WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain visualisation conditions

  1. Visualisation of multi-dimensional medical images with application to brain electrical impedance tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in modem medicine. With the increasing complexity and information presented by medical images, visualisation is vital for medical research and clinical applications to interpret the information presented in these images. The aim of this research is to investigate improvements to medical image visualisation, particularly for multi-dimensional medical image datasets. A recently developed medical imaging technique known as Electrical Impedance Tomograp...

  2. One decade of functional imaging in schizophrenia research. From visualisation of basic information processing steps to molecular brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have contributed tremendously to our current understanding of psychiatric disorders in the context of functional, biochemical and microstructural alterations of the brain. Since the mid-nineties, functional MRI has provided major insights into the neurobiological correlates of signs and symptoms in schizophrenia. The current paper reviews important fMRI studies of the past decade in the domains of motor, visual, auditory, attentional and working memory function. Special emphasis is given to new methodological approaches, such as the visualisation of medication effects and the functional characterisation of risk genes. (orig.)

  3. Viral transduction of the neonatal brain delivers controllable genetic mosaicism for visualising and manipulating neuronal circuits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yoen; Ash, Ryan T; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Levites, Yona; Golde, Todd E; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Jankowsky, Joanna L

    2013-04-01

    The neonatal intraventricular injection of adeno-associated virus has been shown to transduce neurons widely throughout the brain, but its full potential for experimental neuroscience has not been adequately explored. We report a detailed analysis of the method's versatility with an emphasis on experimental applications where tools for genetic manipulation are currently lacking. Viral injection into the neonatal mouse brain is fast, easy, and accesses regions of the brain including the cerebellum and brainstem that have been difficult to target with other techniques such as electroporation. We show that viral transduction produces an inherently mosaic expression pattern that can be exploited by varying the titer to transduce isolated neurons or densely-packed populations. We demonstrate that the expression of virally-encoded proteins is active much sooner than previously believed, allowing genetic perturbation during critical periods of neuronal plasticity, but is also long-lasting and stable, allowing chronic studies of aging. We harness these features to visualise and manipulate neurons in the hindbrain that have been recalcitrant to approaches commonly applied in the cortex. We show that viral labeling aids the analysis of postnatal dendritic maturation in cerebellar Purkinje neurons by allowing individual cells to be readily distinguished, and then demonstrate that the same sparse labeling allows live in vivo imaging of mature Purkinje neurons at a resolution sufficient for complete analytical reconstruction. Given the rising availability of viral constructs, packaging services, and genetically modified animals, these techniques should facilitate a wide range of experiments into brain development, function, and degeneration. PMID:23347239

  4. Visualisation of the intact dura mater and brain surface in infant autopsies: a minimally destructive technique for the post-mortem assessment of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Rutty, Guy N; James, Deryk S

    2015-03-01

    During the post-mortem examination of babies and young children, it is important to be able to visualise the brain and its coverings, particularly in cases where a head injury is likely to have occurred. In this paper, we present an improved method for removal of the calvarial bones in infant autopsies to enable viewing of the dura mater and brain. In contrast to the standard post-mortem procedure for observing and removing the brain, this novel technique is minimally disruptive, allowing the dura mater to remain undamaged. Specialised paediatric neurosurgical tools were used to remove the skull bones from 23 neonates, infants and young children during post-mortem examination. In 21 of our 23 cases, the calvarial bones were removed successfully with the dura mater remaining intact. In one case, there was a thickening of the dura mater which created a strong adherence of this membrane to the bone. In another case, the dura mater was slightly damaged due to the inexperience of the operator in using the neurosurgical tools. This method of calvarial bone removal reduces the degree of post-mortem artefact and enhances the ability to observe and photographically document autopsy findings, including the artefact-free detection of signs of injury such as epidural or subdural haematoma, and brain swelling. This technique has now become a routine practise in both of our units to remove the skull bones in infant/young children post-mortem examinations.

  5. Visualiser and SMACK Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bohua

    2009-01-01

    With the stupendous rate of the development in network fields, more and more network based software comes into our eyesight. This thesis mainly focuses on how to build a data integration and synchronization system in order to support a distributed Web OS (Operation System) working properly with huge database on different servers. Jupiter Visualiser by Polystar OSIX is a process and analysis tool that generates customer and business intelligence information for telecom operators and puts it at...

  6. Visualising roaming within eduroam

    OpenAIRE

    Chown, Tim; O'Leary, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The eduroam federated access service is a valuable tool for supporting collaboration and resource sharing worldwide, with its primary purpose being to facilitate seamless wireless roaming between users at participating institutions. There are over 100 participating sites in the UK that have joined the UK instance of eduroam known as the JANET Roaming Service (JRS). However, while the JRS is gaining traction in deployment, there is a lack of visualisation tools for users, site administrators o...

  7. Embodied Design of Dance Visualisations

    OpenAIRE

    Brenton, Harry; Kleinsmith, Andrea; Gillies, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a software platform for creating interactive visualisations that respond to the free-form movements of a non-professional dancer. The visualisations can be trained to respond to the idiosyncratic movements of an individual dancer. This adaptive process is controlled by Interactive Machine Learning. Our approach is novel because the behaviour of the interactive visualisations is trained by a dancer dancing, rather than a computer scientist ...

  8. Brain death diagnosis in misleading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tourtchaninoff, M; Hantson, P; Mahieu, P; Guérit, J M

    1999-07-01

    The necessity of defining brain death (BD) arose from technological development in medical science. The definition of this concept had practical consequences and opened the way to organ donation from BD patients. Nowadays, the imbalance between the number of organs available for transplantation and the size of the demand is becoming critical. In most laboratories, a BD diagnosis is made according to precise criteria and in a well-defined process. BD diagnosis should be improved, not only to assure the safety and to preserve the human dignity of the patient, but also in order to increase the rate of organ donation. By analysing some epidemiological parameters in BD diagnosis and organ donation, it appears that BD diagnoses can be made more often and more rapidly if one has a reliable, accurate, and safe confirmatory test, especially under misleading conditions (hypothermia, drugs, metabolic disturbances). In our experience, the use of multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) to confirm a BD diagnosis has many advantages: MEPs can be rapidly performed at the patient's bedside, assess the brain stem as well as the cerebral cortex, and are innocuous for the patient. Moreover, their insensitivity to the aforementioned misleading factors is sufficient to distinguish BD from clinical and EEG states that mimic BD. They give an immediate diagnosis, and no delay is required in BD confirmation if there is sufficient cause to account for BD. MEPs are a safe, accurate, and reliable tool for confirming a BD diagnosis, and their use can improve the organ donation rate while preserving the safety of the patient. PMID:10627891

  9. CMS Tracker Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    To provide improvements in the performance of existing tracker data visualization tools in IGUANA, a 2D visualisation software has been developed, using the object oriented paradigm and software engineering techniques. We have designed 2D graphics objects and some of them have been implemented. The access to the new objects is made in ORCA plugin of IGUANA CMS. A new tracker object oriented model has been designed for developing these 2D graphics objects. The model consists of new classes which represent all its components (layers, modules, rings, petals, rods).The new classes are described here. The last part of this document contains a user manual of the software and will be updated with new releases.

  10. Autoencoding Time Series for Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianniotis, Nikolaos; Kügler, Dennis; Tino, Peter; Polsterer, Kai; Misra, Ranjeev

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the visualisation of time series. To that end we employ echo state networks to convert time series into a suitable vector representation which is capable of capturing the latent dynamics of the time series. Subsequently, the obtained vector representations are put through an autoencoder and the visualisation is constructed using the activations of the bottleneck. The crux of the work lies with defining an objective function that quantifies the reconstruction error ...

  11. One decade of functional imaging in schizophrenia research. From visualisation of basic information processing steps to molecular brain imaging; Zehn Jahre funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie in der Schizophrenieforschung. Von der Abbildung einfacher Informationsverarbeitungsprozesse zur molekulargenetisch orientierten Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, H. [Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, NMR-Forschung in der Psychiatrie (Germany); Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, NMR-Forschung in der Psychiatrie, Mannheim (Germany); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. [Genes, Neuroimaging Core Facility and Unit on Integrative Neuroimaging, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health (United States); Ruf, M.; Demirakca, T.; Grimm, O.; Henn, F.A.; Ende, G. [Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, NMR-Forschung in der Psychiatrie (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have contributed tremendously to our current understanding of psychiatric disorders in the context of functional, biochemical and microstructural alterations of the brain. Since the mid-nineties, functional MRI has provided major insights into the neurobiological correlates of signs and symptoms in schizophrenia. The current paper reviews important fMRI studies of the past decade in the domains of motor, visual, auditory, attentional and working memory function. Special emphasis is given to new methodological approaches, such as the visualisation of medication effects and the functional characterisation of risk genes. (orig.) [German] Bildgebende Verfahren wie die Magnetresonanz- und Positronenemissionstomographie haben entscheidend dazu beigetragen, dass psychiatrische Erkrankungen heutzutage im Kontext funktioneller, biochemischer und feinstruktureller Veraenderungen des Gehirns verstanden werden. Im Bereich der Schizophrenieforschung gibt insbesondere die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie seit Mitte der 90er-Jahre wichtige Einblicke in die neurobiologischen Grundlagen schizophrener Defizitbereiche. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt die wichtigsten fMRT-Befunde der letzten Dekade in den Bereichen Psychomotorik, visuelle bzw. akustische Informationsverarbeitung, Aufmerksamkeit und Arbeitsgedaechtnis vor. Die Betrachtung erfolgt dabei unter der besonderen Beruecksichtigung aktueller methodischer Ansaetze wie der Darstellung von Therapieeffekten und der funktionellen Charakterisierung psychiatrischer Risikogene. (orig.)

  12. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of nor-{beta}-CIT: a potential radioligand for visualisation of the serotonin transporter in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, K.A. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Kuopio University Hospital, Clinical Physiology, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland); Halldin, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Hall, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Lundkvist, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Ginovart, N. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, C.G. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Farde, L. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-06-10

    Radiolabelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) has been used in clinical studies for the imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (nor-{beta}-CIT) is a des-methyl analogue of {beta}-CIT, which in vitro has tenfold higher affinity (IC{sub 50}=0.36 nM) to the serotonin transporter than {beta}-CIT (IC{sub 50}=4.2 nM). Nor-{beta}-CIT may thus be a useful radioligand for imaging of the serotonin transporter. In the present study iodine-125 and carbon-11 labelled nor-{beta}-CIT were prepared for in vitro autoradiographic studies on post-mortem human brain cryosections and for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies in Cynomolgus monkeys. Whole hemisphere autoradiography with [{sup 125}I]nor-{beta}-CIT demonstrated high binding in the striatum, the thalamus and cortical regions of the human brain. Addition of a high concentration (1 {mu}M) of citalopram inhibited binding in the thalamus and the neocortex, but not in the striatum. In PET studies with [{sup 11}C]nor-{beta}-CIT there was rapid uptake of radioactivity in the monkey brain (6% of injected dose at 15 min) and high accumulation of radioactivity in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex. Thalamus to cerebellum and cortex to cerebellum ratios were 2.5 and 1.8 at 60 min, respectively. The ratios obtained with [{sup 11}C]nor-{beta}-CIT were 20%-40% higher than those previously obtained with [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT. Radioactivity in the thalamus and the neocortex but not in the striatum was displaceable with citalopram (5 mg/kg). In conclusion, nor-{beta}-CIT binds to the serotonin transporter in the primate brain in vitro and in vivo and has potential for PET and SPET imaging of the serotonin transporter in human brain. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  13. Autoencoding Time Series for Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gianniotis, Nikolaos; Tino, Peter; Polsterer, Kai; Misra, Ranjeev

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the visualisation of time series. To that end we employ echo state networks to convert time series into a suitable vector representation which is capable of capturing the latent dynamics of the time series. Subsequently, the obtained vector representations are put through an autoencoder and the visualisation is constructed using the activations of the bottleneck. The crux of the work lies with defining an objective function that quantifies the reconstruction error of these representations in a principled manner. We demonstrate the method on synthetic and real data.

  14. Visualisations and Calculations of Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Tryggestad, Kjell; Holm Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    of stakeholders are engaged in the process. This paper describes a case of the ‘on-boarding’ phase in the design of a new hospital in North Zealand, Denmark. It describes the use of various visualisations in the engagement of actors concerned with managing the budget and delivering the building programme as well...

  15. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  16. Condition-orientated maintenance with the aid of visualisation of wear data and change predictions; Zustandsorientierte Instandhaltung anhand Visualisierung von Verschleissdaten und Wechselprognosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Volker [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Marl (Germany). Bergwerk Auguste Victoria; Piejede, Peter [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik

    2011-01-15

    Because of the greater concentration of underground workings in the German coal mining industry in a few high-output faces condition-orientated maintenance of conveying equipment is becoming increasingly important. The most diverse methods are used. For example, the abrasive parameters are of special importance for the armoured face conveyors with their high mechanical loads. The contribution explains the individual wear situations are as well as their evaluations on practical examples. (orig.)

  17. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC. PMID:23900312

  18. Subliminal Instrumental Conditioning Demonstrated in the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Pessiglione, M.; Petrovic, P.; Daunizeau, J.; Palminteri, S; Dolan, R. J.; Frith, C D

    2008-01-01

    Summary How the brain uses success and failure to optimize future decisions is a long-standing question in neuroscience. One computational solution involves updating the values of context-action associations in proportion to a reward prediction error. Previous evidence suggests that such computations are expressed in the striatum and, as they are cognitively impenetrable, represent an unconscious learning mechanism. Here, we formally test this by studying instrumental conditioning in a situat...

  19. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  20. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  1. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  2. Effects of conditioned running on plasma, liver and brain tryptophan and on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouloff, F; Elghozi, J. L.; Guezennec, Y.; Laude, D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was made into the effects of conditioned running (1 h and 2 h at 20 m min-1), which accelerates lipolysis, on the concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) in plasma, liver and brain and on 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in brain. Running caused time-dependent increases in plasma free Trp and brain Trp of the rat, leading to increased brain 5-HT turnover as revealed by higher amounts of its metabolite, 5-HIAA. The ratio of brain Trp to plasm...

  3. Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-ModalWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hammoudeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.

  4. Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-ModalWireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Newman, Robert; Dennett, Christopher; Mount, Sarah; Aldabbas, Omar

    2015-09-11

    This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.

  5. 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, N.H.

    Statens Forsknings- og Uddannelsesbygninger har på forskellige nybyggerier eksperimenteret med anvendelse af 3D-visualisering i tilknytning til bedømmelsen af arkitektkonkurrencer. Interview af dommerkomitéen på konkurrencerne på Muskikkens Hus i Nordjylland og nye bygninger til Roskilde...... Universitetscenter har givet input til forslag om den fremtidige udvikling. Forslagene retter sig både mod arkitekternes kompetence og udvalgte forretningsstrategier og mod den professionelle bygherres fremtidige krav til 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer. Et indbudt seminar om rapportens anbefalinger samler...

  6. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi;

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  7. Examining the contribution of critical visualisation to information security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, Peter A.; Heath, Claude P.; Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Tanner, Axel

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of visualisations in the field of information security and in particular focuses on the practice of information security risk assessment. We examine the current roles of information security visualisations and place these roles in the wider information visualisation disco

  8. Brain mineralocorticoid receptors as resilience factor under adverse life conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanatsou, S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in human cohorts have underlined the importance of gene-environment interactions for brain structure and function during development and in adulthood. Such interactions can make the difference between staying healthy or succumbing to disease, e.g. depression or posttraumatic stress disorder.

  9. [Pathogenic variants of brain injuries and pharmalogic cerebroprotection performed on the model of brain condition during cardiovascular bypass surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygan, N V; Trashkov, A P

    2014-10-01

    Developed and approved a pathogenic grounded experimental model of brain condition during cardiovascular bypass surgery. Undertaken in Wistar rats research allowed to evaluate in detail effectiveness and safety of protracted cerebroprotective treatment. Advantages of this model are researches in laboratory animals with the aim to research condition of nerve tissue, not intensive procedures and consequently high reproducibility and possibility of complex evaluation of changes at every stage of research. Results of neurons, neuroglia and activation of neurotrophic mechanisms prove that simulation of brain condition during cardiovascular bypass surgery is accompanied with acute and delayed brain injuries. Use of Cytoflavin under pharmalogic cerebroprotection had prolonged multimodal and neuroprotactive effect, leading to improvement of neurotrophic protection from the first days.

  10. Comment visualiser l'invisible?

    CERN Multimedia

    Develay, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    In the big hadron collider, LHC, nearly finished, particle will be accelerated to make collisions, with the aim to re-create the conditions of the birth of Universe, some seconds after the Big Bang. (1 page)

  11. Visualising nursing data using correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Helena Blažun; Železnik, Danica

    2016-09-01

    Background Digitally stored, large healthcare datasets enable nurses to use 'big data' techniques and tools in nursing research. Big data is complex and multi-dimensional, so visualisation may be a preferable approach to analyse and understand it. Aim To demonstrate the use of visualisation of big data in a technique called correspondence analysis. Discussion In the authors' study, relations among data in a nursing dataset were shown visually in graphs using correspondence analysis. The case presented demonstrates that correspondence analysis is easy to use, shows relations between data visually in a form that is simple to interpret, and can reveal hidden associations between data. Conclusion Correspondence analysis supports the discovery of new knowledge. Implications for practice Knowledge obtained using correspondence analysis can be transferred immediately into practice or used to foster further research. PMID:27641707

  12. Visualising nursing data using correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Helena Blažun; Železnik, Danica

    2016-09-01

    Background Digitally stored, large healthcare datasets enable nurses to use 'big data' techniques and tools in nursing research. Big data is complex and multi-dimensional, so visualisation may be a preferable approach to analyse and understand it. Aim To demonstrate the use of visualisation of big data in a technique called correspondence analysis. Discussion In the authors' study, relations among data in a nursing dataset were shown visually in graphs using correspondence analysis. The case presented demonstrates that correspondence analysis is easy to use, shows relations between data visually in a form that is simple to interpret, and can reveal hidden associations between data. Conclusion Correspondence analysis supports the discovery of new knowledge. Implications for practice Knowledge obtained using correspondence analysis can be transferred immediately into practice or used to foster further research.

  13. Visualisation and Analysis Challenges for WALLABY

    OpenAIRE

    Fluke, Christopher J; Barnes, David G.; Hassan, Amr H.

    2010-01-01

    Visualisation and analysis of terabyte-scale datacubes, as will be produced with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), will pose challenges for existing astronomy software and the work practices of astronomers. Focusing on the proposed outcomes of WALLABY (Widefield ASKAP L-Band Legacy All-Sky Blind Survey), and using lessons learnt from HIPASS (HI Parkes All Sky Survey), we identify issues that astronomers will face with WALLABY data cubes. We comment on potential researc...

  14. Visualisation Techniques for Learning and Teaching Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljis, Jasna; Baldwin, Lynne P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the programming knowledge and skills that learners need to develop, and concludes that this is an area of computer science education where those involved in the teaching of programming need to further consider the nature, structure and function of domain specific knowledge. Visualisation techniques may offer important insights into the learning and teaching of programming. It has been argued that conceptual models could serve to enhance learners' conceptual understanding ...

