/2 systems. Since in the process only the local interactions are used, the microcausality is automatically satisfied.

  4. Vibration analysis of pipelines with arbitrary branches by absorbing transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongmin; Li, Shuaijun; Li, Yanhua; Chen, Hao

    2013-11-01

    Branched pipes of arbitrary shapes are prevalent in pipe systems. Considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI), an absorbing transfer matrix method in frequency domain for fluid-filled pipelines with any branched pipes is proposed in this paper. A dominant chain of pipeline would be selected, and the point transfer matrix of each junction on the dominant chain would be determined. Here, the point transfer matrix, representing the influence of branched pipes at the junction on the dominant pipeline, was "absorbed" by the dominant chain. Based on these, with transfer matrixes of other elements, the fluid and structure dynamics problem could be solved following the chain transfer matrix method process. Several numerical examples with different constraints are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method. Moreover, the experiment of cross-shaped pipes with various boundary conditions was carried out. And results from the present approach were validated by measured and numerical data. Then, the forced vibrations of branched pipes were analyzed by considering the effects of various parameters, which shows the fluid pressure and vibrations can be optimized by changing the branch angles and positions. Through these examples, it is shown that the proposed method is efficient and can be used to calculate branched pipes of any shape.

  5. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jfreire@invi.uned.es

    2008-07-16

    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches.

  6. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Linear chains and chain-like fractals from electrostatic heteroaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anthony Y; Hauch, Kip D; Berg, John C; Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    The internal structure of materials prepared by aggregation of oppositely charged polystyrene spheres (electrostatic heteroaggregation) is investigated by static light scattering, optical microscopy, and Brownian dynamics simulation. Light scattering indicates ultralow mass fractal dimensions, as low as 1.2. Such low fractal dimensions, approaching the theoretical limit of a linear object, imply a chaining mechanism. Optical micrographs reveal linear chains with the particle charge alternating down the chains. Brownian dynamics simulation gives additional support for a chaining mechanism. For the polystyrene system (120-nm primary particle diameters), the fractal dimension is found to increase from 1.2 to 1.7 as the background electrolyte is increased. In terms of electrostatic screening, the results match those reported recently for larger polystyrene spheres. The low fractal dimensions appear to represent a crossover from linear chains to a structure of diffusion-limited aggregates; however, experiments under density-neutral conditions imply that sedimentation plays an important role in the formation of ultralow fractal dimensions. The practical implication is that microcomposites with a locally uniform distribution of starting materials and almost any degree of branching can be prepared from oppositely charged particles. PMID:12742045

  9. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  10. Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, Arnaud; Müller, Holger S P; Menten, Karl M

    2014-01-01

    The largest non-cyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a non-terminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

  11. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  12. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  13. Multi-Level Flow Branching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Praha: UTAM AV ČR, 2006 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 380-381 ISBN 80-86246-27-2. [Engineering mechanics 2006 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 15.05.2006-18.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : branching * respiratory system * aortic system * microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  15. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  16. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  17. Strategy formulation for a national branch of selected multinational IS/ICT company

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáčová, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is "Strategy formulation for a national branch of select-ed multinational IS/ICT company". Its goal is an evaluation of the business environment of the chosen branch of the multinational enterprise AB&C, examination of the subsidiary's situation and formulation of a proper strategy for the branch based on its capabilities. The foundations for this analysis were PEST analysis, Porter five forces and value-chain analysis and SWOT analysis. The result of this the...

  18. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  19. Branching problems of unitary representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The irreducible decomposition of a unitary representation often contains continuous spectrum when restricted to a non-compact subgroup. The author singles out a nice class of branching problems where each irreducible summand occurs discretely with finite multiplicity (admissible restrictions). Basic theory and new perspectives of admissible restrictions are presented from both analytic and algebraic view points. We also discuss some applications of admissible restrictions to modular varieties...

  20. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  1. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Creep of welded branched pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Creep failure of welds in high-temperature power plant steam piping systems is known to be a potential cause of plant failure. Creep behaviour of plain pipes with circumferential welds and cross-weld specimens have received fairly extensive attention. However, research into the creep behaviour of welded thick-walled branched steam pipes has received less attention. Consequently, this thesis addresses improving the understanding of the creep behaviour for this type of geometry. Numerical and a...

  3. Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser

    2008-01-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.

  4. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  5. Characterization of the reactions of starch branching enzymes from rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Takayuki; Aihara, Satomi; Utsumi, Chikako; Yoshida, Mayumi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2010-05-01

    To our knowledge the present paper shows for the first time the kinetic parameters of all the three starch branching enzyme (BE) isozymes, BEI, BEIIa and BEIIb, from rice with both amylopectin and synthetic amylose as glucan substrate. The activities of these BE isozymes with a linear glucan amylose decreased with a decrease in the molar size of amylose, and no activities of BEIIa and BEIIb were found when the degree of polymerization (DP) of amylose was lower than at least 80, whereas BEI had an activity with amylose of a DP higher than approximately 50. Detailed analyses of debranched products from BE reactions revealed the distinct chain length preferences of the individual BE isozymes. BEIIb almost exclusively transferred chains of DP7 and DP6 while BEIIa formed a wide range of short chains of DP6 to around DP15 from outer chains of amylopectin and amylose. On the other hand, BEI formed a variety of short chains and intermediate chains of a DP chains but also inner chains of branched glucan while BEIIa or BEIIb could only scarcely or could not attack inner chains, respectively. The comprehensive in vitro studies revealed different enzymatic characteristics of the three BE isozymes and give a new insight into the distinct roles of individual BE isozymes in amylopectin biosynthesis in the endosperm. Based on these results, the functional distinction and interaction of BE isozymes during amylopectin biosynthesis in cereal endosperm is discussed. PMID:20305271

  6. Precision Polyolefin Structure: Modeling Polyethylene Containing Methyl and Ethyl Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Giovanni; Wagener, Kenneth B.

    Sequenced copolymers of ethylene and diverse species have been created using acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization, a step growth, condensation- type polymerization driven to high conversion by the removal of ethylene. ADMET permits control over branch content and branch length, which can be predetermined during the monomer synthesis, allowing sequence control in the resultant unsaturated polymer. Monomers are symmetrical α,ωdienes with a pendant functionality. Diverse functional groups are compatible with ADMET polymerization when Schrock’s or first-generation Grubb’s catalysts are used. Saturation with hydrogen after ADMET polymerization affords a polyethylene (PE) backbone bearing specific functionalities in precise places. Varying both the pendant functional group and the spacing between functionalities alters the physical and chemical properties of the polymer. Incorporation of alkyl chains into the PE backbone via ADMET leads to the study of perfect structures modeling the copolymerization of ethylene with α-olefins such as 1-propene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene.

  7. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  8. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  9. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  10. Crater Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The large crater at the top of this THEMIS visible image has several other craters inside of it. Most noticeable are the craters that form a 'chain' on the southern wall of the large crater. These craters are a wonderful example of secondary impacts. They were formed when large blocks of ejecta from an impact crashed back down onto the surface of Mars. Secondaries often form radial patterns around the impact crater that generated them, allowing researchers to trace them back to their origin.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.3, Longitude 347.5 East (12.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  11. Stochastic Transition between Turbulent Branch and Thermodynamic Branch of an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2002-01-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point an...

  12. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Garimella Rama

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  13. PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.

  14. Characterization of branched polysaccharides using multiple-detection size separation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Francisco; Gilbert, Robert G

    2010-11-01

    The structure of branched polysaccharides involves a hierarchy of levels, from the constituent sugars, then the branching pattern, up to the macromolecular architecture, and then supramolecular organization. Finding causal relations between this complex structure/architecture and both (bio)synthetic mechanisms and final properties is needed for understanding the functionality of branched polysaccharides, which is important in fields ranging from improved nutrition and health through to papermaking and pharmaceuticals. The structural complexity makes this task especially challenging. This review focuses on the best current means to obtain reliable branch chain and size distributions using size-separation technologies coupled with number-, mass- and molecular-weight-sensitive detectors. Problems with current technologies are also critically appraised. PMID:20960448

  15. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  16. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  17. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  18. Community-local homology of force chains in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Chad; Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen; Bassett, Danielle

    2015-03-01

    The development of robust quantitative measurements of the structure of force chains in granular materials remains an open problem. Recent work of Bassett, et. al. applies community detection algorithms to extract subnetworks of strongly interacting particles, and then computes geometric measures of these networks to characterize local branching. Separately, Kramar, et. al. apply persistent homology to extract robust global signatures of chains in terms of their Betti numbers. Here, we investigate a hybrid of these two approaches, computing low-dimensional persistent homology of the clique complexes of communities in force-chain graphs. Such invariants measure the tendency of core chain sections to branch while remaining insensitive to the presence of tightly-packed collections of particles, thus making them natural candidates for both local and global stability analysis.

  19. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  20. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants. Branching is regulated by multiple internal factors which are modulated by different environmental signals. A key environmental signal in the context of a plant population is a low red / far-red intensi...

  1. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:20420411

  2. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  3. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  4. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Menshykau

    Full Text Available Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation. While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10 and sonic hedgehog (SHH as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc. We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes.

  5. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  6. The branch banking boom in Illinois: a byproduct of restrictive branching laws

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Davis; Tara Rice

    2007-01-01

    What’s behind the boom in bank branches across Illinois, particularly in Chicago? The authors explore the history of branch banking within the state and across the nation to help explain this recent trend and discuss its future implications.

  7. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of a new burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. The JENDL FP Decay Data File 2011 and Fission Yields Data File 2011 were used as the data sources. The nuclides in the new chain are determined by restrictions of the half-life and cumulative yield of fission products or from a given list. Then, decay modes, branching ratios and fission yields are recalculated taking into account intermediate reactions. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Further development and applications are being planned with the burnup chain code. (author)

  8. Synergistic amylomaltase and branching enzyme catalysis to suppress cassava starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorndech, Waraporn; Meier, Sebastian; Jansson, Anita M; Sagnelli, Domenico; Hindsgaul, Ole; Tongta, Sunanta; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Starch provides our main dietary caloric intake and over-consumption of starch-containing foods results in escalating life-style disease including diabetes. By increasing the content of α-1,6 branch points in starch, digestibility by human amylolytic enzymes is expected to be retarded. Aiming at generating a soluble and slowly digestible starch by increasing the content and changing the relative positioning of the branch points in the starch molecules, we treated cassava starch with amylomaltase (AM) and branching enzyme (BE). We performed a detailed molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility. Step-by-step enzyme catalysis was the most efficient treatment, and it generated branch structures even more extreme than those of glycogen. All AM- and BE-treated samples showed increased resistance to degradation by porcine pancreatic α-amylase and glucoamylase as compared to cassava starch. The amylolytic products showed chain lengths and branching patterns similar to the products obtained from glycogen. Our data demonstrate that combinatorial enzyme catalysis provides a strategy to generate potential novel soluble α-glucan ingredients with low dietary digestibility assets. PMID:26256365

  9. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  10. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that were sweeping…

  11. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regarding the branch (shares, lending, capital, charge-offs, collections); (6) The field of membership or... for branch operations (balance sheet and income and expense projections) for the first and second...