  15. Alzheimer's disease: Is this a brain specific diabetic condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Vanita; Deshmukh, Rahul; Jaswal, Priya; Kumar, Puneet; Bariwal, Jitender

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are the two major health issues affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, with major impacts in the patient's daily life. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing AD compared with healthy individuals. The principal biological mechanisms that associate with the progression of diabetes and AD are not completely understood. Impaired insulin signaling, uncontrolled glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, abnormal protein processing, and the stimulation of inflammatory pathways are common features to both AD and T2DM. In recent years brain specific abnormalities in insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling considered as a major trigger involved in the etiopathogenesis of AD, showing T2DM like milieu. This review summarizes the pathways that might link diabetes and AD and the effect of diminished insulin. PMID:27235734

  16. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  17. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  18. A Game-theoretic View on Behavioural Visualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To bridge the gap between domain experts and formal methods experts, visualisations of the behaviour of formal models are used to let the domain expert understand and experiment with the formal model. In this paper we provide a definition of visualisations, founded in game-theory, which regards v...... visualisations as transition systems synchronised with formal models. We show example visualisations, use them to show winning strategies of games, and demonstrate how an industrial application of formal models benefited from this approach.......To bridge the gap between domain experts and formal methods experts, visualisations of the behaviour of formal models are used to let the domain expert understand and experiment with the formal model. In this paper we provide a definition of visualisations, founded in game-theory, which regards...

  19. Bird brains and tool use: beyond instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedter, Georg F

    2013-01-01

    Few displays of complex cognition are as intriguing as nonhuman tool use. Long thought to be unique to humans, evidence for tool use and manufacture has now been gathered in chimpanzees, dolphins, and elephants. Outside of mammals, tool use is most common in birds, especially in corvids and parrots. The present paper reviews the evidence for avian tool use, both in the wild and in laboratory settings. It also places this behavioral evidence in the context of longstanding debates about the kinds of mental processes nonhumans can perform. Descartes argued that animals are unable to think because they are soulless machines, incapable of flexible behavior. Later, as human machines became more sophisticated and psychologists discovered classical and instrumental conditioning, skepticism about animal thinking decreased. However, behaviors that involve more than simple conditioning continued to elicit skepticism, especially among behaviorists. Nonetheless, as reviewed here, strong behavioral data now indicate that tool use in some birds cannot be explained as resulting entirely from instrumental conditioning. The neural substrates of tool use in birds remain unclear, but the available data point mainly to the caudolateral nidopallium, which shares both functional and structural features with the mammalian prefrontal cortex. As more data on the neural mechanisms of complex cognition in birds accrue, skepticism about those mental capacities should continue to wane. PMID:23979456

  20. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found. PMID:24084195

  1. Techniques De Visualisation En Aerodynamique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veret, Claude M.

    1985-02-01

    During the tests in wind tunnel, flow visualization techniques offer to the aerodynamicists general views of the whole or part of flows they are studying. Even when the image observation only provides qualitative informations, the high density of these informations leads to a synthetic interpretation of the very complex physical phenomena which take place in the course of the interaction between a flow and a solid in relative motion. The variety of these techniques arises from the problem diversity according to the fluid relative velocity and to the solid wall proximity. On the wall, informations are obtained by examination of the flows of more or less viscous, colored or not, liquid spread on the surface, or still thin tufts motion. Out of the wall, the techniques to be used are different according that the external flow velocity is more or less fast as that of the sound in this medium. In subsonic flow, the air is seeded with tracers in the shape of small solid or liquid particles. Observed individualy or in groups, the particle motion informs on this of the surrounding air. Images are obtained thanks to the particle scattering properties regarding the illumination light. Changes in the illuminating conditions (total illumination or by a light sheet) allow to show particular features such as vortices, separation and recirculating zones, ..In the supersonic domain, new physical phenomena appear, providing rough or progressive changes of the gas density (particularly, shock wave apparition). These density variations involve propagation light perturbations (phase changes in a light wave or light ray de-viations in a beam). It is the domain where techniques such as interferometry, schlieren and shadowgraphy are developed. They provide not only qualitative visualizations, but, in certain cases, such as two-dimensional or axisymetrical flows, they allow density distribution determinations. Some phenomena are very brief (detonation wave propagation) or evolve fast

  2. Different brain networks underlying the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning: a metabolic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pardo, H; Conejo, N M; Lana, G; Arias, J L

    2012-01-27

    The specific brain regions and circuits involved in the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning are still a matter of debate. To address this issue, regional changes in brain metabolic capacity were mapped during the acquisition and expression of contextual fear conditioning using cytochrome oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. In comparison with a group briefly exposed to a conditioning chamber, rats that received a series of randomly presented footshocks in the same conditioning chamber (fear acquisition group) showed increased CO activity in anxiety-related brain regions like the ventral periaqueductal gray, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral habenula, the mammillary bodies, and the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus. Another group received randomly presented footshocks, and it was re-exposed to the same conditioning chamber one week later (fear expression group). The conditioned group had significantly higher CO activity as compared with the matched control group in the following brain regions: the ventral periaqueductal gray, the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In addition, analysis of functional brain networks using interregional CO activity correlations revealed different patterns of functional connectivity between fear acquisition and fear expression groups. In particular, a network comprising the ventral hippocampus and amygdala nuclei was found in the fear acquisition group, whereas a closed reciprocal dorsal hippocampal network was detected in the fear expression group. These results suggest that contextual fear acquisition and expression differ as regards to the brain networks involved, although they share common brain regions involved in fear, anxiety, and defensive behavior. PMID:22173014

  3. The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain’s capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23635870

  4. Reinforcement learning, conditioning, and the brain: Successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Tiago V

    2009-12-01

    The field of reinforcement learning has greatly influenced the neuroscientific study of conditioning. This article provides an introduction to reinforcement learning followed by an examination of the successes and challenges using reinforcement learning to understand the neural bases of conditioning. Successes reviewed include (1) the mapping of positive and negative prediction errors to the firing of dopamine neurons and neurons in the lateral habenula, respectively; (2) the mapping of model-based and model-free reinforcement learning to associative and sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits, respectively; and (3) the mapping of actor and critic to the dorsal and ventral striatum, respectively. Challenges reviewed consist of several behavioral and neural findings that are at odds with standard reinforcement-learning models, including, among others, evidence for hyperbolic discounting and adaptive coding. The article suggests ways of reconciling reinforcement-learning models with many of the challenging findings, and highlights the need for further theoretical developments where necessary. Additional information related to this study may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:19897789

  5. Intraoperative visualisation of the trigeminal cistern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous retrogassarian glycerol rhizotomy has passed the test of time as an immediately effective and reliable method for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. X-ray-assisted puncture of the trigeminal cistern and contrast-enhanced intraoperative visualisation techniques are absolute requirements of this surgical measure and invariably precede any further steps taken by the surgeon. The use of state-of-the-art fluoroscopic methods ensures that ample information is even obtained from the images of the base-of-scull region. (orig.)

  6. Toward a brain-computer interface for Alzheimer's disease patients by combining classical conditioning and brain state classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Giulia; Dalboni da Rocha, Josué Luiz; van der Heiden, Linda; Raffone, Antonino; Birbaumer, Niels; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide alternative methods for communicating and acting on the world, since messages or commands are conveyed from the brain to an external device without using the normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the most advanced stages, who have lost the ability to communicate verbally, could benefit from a BCI that may allow them to convey basic thoughts (e.g., "yes" and "no") and emotions. There is currently no report of such research, mostly because the cognitive deficits in AD patients pose serious limitations to the use of traditional BCIs, which are normally based on instrumental learning and require users to self-regulate their brain activation. Recent studies suggest that not only self-regulated brain signals, but also involuntary signals, for instance related to emotional states, may provide useful information about the user, opening up the path for so-called "affective BCIs". These interfaces do not necessarily require users to actively perform a cognitive task, and may therefore be used with patients who are cognitively challenged. In the present hypothesis paper, we propose a paradigm shift from instrumental learning to classical conditioning, with the aim of discriminating "yes" and "no" thoughts after associating them to positive and negative emotional stimuli respectively. This would represent a first step in the development of a BCI that could be used by AD patients, lending a new direction not only for communication, but also for rehabilitation and diagnosis.

  7. Conditioning of brain stimulation-induced presleep behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, W; Chase, M H

    1994-11-01

    Experiments were conducted on three chronic unanesthetized, undrugged cats. Electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain area (BFA) resulted in presleep behavior (i.e., the cats would sit or lie down, and EEG spindles would arise). After several sessions (conducted twice a week), two of these cats began to exhibit presleep behavior almost immediately after entering the experimental compartment, even before the application of BFA stimulation. The third cat often ate some food (which was always present in the compartment) before showing presleep behavior. When stimulation was withheld during an extinction procedure, the cats still exhibited presleep behavior in the absence of stimulation during several sessions. We conclude that repeated BFA stimulation led to conditioning of the stimulation effects, that is, the presleep behavior that was evoked by the environmental situation alone, without BFA stimulation or any other intermittent stimulus. PMID:7824587

  8. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  9. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  10. Two N-visualisation tools: game versus reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, A.; Bleeker, A.; Erisman, J.W.; Syakila, A.; Kroeze, C.; Vries, de W.; Kros, H.; Sanders, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes two different visualisation instruments that can be used for awareness raising and educational purposes: Nitrogenius and the N-visualisation tool. Both instruments aim to convey the complex interactions that occur in the nitrogen (N) cycle and the need for integrated measures

  11. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael;

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal...... and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates. Biological visualisation libraries such as www.digimorph.org hold terabytes of images of various species, with its core focus on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) cranial imaging. Although impressive, CT imaging is mostly suited to visualise...... bone anatomy, and there is a considerable lack of non-interpreted soft-tissue visualisation in figures of anatomical literature and databases. This study aims to present the endless possibilities of high resolution visualisation of both soft and hard structures in animals using magnetic resonance...

  12. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  13. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differ...

  14. Visualising Astronomy: Using Impact to Inform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R.

    2013-04-01

    Pop culture has visualised asteroids in a way that has made a far greater impact in the public domain than the outreach community can ever hope to achieve. Films such as Meteor (1979), Armageddon (1997) and Deep Impact (1997) may score poorly on scientific accuracy, but they have influenced our collective consciousness. (Perhaps in a fit of pre-millennial anxiety, the late 1990s saw a host of films featuring an asteroid or comet on a collision course with Earth1.) In addition to the destruction of Earth's cities, the Millennium Falcon dodging giant tumbling boulders in The Empire Strikes Back has probably influenced more people's mental image of an asteroid belt than any other single visual.

  15. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d. infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu, lithium chloride (F(LiCl, or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl. One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl than the F(NaCl or F(Glu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl and F(Glu foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl food was also preferred over the F(Glu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  16. Globally conditioned Granger causality in brain-brain and brain-heart interactions: a combined heart rate variability/ultra-high-field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggento, Andrea; Bianciardi, Marta; Passamonti, Luca; Wald, Lawrence L; Guerrisi, Maria; Barbieri, Riccardo; Toschi, Nicola

    2016-05-13

    The causal, directed interactions between brain regions at rest (brain-brain networks) and between resting-state brain activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) outflow (brain-heart links) have not been completely elucidated. We collected 7 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with simultaneous respiration and heartbeat recordings in nine healthy volunteers to investigate (i) the causal interactions between cortical and subcortical brain regions at rest and (ii) the causal interactions between resting-state brain activity and the ANS as quantified through a probabilistic, point-process-based heartbeat model which generates dynamical estimates for sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as sympathovagal balance. Given the high amount of information shared between brain-derived signals, we compared the results of traditional bivariate Granger causality (GC) with a globally conditioned approach which evaluated the additional influence of each brain region on the causal target while factoring out effects concomitantly mediated by other brain regions. The bivariate approach resulted in a large number of possibly spurious causal brain-brain links, while, using the globally conditioned approach, we demonstrated the existence of significant selective causal links between cortical/subcortical brain regions and sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation as well as sympathovagal balance. In particular, we demonstrated a causal role of the amygdala, hypothalamus, brainstem and, among others, medial, middle and superior frontal gyri, superior temporal pole, paracentral lobule and cerebellar regions in modulating the so-called central autonomic network (CAN). In summary, we show that, provided proper conditioning is employed to eliminate spurious causalities, ultra-high-field functional imaging coupled with physiological signal acquisition and GC analysis is able to quantify directed brain-brain and brain-heart interactions reflecting

  17. Gliosis after traumatic brain injury in conditional ephrinB2-knockout mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ling; CHEN Xiao-lin; YANG Jian-kai; REN Ze-guang; WANG Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Background In response to the injury of the central nervous system (CNS),the astrocytes upregulate the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),which largely contributes to the reactive gliosis after brain injury.The regulatory mechanism of this process is still not clear.In this study,we aimed to compare the ephrin-B2 deficient mice with the wild type ones with regard to gliosis after traumatic brain injury.Methods We generated ephrin-B2 knockout mice specifically in CNS astrocytes.Twelve mice from this gene-knockout strain were randomly selected along with twelve mice from the wild type littermates.In both groups,a modified controlled cortical impact injury model was applied to create a closed traumatic brain injury.Twenty-eight days after the injury,Nissl staining and GFAP immunofluorescence staining were used to compare the brain atrophy and GFAP immunoreactivity between the two groups.All the data were analyzed by t-test for between-group comparison.Results We successfully set up the conditional ephrin-B2 knockout mice strain,which was confirmed by genotyping and ephrin-B2/GFAP double staining.These mice developed normally without apparent abnormality in general appearance.Twenty-eight days following brain injury,histopathology revealed by immunohistochemistry showed different degrees of cerebral injuries in both groups.Compared with wild-type group,the ephrin-B2 knockout group exhibited less brain atrophy ratio for the injured hemispheres (P=0.005) and hippocampus (P=0.027).Also the wild-type group demonstrated greater GFAP immunoreactivity increment within hippocampal regions (P=0.008).Conclusions The establishment of conditional ephrin-B2 knockout mice provides us with a new way to explore the role of ephrin-B2 in astrocytes.Our findings revealed less atrophy and GFAP immunoreactivity in the knockout mice strain after traumatic brain injury,which implied ephrin-B2 could be one of the promoters to upregulate gliosis following brain injury.

  18. Scenario visualisation for participatory landscape planning - a study from Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, different functions must be integrated simultaneously in the Danish countryside, demanding a common effort of planners, decision-makers, researchers, and stakeholders. The study proposes a transdisciplinary method that combines scenario technique, photorealistic visualisation, and stak

  19. The NUMLAB numerical laboratory for computation and visualisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maubach, J.; Telea, A.

    2005-01-01

    A large range of software environments addresses numerical simulation, interactive visualisation and computational steering. Most such environments are designed to cover a limited application domain, such as finite element or finite difference packages, symbolic or linear algebra computations or ima

  20. Large-scale comparative visualisation of sets of multidimensional data

    CERN Document Server

    Vohl, Dany; Fluke, Christopher J; Poudel, Govinda; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Hassan, Amr H; Benovitski, Yuri; Wong, Tsz Ho; Kaluza, Owen; Nguyen, Toan D; Bonnington, C Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present encube $-$ a qualitative, quantitative and comparative visualisation and analysis system, with application to high-resolution, immersive three-dimensional environments and desktop displays. encube extends previous comparative visualisation systems by considering: 1) the integration of comparative visualisation and analysis into a unified system; 2) the documentation of the discovery process; and 3) an approach that enables scientists to continue the research process once back at their desktop. Our solution enables tablets, smartphones or laptops to be used as interaction units for manipulating, organising, and querying data. We highlight the modularity of encube, allowing additional functionalities to be included as required. Additionally, our approach supports a high level of collaboration within the physical environment. We show how our implementation of encube operates in a large-scale, hybrid visualisation and supercomputing environment using the CAVE2 at Monash University, and on a local deskt...

  1. Three Tools to Aid Visualisation of FITS Files for Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P; Klapaukh, R; Johnston-Hollitt, M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly there is a need to develop astronomical visualisation and manipulations tools which allow viewers to interact with displayed data directly, in real time and across a range of platforms. In addition, increases in dynamic range available for astronomical images with next generation telescopes have led to a desire to develop enhanced visualisations capable of presenting information across a wide range of intensities. This paper describes three new tools for astronomical visualisation and image manipulation that are the result of a collaboration between software engineers and radio astronomers. The first tool, FITS3D, is a fast, interactive 3D data cube viewer designed to allow real-time interactive comparisons of multiple spectral line data cubes simultaneously. It features region specific selection manipulation including smoothing. The second tool, FITS2D, aids the visualisation and manipulation of 2D fits images. The tool supports the interactive creation of free-form masks which allow the user to...

  2. Visualisation and quantitative analysis of flat continuous water jet structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ščučka, J. (Jiří); M. Zeleňák; Foldyna, J.; Lehocká, D.; Votavová, H.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experiment focused on the visualisation and structural analysis of flat continuous high-speed water jet used in descaling process are presented in this paper. The aim of the work was to test the applicability of the shadowgraph technique, combined with image processing and analysis methods, to visualise the water jet structure and analyse its main quantitative parameters. Volume percentage of water and air in the water jet structure, size of droplets and water bunches ...

  3. Integrated data visualisation: an approach to capture older adults’ wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thai; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire

    2012-01-01

    Informatics tools can help support the health and independence of older adults. In this paper, we present an approach towards integrating health-monitoring data and describe several techniques for the assessment and visualisation of integrated health and well-being of older adults. We present three different visualisation techniques to provide distinct alternatives towards display of the same information, focusing on reducing the cognitive load of data interpretation. We demonstrate the feasi...

  4. Changes in trace element composition of the brain under conditions of experimental myocardial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodinskij, А. G.; Kozlova, Ju. V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Violation of the exchange of trace elements (TE) is an important link in the pathogenesis of cerebral pathology that occurs in people with heart diseases. In order to analyze the changes of the composition of TE, in 19 mature rats quantitative characteristics of TE in brain were identified by emission spectrography under conditions of doxorubicin-induced myocardial dysfunction (MD).Methods and results. We found that the concentration of magnesium and potassium increased, however, the con...

  5. Integrating 3D visualisation in landscape design and environmental planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, E.; Hehl-Lange, S.

    2006-07-01

    Information is a key element in environmental decision making. In landscape and environmental planning, information can be presented in a number of ways, ranging from texts and statistics to realistic representations such as 3D visualisations. We assume that 3D visualisations of scenarios for landscape changes are a key element for informed decision making. In order to assess the role of 3D visualisation in the planning and decision making process, we have examined three case studies related to generating energy (i.e., hydro power, reclamation of a brown coal surface mine, and wind turbines). In the early 1990s when 3D visualisation technology was just becoming more widely available, the application was typically limited to large infrastructure projects that were often subject to an environmental impact assessment. At that time 3D visualisation was only used to show the results of the planning and decision making process. There are indications that this is now changing towards integrating visualisation already in the earliest planning steps. Such integration allows both planning experts and the public to engage on equal footing in the entire planning and decision making process.

  6. General anesthetics inhibit erythropoietin induction under hypoxic conditions in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoharu Tanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO, originally identified as a hematopoietic growth factor produced in the kidney and fetal liver, is also endogenously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS. EPO in the CNS, mainly produced in astrocytes, is induced under hypoxic conditions in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-dependent manner and plays a dominant role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis. We investigated the effect of general anesthetics on EPO expression in the mouse brain and primary cultured astrocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were exposed to 10% oxygen with isoflurane at various concentrations (0.10-1.0%. Expression of EPO mRNA in the brain was studied, and the effects of sevoflurane, halothane, nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, ketamine, and propofol were investigated. In addition, expression of HIF-2α protein was studied by immunoblotting. Hypoxia-induced EPO mRNA expression in the brain was significantly suppressed by isoflurane in a concentration-dependent manner. A similar effect was confirmed for all other general anesthetics. Hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2α protein was also significantly suppressed with isoflurane. In the experiments using primary cultured astrocytes, isoflurane, pentobarbital, and ketamine suppressed hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2α protein and EPO mRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that general anesthetics suppress activation of HIF-2 and inhibit hypoxia-induced EPO upregulation in the mouse brain through a direct effect on astrocytes.