  12. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  13. Hyperbranched polymer stars with Gaussian chain statistics revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polińska, P; Gillig, C; Wittmer, J P; Baschnagel, J

    2014-02-01

    Conformational properties of regular dendrimers and more general hyperbranched polymer stars with Gaussian statistics for the spacer chains between branching points are revisited numerically. We investigate the scaling for asymptotically long chains especially for fractal dimensions df = 3 (marginally compact) and df = 2.5 (diffusion limited aggregation). Power-law stars obtained by imposing the number of additional arms per generation are compared to truly self-similar stars. We discuss effects of weak excluded-volume interactions and sketch the regime where the Gaussian approximation should hold in dense solutions and melts for sufficiently large spacer chains. PMID:24574057

  14. Effect of chain architecture on the size, shape, and intrinsic viscosity of chains in polymer solutions: A molecular simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-12-01

    Effect of chain architecture on the chain size, shape, and intrinsic viscosity was investigated by performing molecular dynamics simulations of polymer solutions in a good solvent. Four types of chains - linear, comb shaped, H-shaped, and star - were studied for this purpose using a model in which the solvent particles were considered explicitly. Results indicated that the chain length (N) dependence of the mean squared radius of gyration of the chains followed a power-law behavior intrinsic viscosity of the chains can be calculated by plotting the specific viscosity determined from simulations against the solution concentration. The intrinsic viscosity exhibited linear behavior with the reciprocal of the overlap concentration for all chain architectures studied. The molecular weight dependence of the intrinsic viscosity followed the Mark-Houwink relation, [η] = KMa, for all chain architectures. When comparing the calculated values of exponent a with the literature experimental values, agreement was found only for the H and star chains, and a disagreement for the linear and comb chains. The viscosity shrinking factor of the branched chains was compared with the available experimental data and the theoretical predictions and a general agreement was found.

  15. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  16. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  17. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  18. Agents in branching space-times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuel; Belnap

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this essay Is to make some brief suggestions on the beginnings of a theory of agentsand agency In branching spacetlmes.foe thought Is to combine the ideas of agency as developed agalnst the relatively simple background of branching time with the richer notions of Indetermlnlsm asstructured In the theory of branching space-times.My plan Is to say a little about agency In branchingtime and a little about branchlg spacetlmes,and then ask how the two can be brought together.Atthe end there Is an ...

  19. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  20. COFFEE COMMODITY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Olsen; Brett Inder

    2008-01-01

    To explain the value added along the coffee commodity chain we propose and estimate a theoretical model of the coffee commodity chain. The theoretical model consists of four markets and five agents in the coffee commodity chain and predicts that prices in the coffee commodity chain move together but are also influenced by income, technology and production. A vector error correction model is used to test the theoretical predictions. In addition to the theoretical conclusions the empirical mode...

  1. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  2. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  3. Branching processes with immigration and related topics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zenghu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration, generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and affine Markov processes. We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  4. Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mission of NASA Johnson Space Center is Human Spaceflight. In support of the mission the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch has several technical competencies that include aerodynamic characterization, aerothermodynamic heating, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator (parachute) systems.

  5. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. [eds.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  6. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  7. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. Interactive Visualization Applets for Modular Exponentiation Using Addition Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahig, Hatem M.; Kotb, Yasser

    Online visualization systems have come to be heavily used in education, particularly for online learning. Most e-learning systems, including interactive learning systems, have been designed to simplify understanding the ideas of some main problems or in general overall course materials. This paper presents a novel interactive visualization system for one of the most important operation in public-key cryptosystems. This operation is modular exponentiation using addition chains. An addition chain for a natural number e is a sequence 1 = a 0 < a 1 < ... < a r = e of numbers such that for each 0 < i ≤ r, a i = a j + a k for some 0 ≤ k ≤ j < i. Finding an addition chain with minimal length is NP-hard problem. The proposed system visualizes how to generate addition chains with minimal length using depth-first branch and bound technique and how to compute the modular exponentiation using addition chains.

  10. Lyapunov Exponents for Branching Processes in a Random Environment: The Effect of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Latouche, Guy

    2016-04-01

    We consider multitype branching processes evolving in a Markovian random environment. To determine whether or not the branching process becomes extinct almost surely is akin to computing the maximal Lyapunov exponent of a sequence of random matrices, which is a notoriously difficult problem. We define Markov chains associated to the branching process, and we construct bounds for the Lyapunov exponent. The bounds are obtained by adding or by removing information: to add information results in a lower bound, to remove information results in an upper bound, and we show that adding less information improves the lower bound. We give a few illustrative examples and we observe that the upper bound is generally more accurate than the lower bounds.

  11. Characterization of linear and branched polyacrylates by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaicharoen, Kittisak; Polce, Michael J; Singh, Anirudha; Pugh, Coleen; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2008-10-01

    The unimolecular degradation of alkali-metal cationized polyacrylates with the repeat unit CH(2)CH(COOR) and a variety of ester pendants has been examined by tandem mass spectrometry. The fragmentation patterns resulting from collisionally activated dissociation depend sensitively on the size of the ester alkyl substituent (R). With small alkyl groups, as in poly(methyl acrylate), lithiated or sodiated oligomers (M) decompose via free-radical chemistry, initiated by random homolytic C-C bond cleavages along the polymer chain. The radical ions formed this way dissociate further by backbiting rearrangements and beta scissions to yield a distribution of terminal fragments with one of the original end groups and internal fragments with 2-3 repeat units. If the ester alkyl group bears three or more carbon atoms, cleavages within the ester moieties become the predominant decomposition channel. This distinct reactivity is observed if R = t-butyl, n-butyl, or the mesogenic group (CH(2))(11)-O-C(6)H(4)-C(6)H(4)-CN. The [M+alkali metal](+) ions of the latter polyacrylates dissociate largely by charge-remote 1,5-H rearrangements that convert COOR to COOH groups by expulsion of 1-alkenes. The acid groups may displace an alcohol unit from a neighboring ester pendant to form a cyclic anhydride, unless hindered by steric effects. Using atom transfer radical polymerization, hyperbranched polyacrylates were prepared carrying ester groups both within and between the branches. Unique alkenes and alcohols are cleaved from ester groups at the branching points, enabling determination of the branching architecture. PMID:18373231

  12. From configurations to branched configurations and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Magnot, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We propose here a geometric and topological setting for the study of branching effects arising in various fields of research, e.g. in statistical mechanics and turbulence theory. We describe various aspects that appear key points to us, and finish with a limit of such a construction which stand in the dynamics on probability spaces where it seems that branching effects can be fully studied without any adaptation of the framework.

  13. CAST Xi'an Branch Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) Xi'an Branch was established on April 8,2008.The new branch consists of the headquarters of the former Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (XISRT) of CAST and five former subsidiaries of the XISRT,i.e.the Institute of Space Electronic Technology,the Institute of Microwave Technology,the Institute of Space Antenna Technology,the Manufacturing Center for Space Electronics and Civilian High-tech Company.

  14. AGB (asymptotic giant branch): Star evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch stars are red supergiant stars of low-to-intermediate mass. This class of stars is of particular interest because many of these stars can have nuclear processed material brought up repeatedly from the deep interior to the surface where it can be observed. A review of recent theoretical and observational work on stars undergoing the asymptotic giant branch phase is presented. 41 refs.

  15. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  16. Branch and Bound Algorithm for Multiprocessor Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mostafizur

    2009-01-01

    The multiprocessor task graph scheduling problem has been extensively studied asacademic optimization problem which occurs in optimizing the execution time of parallelalgorithm with parallel computer. The problem is already being known as one of the NPhardproblems. There are many good approaches made with many optimizing algorithmto find out the optimum solution for this problem with less computational time. One ofthem is branch and bound algorithm.In this paper, we propose a branch and bound...

  17. AGB [asymptotic giant branch]: Star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptotic giant branch stars are red supergiant stars of low-to-intermediate mass. This class of stars is of particular interest because many of these stars can have nuclear processed material brought up repeatedly from the deep interior to the surface where it can be observed. A review of recent theoretical and observational work on stars undergoing the asymptotic giant branch phase is presented. 41 refs

  18. Comparative efficiency analysis of Portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction- based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their efficiency in fostering the use of new transaction channels, their efficiency in increasing sales and their customer base, and their efficiency in generating profits. Service qu...

  19. Comparative performance analysis of portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction-based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their effectiveness in fostering the use of new transaction channels such as the internet and the telephone, their effectiveness in increasing sales and their customer base, and the...

  20. Fiber-Optic Communication Technology Branching Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. C.

    1985-02-01

    This tutorial review of fiber-optic branching devices covers example uses of branching devices, device types, device-performance characteristics, examples of current technology, and system-design methodology. The discussion is limited to passive single- and multimode devices fabricated from optical fibers or graded-index components. Integrated-optic, wavelength-division-multiplexing, and polarization-selective devices are not specifically addressed.

  1. Discrete Quantum Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Faigle, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    A framework for finite-dimensional quantum Markov chains on Hilbert spaces is introduced. Quantum Markov chains generalize both classical Markov chains with possibly hidden states and existing models of quantum walks on finite graphs. Quantum Markov chains are based on Markov operations that may be applied to quantum systems and include quantum measurements, for example. It is proved that quantum Markov chains are asymptotically stationary and hence possess ergodic and entropic properties. With a quantum Markov chain one may associate a quantum Markov process, which is a stochastic process in the classical sense. Generalized Markov chains allow a representation with respect to a generalized Markov source model with definite (but possibly hidden) states relative to which observables give rise to classical stochastic processes. It is demonstrated that this model allows for observables to violate Bell's inequality.

  2. Gushing metal chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  3. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  4. Modification of potato starch composition by introduction and expression of bacterial branching enzyme genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kortstee, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Starch consists of two major components; amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is synthesized by the enzyme Granule-Bound Starch Syntase (GBSS) and consists of essentially linear chains of α-1,4 linked glucose residues. Amylopectin is synthesized by the combined activity of the enzymes Soluble Starch Synthase (SSS) and Branching enzyme (BE) and consists of linear α-1,4 linked glucosidic chains with α-1,6 linked branchpoints. The amount and fine structure of each of the components determine the sta...

  5. Efficient Transition Probability Computation for Continuous-Time Branching Processes via Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jason; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    Branching processes are a class of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with ubiquitous applications. A general difficulty in statistical inference under partially observed CTMC models arises in computing transition probabilities when the discrete state space is large or uncountable. Classical methods such as matrix exponentiation are infeasible for large or countably infinite state spaces, and sampling-based alternatives are computationally intensive, requiring integration over all possible...

  6. Crater chains on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  7. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  8. Partitioning of star branched polymers into pores at three chromatography conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmei; Masur, Aaron; Zhu, Yutian; Ziebarth, Jesse

    2010-09-24

    The partitioning of star branched polymers into a slit pore at three different chromatography conditions, namely, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), liquid chromatography at the critical condition (LCCC), and liquid adsorption chromatography (LAC) have been investigated with lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Two different chain models are used: random walks (RW) that have no excluded volume interaction and self-avoiding walks (SAW) that have excluded volume interaction. The simulation data obtained for the two chain models are compared to illustrate the effect of excluded volume interactions on the partitioning of star branched polymers. The two most outstanding effects observed due to the introduction of excluded volume interactions are: (i) stars with a high number of arms can be excluded from the pore at condition corresponding to the LCCC of the linear polymers; (ii) the partition coefficient of stars in LAC mode is not dependent only on the total number of monomers on the chain. These effects illustrated by the current study should be taken into account when interpreting experimental chromatography data for branched polymers. PMID:20728895

  9. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed for at...