  7. Targeting myeloid cells to the brain using non-myeloablative conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotima Böttcher

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs are able to colonize the central nervous system (CNS at sites of damage. This ability makes BMDCs an ideal cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic genes/molecules to the CNS. However, conditioning is required for bone marrow-derived myeloid cells to engraft in the brain, which so far has been achieved by total body irradiation (TBI and by chemotherapy (e.g. busulfan treatment. Unfortunately, both regimens massively disturb the host's hematopoietic compartment. Here, we established a conditioning protocol to target myeloid cells to sites of brain damage in mice using non-myeloablative focal head irradiation (HI. This treatment was associated with comparatively low inflammatory responses in the CNS despite cranial radiation doses which are identical to TBI, as revealed by gene expression analysis of cytokines/chemokines such as CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-α and CCL5. HI prior to bone marrow transplantation resulted in much lower levels of blood chimerism defined as the percentage of donor-derived cells in peripheral blood ( 95% or busulfan treatment (> 50%. Nevertheless, HI effectively recruited myeloid cells to the area of motoneuron degeneration in the brainstem within 7 days after facial nerve axotomy. In contrast, no donor-derived cells were detected in the lesioned facial nucleus of busulfan-treated animals up to 2 weeks after transplantation. Our findings suggest that myeloid cells can be targeted to sites of brain damage even in the presence of very low levels of peripheral blood chimerism. We established a novel non-myeloablative conditioning protocol with minimal disturbance of the host's hematopoietic system for targeting BMDCs specifically to areas of pathology in the brain.

  8. Brain c-Fos immunocytochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry after a fear conditioning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Nélida M; González Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-05-01

    The involvement of the basolateral and the medial amygdala in fear conditioning was evaluated using different markers of neuronal activation. The method described here is a combination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry and c-Fos immunocytochemistry on fresh frozen brain sections. Freezing behavior was used as an index of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. As expected, freezing scores were significantly higher in rats exposed to tone-shock pairings in a distinctive environment (conditioned; COND), as compared to rats that did not receive any shocks (UNCD). CO labeling was increased in the basolateral and medial amygdala of the COND group. Conversely, c-Fos expression in the basolateral and medial amygdala was lower in the COND group as compared to the UNCD group. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was particularly high in the medial amygdala of the UNCD group. The data provided by both techniques indicate that these amygdalar nuclei could play different roles on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. PMID:17425902

  9. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine vs. social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai K; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction. PMID:23015784

  10. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine versus social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana eEl Rawas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex - nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction.

  11. Science visualisation within a planetarium setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R.

    2008-06-01

    In less than a decade, a dramatic shift has taken place inside planetariums. Hundreds of theatres of various sizes have adopted immersive video technology, filling domes with computer-generatedvisuals that can depict current astronomical discoveries with unprecedented fidelity. Whereas planetarium programming once depended on informed artwork to tell science stories, the opportunity now exists to incorporate science visualisation into high-impact `narrative journeys' that immerse audiences inside the content. Observed data and computational simulations can provide a rich basis for such simulated excursions, giving people an experience of 21st century astronomy that approximates an alternate reality. Proper utilisation of the new technology requires the worldwide planetarium community to mature in certain ways. Broadened science topics require significant professional development on the part of educators, production teams need to devise ways of incorporating data into their work, and collectively, we must learn how to tell stories with an enriched palette of data-driven visuals. The international astronomy education community must consider how to support this emerging medium. Some ideas include the development of community standards (e.g. the Virtual Astronomy Metadata Project), specifically engineered content (e.g. HubbleSource's pre-rendered sequences), and increased visibility of the medium at conferences (e.g. the special session at the 2006 Astronomical Society of the Pacific meeting). As the chair of the Fulldome Video Committee of the International Planetarium Society - and the director of an immersive theatre under construction-the author is seeking ways to increase collaboration and cooperation across our varied subdisciplines.

  12. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differentially conditioned skin conductance responses. Midbrain and insula resting metabolism negatively predicted midbrain and insula functional reactivity, while dorsal anterior cingulate resting metabolism positively predicted midbrain functional reactivity. We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning. PMID:22207247

  13. Semantic classical conditioning and brain-computer interface (BCI control: Encoding of affirmative and negative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A. Ruf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate conditioned electroencephalographic (EEG responses to factually correct and incorrect statements in order to enable binary communication by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI. In two experiments with healthy participants true and false statements (serving as conditioned stimuli, CSs were paired with two different tones which served as unconditioned stimuli (USs. The features of the USs were varied and tested for their effectiveness to elicit differentiable conditioned reactions (CRs. After acquisition of the CRs, these CRs to true and false statements were classified offline using a radial basis function kernel support vector machine. A mean single-trial classification accuracy of 50.5% was achieved for differentiating conditioned yes versus no thinking and mean accuracies of 65.4% for classification of yes and 68.8% for no thinking (both relative to baseline were found using the best US. Analysis of the area under the curve of the conditioned EEG responses revealed significant differences between conditioned yes and no answers. Even though improvements are necessary, these first results indicate that the semantic conditioning paradigm could be a useful basis for further research regarding BCI communication in patients with complete locked-in syndrome (CLIS.

  14. Interpreting climate data visualisations to inform adaptation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Daron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate development of graphical visualisations to communicate climate data is fundamental to the provision of climate services to guide climate change adaptation decisions. However, at present there is a lack of empirical evidence, particularly in Africa, to help climate information providers determine how best to communicate and display climate data. To help address this issue, an online survey, primarily targeted at the African vulnerability, impacts and adaptation community, was designed and disseminated widely. The survey examines the interpretation of climate data as a function of the style and information content of graphical visualisations. It is shown that choices made when constructing the visualisations, such as presenting percentile information versus showing the range, significantly impact on interpretation. Results also show that respondents who interpret a higher likelihood of future changes to climate, based on the visualisation of climate model projections, express greater confidence in their interpretations. The findings have relevance to the climate risk community in Africa and elsewhere across the world, and imply that a naïve approach to visualising climate data risks misinterpretation and unjustified levels of trust, with the potential to misinform adaptation and policy decisions.

  15. Technology Corner: Visualising Forensic Data: Evidence Guidelines (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Schofield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visualisation is becoming increasingly important for understanding information, such as investigative data (for example: computing, medical and crime scene evidence and analysis (for example, network capability assessment, data file reconstruction and planning scenarios. Investigative data visualisation is used to reconstruct a scene or item and is used to assist the viewer (who may well be a member of the general public with little or no understanding of the subject matter to understand what is being presented. Analysis visualisations, on the other hand, are usually developed to review data, information and assess competing scenario hypotheses for those who usually have an understanding of the subject matter.Courtroom environments are morphing into cinematic display environments, the media consumed by an audience who are increasingly visually literate and media savvy (Heintz, 2002. There are a number of fundamental implications inherent in the shift from oral to visual mediation and a number of facets of this modern evidence presentation technology needs to be investigated and analysed. One of the primary issues of visualisation is that no matter how coherent the data, there will always be conjecture and debate as to how the information is/has-been visualised and, is it presented in an acceptable and meaningful way.This paper presents a range of examples of where forensic data has been visualised using various techniques and technology, the paper then examines aspects of the visual courtroom evidence presented and discusses some of the benefits and potential problems of implementing this technology. This paper is part two of a two-part series that aims to describe the use of, and provide guidelines for, the use of graphical displays in courtrooms.

  16. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  17. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; McDonald, Craig G; Johnson, Luke R

    2011-01-12

    Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram) is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  18. Visualising the Roots of Quadratic Equations with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural extension of the root visualisation techniques first presented by Bardell (2012) for quadratic equations with real coefficients. Consideration is now given to the familiar quadratic equation "y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c" in which the coefficients "a," "b," "c" are generally…

  19. Visualising Knowledge Structures in Biology: Discipline, Curriculum and Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is discussed as a tool for the visualisation of knowledge structures that can be exploited within biological education. Application of this tool makes it possible to relate the structure of the curriculum to the structure of the discipline, in order to support the development of robust student knowledge structures in ways that…

  20. Damage Identification in Composite Panels - Methodology and Visualisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Buethe, I.; Michaelides, P.; Moix Bonet, M.; Lampeas, G.; Woelcken, P.C.; Papadopoulos, M.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for the identification of an impact damage using guided waves on a composite structure is implemented. Both numerical and experimental results are used, and a graphical user interface is developed to visualise the potentially damaged area. The latter allows, on top of detection, an ass

  1. 4D confocal microscopy for visualisation of bone remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, GA; Vardaxis, NJ; Boon, ME; Kok, LP; Rietveld, DC; SCHUT, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Until recently it was very time consuming and difficult to make three-dimensional (3D) images of newly formed bone. With the advent of confocal technologies and increased computer power 3D imaging is greatly facilitated. In this paper we demonstrate that enhanced confocal visualisation of newly form

  2. STDP in oscillatory recurrent networks: theoretical conditions for desynchronization and applications to deep-brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pascal Pfister

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly synchronized neural networks can be the source of various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of such networks and the conditions under which a high level of synchronization can be observed. One of the key factors that influences the level of synchronization is the type of learning rule that governs synaptic plasticity. Most of the existing work on synchronization in recurrent network with synaptic plasticity are based on numerical simulations and there is a clear lack of a theoretical framework for studying the effects of various synaptic plasticity rules. In this paper we derive analytically the conditions for Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP to lead a network into a synchronized or a desynchronized state. We also show that under appropriate conditions bistability occurs in recurrent networks governed by STDP. Indeed, a pathological regime with strong connections and therefore strong synchronized activity, as well as a physiological regime with weaker connections and lower levels of synchronization are found to coexist. Furthermore, we show that with appropriate stimulation, the network dynamics can be pushed to the low synchronization stable state. This type of therapeutical stimulation is very different from the existing High-Frequency stimulation for Deep-Brain Stimulation since once the stimulation is stopped the network stays in the low synchronization regime.

  3. Erosion visualisation and characteristics of a two dimensional diffusion treated martensitic stainless steel hydrofoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, B.S. [Corporate R and D Division, Hyderabad (India). Materials Science Lab.

    1998-04-15

    Erosive wear of complicated water pump and hydro turbine blades is a complex problem. This is due mainly to the many variables involved in the erosive wear. These depend upon type and erodant, base material and flow conditions. In this paper, visualisation and prevention of erosive wear on two dimensional forged 12Cr and 13Cr-4Ni cast steel hydrofoils under flow conditions similar to that of hydroturbines and water pumps is described. An experimental study was taken using a rotating disc apparatus. From the study, it was observed that the erosion of complicated hydrofoils depends on the flow conditions, especially flow separation, reattachment and boundary layer growth. The visualisation of wear on the hydrofoils was obtained from the wear replicas which were etched on the aluminium rotating disc. Further, to control the wear of these hydrofoils, these were given a hard diffused layer based on boronizing. The performance of these hard diffused layers along with wear prediction on 12Cr and 13Cr-4Ni steel hydrofoils are reported in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Using game engine for 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews on the 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data using game engines that are available in the market as well as open source. 3D terrain visualisation is a technique used to visualise terrain information from GIS data such as a digital elevation model (DEM), triangular irregular network (TIN) and contour. Much research has been conducted to transform the 2D view of map to 3D. There are several terrain visualisation softwares that are available for free, which include Cesium, Hftool and Landserf. This review paper will help interested users to better understand the current state of art in 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data using game engines

  5. Using game engine for 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Mat, Ruzinoor; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohammed; Nasir Zulkifli, Abdul; Shafry Mohd Rahim, Mohd; Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews on the 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data using game engines that are available in the market as well as open source. 3D terrain visualisation is a technique used to visualise terrain information from GIS data such as a digital elevation model (DEM), triangular irregular network (TIN) and contour. Much research has been conducted to transform the 2D view of map to 3D. There are several terrain visualisation softwares that are available for free, which include Cesium, Hftool and Landserf. This review paper will help interested users to better understand the current state of art in 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data using game engines.

  6. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5-HT1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the radioligands which are available for visualisation and quantification of this important neuroreceptor in the human brain, using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPET). More than 20 compounds have been labelled with carbon-11 (half-life 20 min), fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) or iodine-123 (half-life 13.2 h): structural analogues of the agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, structural analogues of the antagonist, WAY 100635, and apomorphines. The most successful radioligands thus far are [carbonyl-11C] WAY-100635 (WAY), [carbonyl-11C]desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY), p-[18F]MPPF and [11C]robalzotan (NAD-299). The high-affinity ligands WAY and DWAY produce excellent images of 5-HT1A receptor distribution in the brain (even the raphe nuclei are visualised), but they cannot be distributed to remote facilities and they probably cannot be used to measure changes in endogenous serotonin. Binding of the moderate-affinity ligands MPPF and NAD-299 may be more sensitive to serotonin competition and MPPF can be distributed to PET centres within a flying distance of a few hours. Future research should be directed towards: (a) improvement of the metabolic stability in primates; (b) development of a fluorinated radioligand which can be produced in large quantities and (c) production of a radioiodinated or technetium-labelled ligand for SPET. (orig.)

  7. Critical role of peripheral vasoconstriction in fatal brain hyperthermia induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under conditions that mimic human drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Kim, Albert H; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-06-01

    MDMA (Ecstasy) is an illicit drug used by young adults at hot, crowed "rave" parties, yet the data on potential health hazards of its abuse remain controversial. Here, we examined the effect of MDMA on temperature homeostasis in male rats under standard laboratory conditions and under conditions that simulate drug use in humans. We chronically implanted thermocouple microsensors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain reward area), temporal muscle, and facial skin to measure temperature continuously from freely moving rats. While focusing on brain hyperthermia, temperature monitoring from the two peripheral locations allowed us to evaluate the physiological mechanisms (i.e., intracerebral heat production and heat loss via skin surfaces) that underlie MDMA-induced brain temperature responses. Our data confirm previous reports on high individual variability and relatively weak brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA under standard control conditions (quiet rest, 22-23°C), but demonstrate dramatic enhancements of drug-induced brain hyperthermia during social interaction (exposure to male conspecific) and in warm environments (29°C). Importantly, we identified peripheral vasoconstriction as a critical mechanism underlying the activity- and state-dependent potentiation of MDMA-induced brain hyperthermia. Through this mechanism, which prevents proper heat dissipation to the external environment, MDMA at a moderate nontoxic dose (9 mg/kg or ~1/5 of LD50 in rats) can cause fatal hyperthermia under environmental conditions commonly encountered by humans. Our results demonstrate that doses of MDMA that are nontoxic under cool, quiet conditions can become highly dangerous under conditions that mimic recreational use of MDMA at rave parties or other hot, crowded venues.

  8. The effect of conditional probability of chord progression on brain response: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual.

  9. Model-Coupled Autoencoder for Time Series Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gianniotis, Nikolaos; Tiňo, Peter; Polsterer, Kai L

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for the visualisation of a set of time series that combines an echo state network with an autoencoder. For each time series in the dataset we train an echo state network, using a common and fixed reservoir of hidden neurons, and use the optimised readout weights as the new representation. Dimensionality reduction is then performed via an autoencoder on the readout weight representations. The crux of the work is to equip the autoencoder with a loss function that correctly interprets the reconstructed readout weights by associating them with a reconstruction error measured in the data space of sequences. This essentially amounts to measuring the predictive performance that the reconstructed readout weights exhibit on their corresponding sequences when plugged back into the echo state network with the same fixed reservoir. We demonstrate that the proposed visualisation framework can deal both with real valued sequences as well as binary sequences. We derive magnification factors in order t...

  10. Electronic Visualisation in Chemistry: From Alchemy to Art

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Karl; Bowen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    Chemists now routinely use software as part of their work. For example, virtual chemistry allows chemical reactions to be simulated. In particular, a selection of software is available for the visualisation of complex 3-dimensional molecular structures. Many of these are very beautiful in their own right. As well as being included as illustrations in academic papers, such visualisations are often used on the covers of chemistry journals as artistically decorative and attractive motifs. Chemical images have also been used as the basis of artworks in exhibitions. This paper explores the development of the relationship of chemistry, art, and IT. It covers some of the increasingly sophisticated software used to generate these projections (e.g., UCSF Chimera) and their progressive use as a visual art form.

  11. An Improved Chamber for Direct Visualisation of Chemotaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J Muinonen-Martin; Douwe M Veltman; Gabriela Kalna; Insall, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a growing appreciation over the last decade that chemotaxis plays an important role in cancer migration, invasion and metastasis. Research into the field of cancer cell chemotaxis is still in its infancy and traditional investigative tools have been developed with other cell types and purposes in mind. Direct visualisation chambers are considered the gold standard for investigating the behaviour of cells migrating in a chemotactic gradient. We therefore drew up a list of key at...

  12. Model-Coupled Autoencoder for Time Series Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianniotis, Nikolaos; Kügler, Sven D.; Tiňo, Peter; Polsterer, Kai L.

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for the visualisation of a set of time series that combines an echo state network with an autoencoder. For each time series in the dataset we train an echo state network, using a common and fixed reservoir of hidden neurons, and use the optimised readout weights as the new representation. Dimensionality reduction is then performed via an autoencoder on the readout weight representations. The crux of the work is to equip the autoencoder with a loss function that correctl...

  13. Development of Visualisations for Multi-Hazard Environments in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present an adaptation of global interacting hazard matrices for the purpose of improving disaster risk reduction in multi-hazard environments of Guatemala. Guatemala is associated with multiple natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, mass movements and floods. These processes are often not independent and it is therefore important to consider and understand the ways by which they interact to generate cascades or networks of natural hazard events. We first present a review of such hazard interactions and hazard chains in Guatemala, focusing on the volcanic environments around Pacaya, Fuego and Santiaguito. Interactions discussed are those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards. Consideration is also given to interactions where two hazards combine to trigger a third hazard, or two concurring hazards result in impacts greater than the sum of components. Second, we utilise and adapt global interacting hazard matrices designed to understand and communicate information about interactions. We explore the use of this hazard visualisation framework within the more regional Guatemalan context. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews, and a workshop with 16 participants, were held with hazard and civil protection professionals in Guatemala to solicit feedback on: (i) how visualisations with a global focus can be modified for use in Guatemala, (ii) possible end users for such visualisations, and (iii) participants' understanding of hazard interactions and their opinion of community understanding of these themes. Core ideas that emerged from these interviews were (i) the importance of such tools in rapid response, preparedness and community education, (ii) the appropriate scales for visualisation development, in order to have maximum impact, and (iii) the need to integrate anthropic factors to fully understand hazard cascades. It is hoped that the development of improved tools to understand natural hazard

  14. Data Visualisation: A Motivational and Teaching Tool in Official Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Sharleen Denise

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the use, in 2011, of some recent data visualizations to both motivate students and assist them to understanding underlying official statistics concepts. Examples of visualisations used in a Masters course in public policy and an applied statistics honours course are presented. These visualizations are free, either on-line or open-source and easy to access. Although they are of aggregates of very large official data sets and so may mask some of the underlying variation th...

  15. Visualising inter-subject variability in fMRI using threshold-weighted overlap maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies are revealing the neural systems sustaining many sensory, motor and cognitive abilities. A proper understanding of these systems requires an appreciation of the degree to which they vary across subjects. Some sources of inter-subject variability might be easy to measure (demographics, behavioural scores, or experimental factors), while others are more difficult (cognitive strategies, learning effects, and other hidden sources). Here, we introduce a simple way of visualising whole-brain consistency and variability in brain responses across subjects using threshold-weighted voxel-based overlap maps. The output quantifies the proportion of subjects activating a particular voxel or region over a wide range of statistical thresholds. The sensitivity of our approach was assessed in 30 healthy adults performing a matching task with their dominant hand. We show how overlap maps revealed many effects that were only present in a subsample of our group; we discuss how overlap maps can provide information that may be missed or misrepresented by standard group analysis, and how this information can help users to understand their data. In particular, we emphasize that functional overlap maps can be particularly useful when it comes to explaining typical (or atypical) compensatory mechanisms used by patients following brain damage. PMID:26846561

  16. Dynamics of brain activity underlying working memory for music in a naturalistic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Numminen, Jussi; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-08-01

    We aimed at determining the functional neuroanatomy of working memory (WM) recognition of musical motifs that occurs while listening to music by adopting a non-standard procedure. Western tonal music provides naturally occurring repetition and variation of motifs. These serve as WM triggers, thus allowing us to study the phenomenon of motif tracking within real music. Adopting a modern tango as stimulus, a behavioural test helped to identify the stimulus motifs and build a time-course regressor of WM neural responses. This regressor was then correlated with the participants' (musicians') functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal obtained during a continuous listening condition. In order to fine-tune the identification of WM processes in the brain, the variance accounted for by the sensory processing of a set of the stimulus' acoustic features was pruned from participants' neurovascular responses to music. Motivic repetitions activated prefrontal and motor cortical areas, basal ganglia, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, and cerebellum. The findings suggest that WM processing of motifs while listening to music emerges from the integration of neural activity distributed over cognitive, motor and limbic subsystems. The recruitment of the hippocampus stands as a novel finding in auditory WM. Effective connectivity and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analyses indicate that the hippocampal connectivity is modulated by motif repetitions, showing strong connections with WM-relevant areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - dlPFC, supplementary motor area - SMA, and cerebellum), which supports the role of the hippocampus in the encoding of the musical motifs in WM, and may evidence long-term memory (LTM) formation, enabled by the use of a realistic listening condition.

  17. The in vitro blood-brain barrier model under OGD condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornabene, Erica; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Berndt, Philipp;

    of therapies to treat this devastating disease. Materials and Methods - Primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels were cocultured with rat astrocytes in transwell inserts. At day 11, cells were treated with 4h of OGD by changing the culture medium with glucose-free medium......Introduction - The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical, transport and metabolic barrier which plays a key role in preventing uncontrolled exchanges between blood and brain, ensuring an optimal environment for neurons activity. This extent interface is created by the endothelial cells forming...... the wall of brain capillaries. The restrictive nature of the BBB is due to the presence of tight junctions, which seal the paracellular space, a low number of endocytotic vesicles and the presence of efflux transporters, resulting in a very tight layer. Ischemic insult and the subsequent reperfusion...

  18. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  19. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. PMID:27129758

  20. TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TAXONOMY FOR VISUALISATION OF STREAMED GEOSPATIAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Sibolla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  1. Towards the Development of a Taxonomy for Visualisation of Streamed Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibolla, B. H.; Van Zyl, T.; Coetzee, S.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  2. Pharmacological reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies functional brain circuits in mice exposed to a cocaine conditioned place preference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pedraz, María; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) behaviour and the functional brain circuitry involved. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was pharmacologically reduced with temozolomide (TMZ), and mice were tested for cocaine-induced CPP to study c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and in extrahippocampal addiction-related areas. Correlational and multivariate analysis revealed that, under normal conditions, the hippocampus showed widespread functional connectivity with other brain areas and strongly contributed to the functional brain module associated with CPP expression. However, the neurogenesis-reduced mice showed normal CPP acquisition but engaged an alternate brain circuit where the functional connectivity of the dentate gyrus was notably reduced and other areas (the medial prefrontal cortex, accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus) were recruited instead of the hippocampus. A second experiment unveiled that mice acquiring the cocaine-induced CPP under neurogenesis-reduced conditions were delayed in extinguishing their drug-seeking behaviour. But if the inhibited neurons were generated after CPP acquisition, extinction was not affected but an enhanced long-term CPP retention was found, suggesting that some roles of the adult-born neurons may differ depending on whether they are generated before or after drug-contextual associations are established. Importantly, cocaine-induced reinstatement of CPP behaviour was increased in the TMZ mice, regardless of the time of neurogenesis inhibition. The results show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis sculpts the addiction-related functional brain circuits, and reduction of the adult-born hippocampal neurons increases cocaine seeking in the CPP model. PMID:25870909

  3. Insula and inferior frontal triangularis activations distinguish between conditioned brain responses using emotional sounds for basic BCI communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda evan der Heiden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI, it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (yes and negative (no responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting.Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS, respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1 and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2, in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR. The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI.

  4. Changes in Lecithin Concentration in the Human Brain Tissue in Some Neurodegenerative Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of a possible increase in oxidative stress or deterioration of nerve cells during aging, in some states neurodegeneration was demonstrated by multiple biochemical deficiency, especially deficiency of cholesterol and lecithin in brain regions. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of lecithin in different regions of brain tissue (MC - motor cortex, NC - nucleus caudates, GT - temporal gyrus) dissected postmortem from people with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to people who died without these diseases (C). Spectrophotometric determination of lecithin in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions collected from of 12 persons with SDAT, in 11 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 persons with PD and in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 control persons, was performed by enzymatic method. The content of lecithin in MC: 14.4 mg/g fresh tissue (f.t.) and GT: 13.1 mg/g (f.t.) for SDAT was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by about 30 %, compared to control where there was: 21.6 mg/g (f.t.) in MC and 18.3 mg/g (f.t.) in the GT estimated. In all regions of the brain of PD patients, the content of lecithin was decreased by about 12 % compared to control, but without statistical significance. These results suggest that changes in the content of lecithin in these regions of brain tissue might affect the changes in the membrane potential and cell degeneration. (author)

  5. Implantation of Miniosmotic Pumps and Delivery of Tract Tracers to Study Brain Reorganization in Pathophysiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mendoza, Eduardo H; Carballo, Jeismar; Longart, Marines; Hermann, Dirk M; Doeppner, Thorsten R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment in animal models of cerebral disease imposes the problem of repeated injection protocols that may induce stress in animals and result in impermanent tissue levels of the drug. Additionally, drug delivery to the brain is delicate due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), thus significantly reducing intracerebral concentrations of selective drugs after systemic administration. Therefore, a system that allows both constant drug delivery without peak levels and circumvention of the BBB is in order to achieve sufficiently high intracerebral concentrations of drugs that are impermeable to the BBB. In this context, miniosmotic pumps represent an ideal system for constant drug delivery at a fixed known rate that eludes the problem of daily injection stress in animals and that may also be used for direct brain delivery of drugs. Here, we describe a method for miniosmotic pump implantation and post operatory care that should be given to animals in order to successfully apply this technique. We embed the aforementioned experimental paradigm in standard procedures that are used for studying neuroplasticity within the brain of C57BL6 mice. Thus, we exposed animals to 30 min brain infarct and implanted with miniosmotic pumps connected to the skull via a cannula in order to deliver a pro-plasticity drug. Behavioral testing was done during 30 days of treatment. After removal the animals received injections of anterograde tract tracers to analyze neuronal plasticity in the chronic phase of recovery. Results indicated that neuroprotection by the delivered drug was accompanied with increase in motor fibers crossing the midline of the brain at target structures. The results affirm the value of these techniques for drug administration and brain plasticity studies in modern neuroscience. PMID:26863287

  6. Lumbar spine visualisation based on kinematic analysis from videofluoroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Nixon, M S; Allen, R

    2003-04-01

    Low back pain is a significant problem and its cost is enormous to society. However, diagnosis of the underlying causes remains problematic despite extensive study. Reasons for this arise from the deep-rooted situation of the spine and also from its structural complexity. Clinicians have to mentally convert 2-D image information into a 3-D form to gain a better understanding of structural integrity. Therefore, visualisation and animation may be helpful for understanding, diagnosis and for guiding therapy. Some low back pain originates from mechanical disorders, and study of the spine kinematics may provide an insight into the source of the problem. Digital videofluoroscopy was used in this study to provide 2-D image sequences of the spine in motion, but the images often suffer due to noise, exacerbated by the very low radiation dosage. Thus determining vertebrae position within the image sequence presents a considerable challenge. This paper describes a combination of spine kinematic measurements with a solid model of the human lumbar spine for visualisation of spine motion. Since determination of the spine kinematics provides the foundation and vertebral extraction is at the core, this is discussed in detail. Edge detection is a key feature of segmentation and it is shown that phase congruency performs better than most established methods with the rather low-grade image sequences from fluoroscopy. The Hough transform is then applied to determine the positions of vertebrae in each frame of a motion sequence. In the Hough transform, Fourier descriptors are used to represent the vertebral shapes. The results show that the Hough transform is a very promising technique for vertebral extraction from videofluoroscopic images. A dynamic visualisation package has been developed in order to view the moving lumbar spine from any angle and viewpoint. Wire frame models of the vertebrae were built by using CT images from the Visible Human Project and these models are scaled to

  7. Management Dashboard as an Effective Data Visualisation Tool in Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ziuziański, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Management dashboard in a modern organization is an extremely useful tool to support decision. This article presents subject of management dashboard, especially connected with graphics elements providing data visualisation. Kokpit menedżerski w nowoczesnej organizacji jest niezwykle przydatnym narzędziem wspierającym podejmowanie decyzji. Niniejszy artykuł porusza tematykę kokpitów ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem elementów graficznych, umożliwiających wizualizację danych. Piotr Ziuziań...

  8. Intraoperative visualisation of the trigeminal cistern. Intraoperative Darstellung der Trigeminuszisterne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockermann, V.; Dieckmann, G. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Funktionelle Neurochirurgie)

    1991-07-01

    Percutaneous retrogassarian glycerol rhizotomy has passed the test of time as an immediately effective and reliable method for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. X-ray-assisted puncture of the trigeminal cistern and contrast-enhanced intraoperative visualisation techniques are absolute requirements of this surgical measure and invariably precede any further steps taken by the surgeon. The use of state-of-the-art fluoroscopic methods ensures that ample information is even obtained from the images of the base-of-scull region. (orig.).

  9. Visualisation of the Bonebridge by means of CT and CBCT

    OpenAIRE

    Güldner, Christian; Heinrichs, Julia; Weiß, Rainer; Zimmermann, Annette Paula; Dassinger, Benjamin; Bien, Siegfried; Werner, Jochen Alfred; Diogo, Isabell

    2013-01-01

    Background With the Bonebridge, a new bone-anchored hearing aid has been available since March 2012. The objective of the study was to analyse the visualisation of the implant itself as well as its impact on the representation of the bony structures of the petrosal bone in CT, MRI and cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods The Bonebridge was implanted unilaterally in two completely prepared human heads. The radiological imaging by means of CBCT, 64-slice CT, 1.5-T and 3.0-T MRI was conducted both preop...

  10. Blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in normal and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaki; Chiba, Yoichi; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Fujihara, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    Blood-borne substances can invade into the extracellular spaces of the brain via endothelial cells in sites without the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and can travel through the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain parenchyma adjacent to non-BBB sites. It has been shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains directly into the blood via the arachnoid villi and also into lymph nodes via the subarachnoid spaces of the brain, while ISF drains into the cervical lymph nodes through perivascular drainage pathways. In addition, the glymphatic pathway of fluids, characterized by para-arterial pathways, aquaporin4-dependent passage through astroglial cytoplasm, interstitial spaces, and paravenous routes, has been established. Meningeal lymphatic vessels along the superior sagittal sinus were very recently discovered. It is known that, in mice, blood-borne substances can be transferred to areas with intact BBB function, such as the medial regions of the hippocampus, presumably through leaky vessels in non-BBB sites. In the present paper, we review the clearance mechanisms of interstitial substances, such as amyloid-β peptides, as well as summarize models of BBB deterioration in response to different types of insults, including acute ischemia followed by reperfusion, hypertension, and chronic hypoperfusion. Lastly, we discuss the relationship between perivascular clearance and brain disorders. PMID:26920424

  11. Using Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI to Measure Inflammation in Patients With Brain Tumors or Other Conditions of the CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-08

    Brain Injury; Central Nervous System Degenerative Disorder; Central Nervous System Infectious Disorder; Central Nervous System Vascular Malformation; Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Accident; Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident; Primary Brain Neoplasm; Brain Cancer; Brain Tumors

  12. An improved chamber for direct visualisation of chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Muinonen-Martin

    Full Text Available There has been a growing appreciation over the last decade that chemotaxis plays an important role in cancer migration, invasion and metastasis. Research into the field of cancer cell chemotaxis is still in its infancy and traditional investigative tools have been developed with other cell types and purposes in mind. Direct visualisation chambers are considered the gold standard for investigating the behaviour of cells migrating in a chemotactic gradient. We therefore drew up a list of key attributes that a chemotaxis chamber should have for investigating cancer cell chemotaxis. These include (1 compatibility with thin cover slips for optimal optical properties and to allow use of high numerical aperture (NA oil immersion objectives; (2 gradients that are relatively stable for at least 24 hours due to the slow migration of cancer cells; (3 gradients of different steepnesses in a single experiment, with defined, consistent directions to avoid the need for complicated analysis; and (4 simple handling and disposability for use with medical samples. Here we describe and characterise the Insall chamber, a novel direct visualisation chamber. We use it to show GFP-lifeact transfected MV3 melanoma cells chemotaxing using a 60x high NA oil immersion objective, which cannot usually be done with other chemotaxis chambers. Linear gradients gave very efficient chemotaxis, contradicting earlier results suggesting that only polynomial gradients were effective. In conclusion, the chamber satisfies our design criteria, most importantly allowing high NA oil immersion microscopy to track chemotaxing cancer cells in detail over 24 hours.

  13. Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to-Cell Interactions in Physiological as well as Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Schiera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are involved in a great variety of physiological events occurring in the nervous system, such as cross talk among neurons and glial cells in synapse development and function, integrated neuronal plasticity, neuronal-glial metabolic exchanges, and synthesis and dynamic renewal of myelin. Many of these EV-mediated processes depend on the exchange of proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, which occurs among glial and neuronal cells. In addition, production and exchange of EVs can be modified under pathological conditions, such as brain cancer and neurodegeneration. Like other cancer cells, brain tumours can use EVs to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance, and to transfer molecules into the surrounding cells, thus transforming their phenotype. Moreover, EVs can function as a way to discard material dangerous to cancer cells, such as differentiation-inducing proteins, and even drugs. Intriguingly, EVs seem to be also involved in spreading through the brain of aggregated proteins, such as prions and aggregated tau protein. Finally, EVs can carry useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases. Herein we summarize possible roles of EVs in brain physiological functions and discuss their involvement in the horizontal spreading, from cell to cell, of both cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies.

  14. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchmanov, A. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  15. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: Functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Bock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method in 8 day old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A pups together with parents and siblings (control, (B separation of the litter from the parents, (C individual separation from parents and siblings, (D individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C, where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D maternal vocalizations reactivated brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other

  16. Use of Data Visualisation in the Teaching of Statistics: A New Zealand Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sharleen; Chapman, Jeanette; Harraway, John; Stirling, Doug; Wild, Chris

    2014-01-01

    For many years, students have been taught to visualise data by drawing graphs. Recently, there has been a growing trend to teach statistics, particularly statistical concepts, using interactive and dynamic visualisation tools. Free down-loadable teaching and simulation software designed specifically for schools, and more general data visualisation…

  17. Evidence for Effective Uses of Dynamic Visualisations in Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Kevin W.; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic visualisations capture aspects of scientific phenomena that are difficult to communicate in static materials and benefit from well-designed scaffolds to succeed in classrooms. We review research to clarify the impacts of dynamic visualisations and to identify instructional scaffolds that mediate their success. We use meta-analysis to…

  18. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  19. Cocaine induces DNA damage in distinct brain areas of female rats under different hormonal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marilise F; Gonçales, Tierre A; Steinmetz, Aline; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated levels of neuronal DNA damage after acute or repeated cocaine treatment in different brain areas of female rats after ovariectomy or sham surgery. Rats in the control and acute groups were given saline i.p., whereas in the repeated group were given 15 mg/kg, i.p., cocaine for 8 days. After a 10 day washout period, the control group was given saline i.p., whereas rats in the acute and repeated groups were given a challenge dose of 15 mg/kg, i.p., cocaine. After behavioural assessment, rats were killed and the cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and striatum were dissected for the Comet assay. Acute cocaine exposure induced DNA damage in all brain areas. This effect persisted after repeated administration, except in the hypothalamus, where repeated treatment did not cause increased DNA damage. Sexual hormones exhibited a neuroprotective effect, decreasing cocaine-induced DNA damage in cycling rats in all brain areas. PMID:24552452

  20. Identification of brain nuclei implicated in cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference: a behaviour dissociable from sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Mary Brown

    Full Text Available Relapse prevention represents the primary therapeutic challenge in the treatment of drug addiction. As with humans, drug-seeking behaviour can be precipitated in laboratory animals by exposure to a small dose of the drug (prime. The aim of this study was to identify brain nuclei implicated in the cocaine-primed reinstatement of a conditioned place preference (CPP. Thus, a group of mice were conditioned to cocaine, had this place preference extinguished and were then tested for primed reinstatement of the original place preference. There was no correlation between the extent of drug-seeking upon reinstatement and the extent of behavioural sensitization, the extent of original CPP or the extinction profile of mice, suggesting a dissociation of these components of addictive behaviour with a drug-primed reinstatement. Expression of the protein product of the neuronal activity marker c-fos was assessed in a number of brain regions of mice that exhibited reinstatement (R mice versus those which did not (NR mice. Reinstatement generally conferred greater Fos expression in cortical and limbic structures previously implicated in drug-seeking behaviour, though a number of regions not typically associated with drug-seeking were also activated. In addition, positive correlations were found between neural activation of a number of brain regions and reinstatement behaviour. The most significant result was the activation of the lateral habenula and its positive correlation with reinstatement behaviour. The findings of this study question the relationship between primed reinstatement of a previously extinguished place preference for cocaine and behavioural sensitization. They also implicate activation patterns of discrete brain nuclei as differentiators between reinstating and non-reinstating mice.

  1. Project Ukko - Design of a climate service visualisation interface for seasonal wind forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemment, Drew; Stefaner, Moritz; Makri, Stephann; Buontempo, Carlo; Christel, Isadora; Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; de Matos, Paula; Dykes, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Project Ukko is a prototype climate service to visually communicate probabilistic seasonal wind forecasts for the energy sector. In Project Ukko, an interactive visualisation enhances the accessibility and readability to the latests advances in seasonal wind speed predictions developed as part of the RESILIENCE prototype of the EUPORIAS (EC FP7) project. Climate services provide made-to-measure climate information, tailored to the specific requirements of different users and industries. In the wind energy sector, understanding of wind conditions in the next few months has high economic value, for instance, for the energy traders. Current energy practices use retrospective climatology, but access to reliable seasonal predictions based in the recent advances in global climate models has potential to improve their resilience to climate variability and change. Despite their potential benefits, a barrier to the development of commercially viable services is the complexity of the probabilistic forecast information, and the challenge of communicating complex and uncertain information to decision makers in industry. Project Ukko consists of an interactive climate service interface for wind energy users to explore probabilistic wind speed predictions for the coming season. This interface enables fast visual detection and exploration of interesting features and regions likely to experience unusual changes in wind speed in the coming months.The aim is not only to support users to better understand the future variability in wind power resources, but also to bridge the gap between practitioners' traditional approach and the advanced prediction systems developed by the climate science community. Project Ukko is presented as a case study of cross-disciplinary collaboration between climate science and design, for the development of climate services that are useful, usable and effective for industry users. The presentation will reflect on the challenge of developing a climate

  2. Visualisation and identification of the interaction between STIM1s in resting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca(2+ channels are a major Ca(2+ entry pathway in nonexcitable cells, which drive various essential cellular functions. Recently, STIM1 and Orai proteins have been identified as the major molecular components of the Ca(2+ release-activated Ca(2+ (CRAC channel. As the key subunit of the CRAC channel, STIM1 is the ER Ca(2+ sensor and is essential for the recruitment and activation of Orai1. However, the mechanisms in transmission of information of STIM1 to Orai1 still need further investigation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC is one of the most advanced and powerful tools for studying and visualising protein-protein interactions in living cells. We utilised BiFC and acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments to visualise and determine the state of STIM1 in the living cells in resting state. Our results demonstrate that STIM1 exists in an oligomeric form in resting cells and that rather than the SAM motif, it is the C-terminus (residues 233-474 of STIM1 that is the key domain for the interaction between STIM1s. The STIM1 oligomers (BiFC-STIM1 and wild-type STIM1 colocalised and had a fibrillar distribution in resting conditions. Depletion of ER Ca(2+ stores induced BiFC-STIM1 distribution to become punctate, an effect that could be prevented or reversed by 2-APB. After depletion of the Ca(2+ stores, BiFC-STIM1 has the ability to form puncta that colocalise with wild-type STIM1 or Orai1 near the plasma membrane. Our data also indicate that the function of BiFC-STIM1 was not altered compared with that of wild-type STIM1.