  10. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  11. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  12. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  13. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this chaper, we have reviewed and surveyed the literature on supply chain collaboration. As mentioned above, the game theory models that include cooperative behaviour among retailers seem to be a natural framework to model cooperation (collaboration) in supply chains that consist of a supplier and a finite number of retailers. Various researchers in this area have already adopted several cooperative models dealing with supply chain coordination, and it is expected to see many more in the n...

  14. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  15. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  16. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  17. Simulation of dilute solutions of linear and star-branched polymers by dissipative particle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardai, M M; Zifferer, G

    2009-09-28

    A most promising off-lattice technique in order to simulate not only static but in addition dynamic behavior of linear and star-branched chains is the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. In this model the atomistic representation of polymer molecules is replaced by a (coarse-grained) equivalent chain consisting of beads which are repulsive for each other in order to mimic the excluded volume effect (successive beads in addition are linked by springs). Likewise solvent molecules are combined to beads which in turn are repulsive for each other as well as for the polymer segments. The system is relaxed by molecular dynamics solving Newton's laws under the influence of short ranged conservative forces (i.e., repulsion between nonbonded beads and a proper balance of repulsion and attraction between bonded segments) and dissipative forces due to friction between particles, the latter representing the thermostat in conjunction with proper random forces. A variation of the strength of the repulsion between different types of beads allows the simulation of any desired thermodynamic situation. Static and dynamic properties of isolated linear and star-branched chains embedded in athermal, exothermal, and endothermal solvent are presented and theta conditions are examined. The generally accepted scaling concept for athermal systems is fairly well reproduced by linear and star-branched DPD chains and theta conditions appear for a unique parameter independent of functionality as in the case of Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the correspondence between DPD and Monte Carlo data referring to the shape of chains and stars is fairly well, too. For dilute solutions the Zimm behavior is expected for dynamic properties which is indeed realized in DPD systems. PMID:19791917

  18. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...... that may help these SMEs to occupy and sustain a competitive position in the value chain. It addresses this objective by introducing and discussing: • The concept of global value chains and its founding principles • The buyer-supplier relationships • Various SMEs operations configurations • Ideas for...

  19. The Future of Washington's Branch Campuses. HECB Report on Branch Campus Development Plans-HB 2707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Washington's research university branch campuses were created in 1989 to increase opportunities for students in several regions of the state to complete their baccalaureate and graduate-level studies at public universities close to their homes. Currently, the University of Washington operates branch campuses in Bothell and Tacoma. The Bothell…

  20. Analýza informačnej podpory v supply chain manažmente a návrh jej optimalizácie

    OpenAIRE

    Vislocká, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Thesis focuses on analysis and optimization of Supply Chain Management information tools in the branch of DHL Exel Supply Chain. The aim of the project is the introduction of the company, characteristics of its Supply Chain environment, and optimization and description of its information tool.

  1. 桃树修剪分枝模式的模拟%Modeling the Branching Patterns of Peach Tree Branches (Prunus persica) After Being Pruned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁; 李保国; 邓西民; 郭焱

    2004-01-01

    在不同修剪手法下,对栽培桃树(Prunuspersica(L.)Batsch)不同母枝上的分枝模式进行了比较研究.从分枝模式来看:修剪后的母枝基本由3个不同的区域组成,基部是不萌发的潜伏芽形成的未分枝区域;中部是延迟分枝和多次分枝组成的分枝区域(主要的枝条类型有短枝、长枝和多次枝);顶部是被剪除的部分.我们通过隐式半马尔可夫模型来模拟这一分枝模式,主要是定量描述1次枝和多次枝在母枝上的数量及其分布状况.在上述模型中,未分枝区、延迟分枝区和多次分枝区称为瞬时态,被剪除的部分称为吸收态.模拟的结果与观察的结果进行对比后发现,两者具有很好的一致性.这说明隐式半马尔可夫模型是模拟植物分枝过程的一种有效方法,尽管隐式半马尔可夫链模型只是一个描述性的模型,但仍能对其所描述的生物现象进行解释,在预测修剪手法对母枝分枝模式影响方面比传统的方法具有明显的优势.本研究结果是建立三维虚拟桃树树冠分枝结构的基础.%The shoot branching patterns of the two-year-old branches of peach trees (Prunus parsica (L.) Batsch cv. Elberta) were compared with different pruning measures. The branches were divided into a basal non-branching zone, a proleptic branching zone, a sylleptic branching zone and the part removed. We used the hidden semi-Markov model to capture the branching patterns. The final results showed that theoretical probability distributions of diverse lateral shoots of the parent branches calculated on the basis of the parameters of the hidden semi-Markov chain model were in good agreement with probabilities extracted from the observed data. This paper described the quantitative effects of pruning on branching architecture of a parent branch, taking into account of branch morphology. Results suggest that the hidden semi-Markov model could be used as an effective tool to describe the

  2. Measurement of tau lepton branching fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present τ- lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample ofτ- → ντK-π+π- events, we examine the resonance structure of the K-π+π- system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for τ- → ντK1-(1270) and τ- → ντK1-(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the τ- lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, μ, π, and K

  3. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  4. Independent sets in chain cacti

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-chains and meta-chains are the only extremal chain cacti with respect to total number of independent sets (orto-chains minimal and meta-chains maximal).

  5. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  6. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    design for TBL sustainability. These are located in catastrophe-ridden Haiti and supported by the Germany-based investor company Yunus Social Business. Three supply chain archetypes combining physical and support chains are presented that focus on TBL sustainable outputs and outcomes. For SSCM research...

  7. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  8. Branch and Bound Experiments in Convex Nonlinear Integer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Omprakash K. Gupta; Ravindran, A

    1985-01-01

    The branch and bound principle has long been established as an effective computational tool for solving mixed integer linear programming problems. This paper investigates the computational feasibility of branch and bound methods in solving convex nonlinear integer programming problems. The efficiency of a branch and bound method often depends on the rules used for selecting the branching variables and branching nodes. Among others, the concepts of pseudo-costs and estimations are implemented ...

  9. Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...

  10. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  11. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  12. On the red giant branch mass loss in 47 Tucanae: Constraints from the horizontal branch morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We obtain stringent constraints on the actual efficiency of mass loss for red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, by comparing synthetic modeling based on stellar evolution tracks with the observed distribution of stars along the horizontal branch in the colour-magnitude-diagram. We confirm that the observed, wedge-shaped distribution of the horizontal branch can be reproduced only by accounting for a range of initial He abundances --in agreement with inferences from the analysis of the main sequence-- and a red giant branch mass loss with a small dispersion. We have carefully investigated several possible sources of uncertainty that could affect the results of the horizontal branch modeling, stemming from uncertainties in both stellar model computations and the cluster properties such as heavy element abundances, reddening and age. We determine a firm lower limit of ~0.17$Mo for the mass lost by red giant branch stars, corresponding to horizontal branch stellar masses between ~0.65Mo ...

  13. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  14. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of the eta decay branching ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Bargholtz, C; Bogoslawsky, D; Calén, H; Capellaro, F; Clement, H; Demirörs, L; Ekström, C; Fransson, K; Geren, L; Gustafsson, L; Höistad, Bo; Ivanov, G; Jacewicz, M; Jiganov, E; Johansson, T; Keleta, S; Koch, I; Kullander, Sven; Kupsc, A; Kuznetsov, A; Laukhin, I V; Lindberg, K; Marciniewski, P; Meier, R; Morosov, B; Oelert, W; Pauly, C; Pettersson, H; Petukhov, Yu P; Povtorejko, A; Ruber, Roger J M Y; Schönning, K; Scobel, W; Shafigullin, R; Shwartz, B; Skorodko, T Yu; Sopov, V; Stepaniak, J; Chernyshov, V; Tegnér, P E; Engblom, P T; Tikhomirov, V; Turowiecki, A; Wagner, G J; Wolke, M; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zartova, I; Zlomanczuk, Yu; Bargholtz, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction pd->3He eta at threshold was used to provide a clean source of eta mesons for decay studies with the WASA detector at CELSIUS. The branching ratio of the decay eta->pi+pi-e+e- is measured to be (4.6+/-1.4+/-0.5)x10^-4.

  16. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... been in business, its policies and philosophy in managing assets, the types of clients it serves,...

  17. Infrared studies of asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis studies are presented of asymptotic giant branch stars, which are thought to be an important link in the evolution of the galaxy. The studies were performed on the basis of data collected by the IRAS, the infrared astronomical satelite. 233 refs.; 33 figs.; 16 tabs

  18. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  19. Synthesis of Well-Defined Three-Arm Star-Branched Polystyrene through Arm-First Coupling Approach by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shahabuddin; Fatem Hamime Ismail; Sharifah Mohamad; Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a simple route to synthesize three-arm star-branched polystyrene. Atom transfer radical polymerization technique has been utilized to yield branched polystyrene involving Williamson coupling strategy. Initially a linear polymeric chain of predetermined molecular weight has been synthesized which is further end-functionalized into a primary alkyl bromide moiety, a prime requisition for Williamson reaction. The end-functionalized polymer is then coupled using 1,1,1-tris(4-hydro...

  20. ON MARKOV CHAINS IN SPACE-TIME RANDOM ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dihe; Hu Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    In Section 1, the authors establish the models of two kinds of Markov chains in space-time random environments (MCSTRE and MCSTRE(+)) with Abstract state space. In Section 2, the authors construct a MCSTRE and a MCSTRE(+) by an initial distribution Ф and a random Markov kernel (RMK) p(γ). In Section 3, the authors establish several equivalence theorems on MCSTRE and MCSTRE(+). Finally, the authors give two very important examples of MCMSTRE, the random walk in spce-time random environment and the Markov branching chain in space-time random environment.

  1. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  2. SUMO chains: polymeric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-02-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are conjugated to a wide variety of target proteins that play roles in all biological processes. Target proteins are conjugated to ubiquitin monomers or to ubiquitin polymers that form via all seven internal lysine residues of ubiquitin. The fate of these target proteins is controlled in a chain architecture-dependent manner. SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) shares the ability of ubiquitin to form chains via internal SUMOylation sites. Interestingly, a SUMO-binding site in Ubc9 is important for SUMO chain synthesis. Similar to ubiquitin-polymer cleavage by USPs (ubiquitin-specific proteases), SUMO chain formation is reversible. SUMO polymers are cleaved by the SUMO proteases SENP6 [SUMO/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3)-specific peptidase 6], SENP7 and Ulp2 (ubiquitin-like protease 2). SUMO chain-binding proteins including ZIP1, SLX5/8 (synthetic lethal of unknown function 5/8), RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) and CENP-E (centromere-associated protein E) have been identified that interact non-covalently with SUMO chains, thereby regulating target proteins that are conjugated to SUMO multimers. SUMO chains play roles in replication, in the turnover of SUMO targets by the proteasome and during mitosis and meiosis. Thus signalling via polymers is an exciting feature of the SUMO family. PMID:20074033

  3. Synthesis and Properties of Dendritic Long-Chain Esters as Crude Oil Flow Improver Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cuiqin; Sun Peng; Shi Weiguang; Wang Jun

    2016-01-01

    The efifciencies of 6 kinds of macromolecules with dendritic structure in improving the lfow properties of crude oil were investigated. The dendritic additives were synthesized using low-generation dendritic poly(amidoamine) and alkyl long-chain acrylic esters as starting materials, and their structures were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and elemental analysis. The effects on the pour point and rheological properties of crude oil samples were studied. Efifciencies of dendritic long-chain esters were not only inlfuenced by the alky chain length, but also by the generation of dendrimer. The longer the alkyl chain of dendritic long-chain ester was, the better the effect in the reduction of pour point and apparent viscosity was. Efifciencies of 1.5 generation dendritic long-chain ester with 8 branched chains for the reduction of pour point and apparent viscosity were superior to those of 0.5 generation dendritic long-chain ester with 4 branched chains. Under the same conditions, efifciencies of 1.5 generation dendritic eighteen ester were superior to those of other 1.5 generation dendritic long-chain esters for the reduction of pour point and viscosity of crude oil.