  3. Simulation and Visualisation of Functional Landscapes: Effects of the Water Resource Competition Between Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Le Chevalier; Marc Jaeger; Xing Mei; Paul-Henry Cournède

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation ecosystem simulation and visualisation are challenging topics involving multidisciplinary aspects. In this paper, we present a new generic frame for the simulation of natural phenomena through manageable and interacting models. It focuses on the functional growth of large vegetal ecosystems, showing coherence for scales ranging from the individual plant to communities and with a particular attention to the effects of water resource competition between plants. The proposed approach is based on a model of plant growth in interaction with the environmental conditions. These are deduced from the climatic data (light, temperature, rainfall) and a model of soil hydrological budget. A set of layers is used to store the water resources and to build the interfaces between the environmental data and landscape components: temperature, rain, light, altitude, lakes, plant positions, biomass, cycles, etc. At the plant level, the simulation is performed for each individual by a structural-functional growth model, interacting with the plant's environment. Temperature is spatialised, changing according to altitude, and thus locally controls plant growth speed. The competition for water is based on a soil hydrological model taking into account rainfalls, water runoff, absorption, diffusion, percolation in soil. So far, the incoming light radiation is not studied in detail and is supposed constant. However, competition for light between plants is directly taken into account in the plant growth model. In our implementation, we propose a simple architecture for such a simulator and a simulation scheme to synchronise the water resource updating (on a temporal basis) and the plant growth cycles (determined by the sum of daily temperatures). The visualisation techniques are based on sets of layers, allowing both morphological and functional landscape views and providing interesting tools for ecosystem management. The implementation of the proposed frame leads to encouraging

  4. Pattern of CXCR7 Gene Expression in Mouse Brain Under Normal and Inflammatory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisadr, Ghazal; Podojil, Joseph R; Miller, Stephen D; Miller, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 acting via its G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) CXCR4 has been implicated in neurogenesis, neuromodulation, brain inflammation, HIV-1 encephalopathy and tumor growth. CXCR7 was identified as an alternate receptor for SDF-1/CXCL12. Characterization of CXCR7-deficient mice demonstrated a role for CXCR7 in fetal endothelial biology, cardiac development, and B-cell localization. Despite its ligand binding properties, CXCR7 does not seem to signal like a conventional GPCR. It has been suggested that CXCR7 may not function alone but in combination with CXCR4. Here, we investigated the regional localization of CXCR7 receptors in adult mouse brain using CXCR7-EGFP transgenic mice. We found that the receptors were expressed in various brain regions including olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, subventricular zone (SVZ), hypothalamus and cerebellum. Extensive CXCR7 expression was associated with cerebral blood vessels. Using cell type specific markers, CXCR7 expression was found in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors. GAD-expressing neurons exhibited CXCR7 expression in the hippocampus. Expression of CXCR7 in the dentate gyrus included cells that expressed nestin, GFAP and cells that appeared to be immature granule cells. In mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), CXCR7 was expressed by migrating oligodendrocyte progenitors in the SVZ. We then compared the distribution of SDF-1/CXCL12 and CXCR7 using bitransgenic mice expressing both CXCR7-EGFP and SDF-1-mRFP. Enhanced expression of SDF-1/CXCL12 and CXCR7 was observed in the corpus callosum, SVZ and cerebellum. Overall, the expression of CXCR7 in normal and pathological nervous system suggests CXCR4-independent functions of SDF-1/CXCL12 mediated through its interaction with CXCR7. PMID:25997895

  5. Data visualisations as motivational technologies. A child-centred perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Wied, Kia

    students. The hope immanent (in the technologies) is that engagement with these technologies will enable students to move their energy and engagement, and thus themselves in the direction of learning. (ved vi fra lærere-stemmerne i begyndelsen af filmen og diverse dokumenter). The assumption...... is that motivation will appear if the state of learning and the direction of progress are rendered visible, and if it is possible to watch and follow their own learning progression/regression. Students’ reflections upon visualisations (in the form of e.g. graphs of learning or ladders of motivation) are expected...... to energize and move students towards better performance. It is not our aim to test, evaluate or judge whether these technologies are efficient or not. Rather our curiosity is directed at exploring the interchange between different techniques making learning visible (such as poster, graphs, pictures, computer...

  6. Managing Geological Profiles in Databases for 3D Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarna, A.; Grøtan, B. O.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Iversen, S.; Khloussy, E.; Nordahl, B.; Rindstad, B. I.

    2016-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. GIS and databases are common tools used by geologists to interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. 3D geology is usually described by geological profiles, or vertical sections through a map, where you can look at the rock structure below the surface. The goal is to gradually expand the usability of existing and new geological profiles to make them more available in the retail applications as well as build easier entry and registration of profiles. The project target is to develop the methodology for acquisition of data, modification and use of data and its further presentation on the web by creating a user-interface directly linked to NGU's webpage. This will allow users to visualise profiles in a 3D model.

  7. Image Visualisation and Processing in DOOCS and EPICS

    CERN Document Server

    Perek, P; Makowski, D; Orlikowski, M; Napieralski, A

    2012-01-01

    The High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, due to their large scale, required performance and precision, have to be controlled by complex, distributed control systems. The systems are responsible for processing thousands of signals from various sensors of different types. Very often, one of the data sources applied in such systems are visible light/infrared cameras or other imaging sensors. They can provide additional information about studied phenomena, which is not available on the basis of analysis data from other sensors. However, they require dedicated mechanisms for data collecting and processing. Moreover, often the images from cameras should be available to system operator. It needs the support from both operator panels interface and control application which should provide data in the dedicated format. The paper presents two different approaches to image distribution, processing and visualisation applied in distributed control systems. Discussed is the issue of support for cameras and image data impl...

  8. Modelling and visualising modular product architectures for mass customisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Pedersen, Rasmus; Kvist, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    that the companies are striving for variety from a commercial- and simplicity from a manufacturing one. A conscious structuring of product architectures and/or the use of product platforms can help overcome this challenge. This paper presents a new method for the synthesis and visualisation of product architecture...... concepts that puts emphasis on variety in markets while also treating the consequences in the manufacturing set-up. The work is based on the assumption that a graphical overview of a given solution space and relations between market demands, product architecture and manufacturing layout can support......Companies following a mass customisation strategy have to observe two prerequisites for success: they have to fulfil a wide variety of customer needs and demands, and to harvest the benefits from economies of scale within their organisation and supply chain. This leads to the situation...

  9. Interoperability between Publications, Reference Data and Visualisation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark G.; Ocvirk, Pierre; Genova, Francoise

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy research is becoming more and more inter-connected, and there is a high expectation for our publications, reference data and tools to be interoperable. Publications are the hard earned final results of scientific endeavour, and technology allows us to enable publications as useable resources, going beyond their traditional role as a readable document. There is strong demand for simple access to the data associated with publications, and that links and references in publications are strongly connected to online resources, and are useable in visualisation tools. We highlight the capabilities of the CDS reference services for interoperability between the reference data obtained from publications, the connections between Journal and literature services, and combination of these data and information in Aladin and other CDS services. (In support of the abstract submitted by P. Ocvirk)

  10. Comparison of intraoperative brain condition, hemodynamics and postoperative recovery between desflurane and sevoflurane in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kumar Dube

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post operative recovery has been reported to be faster with desflurane than sevoflurane anesthesia in previous studies. The use of desflurane is often criticized in neurosurgery due to the concerns of cerebral vasodilation and increase in ICP and studies comparing desflurane and sevoflurane in neurosurgey are scarce. So we compared the intraoperative brain condition, hemodynamics and postoperative recovery in patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy receiving either desflurane or sevoflurane. Materials and Methods: Fifty three patients between 18-60yr undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy receiving N 2 O and oxygen (60%:40% and 0.8-1.2 MAC of either desflurane or sevoflurane were randomized to group S (Sevoflurane or group D (Desflurane. Subdural intra cranial pressure (ICP was measured and brain condition was assessed.. Emergence time, tracheal extubation time and recovery time were recorded. Cognitive behavior was evaluated with Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (SOMCT and neurological outcome (at the time of discharge was assessed using Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS between the two groups. Results: The emergence time [Group D 7.4 ± 2.7 minutes vs. Group S 7.8 ± 3.7 minutes; P = 0.65], extubation time [Group D 11.8 ± 2.8 minutes vs. Group S 12.9 ± 4.9 minutes; P = 0.28] and recovery time [Group D 16.4 ± 2.6 minutes vs. Group S 17.1 ± 4.8 minutes; P = 0.50] were comparable between the two groups. There was no difference in ICP [Group D; 9.1 ± 4.3 mmHg vs. Group S; 10.9 ± 4.2 mmHg; P = 0.14] and brain condition between the two groups. Both groups had similar post-operative complications, hospital and ICU stay and GOS. Conclusion: In patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy both sevoflurane and desflurane had similar intra-operative brain condition, hemodynamics and post operative recovery profile.

  11. An examination of co-occurring conditions and management of psychotropic medication use in soldiers with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinde, Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 1.4 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) per year in the United States, with about 23 000 survivors requiring hospitalization. The incidence of TBI has increased in the patient population of the Department of Defense and Veterans Healthcare Administration as a result of injuries suffered during recent military and combat operations. Within the past few years, TBI has emerged as a common form of injury in service members with a subset of patients experiencing postinjury symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Traumatic brain injury can occur when sudden trauma (ie, penetration blast or blunt) causes damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injury produces a cascade of potentially injurious processes that include focal contusions and cytotoxic damage. The results of TBI can include impaired physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, which may or may not require the initiation of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions when deemed appropriate. Associated outcomes of TBI include alterations in mental state at the time of injury (confusion, disorientation, slowed thinking, and alteration of consciousness). Neurological deficits include loss of balance, praxis, aphasia, change in vision that may or may not be transient. Individuals who sustain a TBI are more likely to have or developed co-occurring conditions (ie, sleep problems, headaches, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) that may require the administration of multiple medications. It has been identified that veterans being discharged on central nervous system and muscular skeletal drug classes can develop addiction and experience medication misadventures. With the severity of TBI being highly variable but typically categorized as either mild, moderate, or severe, it can assist health care providers in determining which patients are more susceptible to medication misadventures compared with others. The unique development of

  12. 3D Digitisation and Visualisation of the Vače Situla

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Vidmar

    2013-01-01

    EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The project of 3D digitisation and visualisation of the Vače situla was implemented at the beginning of 2011 in cooperation with the National Museum of Slovenia where the situla is kept and the company MFC.2 which, among other services, develops and implements 3 D digitisation and visualisation projects. The purpose of the project was to digitise and visualise a famous and precious piece of cultural heritage and to  1. show what modern 3D shape and texture scanning technolog...

  13. On the Role of Visualisation in Understanding Phraseologisms on the Example of Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Baran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phraseologisms are linguistic units characterised by figurativeness or usage of metaphors. But what exactly is figurativeness? In the case of a linguistic unit, it is a quality instigating visual imagery. So, the direct meaning of a great part of phraseologisms is so figurative that we can easily visualise it. It is obvious that these individual visualisations help us understand an unfamiliar expression. The fact that while interpreting phraseologisms, language users may consciously proceed from mental images, is also confirmed by psycholinguistic experiments. This article dwells upon visualisation of metaphorical expressions as a means of conveying messages in advertisements and their reception or interpretation.

  14. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptors in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passchier, J.; Waarde, A. van [PET Center, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT{sub 1A} subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the radioligands which are available for visualisation and quantification of this important neuroreceptor in the human brain, using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPET). More than 20 compounds have been labelled with carbon-11 (half-life 20 min), fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) or iodine-123 (half-life 13.2 h): structural analogues of the agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, structural analogues of the antagonist, WAY 100635, and apomorphines. The most successful radioligands thus far are [carbonyl-{sup 11}C] WAY-100635 (WAY), [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY), p-[{sup 18}F]MPPF and [{sup 11}C]robalzotan (NAD-299). The high-affinity ligands WAY and DWAY produce excellent images of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor distribution in the brain (even the raphe nuclei are visualised), but they cannot be distributed to remote facilities and they probably cannot be used to measure changes in endogenous serotonin. Binding of the moderate-affinity ligands MPPF and NAD-299 may be more sensitive to serotonin competition and MPPF can be distributed to PET centres within a flying distance of a few hours. Future research should be directed towards: (a) improvement of the metabolic stability in primates; (b) development of a fluorinated radioligand which can be produced in large quantities and (c) production of a radioiodinated or technetium-labelled ligand for SPET. (orig.)

  15. Maltreatment Exposure, Brain Structure, and Fear Conditioning in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gold, Andrea L; Duys, Andrea; Lambert, Hilary K; Peverill, Matthew; Heleniak, Charlotte; Shechner, Tomer; Wojcieszak, Zuzanna; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in learning processes and the neural circuitry that supports fear conditioning and extinction represent mechanisms through which trauma exposure might influence risk for psychopathology. Few studies examine how trauma or neural structure relates to fear conditioning in children. Children (n=94) aged 6-18 years, 40.4% (n=38) with exposure to maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or domestic violence), completed a fear conditioning paradigm utilizing blue and yellow bells as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) and an aversive alarm noise as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children. Children without maltreatment exposure exhibited strong differential conditioning to the CS+ vs CS-, based on SCR and self-reported fear. In contrast, maltreated children exhibited blunted SCR to the CS+ and failed to exhibit differential SCR to the CS+ vs CS- during early conditioning. Amygdala and hippocampal volume were reduced among children with maltreatment exposure and were negatively associated with SCR to the CS+ during early conditioning in the total sample, although these associations were negative only among non-maltreated children and were positive among maltreated children. The association of maltreatment with externalizing psychopathology was mediated by this perturbed pattern of fear conditioning. Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children. Poor threat-safety discrimination might reflect either enhanced fear generalization or a deficit in associative learning, which may in turn represent a central mechanism underlying the development of maltreatment-related externalizing psychopathology in children. PMID:26677946

  16. Near-death-like experiences without life-threatening conditions or brain disorders: a hypothesis from a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eFacco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Near-death experiences (NDEs are profound psychic experiences commonly occurring in life-threatening conditions. They include feeling a sense of peace, of seeing a bright light, encountering deceased relatives or religious figures, and of transcending space and time. To explain them, it has been suggested that they stem from brain disorders and/or psychological reactions to approaching death, a sort of wishful thinking in response to the perceived threat.This is a report on a case with most of the features typical of NDEs except that it occurred entirely without any life-threatening conditions. This evidence is theoretically incompatible with either of the above hypotheses, suggesting that a broader interpretation of the phenomenon is needed.

  17. Amygdala kindling disrupts trace and delay fear conditioning with parallel changes in Fos protein expression throughout the limbic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, J J; Fournier, N M; Guskjolen, A J; Lussier, A L; Marks, W N; Kalynchuk, L E

    2014-04-18

    Amygdala kindling is well known to increase unconditioned fear and anxiety. However, relatively little is known about whether this form of kindling causes functional changes within the neural circuitry that mediates fear learning and the retrieval of fear memories. To address this issue, we examined the effect of short- (i.e., 30 stimulations) and long-term (i.e., 99 stimulations) amygdala kindling in rats on trace and delay fear conditioning, which are aversive learning tasks that rely predominantly on the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. After memory retrieval, we analyzed the pattern of neural activity with Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos. We found that kindling had no effect on acquisition of the trace fear conditioning task but it did selectively impair retrieval of this fear memory. In contrast, kindling disrupted both acquisition and retrieval of fear memory in the delay fear conditioning task. We also found that kindling-induced impairments in memory retrieval were accompanied by decreased Fos expression in several subregions of the hippocampus, parahippocampus, and amygdala. Interestingly, decreased freezing in the trace conditioning task was significantly correlated with dampened Fos expression in hippocampal and parahippocampal regions whereas decreased freezing in the delay conditioning task was significantly correlated with dampened Fos expression in hippocampal, parahippocampal, and amygdaloid circuits. Overall, these results suggest that amygdala kindling promotes functional changes in brain regions involved in specific types of fear learning and memory.

  18. Generation of a Tph2 Conditional Knockout Mouse Line for Time- and Tissue-Specific Depletion of Brain Serotonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pelosi

    Full Text Available Serotonin has been gaining increasing attention during the last two decades due to the dual function of this monoamine as key regulator during critical developmental events and as neurotransmitter. Importantly, unbalanced serotonergic levels during critical temporal phases might contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite increasing evidences from both animal models and human genetic studies have underpinned the importance of serotonin homeostasis maintenance during central nervous system development and adulthood, the precise role of this molecule in time-specific activities is only beginning to be elucidated. Serotonin synthesis is a 2-step process, the first step of which is mediated by the rate-limiting activity of Tph enzymes, belonging to the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and existing in two isoforms, Tph1 and Tph2, responsible for the production of peripheral and brain serotonin, respectively. In the present study, we generated and validated a conditional knockout mouse line, Tph2flox/flox, in which brain serotonin can be effectively ablated with time specificity. We demonstrated that the Cre-mediated excision of the third exon of Tph2 gene results in the production of a Tph2null allele in which we observed the near-complete loss of brain serotonin, as well as the growth defects and perinatal lethality observed in serotonin conventional knockouts. We also revealed that in mice harbouring the Tph2null allele, but not in wild-types, two distinct Tph2 mRNA isoforms are present, namely Tph2Δ3 and Tph2Δ3Δ4, with the latter showing an in-frame deletion of amino acids 84-178 and coding a protein that could potentially retain non-negligible enzymatic activity. As we could not detect Tph1 expression in the raphe, we made the hypothesis that the Tph2Δ3Δ4 isoform can be at the origin of the residual, sub-threshold amount of serotonin detected in the brain of Tph2null/null mice

  19. Omission of expected reward sensitizes the brain dopaminergic system of classically conditioned Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, M.A.; Höglund, Erik; Folkedal, O.;

    in fishes. Here we show that the omission of expected reward (OER) leads to increased aggression towards conspecifics in classically conditioned Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Furthermore, in response to an acute stressor, OER fish displayed increased dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission compared to controls....... There was also a general downregulation of dopamine receptor D1 gene expression in the telencephalon of OER groups, which suggests a coping mechanism in response to unbalanced DA metabolism. These results indicate that animals subjected to unpredictable reward conditions develop a senzitation of the DA...

  20. Categorisation of visualisation methods to support the design of Human-Computer Interaction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Katie; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    During the design of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, the creation of visual artefacts forms an important part of design. On one hand producing a visual artefact has a number of advantages: it helps designers to externalise their thought and acts as a common language between different stakeholders. On the other hand, if an inappropriate visualisation method is employed it could hinder the design process. To support the design of HCI systems, this paper reviews the categorisation of visualisation methods used in HCI. A keyword search is conducted to identify a) current HCI design methods, b) approaches of selecting these methods. The resulting design methods are filtered to create a list of just visualisation methods. These are then categorised using the approaches identified in (b). As a result 23 HCI visualisation methods are identified and categorised in 5 selection approaches (The Recipient, Primary Purpose, Visual Archetype, Interaction Type, and The Design Process). PMID:26995039

  1. Trading Consequences: A Case Study of Combining Text Mining & Visualisation to Facilitate Document Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Uta; Alex, Beatrice; Clifford, Jim; Quigley, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Trading Consequences is an interdisciplinary research project between historians, computational linguists and visualization specialists. We use text mining and visualisations to explore the growth of the global commodity trade in the nineteenth century. Feedback from a group of environmental historians during a workshop provided essential information to adapt advanced text mining and visualisation techniques to historical research. Expert feedback is an essential tool for effective interdisci...