  4. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  5. Supply Chain Issues in China’s Milk Adulteration Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; HU, Dinghuan

    2009-01-01

    China’s melamine milk adulteration crisis highlights the challenges that arise as large well-capitalized companies procure raw materials from a diffused supply chain of scattered small farmers and milk collection stations. As milk prices climbed sharply in 2007 and companies branched out into new territories, intense competition for raw milk supplies strengthened incentives to water down and adulterate milk. Effective food safety measures must account for incentives, the distribution of marke...

  6. Tokunaga and Horton self-similarity for level set trees of Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Self-similar properties of the level set trees for Markov chains are studied. ► Tokunaga and Horton self-similarity are established for symmetric Markov chains and regular Brownian motion. ► Strong, distributional self-similarity is established for symmetric Markov chains with exponential jumps. ► It is conjectured that fractional Brownian motions are Tokunaga self-similar. - Abstract: The Horton and Tokunaga branching laws provide a convenient framework for studying self-similarity in random trees. The Horton self-similarity is a weaker property that addresses the principal branching in a tree; it is a counterpart of the power-law size distribution for elements of a branching system. The stronger Tokunaga self-similarity addresses so-called side branching. The Horton and Tokunaga self-similarity have been empirically established in numerous observed and modeled systems, and proven for two paradigmatic models: the critical Galton–Watson branching process with finite progeny and the finite-tree representation of a regular Brownian excursion. This study establishes the Tokunaga and Horton self-similarity for a tree representation of a finite symmetric homogeneous Markov chain. We also extend the concept of Horton and Tokunaga self-similarity to infinite trees and establish self-similarity for an infinite-tree representation of a regular Brownian motion. We conjecture that fractional Brownian motions are also Tokunaga and Horton self-similar, with self-similarity parameters depending on the Hurst exponent.

  7. Cylindrical polymer brushes with dendritic side chains by iterative anionic reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng

    2015-05-01

    We report in this paper an easy method for the synthesis of cylindrical polymer brushes with dendritic side chains through anionic reaction. The synthesis is accomplished by iteratively grafting a living block copolymer, polyisoprene-. b-polystyrenyllithium (PI-. b-PSLi), to the main chain and subsequently to the branches in a divergent way. PI segment is short and serves as a precursor for multifunctional branching unit. The grafting reaction involves two successive steps: i) epoxidation of internal double bonds of PI segments, either in main chain or side chains; ii) ring-opening addition to the resulting epoxy group by the living PI-. b-PSLi. Repeating the two steps affords a series of cylindrical polymer brushes with up to 3rd generation and extremely high molecular weight. The branching multiplicity depends on the average number of oxirane groups per PI segment, usually ca. 8 in the present work. The high branching multiplicity leads to tremendous increase in molecular weights of the cylindrical products with generation growth. Several series of cylindrical polymer brushes with tunable aspect ratios are prepared using backbones and branches with controlled lengths. Shape anisotropy is investigated in dilute solution using light scattering technique. Worm-like single molecular morphology with large persistence length is observed on different substrates by atomic force microscopy.

  8. Phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as substrate for potato starch-branching enzyme I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) starch-branching enzyme I (PSBE-I) in the in vivo synthesis of phosphorylated amylopectin was investigated in in vitro experiments with isolated PSBE-I using 33P-labeled phosphorylated and 3H end-labeled nonphosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as the substrates. From these radiolabeled substrates PSBE-I was shown to catalyze the formation of dual-labeled (3H/33P) phosphorylated branched polysaccharides with an average degree of polymerization of 80 to 85. The relatively high molecular mass indicated that the product was the result of multiple chain-transfer reactions. The presence of alpha(1 leads to 6) branch points was documented by isoamylase treatment and anion-exchange chromatography. Although the initial steps of the in vivo mechanism responsible for phosphorylation of potato starch remains elusive, the present study demonstrates that the enzyme machinery available in potato has the ability to incorporate phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans into neutral polysaccharides in an interchain catalytic reaction. Potato mini tubers synthesized phosphorylated starch from exogenously supplied 33PO4(3-) and [U-14C]Glc at rates 4 times higher than those previously obtained using tubers from fully grown potato plants. This system was more reproducible compared with soil-grown tubers and was therefore used for preparation of 33P-labeled phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucan chains

  9. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Iwao

    Full Text Available The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1 GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2 all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3 phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells.

  10. PGC-1α-Mediated Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in the Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yukino Hatazawa; Miki Tadaishi; Yuta Nagaike; Akihito Morita; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Osamu Ezaki; Takako Takai-Igarashi; Yasuyuki Kitaura; Yoshiharu Shimomura; Yasutomi Kamei; Shinji Miura

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellula...

  11. Branched chain mechanism of the decomposition of transition metal methyl derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the thermal and photodecomposition of transition metal methyl derivatives are analyzed. Generalized kinetic model of the process is suggested. It is customary that the main acts of thermal and photodecomposition of transition metal methyl derivatives are homolysis of Me-C bonds, reactions of forming methyl radicals with nondecomposed Me-CH3 groups, decomposition intermediate Me-CH2. radicals with formation of methylene biradical and its following reactions with nondecomposed groups Me-CH3, Me-CH2-Me and Me3CH and solvent. It is shown that the suggested kinetic model allows to explain quantitatively the peculiarities of decomposition of transition metal methyl derivatives and composition of forming products. (author)

  12. Branched-chain fatty acid methyl esters as cold flow improvers for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived mainly from the transesterification of plant oils with methanol or ethanol. This fuel is generally made from commodity oils such as canola, palm, or soybean and has a number of properties that make it compatible in compression-ignition engines. Despite...

  13. Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways in yeast mitochondria improves the production of branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, José L; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to improve the production of a compound of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly involved engineering or overexpression of cytoplasmic enzymes. We show that targeting metabolic pathways to mitochondria can increase production compared with overexpression of the enzymes involved in the same pathways in the cytoplasm. Compartmentalization of the Ehrlich pathway into mitochondria increased isobutanol production by 260%, whereas overexpression of the same pathway in the cytoplasm only improved yields by 10%, compared with a strain overproducing enzymes involved in only the first three steps of the biosynthetic pathway. Subcellular fractionation of engineered strains revealed that targeting the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway to the mitochondria achieves greater local enzyme concentrations. Other benefits of compartmentalization may include increased availability of intermediates, removing the need to transport intermediates out of the mitochondrion and reducing the loss of intermediates to competing pathways. PMID:23417095

  14. Chain-Branching Control of the Atomic Structure of Alkanethiol-Based Gold–Sulfur Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong; Hush, Noel S.; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory structure calculations at 0 K and simulations at 300 K of observed high-resolution in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images reveal three different atomic-interface structures for the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three isomeric butanethiols on Au(111......): direct binding to the Au(111) surface without pitting, binding to adatoms above a regular surface with extensive pitting, and binding to adatoms with local surface vacancies and some pitting. Thermal motions are shown to produce some observed STM features, with a very tight energy balance controlling the......, controls substrate reorganization energies and adsorbate distortion energies. Most significantly, by manipulating these features, chemical control of the adsorbate can produce stable interfaces with surface pitting eliminated, providing new perspectives for technological applications of SAMs....

  15. Kinetics of thermophilic, anaerobic oxidation of straight and branched chain butyrate and valerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    parameter set occupied mutually exclusive parameter spaces, indicating that all were statistically different from each other. However, qualitatively, the influence on model outputs was similar, and the lumped set would be reasonable for mixed acid digestion. The main characteristic not represented by Monod...... in leucine (which produces i-valerate), and the modified model structure and stoichiometry as proposed here should be used. This requires no additional kinetic parameters and one additional dynamic concentration state variable (i-valerate) in addition to the variables in the base model. (C) 2003...

  16. Genetic modifications in biosynthesis pathways of branched-chain-amino acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Elišáková, Veronika

    Praha: Verlag, 2006, s. 142-142. [International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms /10./. Praha (CZ), 24.06.2006-28.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/04/0548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * genetic modifications Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused by short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Christensen, E; Corydon, T J;

    2000-01-01

    of homozygosity for a 1228G-->A mutation in the patient. This mutation was not present in 118 control chromosomes. In vitro transcription/translation experiments and overexpression in COS cells confirmed the disease-causing nature of the mutant SBCAD protein and showed that ACAD-8 is an isobutyryl......-CoA dehydrogenase and that both wild-type proteins are imported into mitochondria and form tetramers. In conclusion, we report the first mutation in the SBCAD gene, show that it results in an isolated defect in isoleucine catabolism, and indicate that ACAD-8 is a mitochondrial enzyme that functions in valine...

  18. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Filip; Ericson, Ulrika; Almgren, Peter; Nilsson, Jeanette; Magnusson, Martin; Fernandez, Céline; Melander, Olle

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and insulin resistance. This indicates the importance of the postprandial kinetics and metabolism of DMAAs in understanding the overall association between DMAAs and glycaemia. PMID:27274867

  19. A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstrand, Eva

    2006-02-01

    Several factors have been identified to cause peripheral fatigue during exercise, whereas the mechanisms behind central fatigue are less well known. Changes in the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level is one factor that has been suggested to cause fatigue. The rate-limiting step in the synthesis of 5-HT is the transport of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier. This transport is influenced by the fraction of tryptophan available for transport into the brain and the concentration of the other large neutral amino acids, including the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), which are transported via the same carrier system. Studies in human subjects have shown that the plasma ratio of free tryptophan (unbound to albumin)/BCAAs increases and that tryptophan is taken up by the brain during endurance exercise, suggesting that this may increase the synthesis of 5-HT in the brain. Ingestion of BCAAs increases their concentration in plasma. This may reduce the uptake of tryptophan by the brain and also 5-HT synthesis and thereby delay fatigue. Accordingly, when BCAAs were supplied to human subjects during a standardized cycle ergometer exercise their ratings of perceived exertion and mental fatigue were reduced, and, during a competitive 30-km cross-country race, their performance on different cognitive tests was improved after the race. In some situations the intake of BCAAs also improves physical performance. The results also suggest that ingestion of carbohydrates during exercise delays a possible effect of BCAAs on fatigue since the brain's uptake of tryptophan is reduced. PMID:16424144

  20. Comparative investigations of surface instabilities ("sharkskin") of a linear and a long-chain branched polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Burghelea, Teodor I.; Griess, Hans J.; Muenstedt, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of the physical origin and the mechanisms of the sharkskin instability is presented. Extrusion flows through a slit die are studied for two materials: a linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and a low density polyethylene (LDPE). By combining laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) with rheological measurements in both uniaxial extension and shear, the distributions of tensile and shear stresses in extrusion flows are measured for both materials.

  1. Supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hollstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics. Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-inductive findings, it may be hypothesized that logistical systems do have a positive effect on supply chain risk management activities.  Result/conclusion:  Flexibility and capacity, as well as redundancy and standardization, are often viewed as being conflictionary. It shows, however, that in the light of supply chain risk management, those factors may yield a common benefit if proper logistics systems are applied.  

  2. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  3. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...

  4. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Rodrigue Ghomsi 1982

    2015-01-01

    Companies are now progressively looking beyond themselves to come up with ways to improve revenue and profit margins. This has resulted in a heightened focus on the efficiency of the supply chains. Inefficient supply chains are being perceived as cavities that can deprive the firm from its cash flows when inventory is not required and sales revenue when product is not available at the point of sales. This has stimulated development of business models that intend to leverage and enhance the su...

  5. Variance bounding Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.

  6. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  7. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aidonis, D.; Folinas, D.; Triantafillou, D.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). During the 2-Days Conference m...

  8. Issues on Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although supply chain is regarded as an integrated pr ocess, actually, researchers and practitioners have primarily investigated the v arious processes of the supply chain individually. The competitive field in most markets requires well-designed integrated supply chain instead of individual o perations. In this paper, some traditional thinking of supply chain is given fir st, then SCM (Supply Chain Management) is introduced, which views the entire sup ply chain as a whole rather than individual process a...

  9. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  10. The Higgs Branch of Impurity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kapustin, A A; Kapustin, Anton; Sethi, Savdeep

    1998-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric gauge theories with impurities in various dimensions. These systems arise in the study of intersecting branes. Unlike conventional gauge theories, the Higgs branch of an impurity theory can have compact directions. For models with eight supercharges, the Higgs branch is a hyperKahler manifold given by the moduli space of solutions of certain differential equations. These equations are the dimensional reductions of self-duality equations with boundary conditions determined by the impurities. They can also be interpreted as Nahm transforms of self-duality equations on toroidally compactified spaces. We discuss the application of our results to the light-cone formulation of Yang-Mills theories and to the solution of certain N=2 d=4 gauge theories.

  11. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  12. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  13. Minimum disparity estimation in controlled branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Miguel; Minuesa, Carmen; del Puerto, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Minimum disparity estimation in controlled branching processes is dealt with by assuming that the offspring law belongs to a general parametric family. Under some regularity conditions it is proved that the minimum disparity estimators proposed -based on the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the offspring law when the entire family tree is observed- are consistent and asymptotic normally distributed. Moreover, it is discussed the robustness of the estimators proposed. Through a si...

  14. Modelling an observer's branch of extremal consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Polley, L.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme-order statistics is applied to the branches of an observer in a many-worlds framework. A unitary evolution operator for a step of time is constructed, generating pseudostochastic behaviour with a power-law distribution when applied repeatedly to a particular initial state. The operator models the generation of records, their dating, the splitting of the wavefunction at quantum events, and the recalling of records by the observer. Due to the huge ensemble near an observer's end, the br...

  15. New branching rules induced by plethysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive group branching laws for formal characters of subgroups Hπ of GL(n) leaving invariant an arbitrary tensor Tπ of Young symmetry type π where π is an integer partition. The branchings GL(n) ↓ GL(n-1), GL(n) ↓ O(n) and GL(2n) ↓ Sp(2n) fixing a vector vi, a symmetric tensor gij = gji and an antisymmetric tensor fij = -fji, respectively, are obtained as special cases. All new branchings are governed by Schur function series obtained from plethysms of the Schur function sπ ≡ {π} by the basic M series of complete symmetric functions and the L = M-1 series of elementary symmetric functions. Our main technical tool is that of Hopf algebras and our main result is the derivation of a coproduct for any Schur function series obtained by plethysm from another such series. Therefrom one easily obtains π-generalized Newell-Littlewood formulae and the algebra of the formal group characters of these subgroups is established. Concrete examples and extensive tabulations are displayed for H13, H21 and H3, showing their involved and nontrivial representation theory. The nature of the subgroups is shown to be in general affine and in some instances non-reductive. We discuss the complexity of the coproduct formula and give a graphical notation to cope with it. We also discuss the way in which the group branching laws can be reinterpreted as twisted structures deformed by highly nontrivial 2-cocycles. The algebra of subgroup characters is identified as a cliffordization of the algebra of symmetric functions for GL(n) formal characters. Modification rules are beyond the scope of the present paper, but are briefly discussed

  16. Recursive algorithms, branching coefficients and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent relations for branching coefficients in affine Lie algebras integrable highest weight modules are studied. The decomposition algorithm based on the injection fan technique is adopted to the situation where the Weyl denominator becomes singular with respect to a reductive subalgebra. We study some modifications of the injection fan technique and demonstrate that it is possible to define the "subtracted fans" that play the role similar to the original ones. Possible applications of subtracted fans in CFT models are considered.

  17. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  18. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  19. The making of a branching annelid

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado, M. Teresa; Glasby, Christopher J.; Schroeder, Paul C.; Weigert, Anne; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Ramisyllis multicaudata is a member of Syllidae (Annelida, Errantia, Phyllodocida) with a remarkable branching body plan. Using a next-generation sequencing approach, the complete mitochondrial genomes of R. multicaudata and Trypanobia sp. are sequenced and analysed, representing the first ones from Syllidae. The gene order in these two syllids does not follow the order proposed as the putative ground pattern in Errantia. The phylogenetic relationships of R. multicaudata are discerned usin...

  20. [Geometry and algebra of branches of the middle cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A classification of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is suggested by means of which each branch in any hemisphere can be qualified and identified in any variant of MCA branching. The principle of the classification consists in grouping the branches into arteries and trunks of the second, third, etc. order. Branches supplying blood to a certain sector of the lateral surface of the hemisphere are designated arteries. Their number and zone of branching are constant. Branches giving rise to 2 and more arteries are named trunks. Branching of the trunks, the number of trunks of the second, third, etc. order, and the site and type of origin of the arteries are extremely variable. Each trunk can be designated by a formula stating its order and the name of the artery supplied by this trunk. The arrangement of the MCA branches on the surface of the gyri and deep in the sulci, represented on the map of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, is designated conditionally as geometry of MCA branches. The order of branching of the trunks and the type of origin of the arteries, represented on abstract maps of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, are designated conditionally as algebra of the MCA branches. The variability of the geometry and algebra of the MCA branches must be taken into consideration in operations for extra-intracranial microanastomosis and in endovasal intervention on the MCA. PMID:3811741

  1. Measurements of $\\Xi_c^{+}$ Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the fixed target Fermilab experiment FOCUS, we measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo favored decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$, $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{K}^{*}(892)^0$, and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Lambda^0K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be $0.91\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$, $0.78\\pm0.16\\pm0.06$, and $0.28\\pm0.06\\pm0.06$, respectively. We report the first observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^+K^-$ and we measure the branching ratio relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be $0.16\\pm0.06\\pm0.01$. We also set 90% confidence level upper limits for $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\phi$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^*(1690)^0(\\Sigma^+ K^-) K^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 and 0.05, respectively. We find an indication of the decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Omega^-K^{+}\\pi^+$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*}(1385)^+ \\bar{K}^0$ and set 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching ratios with respect to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 a...

  2. Pebbles and Branching Programs for Tree Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Stephen; Wehr, Dustin; Braverman, Mark; Santhanam, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Tree Evaluation Problem, show that it is in logDCFL (and hence in P), and study its branching program complexity in the hope of eventually proving a superlogarithmic space lower bound. The input to the problem is a rooted, balanced d-ary tree of height h, whose internal nodes are labeled with d-ary functions on [k] = {1,...,k}, and whose leaves are labeled with elements of [k]. Each node obtains a value in [k] equal to its d-ary function applied to the values of its d children. The output is the value of the root. We show that the standard black pebbling algorithm applied to the binary tree of height h yields a deterministic k-way branching program with Theta(k^h) states solving this problem, and we prove that this upper bound is tight for h=2 and h=3. We introduce a simple semantic restriction called "thrifty" on k-way branching programs solving tree evaluation problems and show that the same state bound of Theta(k^h) is tight (up to a constant factor) for all h >= 2 for deterministic thrift...

  3. The root of branching river networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, J Taylor; Richardson, Paul W; Ferrier, Ken L; Lapôtre, Mathieu

    2012-12-01

    Branching river networks are one of the most widespread and recognizable features of Earth's landscapes and have also been discovered elsewhere in the Solar System. But the mechanisms that create these patterns and control their spatial scales are poorly understood. Theories based on probability or optimality have proven useful, but do not explain how river networks develop over time through erosion and sediment transport. Here we show that branching at the uppermost reaches of river networks is rooted in two coupled instabilities: first, valleys widen at the expense of their smaller neighbours, and second, side slopes of the widening valleys become susceptible to channel incision. Each instability occurs at a critical ratio of the characteristic timescales for soil transport and channel incision. Measurements from two field sites demonstrate that our theory correctly predicts the size of the smallest valleys with tributaries. We also show that the dominant control on the scale of landscape dissection in these sites is the strength of channel incision, which correlates with aridity and rock weakness, rather than the strength of soil transport. These results imply that the fine-scale structure of branching river networks is an organized signature of erosional mechanics, not a consequence of random topology. PMID:23222614

  4. Evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections is estimated by evaluation procedure for straight pipe, the applicability of this procedure has not been clear. That was discussed in this study. The buckling pressure of branch pipe connections was estimated by linear eigenvalue analysis with FEA (Finite Element Analysis). The types of branch pipe connections were T-joints and T-pipes. The ranges of configurations in branch pipe connections for FEA were determined by survey of branch pipe connections in the Japanese nuclear power plants. The results of the FEA showed that the buckling strength of branch pipe was found sufficiently to be superior to that of straight piping from comparisons of estimations by FEA for branch pipe connections and those by formula for straight pipe in the design code. It was concluded that the formula for straight pipe is applicable for the evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections. (author)

  5. Differentiation of crack branching types in fractured glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2011-07-01

    The influence of different physical factors on the fracture branching phenomenon was investigated on a fractured brittle (glass) bottle. A fully branched fracture tree consisting of 144 initiation sites was induced. Branching sites were concentrated in two zones: close to the fracture origin and further away from it along the bottle axis, which was shown to be related to reflection of transverse acoustic waves from the bottle's shoulder. Two types of branching formed, complete full branches (FB), and attempted branching (AB) when one branch was shorter than 5 mm. Branching in the first zone was shown to be regulated by both the distribution of flaw lengths and the distances from each FB to its nearest fracture neighbor. Fracture spacing was found to be proportional to the stress at the propagating fracture tips.