  2. Using authentic 3D product visualisation for an electrical online retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Algharabat, R; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of authentic three dimensional (3D) product visualisation versus 3D telepresence on consumers’ virtual experience. A hypothetical electrical retailer Web site presents a variety of laptops using 3D product visualisations for the within-subjects laboratory experiments. The first experiment uses two-way repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effects of the antecedents on 3D authenticity. In a second experiment, a one-way ANOVA compares telepresence and auth...

  3. The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: implications for intervention across different clinical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriguchi Yoshiya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Empathy is a concept central to psychiatry, psychotherapy and clinical psychology. The construct of empathy involves not only the affective experience of the other person's actual or inferred emotional state but also some minimal recognition and understanding of another's emotional state. It is proposed, in the light of multiple levels of analysis including social psychology, cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychology, a model of empathy that involves both bottom-up and top-down information processing underpinned by parallel and distributed computational mechanisms. The predictive validity of this model is explored with reference to clinical conditions. As many psychiatric conditions are associated with deficits or even lack of empathy, we discuss a limited number of these disorders including psychopathy/antisocial personality disorders, borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, and alexithymia. We argue that future clinical investigations of empathy disorders can only be informative if behavioral, dispositional and biological factors are combined.

  4. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individua...

  5. Brain drain: Do economic conditions "push" doctors out of developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Edward N

    2013-12-01

    Health worker migration is an issue of first order concern in global health policy circles and continues to be the subject of much policy debate. In this paper, we contribute to the discussion by studying the impact of economic conditions on the migration of physicians from developing countries. To our knowledge, this is one of the first papers to do so. A major contribution of this paper is the introduction of a new panel dataset on migration to the US and the UK from 31 sub-Saharan Africa countries. The data spans the period 1975-2004. Using this data, we estimate the impact of changes in economic conditions on physician migration. In our preferred specification that allows for country-specific time trends, we find that a temporary one percentage point decline in GDP per capita increases physician migration in the next period by approximately. 3 percent. In our IV models a one percentage point decline in GDP per capita increases physician migration in the next period by between 3.4 and 3.6 percent. Overall, our results suggest a significant effect of developing country economic conditions on physician migration.

  6. Microscopic transport model animation visualisation on KML base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, I.; Savrasovs, M.

    2012-10-01

    By reading classical literature devoted to the simulation theory it could be found that one of the greatest possibilities of simulation is the ability to present processes inside the system by animation. This gives to the simulation model additional value during presentation of simulation results for the public and authorities who are not familiar enough with simulation. That is why most of universal and specialised simulation tools have the ability to construct 2D and 3D representation of the model. Usually the development of such representation could take much time and there must be put a lot forces into creating an adequate 3D representation of the model. For long years such well-known microscopic traffic flow simulation software tools as VISSIM, AIMSUN and PARAMICS have had a possibility to produce 2D and 3D animation. But creation of realistic 3D model of the place where traffic flows are simulated, even in these professional software tools it is a hard and time consuming action. The goal of this paper is to describe the concepts of use the existing on-line geographical information systems for visualisation of animation produced by simulation software. For demonstration purposes the following technologies and tools have been used: PTV VISION VISSIM, KML and Google Earth.

  7. Providing visualisation support for the analysis of anatomy ontology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Albert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in technology have been accompanied by the generation of large amounts of complex data. This same technology must be harnessed effectively if the knowledge stored within the data is to be retrieved. Storing data in ontologies aids its management; ontologies serve as controlled vocabularies that promote data exchange and re-use, improving analysis. The Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project stores the developmental stages of the mouse embryo in anatomy ontologies. This project is looking at the use of visual data overviews for intuitive analysis of the ontology data. Results A prototype has been developed that visualises the ontologies using directed acyclic graphs in two dimensions, with the ability to study detail in regions of interest in isolation or within the context of the overview. This is followed by the development of a technique that layers individual anatomy ontologies in three-dimensional space, so that relationships across multiple data sets may be mapped using physical links drawn along the third axis. Conclusion Usability evaluations of the applications confirmed advantages in visual analysis of complex data. This project will look next at data input from multiple sources, and continue to develop the techniques presented to provide intuitive identification of relationships that span multiple ontologies.

  8. VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Timothy D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. Results Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.

  9. Detector description software for simulation, reconstruction and visualisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a software that reads the detector description from tag-based ASCII files and builds an independent detector representation (its only dependency being the CLHEP library) in transient mode. A second package uses this transient representation to build automatically a GEANT4 representation of the detector geometry and materials. The software supports any kind of element and material, including material mixtures built by giving the weight fractions, the volume fractions or the number of atoms of each component. The common solid shapes (box, cube, cone, sphere, polycone, polyhedra, ..) can be used, as well as solids made from a boolean operation of another solids (addition, substraction and intersection). The geometry volumes can be placed through simple positioning or positioning several copies following a given formula, so that each copy can have different position and rotation. Also division of a volume along one of its axis is supported for the basic solid shapes. The Simulation, Reconstruction and Visualisation (ROOT based) software contain no detector data. Instead, this data is always accessed through a unique interface to the GEANT4 detector representation package, which manages the complicated parameterized positioning and divisions and returns GEANT4 independent objects. Both packages have been built following strict Software Engineering practices. The software has been used for the detector description of the PS214 (HARP) experiment at CERN, which is taking data since april 2001. With minor modifications it is also been used for the GEANT4 simulation of the CMS experiment

  10. Improving student success using predictive models and data visualisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ayad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50–60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from 2-year colleges in 3 years or less and approximately 50% graduate from 4-year colleges in 5 years or less. A basic challenge in delivering global education, therefore, is improving student success. By student success we mean improving retention, completion and graduation rates. In this paper we describe a Student Success System (S3 that provides a holistic, analytical view of student academic progress.1 The core of S3 is a flexible predictive modelling engine that uses machine intelligence and statistical techniques to identify at-risk students pre-emptively. S3 also provides a set of advanced data visualisations for reaching diagnostic insights and a case management tool for managing interventions. S3's open modular architecture will also allow integration and plug-ins with both open and proprietary software. Powered by learning analytics, S3 is intended as an end-to-end solution for identifying at-risk students, understanding why they are at risk, designing interventions to mitigate that risk and finally closing the feedback look by tracking the efficacy of the applied intervention.

  11. Glial-conditional deletion of aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) reduces blood–brain water uptake and confers barrier function on perivascular astrocyte endfeet

    OpenAIRE

    Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Vindedal, Gry Fluge; Eilert-Olsen, Martine; Gundersen, Georg Andreas; Skare, Øivind; Laake, Petter; Klungland, Arne; Thorén, Anna Elisabeth; Burkhardt, John Michael; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Nagelhus, Erlend Arnulf

    2011-01-01

    Tissue- and cell-specific deletion of the Aqp4 gene is required to differentiate between the numerous pools of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels. A glial-conditional Aqp4 knockout mouse line was generated to resolve whether astroglial AQP4 controls water exchange across the blood–brain interface. The conditional knockout was driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Brains from conditional Aqp4 knockouts were devoid of AQP4 as assessed by Western blots, ruling out the presence o...

  12. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial abilities-defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them-have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are "mental rotation" (rotating mental models) and "visualisation" (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel "Bricks" test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations. PMID:27476554

  13. Evaluation of the impact of a system for real-time visualisation of occupational radiation dose rate during fluoroscopically guided procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimisation of radiological protection for operators working with fluoroscopically guided procedures has to be performed during the procedure, under varying and difficult conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a system for real-time visualisation of radiation dose rate on optimisation of occupational radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided procedures. Individual radiation dose measurements, using a system for real-time visualisation, were performed in a cardiology laboratory for three cardiologists and ten assisting nurses. Radiation doses collected when the radiation dose rates were not displayed to the staff were compared to radiation doses collected when the radiation dose rates were displayed. When the radiation dose rates were displayed to the staff, one cardiologist and the assisting nurses (as a group) significantly reduced their personal radiation doses. The median radiation dose (Hp(10)) per procedure decreased from 68 to 28 μSv (p = 0.003) for this cardiologist and from 4.3 to 2.5 μSv (p = 0.001) for the assisting nurses. The results of the present study indicate that a system for real-time visualisation of radiation dose rate may have a positive impact on optimisation of occupational radiological protection. In particular, this may affect the behaviour of staff members practising inadequate personal radiological protection. (paper)

  14. Detector Description Software for Simulation,Reconstruction and Visualisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PedroArce

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a software that reads the detector description from tagbased ASCII files and builds an independent detector representation (its only dependency being the CLHEP library) in transient mode,A second package uses this transient representation to build automatically a GEANT4 representation of the detector geometry and materials.The software supports and kind of element and material,including material mixtures built by giving the weight fractions,the volume fractions of the number of atoms of each component.The common solid shapes(box,cube,cone,sphere,polycone,polyhedra,…)can be used,as well as solids made from a boolean operation of another solids(addition,substraction and intersection),The geometry volumes can be placed through simple positioning or positioning several copies following a given formula,so that each copy can have different position and rotation,Also divisioning of a volume along one of its axis is supported for the basic solid shpaes. The Simulation,Reconstruction and Visualisation(ROOT based)software contain no detector data.Instead,this data is always accesed through a unique interface to the GEANT4 detector representation package,which manages the complicated parameterised positionings and divisions and returns GEANT4 independent objects.Both packages have been built following strict Software Engineering practices,that we also describe in the paper.The software has been used for the detector description of the PS214(HARP) experiment at CERN,which is taking data since april 2001,With minor modifications it is also been used for the GEANT4 simulation of the CMS experiment.

  15. Directionality of large-scale resting-state brain networks during eyes open and eyes closed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong eZhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined directional connections in the brain among resting-state networks (RSNs when the participant had their eyes open (EO or had their eyes closed (EC. The resting-state fMRI data were collected from 20 healthy participants (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify the separated RSNs (i.e., the primary/high-level visual, primary sensory-motor, ventral motor, salience/dorsal attention, and anterior/posterior default-mode networks, and the Gaussian Bayesian network (BN learning approach was then used to explore the conditional dependencies among these RSNs. The network-to-network directional connections related to EO and EC were depicted, and a support vector machine (SVM was further employed to identify the directional connection patterns that could effectively discriminate between the two states. The results indicated that the connections among RSNs are directionally connected within a BN during the EO and EC states. The directional connections from the salient attention network to the anterior/posterior default-mode networks and the high-level to primary-level visual network were the obvious characteristics of both the EO and EC resting-state BNs. Of the directional connections in BN, the attention (salient and dorsal-related directional connections were observed to be discriminative between the EO and EC states. In particular, we noted that the properties of the salient and dorsal attention networks were in opposite directions. Overall, the present study described the directional connections of RSNs using a BN learning approach during the EO and EC states, and the results suggested that the attention system (the salient and the dorsal attention network might have important roles in resting-state brain networks and the neural substrate underpinning of switching between the EO and EC states.

  16. The effect of heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation on Aδ-, C- and Aβ-fibre brain responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, Diana M; Churyukanov, Maxim V; Plaghki, Leon; Mouraux, André

    2015-11-01

    Human studies have shown that heterotopic nociceptive conditioning stimulation (HNCS) applied to a given body location reduces the percept and brain responses elicited by noxious test stimuli delivered at a remote body location. It remains unclear to what extent this effect of HNCS relies on the spinal-bulbar-spinal loop mediating the effect of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) described in animals, and/or on top-down cortical mechanisms modulating nociception. Importantly, some studies have examined the effects of HNCS on the brain responses to nociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fibres. In contrast, no studies have explored the effects of HNCS on the responses to selective nociceptive C-fibre input and non-nociceptive Aβ-fibre input. In this study, we measured the intensity of perception and event-related potentials (ERPs) to stimuli activating Aδ-, C- and Aβ-fibres, before, during and after HNCS, obtained by immersing one foot in painful cold water. We observed that (i) the perceived intensity of nociceptive Aδ- and C-stimuli was reduced during HNCS, and (ii) the ERPs elicited by Aδ- and Aβ- and C-stimuli were also reduced during HNCS. Importantly, because Aβ-ERPs are related to primary afferents that ascend directly through the dorsal columns without being relayed at spinal level, the modulation of these responses may not be explained by an influence of descending projections modulating the transmission of nociceptive input at spinal level. Therefore, our results indicate that, in humans, HNCS should be used with caution as a direct measure of DNIC-related mechanisms. PMID:26369522

  17. CM156, a Sigma Receptor Ligand, Reverses Cocaine-Induced Place Conditioning and Transcriptional Responses in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Tong; Robson, Matthew J.; Szeszel-Fedorowicz, Wioletta; Patel, Divyen; Rooney, Robert; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine induces neuroadaptations which contribute to the rewarding properties of cocaine. Using cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) as an animal model of reward, earlier studies have shown that sigma (σ) receptor ligands can attenuate the acquisition, expression and reactivation of CPP. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that are associated with these changes are not yet understood. In the present study, CM156, a novel antagonist with high selectivity and affinity for σ receptors was used to attenuate the expression of cocaine-induced CPP in mice. Immediately following the behavioral evaluations, mouse brain tissues were collected and alterations in gene expression in half brain samples were profiled by cDNA microarray analysis. Microarray data was analyzed by three distinct normalization methods and four genes were consistently found to be upregulated by cocaine when compared to saline controls. Each of these gene changes were found by more than one normalization method to be reversed by at least one dose of CM156. Quantitative real time PCR confirmed that a single administration of CM156 was able to reverse the cocaine-induced increases in three of these four genes: metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (malat1), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein (ywhaz), and transthyretin (ttr). These genes are involved in processes related to neuroplasticity and RNA editing. The data presented herein provides evidence that pharmacological intervention with a putative σ receptor antagonist reverses alterations in gene expression that are associated with cocaine-induced reward. PMID:22234290

  18. Brain tumor stem cells maintain overall phenotype and tumorigenicity after in vitro culturing in serum-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik-Mo, Einar Osland; Sandberg, Cecilie; Olstorn, Havard; Varghese, Mercy; Brandal, Petter; Ramm-Pettersen, Jon; Murrell, Wayne; Langmoen, Iver Arne

    2010-01-01

    Traditional in vitro culturing of tumor cells has been shown to induce changes so that cultures no longer represent the tumor of origin. Serum-free culturing conditions are used in a variety of cancers to propagate stem-like cells in vitro. Limited reports, however, exist on the effects of such propagation. We have compared cells from brain tumor biopsies cultivated under serum-free conditions at passages 2 and 10 to describe the effects of in vitro culturing. We were able to establish cell lines from 7 of 10 biopsies from patients with glioblastoma. The cell lines adapted to conditions and had 2.2 times increased population doubling rate at later passages. Karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed that all examined cell lines had cytogenetic aberrations commonly found in glioblastomas, and there were only minor differences between tumor and early and late passages in the same culture. Whole-transcriptome analysis shows that tumors had interindividual differences. Changes in the overall expression patterns through passaging were modest, with a significant change in only 14 genes; the variation among cultures was, however, reduced through passages. The ability to differentiate differed among tumors but was maintained throughout passaging. The cells initiated tumors upon transplantation to immunodeficient mice with differing phenotypes, but a given cell culture maintained tumor phenotype after serial cultivation. The cultures established maintained individual characteristics specific to culture identity. Thus, each cell culture reflects an image of the tumor—or a personalized model—from which it was derived and remains representative after moderate expansion. PMID:20843775

  19. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birbaumer N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs of the EEG (electroencephalogram was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A, colored disks (B, and geometrical shapes (C. The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various

  20. Planetary plasma data analysis and 3D visualisation at the French Plasma Physics Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Michel; Génot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste; Andre, Nicolas; Budnik, Elena; Bouchemit, Myriam; Jourdane, Nathanaël; Dufourg, Nicolas; Beigbeider, Laurent; Toniutti, Jean-Philippe; Durand, Joelle

    2016-10-01

    The CDPP (the French plasma physics data center http://cdpp.eu/) is engaged for nearly two decades in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground-based observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed services like AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/) and 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/). AMDA enables in depth analysis of a large amount of data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualisation, data mining, cataloguing. 3DView provides immersive visualisations in planetary environments: spacecraft position and attitude, ephemerides. Magnetic field models (Cain, Tsyganenko), visualisation of cubes, 2D cuts as well as spectra or time series along spacecraft trajectories are possible in 3Dview. Both tools provide a joint access to outputs of simulations (MHD or Hybrid models) in planetary sciences as well as planetary plasma observational data (from AMDA, CDAWeb, Cluster Science Archive, ...). Some of these developments were funded by the EU IMPEx project, and some of the more recent ones are done in the frame of Europlanet 2020 RI project. The role of CDPP in the analysis and visualisation of planetary data and mission support increased after a collaboration with the NASA/PDS which resulted in the access in AMDA to several planetary datasets like those of GALILEO, MESSENGER, MAVEN, etc. In 2014, AMDA was chosen as the quicklook visualisation tool for the Rosetta Plasma Consortium through a collaboration with Imperial College, London. This presentation will include several use cases demonstrating recent and new capabilities of the tools.

  1. DataView: a computational visualisation system for multidisciplinary design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengen

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly processing raw data and effectively extracting underlining information from huge volumes of multivariate data become essential to all decision-making processes in sectors like finance, government, medical care, climate analysis, industries, science, etc. Remarkably, visualisation is recognised as a fundamental technology that props up human comprehension, cognition and utilisation of burgeoning amounts of heterogeneous data. This paper presents a computational visualisation system, named DataView, which has been developed for graphically displaying and capturing outcomes of multiphysics problem-solvers widely used in engineering fields. The DataView is functionally composed of techniques for table/diagram representation, and graphical illustration of scalar, vector and tensor fields. The field visualisation techniques are implemented on the basis of a range of linear and non-linear meshes, which flexibly adapts to disparate data representation schemas adopted by a variety of disciplinary problem-solvers. The visualisation system has been successfully applied to a number of engineering problems, of which some illustrations are presented to demonstrate effectiveness of the visualisation techniques.

  2. High brain ammonia tolerance and down-regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl(- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and protein expression in the brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to environmental ammonia or terrestrial conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K Ip

    Full Text Available Na(+:K(+:2Cl(- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1 has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g(-1 and 2.7 µmol g(-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance.

  3. Topological Visualisation techniques for the understanding of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Dean P; Hands, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The use of topology for visualisation applications has become increasingly popular due to its ability to summarise data at a high level. Criticalities in scalar field data are used by visualisation methods such as the Reeb graph and contour trees to present topological structure in simple graph based formats. These techniques can be used to segment the input field, recognising the boundaries between multiple objects, allowing whole contour meshes to be seeded as separate objects. In this paper we demonstrate the use of topology based techniques when applied to theoretical physics data generated from Quantum Chromodynamics simulations, which due to its structure complicates their use. We also discuss how the output of algorithms involved in topological visualisation can be used by physicists to further their understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics.

  4. Visual Privacy by Context: Proposal and Evaluation of a Level-Based Visualisation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Padilla-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Privacy in image and video data has become an important subject since cameras are being installed in an increasing number of public and private spaces. Specifically, in assisted living, intelligent monitoring based on computer vision can allow one to provide risk detection and support services that increase people’s autonomy at home. In the present work, a level-based visualisation scheme is proposed to provide visual privacy when human intervention is necessary, such as at telerehabilitation and safety assessment applications. Visualisation levels are dynamically selected based on the previously modelled context. In this way, different levels of protection can be provided, maintaining the necessary intelligibility required for the applications. Furthermore, a case study of a living room, where a top-view camera is installed, is presented. Finally, the performed survey-based evaluation indicates the degree of protection provided by the different visualisation models, as well as the personal privacy preferences and valuations of the users.

  5. The Royal Birth of 2013: Analysing and Visualising Public Sentiment in the UK Using Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Vu Dung; Barker, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of information retrieved from microblogging services such as Twitter can provide valuable insight into public sentiment in a geographic region. This insight can be enriched by visualising information in its geographic context. Two underlying approaches for sentiment analysis are dictionary-based and machine learning. The former is popular for public sentiment analysis, and the latter has found limited use for aggregating public sentiment from Twitter data. The research presented in this paper aims to extend the machine learning approach for aggregating public sentiment. To this end, a framework for analysing and visualising public sentiment from a Twitter corpus is developed. A dictionary-based approach and a machine learning approach are implemented within the framework and compared using one UK case study, namely the royal birth of 2013. The case study validates the feasibility of the framework for analysis and rapid visualisation. One observation is that there is good correlation between the resul...

  6. The role of visualisation in data handling in Grade 9 within a problem-centred context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Makina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, data handling has been neglected at secondary school level, perhaps partially due to the strong emphasis on developing arithmetic, algebra and geometry. For the first time, the South African curriculum includes substantial amounts of data handling at all grade levels. The introduction of more data handling in the secondary school curriculum in South Africa and the prevalence of many problems in the teaching of probability and statistics argues for a serious reconsideration of the way it is taught to the pupils. Currently this concern has been the focus of a call for reform in mathematics education by a body like the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM at all levels of schooling (NCTM, 1989; 2000. The importance of visualisation in mathematics, at all levels of mathematical problem solving is well documented in the literature (Bishop, 1989; Maher & Alston, 1989; Moses, 1982; Wheatley, 1991 but almost nothing was done to appreciate visualisation in the learning of data handling. The paper therefore provides a qualitative examination from a Masters dissertation (Makina, 2005 of the role of visualisation in the learning of data handling. This is done through examining the thought processes involved by Grade 9 learners during visualisation while solving data handling tasks. Several roles of visualisation were identified and most were found to improve the critical and creative thinking of pupils during their learning of data handling. The results show that learners are likely to improve their performance in data handling if the awareness of the need to use visualisation creatively as a tool for understanding are highlighted.

  7. The use of metrizamide (amipaque) to visualise the gastrointestinal tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metrizamide (amipaque) has not been used previously as a diagnostic contrast agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Metrizamide is a water-soluble isotonic contrast material having many advantages over barium and existing hypertonic water-soluble agents. There are many clinical situations in children in which metrizamide should be the contrast agent of choice for investigating the gastrointestinal tract. Four neonates are presented in whom barium or gastrografin were absolutely contraindicated. In each case metrizamide gave excellent visualisation of the gastrointestinal tract. It could be followed through the bowel giving excellent visualisation even up to 120h after ingestion. No harmful effects were noted in the four cases studied. (author)

  8. Test-driving EvoSpaces: software visualisation in the real world

    OpenAIRE

    Marmier, Raphaël; Dugerdil, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    EvoSpaces is a prototype software visualisation tool that represents the source code of an application as a city in 3D. The size and shape of the buildings are mapped to software metrics. A special “night mode” allows visualising execution traces as rays of light between buildings. Our mission was to try EvoSpaces on an industrial-sized real world application. The first part of this work consisted in adapting EvoSpaces to a new database schema, generate metrics on the code of our target appli...

  9. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  10. Open source libraries and frameworks for biological data visualisation: A guide for developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput experimental techniques have led to an exponential increase in both the size and the complexity of the data sets commonly studied in biology. Data visualisation is increasingly used as the key to unlock this data, going from hypothesis generation to model evaluation and tool implementation. It is becoming more and more the heart of bioinformatics workflows, enabling scientists to reason and communicate more effectively. In parallel, there has been a corresponding trend towards the development of related software, which has triggered the maturation of different visualisation libraries and frameworks. For bioinformaticians, scientific programmers and software developers, the main challenge is to pick out the most fitting one(s) to create clear, meaningful and integrated data visualisation for their particular use cases. In this review, we introduce a collection of open source or free to use libraries and frameworks for creating data visualisation, covering the generation of a wide variety of charts and graphs. We will focus on software written in Java, JavaScript or Python. We truly believe this software offers the potential to turn tedious data into exciting visual stories. PMID:25475079

  11. Exploratory nuclear microprobe data visualisation using 3- and 4-dimensional biological volume rendering tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 (Finland)]. E-mail: Harry_J.Whitlow@phys.jyu.fi; Ren, Minqin [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kan, Jeroen A. van [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore (Singapore); White, Dan [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and the Nanoscience Centre, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-07-15

    The emergence of Confocal Microscopy (CM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) as everyday tools in cellular level biology has stimulated development of 3D data visualisation software. Conventional 2-dimensional images of cell (optical) sections obtained in a transmission electron or optical microscopes and more sophisticated multidimensional imaging methods require processing software capable of 3D rendering and mathematically transforming data in 3-, 4-, or more dimensions. The richness of data obtained from the different nuclear microscopy imaging techniques and often parallel information channels (X-ray, secondary electron, Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) is often not obvious because subtleties and interrelations in the data could not be rendered in a human interpretable way. In this exploratory study we have applied the BioImageXD software, originally developed for rendering of multidimensional CM data, to some different nuclear microscopy data. Cells-on-Silicon STIM data from a human breast cancer cell line and elemental maps from lesions on rabbit aorta have been visualised. Mathematical filtering and averaging combined with hardware accelerated 3D rendering enabled dramatically clear visualisation of inter-cellular regions comprising extra cellular matrix proteins that were otherwise difficult to visualise, and also sub cellular structures. For elemental mapping, the use of filtered correlation surfaces and colour channels clearly revealed the interrelations in the data structures that are not easily discernible in the PIXE elemental maps.

  12. SQuAVisiT : A Software Quality Assessment and Visualisation Toolset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubtsov, Serguei; Telea, Alexandru; Holten, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Software quality assessment of large COBOL industrial legacy systems, both for maintenance or migration purposes, mounts a serious challenge. We present the Software Quality Assessment and Visualisation Toolset (SQuAVisiT), which assists users in performing the above task. First, it allows a fully a

  13. Three-dimensional visualisation of soft biological structures by X-ray computed micro-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Tom; Bradley, Robert S; Hidalgo-Bastida, L Araida; Sherratt, Michael J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2016-07-01

    Whereas the two-dimensional (2D) visualisation of biological samples is routine, three-dimensional (3D) imaging remains a time-consuming and relatively specialised pursuit. Current commonly adopted techniques for characterising the 3D structure of non-calcified tissues and biomaterials include optical and electron microscopy of serial sections and sectioned block faces, and the visualisation of intact samples by confocal microscopy or electron tomography. As an alternative to these approaches, X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) can both rapidly image the internal 3D structure of macroscopic volumes at sub-micron resolutions and visualise dynamic changes in living tissues at a microsecond scale. In this Commentary, we discuss the history and current capabilities of microCT. To that end, we present four case studies to illustrate the ability of microCT to visualise and quantify: (1) pressure-induced changes in the internal structure of unstained rat arteries, (2) the differential morphology of stained collagen fascicles in tendon and ligament, (3) the development of Vanessa cardui chrysalises, and (4) the distribution of cells within a tissue-engineering construct. Future developments in detector design and the use of synchrotron X-ray sources might enable real-time 3D imaging of dynamically remodelling biological samples. PMID:27278017

  14. Developing students' functional thinking in algebra through different visualisations of a growing pattern's structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Clarke, Doug M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial visualisation of geometric patterns and their generalisation have become a recognised pathway to developing students' functional thinking and understanding of variables in algebra. This design-based research project investigated upper primary students' development of explicit generalisation of functional relationships and their representation descriptively, graphically and symbolically. Ten teachers and their classes were involved in a sequence of tasks involving growing patterns and geometric structures over 1 year. This article focuses on two aspects of the study: visualising the structure of a geometric pattern in different ways and using this to generalise the functional relationship between two quantifiable aspects (variables). It was found that in an initial assessment task ( n = 222), students' initial visualisations could be categorised according to different types and some of these were more likely to lead either to recursive or explicit generalisation. In a later task, a small number of students demonstrated the ability to find more than one way to visualise the same geometric structure and thus represent their explicit generalisations as different but equivalent symbolic equations (using pronumerals). Implications for the teaching of functional thinking in middle-school algebra are discussed.

  15. Competence Visualisation: Making Sense of Data from 21st-Century Technologies in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Susan; Wasson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an open learner model approach to learning analytics to combine the variety of data available from the range of applications and technologies in language learning, for visualisation of language learning competences to learners and teachers in the European language context. Specific examples are provided as illustrations…

  16. Does Teaching Sequence Matter When Teaching High School Chemistry with Scientific Visualisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Ian; Geelan, David; Mukherjee, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Five Canadian high school Chemistry classes in one school, taught by three different teachers, studied the concepts of dynamic chemical equilibria and Le Chatelier's Principle. Some students received traditional teacher-led explanations of the concept first and used an interactive scientific visualisation second, while others worked with the…

  17. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  18. CT virtual endoscopy and 3D stereoscopic visualisation in the evaluation of coronary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Lawrence-Brown

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this case report is to present the additional value provided by CT virtual endoscopy and 3D stereoscopic visualisation when compared with 2D visualisations in the assessment of coronary stenting. A 64-year old patient was treated with left coronary stenting 8 years ago and recently followed up with multidetector row CT angiography. An in-stent restenosis of the left coronary artery was suspected based on 2D axial and multiplanar reformatted images. 3D virtual endoscopy was generated to demonstrate the smooth intraluminal surface of coronary artery wall, and there was no evidence of restenosis or intraluminal irregularity. Virtual fly-through of the coronary artery was produced to examine the entire length of the coronary artery with the aim of demonstrating the intraluminal changes following placement of the coronary stent. In addition, stereoscopic views were generated to show the relationship between coronary artery branches and the coronary stent. In comparison with traditional 2D visualisations, virtual endoscopy was useful for assessment of the intraluminal appearance of the coronary artery wall following coronary stent implantation, while stereoscopic visualisation improved observers' understanding of the complex cardiac structures. Thus, both methods could be used as a complementary tool in cardiac imaging.

  19. Overcoming Problems in Doctoral Writing through the Use of Visualisations: Telling Our Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry; Hussey, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students experience many challenges on the long journey towards completion. Common problems include: synthesising data, working at a conceptual level, clarifying the relationship of the parts of the thesis to the whole, finding a voice and completing a viva successfully. Few authors have addressed the use of visualisations to meet these…

  20. STARE, a sonar data post-processing and visualisation software package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theije, P.A.M. de

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents STARE, a sonar-data post-processing and visualisation toot developed by TNO and written in Matlab 6.5. The software takes into account all available acoustic and non-acoustic data (GPS, radar, source/receiver position, time latencies, etc.). The latter can be used to get optimal

  1. Visualisation of biopolymer mixtures using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and covalent labelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de F.; Weinbreck, F.; Edelman, M.W.; Linden, van der E.; Tromp, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) has been used to study the behaviour of mixtures of proteins, gelatine, whey proteins and ß-lactoglobulin, and polysaccharides, dextran, gellan gum, carrageenan, gum Arabic, and starch. CSLM proved to be a suitable technique to visualise the microstructure o

  2. Optical monitoring of cardiac and respiratory rhythms in the skin perfusion near the brain under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mandavilli M.; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1998-06-01

    In this investigation an attempt is made to find the effects of controlled breathing on brain with the help of optical sensors mounted on the left and right temples of a subject. It has already been established that the brain activity can be monitored in terms of arterial blood volumetric changes to the left and right hemispheres of the brain recorded with the help of optical sensors. To investigate the influence of controlled breathing, an expert in controlled breathing (pranayama) is chosen as the subject. Pranayama is believed to be the controlled intake and outflow of breath in a firmly established posture. Some types of pranayama are believed to relive mental stress. While the subject is practicing one such type of breath control, arterial blood volume changes in the brain are recorded using optical sensors mounted on the left and right temples of the subject. From these measurements at the beginning and end of the pranayama exercise, it could be noticed that the subject could induce changes in the cardiac and respiratory rhythms by controlled breathing. Rhythmic phenomena in the skin perfusion in the vicinity of the brian are also studied when the subject is holding his breath. The arterial blood volume changes to the left and right hemispheres of the brain, as monitored by the optical sensors during this period, exhibit asymmetric reaction when the subject is holding his breath. An attempt is made to understand whether these changes induced by stoppage of breathing are 'chaotic' or 'adaptive' in nature.

  3. Progesterone promotes neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in culture conditions that mimic the brain microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianying Wang; Honghai Wu; Gai Xue; Yanning Hou

    2012-01-01

    In this study, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells from full-term neonates born by vaginal delivery were cultured in medium containing 150 mg/mL of brain tissue extracts from Sprague-Dawley rats (to mimic the brain microenvironment). Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the cells differentiated into neuron-like cells. To evaluate the effects of progesterone as a neurosteroid on the neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, we cultured the cells in medium containing progesterone (0.1, 1, 10 μM) in addition to brain tissue extracts. Reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometric analysis of neuron specific enolase-positive cells revealed that the percentages of these cells increased significantly following progesterone treatment, with the optimal progesterone concentration for neuron-like differentiation being 1 μM. These results suggest that progesterone can enhance the neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in culture medium containing brain tissue extracts to mimic the brain microenvironment.

  4. Curve interpolation model for visualising disjointed neural elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim; Norhasana Razzali; Mohd Shahrizal Sunar; Ayman Abdualaziz Abdullah; Amjad Rehman

    2012-01-01

    Neuron cell are built from a myriad of axon and dendrite structures. It transmits electrochemical signals between the brain and the nervous system. Three-dimensional visualization of neuron structure could help to facilitate deeper understanding of neuron and its models. An accurate neuron model could aid understanding of brain's functionalities, diagnosis and knowledge of entire nervous system. Existing neuron models have been found to be defective in the aspect of realism. Whereas in the actual biological neuron, there is continuous growth as the soma extending to the axon and the dendrite; but, the current neuron visualization models present it as disjointed segments that has greatly mediated effective realism. In this research, a new reconstruction model comprising of the Bounding Cylinder, Curve Interpolation and Gouraud Shading is proposed to visualize neuron model in order to improve realism. The reconstructed model is used to design algorithms for generating neuron branching from neuron SWC data. The Bounding Cylinder and Curve Interpolation methods are used to improve the connected segments of the neuron model using a series of cascaded cylinders along the neuron's connection path. Three control points are proposed between two adjacent neuron segments. Finally, the model is rendered with Gouraud Shading for smoothening of the model surface. This produce a near-perfection model of the natural neurons with attended realism. The model is validated by a group of bioinformatics analysts' responses to a predefined survey. The result shows about 82% acceptance and satisfaction rate.

  5. Expression pattern of neural synaptic plasticity marker-Arc in different brain regions induced by conditioned drug withdrawal from acute morphine-dependent rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu LI; Yuan-yuan HOU; Bin LU; Jie CHEN; Zhi-qiang CHI; Jing-gen LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) mRNA and protein are induced by strong synaptic activation and rapidly transported into dendrites, where they localize at active synaptic sites. Thus, the Arc mRNA and protein are proposed as a marker of neuronal reactivity to map the neural substrates that are recruited by vari-ous stimuli. In the present study, we examined the expression of Arc protein induced by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal in different brain regions of acute morphine-dependent rats. The objective of the present study was to address the specific neural circuits involved in conditioned place aversion (CPA) that has not yet been well characterized. Methods: Place aversion was elicited by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal following exposure to a single dose of morphine. An immunohistochemical method was employed to detect the expression of Arc, which was used as a plasticity marker to trace the brain areas that contribute to the formation of the place aversion. Results: Marked increases in Arc protein levels were found in the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, the sensory cortex, the lateral striatum and the amygdala. This effect was more pronounced in the basolateral arnygdala (BLA), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the bed nucleus of the striatal terminals (BNST) when compared with the control group.Conclusion: Our results suggest that these brain regions may play key roles In mediating the negative motivational compo-nent of opiate withdrawal.

  6. Subdural Pressure and Brain Condition During Propofol Vs Isoflurane - Nitrous Oxide Anaesthesia in Patients Undergoing Elective Supratentorial Tumour Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankari Santra

    2009-01-01

    No differences were found between the groups with regards to demographics, neuroradiologic diagnosis, posi-tion of head and time of ICP measurement. Before hyperventilation, both ICP and dural tension were significantly lower in Group I compared with Group-II (P< 0.05. But after hyperventilation there was no significant difference of ICP and dural tension in between groups. The degree of brain swelling after opening of dura was similar in both groups. There was a positive correlation between measured ICP and brain swelling score.

  7. Web based hybrid volumetric visualisation of urban GIS data. Integration of 4D Temperature and Wind Fields with LoD-2 CityGML models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congote, J.; Moreno, A.; Kabongo, L.; Pérez, J.-L.; San-José, R.; Ruiz, O.

    2012-10-01

    City models visualisation, buildings, structures and volumetric information, is an important task in Computer Graphics and Urban Planning. The different formats and data sources involved in the visualisation make the development of applications a big challenge. We present a homogeneous web visualisation framework using X3DOM and MEDX3DOM for the visualisation of these urban objects. We present an integration of different declarative data sources, enabling the utilization of advanced visualisation algorithms to render the models. It has been tested with a city model composed of buildings from the Madrid University Campus, some volumetric datasets coming from Air Quality Models and 2D layers wind datasets. Results show that the visualisation of all the urban models can be performed in real time on the Web. An HTML5 web interface is presented to the users, enabling real time modifications of visualisation parameters.

  8. A comparative analysis of functional connectivity data in resting and task-related conditions of the brain for disease signature of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenas, Sona Khaneh; Halici, Ugur; Çiçek, Metehan

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a frequent, chronic disorder producing intrusive thoughts which results in repetitive behaviors. It is thought that this psychological disorder occurs due to abnormal functional connectivity in certain regions of the brain called Default Mode Network (DMN) mainly. Recently, functional MRI (FMRI) studies were performed in order to compare the differences in brain activity between patients with OCD and healthy individuals through different conditions of the brain. Our previous study on extraction of disease signature for OCD that is determining the features for discrimination of OCD patients from healthy individuals based on their resting-sate functional connectivity (rs-FC) data had given encouraging results. In the present study, functional data extracted from FMRI images of subjects under imagination task (maintaining an image in mind, im-FC) is considered. The aim of this study is to compare classification results achieved from both resting and task-related (imagination) conditions. This research has shown quite interesting and promising results using the same classification (SVM) method. PMID:25570124

  9. Trib3 is developmentally and nutritionally regulated in the brain but is dispensable for spatial memory, fear conditioning and sensing of amino acid-imbalanced diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Örd

    Full Text Available Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3 is a mammalian pseudokinase that is induced in neuronal cell cultures in response to cell death-inducing stresses, including neurotrophic factor deprivation. TRIB3 is an inhibitor of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, the central transcriptional regulator in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α phosphorylation pathway that is involved in the cellular stress response and behavioral processes. In this article, we study the expression of Trib3 in the mouse brain, characterize the brain morphology of mice with a genetic ablation of Trib3 and investigate whether Trib3 deficiency alters eIF2α-dependent cognitive abilities. Our data show that the consumption of a leucine-deficient diet induces Trib3 expression in the anterior piriform cortex, the brain region responsible for detecting essential amino acid intake imbalance. However, the aversive response to leucine-devoid diet does not differ in Trib3 knockout and wild type mice. Trib3 deletion also does not affect long-term spatial memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze and auditory or contextual fear conditioning. During embryonic development, Trib3 expression increases in the brain and persists in the early postnatal stadium. Neuroanatomical characterization of mice lacking Trib3 revealed enlarged lateral ventricles. Thus, although the absence of Trib3 does not alter the eIF2α pathway-dependent cognitive functions of several areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior piriform cortex, Trib3 may serve a role in other central nervous system processes and molecular pathways.