  6. Chain and Ion Dynamics in Ionomer Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Richard A.

    2003-03-01

    Ionomers contain a minor quantity of covalently-bound ionic sites, such as carboxylic or sulfonic acid salts, typically distributed randomly along the polymer backbone. Associations between these ionic groups greatly increase the melt viscosity and elasticity through the formation of a reversible network, where the ionic crosslinks gradually relax by a ``hopping" of ionic groups between aggregates. Because terminal relaxation of the chain requires an accumulation of many hops, the time scales for ion and chain motion differ by several orders of magnitude, so we employ mechanical rheometry to probe chain motion, and gauge ion motion through cation diffusion, by annealing for a preset interval and measuring the cation concentration profile through electron probe microanalysis or electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We have investigated both ethylene-methacrylic acid (E/MAA) ionomers, with a broad molecular weight distribution and substantial long-chain branching, as well as new linear-chain ionomers of narrow distribution based on lightly-sulfonated styrene-ethylene-butene (SSEB) terpolymers. Our E/MAA results support the ion-hopping mechanism, with similarly-large activation energies for terminal relaxation and cation diffusion. The choice of neutralizing metal cation has only a modest effect on the dynamics, though the terminal time increases exponentially with neutralization level. Unneutralized acid groups can accelerate the ion-hopping process by "plasticizing" the ionic aggregates. The model SSEB ionomers, which are noncrystallizable and have a low Tg, permit measurements over a much wider range of effective frequencies and are found to deviate substantially from time-temperature superposition, because the outermost portions of the polymer chains, which contain no ionic groups, relax with a smaller activation energy. Relaxation of these chain segments leads to a dilution of the entanglement network, and a plateau modulus below that for highly

  7. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  8. Calcium as a branching signal in Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, J L; Kinney, S G

    1983-01-01

    The divalent cation ionophore A23187 was found to induce apical branching in Neurospora crassa. Optimal effects were obtained by treatment with 0.1 mM ionophore for 30 min. Branching first became manifest during or shortly after treatment; successive rounds of branching could be observed at later times. Calcium starvation of the mycelium markedly reduced its subsequent response to the ionophore, whereas starvation for other divalent cations had no detectable effect. The branching response was...

  9. Statistics of branched flow in a weak correlated random potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Recent images of electron flow through a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) device show branching behavior that is reproduced in numerical simulations of motion in a correlated random potential [cond-mat/0010348]. We show how such branching naturally arises from caustics in the classical flow and find a simple scaling behavior of the branching under variation of the random potential strength. Analytic results describing the statistical properties of the branching are confirmed by classical a...

  10. Characterizing Weighted MSO for Trees by Branching Transitive Closure Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Fülöp, Zoltán; Vogler, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the branching transitive closure operator on weighted monadic second-order logic formulas where the branching corresponds in a natural way to the branching inherent in trees. For arbitrary commutative semirings, we prove that weighted monadic second order logics on trees is equivalent to the definability by formulas which start with one of the following operators: (i) a branching transitive closure or (ii) an existential second-order quantifier followed by one universal first-ord...

  11. Identification and carbon isotope composition of a novel branched GDGT isomer in lake sediments: Evidence for lacustrine branched GDGT production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Yuki; De Jonge, Cindy; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Schubert, Carsten J.; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Niemann, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that occur ubiquitously in soils and lacustrine sediments and have great potential as proxy indicators for paleotemperature and pH reconstructions. Initially, brGDGTs in lakes were thought to originate from soils of the watershed. The composition of the lacustrine brGDGT pool, however, often differs substantially from that in catchment soils, complicating the application of the brGDGT paleothermometer to lake sediments. This suggests that terrigenous brGDGT signals in lacustrine sedimentary archives may be affected by aquatic in situ production. In sediments of a Swiss mountain lake, we detected a novel hexamethylated brGDGT, which elutes between the known 5- and 6-methyl brGDGT isomers during HPLC-MS analysis. This novel isomer accounted for 8.5% of the total brGDGTs. Most remarkably, this brGDGT was not detected in soils collected from the catchment of the lake, providing circumstantial evidence for an in situ brGDGT source in the lake's water column or sediments. Isolation of the compound by preparative HPLC and subsequent GC-MS analysis of the alkyl chains revealed that the novel brGDGT comprises two structural isomers. One possesses a 5,13,16- and a 6,13,16-trimethyloctacosanyl moiety and constitutes 84% of the new brGDGT; the second contains a 13,16-dimethyloctacosanyl and a 5,13,16,23-tetramethyloctacosanyl moiety. The δ13C values of both the alkyl chains derived from the novel brGDGT (-46‰) and all other major brGDGTs (-43‰ to -44‰) were significantly lower than those of brGDGT-derived alkanes in catchment soils (-27‰ to -28‰) further attesting to in situ production of brGDGTs in the studied lake.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  13. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  14. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  15. Building the resilient supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Martin; Peck, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In today’s uncertain and turbulent markets, supply chain vulnerability has become an issue of significance for many companies. As supply chains become more complex as a result of global sourcing and the continued trend to ‘leaning-down’, supply chain risk increases. The challenge to business today is to manage and mitigate that risk through creating more resilient supply chains.

  16. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  17. Fuzzy Markov chains: uncertain probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Buckley; Eslami, Esfandiar

    2002-01-01

    We consider finite Markov chains where there are uncertainties in some of the transition probabilities. These uncertainties are modeled by fuzzy numbers. Using a restricted fuzzy matrix multiplication we investigate the properties of regular, and absorbing, fuzzy Markov chains and show that the basic properties of these classical Markov chains generalize to fuzzy Markov chains.

  18. Branched Crystalline Patterns of Poly(ε-caprolactone) and Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) Blends Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunyue; Yang, Tianbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhongjie; Li, Huihui; Yan, Shouke

    2016-01-14

    The chain organization of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) in its blend with poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PVPh) in thin films (130 ± 10 nm) has been revealed by grazing incident infrared (GIIR) spectroscopy. It can be found that PCL chains orient preferentially in the surface-normal direction and crystallization occurs simultaneously. The morphology of the PCL/PVPh blends films can be identified by optical microscopy (OM). When crystallized at 35 °C, the blends film shows a seaweed-like structure and becomes more open with increasing PVPh content. In contrast, when crystallized at higher temperatures, i.e., 40 and 45 °C, dendrites with apparent crystallographically favored branches can be observed. This characteristic morphology indicates that the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) process controls the crystal growth in the blends films. The detailed lamellar structure can be revealed by the height images of atomic force microscopy (AFM), i.e., the crystalline branches are composed of overlayered flat-on lamellae. The branch width has been found to be dependent on the supercooling and PVPh content. This result differs greatly from pure PCL, in which case the crystal patterns controlled by DLA process developed in ultrathin film or monolayers of several nanometers. In the PCL/PVPh blends case, the strong intermolecular interactions and the dilution effect of PVPh should contribute to these results. That is to say, the mobility of PCL chains can be retarded and diffusion of them to the crystal growth front slows down greatly, even though the film thickness is far more than the lamellar thickness of PCL. PMID:26713897

  19. Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to be sound w.r.t. the liveness fragment...... of the logic PCTL\\x, and its completeness was conjectured. We revisit this result and show that soundness does not hold in general, but only for Markov chains without divergence. It is refuted for some systems with substochastic distributions. Moreover, we provide a counterexample to completeness....... In this paper, we present a novel definition that is sound for live PCTL\\x, and a variant that is both sound and complete. A long version of this article containing full proofs is available from [11]....

  20. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  1. Evaluation of the metabolism in rat hearts of two new radioiodinated 3-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological fate of two new radioiodinated 3-methyl-branched fatty acids has been evaluated in rat hearts following intravenous administration. Methyl-branching was introduced in [15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) to inhibit β-oxidation. The goals of these studies were to correlate the effects of methyl-branching on the incorporation of these agents into the various fatty acid pools and subcellular distribution profiles, and to relate these data to the myocardial retention properties. The properties of BMIPP and DMIPP were compared with the 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid straight-chain analogue (IPP). Differences in the heart retention of the analogues after intravenous administration in rats correlated with differences observed in subcellular distribution patterns. The dimethyl DMIPP analogue showed the longest retention and the highest association with the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions (34%, 38%) 30 min after injection. These data are in contrast to the rapid clearance of the straight-chain IPP analogue which showed much lower relative association with the mitochondria and microsomes (18%, 15%). The distribution patterns of each analogue in the various lipid pools appeared consistent with the expected capacity of the analogues to be metabolized by β-oxidation. In contrast to the rapid oxidation of the straight-chain IPP analogue, the 3-monomethyl BMIPP analogue appeared to undergo slower oxidation and clearance, whereas the dimethyl-branched DMIPP analogue was apparatently not catabolized by the myocardium. All three analogues showed some incorporation into triglycerides. The metabolism patterns of the branched analogues reported here may provide useful information in the description of the mechanisms by which BMIPP and DMIPP are retained in rat myocardium. (orig.)

  2. Relationships between Architectures and Properties of Highly Branched Polymers: The Cases of Amorphous Poly(trimethylene carbonate) and Crystalline Poly(ε-caprolactone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yingying; Wei, Zhiyong; Leng, Xuefei; Wu, Tong; Bian, Yufei; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Highly branched polymers (HBPs) are a special class of functional polymeric materials and possess unique properties due to their unique topological structure. A new series of highly branched linear-comb and star-comb amorphous poly(trimethylene carbonate)s (PTMC) and crystalline poly(ε-caprolactone)s (PCL) with well-defined structure and high molecular weight were first synthesized using hydroxylated polybutadiene (HPB) as macroinitiators by simple "one-step" and "graft from" strategies. It is expected that the impact of long-chain, highly branched architecture on the properties of amorphous and crystalline polymers, respectively, is different. We explored systematically for the first time the effect and comparison of branched architectures on the physical and chemical properties of highly branched PTMCs and PCLs, including the intrinsic viscosity, glass transition, thermal degradation, creep property, rheological property, and crystallization and melting behaviors. It is found that the intrinsic viscosities in solution for both comb-branched PTMCs and PCLs were much lower compared with their linear and star counterparts arise from more compact structure and smaller hydrodynamic volumes. For amorphous PTMC, the creep strain and rate increased remarkably with degree of branching increasing due to the shorter side chains making it difficult for the highly branched molecules to entangle. For crystalline PCL, both WAXD and DSC analysis of PCLs with different topological structures indicated that the comb branched architectures have no significant influence on the crystal structure of PCL, but greatly promote the crystallization behavior, e.g., higher crystallinities. The deep understanding of structure-property relationship expects to guide the synthesis of designed functional polymer materials and the processing of polymer products. PMID:27064385

  3. A dynamical-system picture of a simple branching-process phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops ideas from a previous paper described as `an appetizer for non-linear Wiener--Hopf theory', but is completely independent of that paper. It again considers only the simplest possible case in which the underlying motion of the branching particles is described by a two-state Markov chain. Key generating functions provide solutions of a simple two-dimensional dynamical system, and the main interest is in the way in which Probability Theory and ODE theory complement each other. ODE pictures convey rather strikingly a simple phase transition. No knowledge of either ODE theory or Wiener--Hopf theory is assumed.

  4. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  5. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  6. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  7. A branching model for hadronic air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Vladimir; Ebr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple branching model for the development of hadronic showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Based on this model, we show how the size of the pionic component followed by muons can be estimated. Several aspects of the subsequent muonic component are also discussed. We focus on the energy evolution of the muon production depth. We also estimate the impact of the primary particle mass on the size of the hadronic component. Even though a precise calculation of the development of air showers must be left to complex Monte Carlo simulations, the proposed model can reveal qualitative insight into the air shower physics.

  8. Pebbles and Branching Programs for Tree Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Stephen; McKenzie, Pierre; Wehr, Dustin; Braverman, Mark; Santhanam, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Tree Evaluation Problem, show that it is in logDCFL (and hence in P), and study its branching program complexity in the hope of eventually proving a superlogarithmic space lower bound. The input to the problem is a rooted, balanced d-ary tree of height h, whose internal nodes are labeled with d-ary functions on [k] = {1,...,k}, and whose leaves are labeled with elements of [k]. Each node obtains a value in [k] equal to its d-ary function applied to the values of its d childre...

  9. Annual report, Materials Science Branch, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, S. [ed.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Materials Science Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid State Theory, Solid State Spectroscopy, and Program Management. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  10. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  11. Logic, planning agency and branching time

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Souza Silvestre

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a formal account of a kind of agency so far neglected in the field of philosophical modal logic of action: planning agency. In doing this we follow the standard approach of modal logics of agency exemplified by the works of Belnap, Chellas and Pörn. Since we believe there is a close relation between planning, time and indeterminism, we use the theory of branching time as a conceptual framework for investigating the basic features of planning agency. Beside...

  12. Novel Branches of (0,2) Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Quigley, Callum; Stern, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We show that recently proposed linear sigma models with torsion can be obtained from unconventional branches of conventional gauge theories. This observation puts models with log interactions on firm footing. If non-anomalous multiplets are integrated out, the resulting low-energy theory involves log interactions of neutral fields. For these cases, we find a sigma model geometry which is both non-toric and includes brane sources. These are heterotic sigma models with branes. Surprisingly, there are massive models with compact complex non-Kahler target spaces, which include brane/anti-brane sources. The simplest conformal models describe wrapped heterotic NS5-branes. We present examples of both types.

  13. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  14. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  15. Branching of periodic orbits from Kukles isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We study local bifurcations of limit cycles from isochronous (or linearizable centers. The isochronicity has been determined using the method of Darboux linearization, which provides a birational linearization for the examples that we analyze. This transformation simplifies the analysis by avoiding the complexity of the Abelian integrals appearing in other approaches. As an application of this approach, we show that the Kukles isochrone (linear and nonlinear has at most one branch point of limit cycles. Moreover, for each isochrone, there are small perturbations with exactly one continuous family of limit cycles.

  16. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  17. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin;

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  18. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  19. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  20. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  1. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  2. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies o...

  3. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  4. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  5. Effect of Chain Extension on Thermal Stability Behaviors of Polylactide Bioplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodthong Baimark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influences of chain extension and blending temperature on the thermal properties of poly(L-lactide (PLL were investigated. Joncryl® ADR 4368, a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent, was used as a chain extender. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were used to determine the thermal transition properties and thermal stability of the chain extended PLL, respectively. The chain extension reaction occurred at a blending temperature of 190 °C better than at 170 °C. The molecular weights of the chain extended PLLs increased and melt flow indices decreased when the Joncryl® ADR 4368 ratio was increased. The addition of Joncryl® ADR 4368 had an effect on the glass transition temperature, crystallizing temperature and crystallinity of the PLL for the blending temperature of 190 °C. The chain extended PLLs with branched structures showed lower thermal stability than the linear PLLs. The content of branched PLLs increased with the Joncryl® ADR 4368 ratio and blending temperature. The chain extension reaction was complete when 2% Joncryl® ADR 4368 and a blending temperature of 190 °C were used. The results indicated that the chain extension improved the PLL’s melt strength and it has an effect on the thermal stability of the PLLs.

  6. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Liang Qiu, Chun-Yan Hong, Cai-Yuan Pan Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Redox- and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)ns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The fir...

  7. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu L; Hong CY; Pan CY

    2015-01-01

    Liang Qiu, Chun-Yan Hong, Cai-Yuan Pan Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Redox- and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)ns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The first step ...

  8. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....

  9. Faster Algorithms on Branch and Clique Decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan; van Rooij, Johan M. M.; Vatshelle, Martin

    We combine two techniques recently introduced to obtain faster dynamic programming algorithms for optimization problems on graph decompositions. The unification of generalized fast subset convolution and fast matrix multiplication yields significant improvements to the running time of previous algorithms for several optimization problems. As an example, we give an O^{*}(3^{ω/2k}) time algorithm for Minimum Dominating Set on graphs of branchwidth k, improving on the previous O *(4 k ) algorithm. Here ω is the exponent in the running time of the best matrix multiplication algorithm (currently ωgraphs of cliquewidth k, we improve from O *(8 k ) to O *(4 k ). We also obtain an algorithm for counting the number of perfect matchings of a graph, given a branch decomposition of width k, that runs in time O^{*}(2^{ω/2k}). Generalizing these approaches, we obtain faster algorithms for all so-called [ρ,σ]-domination problems on branch decompositions if ρ and σ are finite or cofinite. The algorithms presented in this paper either attain or are very close to natural lower bounds for these problems.

  10. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  11. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  12. Population balance modeling of full two-dimensional molecular weight and branching distributions for ldPE with topological scission in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Yaghini; P.D. Iedema

    2015-01-01

    A full extensive 2-dimensional (2D) model of low-density Polyethylene chain length/branching distribution is provided in this paper. 2D Population Balance Equations are solved by the Galerkinfinite element method to obtain the distributions, accounting for 2D 'topological scission'; a manner to appr

  13. Branched conformational properties of macromolecules in close relation to chemical synthesis. II. Influence of excluded volume interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Walther; Schweins, Ralf; Werner, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The description of perturbed particle conformations needs as a prerequisite the algorithm of unperturbed chains which is outlined in Paper I [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 114906 (2015)]. The mean square segment length = b 2 n 2 ν with ν = 0.588 for linear chains in a good solvent is used as an approximation also for branched samples. The mean square radius of gyration is easily derived, but for the hydrodynamic, the segment distribution by Domb et al. [Proc. Phys. Soc., London 85, 624 (1965)] is required. Both radii can analytically be expressed by Gamma functions. For the angular dependence of scattered light, the Fourier transform of the Domb distribution for self-avoiding random walk is needed, which cannot be obtained as an analytical function and was derived by numerical integration. The summation over all segment length in the particle was performed with an analytic fit-curve for the Fourier transform and was carried out numerically. Results were derived (i) for uniform and polydisperse linear chains, (ii) or f-functional randomly branched polymers and their monodisperse fractions, (iii) for random A3B2 co-polymers, and (iv) for AB2 hyper-branched samples. The deviation of the Gaussian approximation with the variance of = b 2 n 2 ν slightly overestimates the excluded volume interaction but still remains a fairly good approximation for region of qRg < 10.

  14. Computing real zeros of a polynomial by branch and bound and branch and reduce algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Hoai An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose two algorithms based on branch and bound method and reduced interval techniques to compute all real zeros of a polynomial. Quadratic bounding functions are proposed which are better than the well known linear underestimator. Experimental result shows the efficiency of the two algorithms when facing ill-conditioned polynomials.

  15. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes such as collabora...... collaborations with customers and suppliers to create new product and process innovations, open innovation, and globally distributed innovation. We conclude with potential areas for future research.......Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes such as...

  16. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  17. Asymptotic evolution of quantum Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iterated quantum operations, so called quantum Markov chains, play an important role in various branches of physics. They constitute basis for many discrete models capable to explore fundamental physical problems, such as the approach to thermal equilibrium, or the asymptotic dynamics of macroscopic physical systems far from thermal equilibrium. On the other hand, in the more applied area of quantum technology they also describe general characteristic properties of quantum networks or they can describe different quantum protocols in the presence of decoherence. A particularly, an interesting aspect of these quantum Markov chains is their asymptotic dynamics and its characteristic features. We demonstrate there is always a vector subspace (typically low-dimensional) of so-called attractors on which the resulting superoperator governing the iterative time evolution of quantum states can be diagonalized and in which the asymptotic quantum dynamics takes place. As the main result interesting algebraic relations are presented for this set of attractors which allow to specify their dual basis and to determine them in a convenient way. Based on this general theory we show some generalizations concerning the theory of fixed points or asymptotic evolution of random quantum operations.

  18. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  19. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  20. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  1. Demand chain management-integrating marketing and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Jüttner, Uta; Christopher, Martin; Baker, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper endorses demand chain management as a new business model aimed at creating value in today's marketplace, and combining the strengths of marketing and supply chain competencies. Demand chain design is based on a thorough market understanding and has to be managed in such a way as to effectively meet differing customer needs. Based on a literature review as well as the findings from a co-development workshop and focus group discussions with marketing and supply chain professionals, a...

  2. Putting Markov Chains Back into Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Richard J.; Schofield, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    Markov chain theory plays an important role in statistical inference both in the formulation of models for data and in the construction of efficient algorithms for inference. The use of Markov chains in modeling data has a long history, however the use of Markov chain theory in developing algorithms for statistical inference has only become popular recently. Using mark-recapture models as an illustration, we show how Markov chains can be used for developing demographic models and also ...

  3. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  4. Input chains and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...

  5. Polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation...

  6. Tax efficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borralho, Joana Patrícia Costeira

    2014-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration. This case started with the following question: How supply chains and tax policy interact? This question was the starting point for this study and was developed under the areas of Logistics and International Tax Policy. In order to support this study, the adopted methodology was the selection of a Multinational company – LPR Portugal – which has the transportation and distribution in the European Union as a scope of service and...

  7. Inclusive Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula; Safadi, Raed; Taglioni, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This report's focus is making global value chains (GVCs) more inclusive. To achieve inclusiveness is by overcoming participation constraints for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and facilitation access for Low Income Developing Countries (LIDCs). The underlying assumption is that most firms in LIDCs are SMEs. Even larger firms in LIDCs are likely to face similar challenges to SMEs, including a less supportive domestic operating environment and weaker institutions that lead to higher fixed ...

  8. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb branch

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, John H

    2014-01-01

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ with $N$ units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the $U(1)$ factor of ${\\cal N} =4$ $U(N+1)$ super Yang--Mills theory, spontaneously broken to $U(N) \\times U(1)$ by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a `highly effective action' (HEA). We construct an $SL(2,Z)$ multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that it reproduces the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a `soliton bubble', which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  9. Multimodal Distributions along the Horizontal Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    We report on HST/WFPC2 U,V and far-ultraviolet observations of two Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs), NGC 6205 = M13 and NGC 6093 = M80. Both of these clusters have horizontal-branch (HB) tails that extend to the helium-burning main sequence, with the hottest stars reaching theoretical effective temperatures above 35,000 K. In both clusters, groups of stars are found to be separated by narrow gaps along the blue HB sequence. These gaps appear at similar locations in the color-magnitude diagrams of the two clusters. While stochastic effects may give rise to variations in the color distribution along the HB, the coincidence of gaps in different clusters effectively rules this out as the primary cause. The comparison among the clusters strongly suggests that there are separate physical processes operating during the earlier red-giant phase of evolution to produce mass loss.

  10. Introduction to Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2016-04-01

    A brief introduction on the main characteristics of the asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB) is presented. We describe a link to observations and outline basic features of theoretical modeling of these important evolutionary phases of stars. The most important aspects of the AGB stars is not only because they are the progenitors of white dwarfs, but also they represent the site of almost half of the heavy element formation beyond iron in the galaxy. These elements and their isotopes are produced by the s-process nucleosynthesis, which is a neutron capture process competing with the β- radioactive decay. The neutron source is mainly due to the reaction 13C(α,n)16O reaction. It is still a challenging problem to obtain the right amount of 13 C that can lead to s-process abundances compatible with observation. Some ideas are presented in this context.

  11. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule......, given that it already has bonds with others. The model is applied here to asphaltene nanoaggregates observed in molecular dynamics simulations of Cooee bitumen. The variation with temperature of the probabilities deduced from this model is discussed in terms of statistical mechanics arguments. The...... relevance of the statistical model in the case of asphaltene nanoaggregates is checked by comparing the predicted value of the probability for one molecule to have exactly i bonds with the same probability directly measured in the molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement is satisfactory...

  12. Branching process in a stochastic extremal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, S. S.

    2009-08-01

    We considered a stochastic version of the Bak-Sneppen model (SBSM) of ecological evolution where the number M of sites mutated in a mutation event is restricted to only two. Here the mutation zone consists of only one site and this site is randomly selected from the neighboring sites at every mutation event in an annealed fashion. The critical behavior of the SBSM is found to be the same as the BS model in dimensions d=1 and 2. However on the scale-free graphs the critical fitness value is nonzero even in the thermodynamic limit but the critical behavior is mean-field like. Finally ⟨M⟩ has been made even smaller than two by probabilistically updating the mutation zone, which also shows the original BS model behavior. We conjecture that a SBSM on any arbitrary graph with any small branching factor greater than unity will lead to a self-organized critical state.

  13. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  14. Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in M92

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed high dispersion and high precision spectra of 5 blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster M92 to establish that the projected rotational velocity for these stars ranges from 15 to 40 \\kms. This is larger than that expected based on the rotation of their main sequence progenitors, the spin down of rotation with age, and the conservation of angular momentum. Possible explanations include a rapidly rotating stellar core. An abundance analysis of these spectra of these blue HB stars in M92 yields the same results as have been obtained from the giants in this cluster. There is a hint of a trend of higher abundance as the projected surface rotational velocity increases, which could be chance and requires confirmation.

  15. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  16. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrio, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to $N_\\textrm{f}$ quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of $N_\\textrm{f}$ flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of $N_\\textrm{c}$ color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  17. Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2015-07-01

    We study collective excitations of cold (2 + 1)-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3-D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.

  18. Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch

    CERN Document Server

    Itsios, Georgios; Ramallo, Alfonso V

    2015-01-01

    We study collective excitations of cold (2+1)-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3-D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.

  19. Cold holographic matter in the Higgs branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Itsios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study collective excitations of cold (2+1-dimensional fundamental matter living on a defect of the four-dimensional N=4 super Yang–Mills theory in the Higgs branch. This system is realized holographically as a D3–D5 brane intersection, in which the D5-brane is treated as a probe with a non-zero gauge flux across the internal part of its worldvolume. We study the holographic zero sound mode in the collisionless regime at low temperature and find a simple analytic result for its dispersion relation. We also find the diffusion constant of the system in the hydrodynamic regime at higher temperature. In both cases we study the dependence on the flux parameter which determines the amount of Higgs symmetry breaking. We also discuss the anyonization of this construction.

  20. Improved yields of cyclic nigerosylnigerose from starch by pretreatment with a thermostable branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aga, Hajime; Okamoto, Iwao; Taniguchi, Mituki; Kawashima, Akira; Abe, Hiroko; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-04-01

    Cyclic nigerosylnigerose (CNN) is produced enzymatically from starch by the combined action of 6-alpha-glucosyltransferase and 3-alpha-isomaltosyltransferase. In our previous study, alpha-1,6-branching chains found in the structure of amylopectin and glycogen were shown to be favorable for CNN formation by the two enzymes. Therefore, we examined whether the introduction of alpha-1,6-branch points into starch using the action of branching enzyme (BE) could improve the yield of CNN from starch. Thermostable BE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91 was prepared as a purified recombinant protein. Pretreatment of amylose with BE considerably increased the CNN yield from 5% to 38%. When BE acted on tapioca starch, the CNN yield was elevated from 47% to 60%. Conversely, BE treatment of waxy corn starch containing very little amylose resulted in a negligible increase in CNN yield. In addition, BE exerted a beneficial effect when starch with a lower degree of hydrolysis was used as a substrate. The present results indicate that the addition of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages to starch using BE is an effective strategy to improve the yield of CNN from starch. PMID:20226381

  1. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  2. Computer simulation study of water/hydrocarbon interfaces: Effects of hydrocarbon branching on interfacial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review here the results of our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of water/hydrocarbon liquid/liquid interfaces. In order to examine the effects of chain length and branching on interfacial properties, we considered five different alkanes (n-pentane, 2-methyl pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane, 2-methyl heptane, and n-octane) as the hydrocarbon phase. We used a recently-proposed procedure to identify molecular surface sites and constructed intrinsic density profiles, in addition to the more familiar laboratory-frame profiles, in order to determine the effects of interface fluctuations on the structure and dynamics of the two phases. We found that interfacial properties of the aqueous phase are relatively insensitive to the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon, even though both branching and chain length have significant influence on the hydrocarbon interfacial properties. We found that translational and rotational mobilities of molecules of both phases are affected by the presence of the interface and that rotational relaxation of water molecules is significantly more anisotropic in the interfacial region than in the bulk.

  3. Formation of chiral branched nanowires by the Eshelby Twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Peng, Hailin; Marshall, A F; Barnett, D M; Nix, W D; Cui, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Manipulating the morphology of inorganic nanostructures, such as their chirality and branching structure, has been actively pursued as a means of controlling their electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Notable examples of chiral inorganic nanostructures include carbon nanotubes, gold multishell nanowires, mesoporous nanowires and helical nanowires. Branched nanostructures have also been studied and been shown to have interesting properties for energy harvesting and nanoelectronics. Combining both chiral and branching motifs into nanostructures might provide new materials properties. Here we show a chiral branched PbSe nanowire structure, which is formed by a vapour-liquid-solid branching from a central nanowire with an axial screw dislocation. The chirality is caused by the elastic strain of the axial screw dislocation, which produces a corresponding Eshelby Twist in the nanowires. In addition to opening up new opportunities for tailoring the properties of nanomaterials, these chiral branched nanowires also provide a direct visualization of the Eshelby Twist. PMID:18685634

  4. Branched projective structures with quasi-Fuchsian holonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Calsamiglia, Gabriel; Francaviglia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We prove that if S is a closed compact surface of negative Euler characteristic, and if R is a quasi-Fuchsian representation in PSL(2,C), then the deformation space M(k,R) of branched projective structures on S with total branching order k and holonomy R is connected, as soon as k>0. Equivalently, two branched projective structures with the same quasi-Fuchsian holonomy and the same number of branch points are related by a movement of branch points. In particular grafting annuli are obtained by moving branch points. In the appendix we give an explicit atlas for the space M(k,R). It is shown to be a smooth complex manifold modeled on Hurwitz spaces.

  5. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques,taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. The only free parameter in the whole analysis is the integrated mass loss of red giant branch stars. This is the first time that synthetic horizontal branch models, consistent with the complex star formation history of a galaxy, are calculated and matched to the observations. We find that the metallicity range covered by the star formation history, as constrained by observations, plus a simple mass loss law, enable us to cover both the full magnitude and colour range of HB stars. In addition the number count distribution along the observed horizontal branch, can be also reproduced, provided that the red giant branch mass loss is mildly metallicity dependent, with a very small dispersion ...

  6. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  7. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  8. Record high hole mobility in polymer semiconductors via side-chain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-Jun; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2013-10-01

    Charge carrier mobility is still the most challenging issue that should be overcome to realize everyday organic electronics in the near future. In this Communication, we show that introducing smart side-chain engineering to polymer semiconductors can facilitate intermolecular electronic communication. Two new polymers, P-29-DPPDBTE and P-29-DPPDTSE, which consist of a highly conductive diketopyrrolopyrrole backbone and an extended branching-position-adjusted side chain, showed unprecedented record high hole mobility of 12 cm(2)/(V·s). From photophysical and structural studies, we found that moving the branching position of the side chain away from the backbone of these polymers resulted in increased intermolecular interactions with extremely short π-π stacking distances, without compromising solubility of the polymers. As a result, high hole mobility could be achieved even in devices fabricated using the polymers at room temperature. PMID:24053786

  9. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model can be used to develop an Academic Chain Operation Reference Model.

  10. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  11. Risk Management in Logystics Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Butrin, Andrey; Vikulov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to risk management of supply chain. The authors considered indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers.

  12. On chains of centered valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chibloun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study chains of centered valuations of a domain A and chains of centered valuations of A [X1,…,Xn] corresponding to valuations of A. Finally, we make some applications to chains of valuations centered on the same ideal of A [X1,…,Xn] and extending the same valuation of A.

  13. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    that product and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  14. Deregulation of Bank Entry and Branching: Impact on Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Melanie S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper looks at public policy towards bank entry and branching in the Philippines and its impact on the sector’s structure, conduct and performance. In particular, it argues that regulatory restrictions on bank entry and branching have had adverse effects on competition, while the liberalization of these restrictions have led to a more competitive banking sector. The paper has two main sections. Section II presents the history of regulation of bank entry and branching in the Philippines. ...

  15. Interaction forces between surfaces coated with highly branched polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pericet-Cámara, Ramón; Borkovec, Michal

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, interactions between surfaces with adsorbed highly branched polyelectrolytes were studied with the colloidal probe technique. By studying the adsorption behavior of highly branched polyelectrolytes, the lateral distribution of the surface charge could be tuned by the appropriate adsorption conditions. By choosing different polyelecrtrolytes, namely highly branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, it was possible to investigate the forces betwe...

  16. Interaction forces between surfaces coated with highly branched polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Pericet-Cámara, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, interactions between surfaces with adsorbed highly branched polyelectrolytes were studied with the colloidal probe technique. By studying the adsorption behavior of highly branched polyelectrolytes, the lateral distribution of the surface charge could be tuned by the appropriate adsorption conditions. By choosing different polyelecrtrolytes, namely highly branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, it was possible to investigate the forces betwe...

  17. Pressure Change in Tee Branch Pipe in Oscillatory Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Sakamoto; Chongho Youn; Toshiharu Kagawa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of unsteady flow of branch pipes in pneumatic systems. Branch pipes are used in pneumatic pipe systems in various industrial fields. To predict the unsteady pressure changes in the pneumatic piping systems, it is necessary that the dynamic characteristics of branch pipes are at hand, in addition to the dynamic characteristic of single pipe. However, while so many studies are accumulated for a single pipe dynamics, few studies hav...

  18. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  19. Branch points of substitutions and closing ordered Bratteli diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Yassawi, Reem

    2011-01-01

    We study stationary ordered Bratteli diagrams and give necessary and sufficient conditions for these orders to generate a continuous Vershik map. We apply this to finding adic representations for one sided substitution subshifts. We give an algorithm to find the branch points of a substitution, which have to be mapped to the minimal elements of such an ordering. We find adic representations for substitutions with one branch point, and also substitutions all of whose branch points are fixed.

  20. Parallel Branch and Bound on a CPU-GPU System

    OpenAIRE

    Boukedjar, Abdelamine; Lalami, Mohamed Esseghir; El-Baz, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid implementation via CUDA of a branch and bound method for knapsack problems is proposed. Branch and bound computations can be carried out either on the CPU or on the GPU according to the size of the branch and bound list, i.e. the number of nodes. Tests are carried out on a Tesla C2050 GPU. A first series of computational results showing a substantial speedup is displayed and analyzed.