  10. Relations between blood supply of brain of students and condition of autonomic nervous system and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    L. D. Korovina; T. M. Zaporozhets

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to estimate the brain blood supply level by rheoencephalography method in junior students of the Medical academy and to determine the blood supply links with the autonomic regulation state, behavioural and alimentary factors. Rheo-encephalographic study, research of the autonomic nervous system state, heart rate regulation and questioning of 17–29 year-old students have been conducted. Basic hemodynamic indices were normal in all surveyed students. Increase in ...

  11. Surface flow visualisation over forward facing steps with varying yaw angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Australian wind farms are located near escarpments and cliffs where flow separation occurs. An absence of literature addressing the effect of wind direction over cliffs have motivated surface shear stress visualisations on forward facing steps at yaw angles between 0° and 50°. These visualisations have been conducted in the Monash University 450 kW wind tunnel. Mean reattachment lengths were measured and shown to vary as a function of the boundary layer thickness to step height ratio and the yaw angle. Vortices shed off the crest of the step induced surface shear stresses on the top surface of the step. The orientation of these shear stresses varied linearly with the yaw angle. Three-dimensional structures of different forms were also observed. At zero yaw angle the flow converged at points along the crest. At high yaw angles distinct sections of misaligned flow were observed downstream of the reattachment line, indicating a spatial periodicity in shedding

  12. PINGSoft: an IDL visualisation and manipulation tool for Integral Field Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales-Ortega, F F

    2010-01-01

    In this article we introduce PINGSoft, a set of IDL routines designed to visualise and manipulate, in an interactive and friendly way, Integral Field Spectroscopic data. The package is optimised for large databases and a fast visualisation rendering. PINGSoft includes routines to extract regions of interest by hand or within a given geometric aperture, to integrate the spectra within a given region, to convert between different IFS formats, to read, edit and write IFS data files, and some other miscellaneous codes especially useful in astronomy and spectroscopy. Here we describe its major characteristics and requirements, providing examples and describing its capabilities. The PINGSoft package is freely available at http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/research/pings

  13. Colouring in the "black-box": Alternative renderings of scientific visualisations in two comic book cosmologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Two somewhat contrasting views of public uses of scientific visualisations argue that they are "black-boxed" with meaning given by the scientific community or they are "polysemic" with meaning given by the context of presentation. This paper argues that whether they are treated as black-boxed or not and in what manner this is done is itself part of the meaning given by context. Thus, "black-boxing" is done not only by scientists but also by members of the public. The argument is illustrated by reference to two recent comic books, Dave Sim's Cerebus and Alan Moore's Promethea, in which the authors present cosmological visions of the universe using scientific visualisations to create a sense of realism. From analysis of their use of images of planet Earth and the human foetus it is argued that, although the images are black-boxed, the authors re-work them aesthetically to suit their specific moral and cosmological views.

  14. A web-based 3D visualisation and assessment system for urban precinct scenario modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubka, Roman; Glackin, Stephen; Lade, Oliver; Pettit, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing number of spatial tools and technologies for enabling better decision-making in the urban environment. They have largely arisen because of the need for cities to be more efficiently planned to accommodate growing populations while mitigating urban sprawl, and also because of innovations in rendering data in 3D being well suited for visualising the urban built environment. In this paper we review a number of systems that are better known and more commonly used in the field of urban planning. We then introduce Envision Scenario Planner (ESP), a web-based 3D precinct geodesign, visualisation and assessment tool, developed using Agile and Co-design methods. We provide a comprehensive account of the tool, beginning with a discussion of its design and development process and concluding with an example use case and a discussion of the lessons learned in its development.

  15. TASKRADAR: TASK VISUALISATION AND MONITORING WITHIN AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE USING SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver Softic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Project management within the automotive production in specific departments is still done separately and does not interact with engineering process. Our work aims on providing flexible data insights on collaboration tasks within such environments. We apply semantic technologies RDF, OWL and SPARQL with a specific domain related ontology PROTARES (PROject TAsks RESources to interlink, describe and query domain knowledge. As proof of concept we are introducing an experimental visualisation interface called TaskRadar. Our application resides on domain ontology and allows knowledge based browsing and visualisation of tasks in development process. With this example we want to show, how semantically driven customized views can support monitoring and reflection as well as decision-making within the early phases of the automotive product lifecycle.

  16. SCExV: a webtool for the analysis and visualisation of single cell qRT-PCR data.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Stefan; Ugale, Amol; Erlandsson, Eva; Karlsson, Göran; Bryder, David; Soneji, Shamit

    2015-01-01

    Background Single cell gene expression assays have become a powerful tool with which to dissect heterogeneous populations. While methods and software exist to interrogate such data, what has been lacking is a unified solution combining analysis and visualisation which is also accessible and intuitive for use by non-bioinformaticians, as well as bioinformaticians. Results We present the Single cell expression visualiser (SCExV), a webtool developed to expedite the analysis of single cell qRT-P...

  17. THE POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF VISUALISATION AS A METHOD IN LEARNING SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana T. Sidelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: the paper is concerned with potential and barriers of application of visualisation as a method in learning social sciences and humanities. Using and employing visual aids becomes the most important resource in modern pedagogical theory and learning process due to the improvement of traditional pedagogical tools and new interpretation of well-known methods. Materials and Methods: the methods of observation, analysis of test results, results of examination session, data of que...

  18. Malware 安全可视化研究%STUDY ON MALWARE SECURITY VISUALISATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卓君; 陈光; 韩秀玲

    2015-01-01

    Since traditional malicious code analysis process is usually sophisticated and time consuming,it is very difficult to obtain potential attack mode by even experienced security analysts.To reduce cognition burden and improve interactivity,we introduce information visualisation technology to malware code analysis field,i.e.Malware security visualisation,which is just the frontier focus of network security research in recent years.First,we explain in the paper the urgency of the Malware security visualisation.After that,we give an elaborate analysis on multiple Malware security visualisation examples from the following three aspects:static feature,dynamic host feature and network feature.Finally,we discuss the existing problems and the research direction in this field.%由于传统的恶意程序分析过程往往复杂耗时,即使是经验丰富的安全分析人员也很难发现潜在的攻击模式。为减轻认知负担、提高交互性,将信息可视化技术引入恶意代码分析领域,即 Malware 安全可视化,正是近年来网络安全研究中的前沿热点。首先说明 Malware 安全可视化的紧迫性,接着分别从静态特征、动态主机特征和网络特征三个方面,详细分析了多项 Malware 安全可视化实例,最后讨论了该领域当前存在的问题及今后的研究方向。

  19. Mapping, sensing and visualising the digital co-presence in the public arena

    OpenAIRE

    Fatah gen Schieck, A.; Penn, A; O'Neill, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on work carried out within the Cityware project using mobile technologies to map, visualise and project the digital co-presence in the city. This paper focuses on two pilot studies exploring the Bluetooth landscape in the city of Bath. Here we apply adapted and ‘digitally augmented’ methods for spatial observation and analysis based on established methods used extensively in the space syntax approach to urban design. We map the physical and digital flows at a macro level...

  20. Visualising linked health data to explore health events around preventable hospitalisations in NSW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Louisa R; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore patterns of health service use in the lead-up to, and following, admission for a ‘preventable’ hospitalisation. Setting 266 950 participants in the 45 and Up Study, New South Wales (NSW) Australia Methods Linked data on hospital admissions, general practitioner (GP) visits and other health events were used to create visual representations of health service use. For each participant, health events were plotted against time, with different events juxtaposed using different markers and panels of data. Various visualisations were explored by patient characteristics, and compared with a cohort of non-admitted participants matched on sociodemographic and health characteristics. Health events were displayed over calendar year and in the 90 days surrounding first preventable hospitalisation. Results The visualisations revealed patterns of clustering of GP consultations in the lead-up to, and following, preventable hospitalisation, with 14% of patients having a consultation on the day of admission and 27% in the prior week. There was a clustering of deaths and other hospitalisations following discharge, particularly for patients with a long length of stay, suggesting patients may have been in a state of health deterioration. Specialist consultations were primarily clustered during the period of hospitalisation. Rates of all health events were higher in patients admitted for a preventable hospitalisation than the matched non-admitted cohort. Conclusions We did not find evidence of limited use of primary care services in the lead-up to a preventable hospitalisation, rather people with preventable hospitalisations tended to have high levels of engagement with multiple elements of the healthcare system. As such, preventable hospitalisations might be better used as a tool for identifying sicker patients for managed care programmes. Visualising longitudinal health data was found to be a powerful strategy for uncovering patterns of health service use

  1. KAGLVis - On-line 3D Visualisation of Earth-observing-satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Marek; Ameri, Parinaz; Grabowski, Udo; Maatouki, Ahmad; Meyer, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    One of the goals of the Large-Scale Data Management and Analysis project is to provide a high-performance framework facilitating management of data acquired by Earth-observing satellites such as Envisat. On the client-facing facet of this framework, we strive to provide visualisation and basic analysis tool which could be used by scientists with minimal to no knowledge of the underlying infrastructure. Our tool, KAGLVis, is a JavaScript client-server Web application which leverages modern Web technologies to provide three-dimensional visualisation of satellite observables on a wide range of client systems. It takes advantage of the WebGL API to employ locally available GPU power for 3D rendering; this approach has been demonstrated to perform well even on relatively weak hardware such as integrated graphics chipsets found in modern laptop computers and with some user-interface tuning could even be usable on embedded devices such as smartphones or tablets. Data is fetched from the database back-end using a ReST API and cached locally, both in memory and using HTML5 Web Storage, to minimise network use. Computations, calculation of cloud altitude from cloud-index measurements for instance, can depending on configuration be performed on either the client or the server side. Keywords: satellite data, Envisat, visualisation, 3D graphics, Web application, WebGL, MEAN stack.

  2. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express (3D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Derek W; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express (3D) is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an 'Advanced' query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools. PMID:25949802

  3. INTRAVISTA - the system for a current opencast mine visualisation; INTRAVISTA - Das System zur aktuellen Tagebauvisualisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowar, H.J. [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Abt. Markscheidewesen, Spremberg-Schwarze Pumpe (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The use of all available informations in the company about the actual mining position of each of the open-cast mines as well as the survey of activities in the pre-mining area are a priority task of VE Mining AG. Hereby, data which are primarily needed for carrying out the mine-surveying operational control shall be simultaneously used for the visualisation of the single mining areas. The system INTRAVISTA (Intranet-Visualisation-Opencast mines) offers a client-server-solution which apart from the illustration of oriented and rectified aerial photographs also allows referencing with actual air photo interpretation as well as other informations related to planning. Easy-to-handle measuring functions, fading-in of explicit coordinates as well as a complex print and export mode of details allow varied utilisation beyond visualisation. A universal application in the company is possible because the system is installed on a central server and does not need any installation work at the client. (orig.)

  4. Quantitatively Plotting the Human Face for Multivariate Data Visualisation Illustrated by Health Assessments Using Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. Methods. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+ in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z>3 was still counted as 3. The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. Results. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. Conclusions. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  5. Coordinate action of pre- and postsynaptic brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for AMPAR trafficking and acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Keifer, J

    2008-08-26

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP), but its role in associative learning remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the function of BDNF and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in an in vitro model of classical conditioning using pond turtles, Pseudemys scripta elegans. Conditioning resulted in a significant increase in BDNF and phospho (p)-Trk expression. Bath application of antibodies directed against TrkB, but not TrkA or TrkC, abolished acquisition of conditioning, as did a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a and an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase 7-nitroindazole. Significantly, injections of BDNF Ab into the nerve roots of presynaptic axonal projections or postsynaptic motor neurons prevented acquisition of conditioning, suggesting that BDNF is required on both sides of the synapse for modification to occur. The presynaptic proteins synaptophysin and synapsin I were increased upon conditioning or BDNF application. Furthermore, BDNF application alone mimicked conditioning-induced synaptic insertion of GluR1 and GluR4 AMPAR subunits into synapses, which was inhibited by co-application of BDNF and K252a. Data also show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated in BDNF-treated preparations. We conclude that coordinate pre- and postsynaptic actions of BDNF are required for acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning.

  6. Conditional deletion of Ccm2 causes hemorrhage in the adult brain: a mouse model of human cerebral cavernous malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Kirk; Uchida, Yutaka; O'Donnell, Erin; Claudio, Estefania; Li, Wenling; Soneji, Kosha; Wang, Hongshan; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are irregularly shaped and enlarged capillaries in the brain that are prone to hemorrhage, resulting in headaches, seizures, strokes and even death in patients. The disease affects up to 0.5% of the population and the inherited form has been linked to mutations in one of three genetic loci, CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. To understand the pathophysiology underlying the vascular lesions in CCM, it is critical to develop a reproducible mouse genetic model of this di...

  7. OUR APPROACH TOWARDS DEVELOPING A SPECIFIC TUMOR-TARGETED MRI CONTRAST AGENT FOR THE BRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; BULTE, JWM; DELEY, L; THE, TH; KAMMAN, RL; HULSTAERT, CE; BLAAUW, EH; MA, LD

    1993-01-01

    This review presents various aspects of the technological development, and their assessment in the design of a contrast agent for MRI, tailored to visualise tumours in the brain. First, it was demonstrated that magnetite as a contrast agent exhibited a much stronger relaxivity than gadolinium. The p

  8. The detection of surfactant proteins A, B, C and D in the human brain and their regulation in cerebral infarction, autoimmune conditions and infections of the CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schob

    Full Text Available Surfactant proteins (SP have been studied intensively in the respiratory system. Surfactant protein A and surfactant protein D are proteins belonging to the family of collectins each playing a major role in the innate immune system. The ability of surfactant protein A and surfactant protein D to bind various pathogens and facilitate their elimination has been described in a vast number of studies. Surfactant proteins are very important in modulating the host's inflammatory response and participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells. Surfactant protein B and surfactant protein C are proteins responsible for lowering the surface tension in the lungs. The aim of this study was an investigation of expression of surfactant proteins in the central nervous system to assess their specific distribution patterns. The second aim was to quantify surfactant proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of healthy subjects compared to patients suffering from different neuropathologies. The expression of mRNA for the surfactant proteins was analyzed with RT-PCR done with samples from different parts of the human brain. The production of the surfactant proteins in the brain was verified using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The concentrations of the surfactant proteins in cerebrospinal fluid from healthy subjects and patients suffering from neuropathologic conditions were quantified using ELISA. Our results revealed that surfactant proteins are present in the central nervous system and that the concentrations of one or more surfactant proteins in healthy subjects differed significantly from those of patients affected by central autoimmune processes, CNS infections or cerebral infarction. Based on the localization of the surfactant proteins in the brain, their different levels in normal versus pathologic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and their well-known functions in the lungs, it appears that the surfactant proteins may play roles in host defense of the brain

  9. Visualization of cavitation bubbles; Visualisation de bulles de cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvellon, M.; Fournel, Th.; Ducottet, Ch. [Universite Jean Monnet, 31 Saint-Etienne (France). Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation-UMR CNRS 5516

    1999-07-01

    A high frequency ultrasonic reactor allows the degradation of some organic compounds which are not or poorly biodegradable by usual methods in industrial flows. The propagation of an ultrasonic wave in a liquid induces cavitation phenomena. The implosion of cavitation bubble locally causes a temperature of about several thousand Kelvins and a pressure of about several hundred bars. Such conditions allow the creation of the hydroxyl radicals and then the oxidation of organic compounds. The aim of this paper is to describe the method used to visualize cavitation bubbles in an ultrasonic reactor at a frequency of 500 kHz. The experimental set-up and the measurement of both the bubble radius and the fringe separation are presented. (authors)

  10. [Cadasil and other hereditary small vessel diseases of the brain--increasingly diagnosed conditions underlying familial ischaemic stroke and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Bence; Chabriat, Hugues; Bereczki, Dániel

    2011-03-30

    CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) has recently gained great interest in vascular neurology as the most common heritable cause of stroke and vascular dementia in adults. This autosomal dominant small vessel disease of the brain--unlike the sporadic, hypertensive form--appears already in adult midlife in the absence of vascular risk factors with ischemic episodes and progressive dementia, its first manifestation can be migraine with aura, and is often associated with psychiatric disturbances. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes showing a characteristic pattern may precede symptoms by more than a decade. The identification of the mutation of the NOTCH 3 gene responsible for the disorder encoding a transmembrane receptor of vascular smooth muscle cells - has given great impetus on research to understand the molecular and vascular pathogenesis of the disease. The special importance of this latter lies in the fact that CADASIL provides a pure genetic model for subcortical cerebral ischemia and vascular dementia without the confounding factors of comorbidities and advanced age. Thus insights into CADASIL may help us better understand the more common sporadic forms as well. Moreover CADASIL is one of the best studied examples of secondary migraine. Currently we have far less knowledge on other forms of hereditary small vessel disease of the brain such as CARASIL, HERNS, CRV, HVR, PXE etc. Neurologists are becoming more and more familiar with CADASIL, and with the wider availability of MRI it is increasingly diagnosed. However the disorder is still probably underrecognised. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge on CADASIL with special emphasis on diagnostic and differential diagnostic points for the practising neurologist. PMID:21545006

  11. Undernutrition during the brain growth period of the rat significantly delays the development of processes mediating Pavlovian trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, J W; Castro, C A

    1990-05-01

    Pavlovian trace conditioning procedures allow one to assess the ability of animals to associate events that are temporally separated because the conditioned stimulus terminates prior to the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. We report that undernutrition during Postnatal Days 2-18 significantly delays the development of trace conditioning to a visual stimulus. Previously undernourished 20-day-old rats conditioned when no temporal interval separated the termination of the CS and US onset (0-s trace interval). However, it was not until the undernourished pups were 30 days old that they conditioned when the trace interval was 10 or 30 s. In contrast, control pups only 20 days old were able to condition when a 10-s trace interval separated the CS and US events, and 25-day-old control pups conditioned when the interval was either 10 or 30 s. These results suggest that undernutrition delays the development of processes that enable the rat to sustain a representation of a visual CS during the trace interval.

  12. Data processing and visualisation in the Rosetta Science Ground Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Rosetta is the first space mission to rendezvous with a comet. The spacecraft encountered its target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 and currently escorts the comet through a complete activity cycle during perihelion passage. The Rosetta Science Ground Segment (RSGS) is in charge of planning and coordinating the observations carried out by the scientific instruments on board the Rosetta spacecraft. We describe the data processing system implemented at the RSGS in order to support data analysis and science operations planning. The system automatically retrieves and processes telemetry data in near real-time. The generated products include spacecraft and instrument housekeeping parameters, scientific data for some instruments, and derived quantities. Based on spacecraft and comet trajectory information a series of geometric variables are calculated in order to assess the conditions for scheduling the observations of the scientific instruments and analyse the respective measurements obtained. Images acquired by the Rosetta Navigation Camera are processed and distributed in near real-time to the instrument team community. A quicklook web-page displaying the images allows the RSGS team to monitor the state of the comet and the correct acquisition and downlink of the images. Consolidated datasets are later delivered to the long-term archive.

  13. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  14. Groundwater Visualisation System (GVS): A software framework for integrated display and interrogation of conceptual hydrogeological models, data and time-series animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Malcolm E.; James, Allan; Hawke, Amy; Raiber, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Valley, and the Surat Basin, a large sedimentary basin of confined artesian aquifers. This latter example required more detail in the hydrostratigraphy, correlation of formations with drillholes and visualisation of simulation piezometric surfaces. Both alluvial system GVS models were developed during drought conditions to support government strategies to implement groundwater management. The Surat Basin model was industry sponsored research, for coal seam gas groundwater management and community information and consultation. The "virtual" groundwater systems in these 3D GVS models can be interactively interrogated by standard functions, plus production of 2D cross-sections, data selection from the 3D scene, rear end database and plot displays. A unique feature is that GVS allows investigation of time-series data across different display modes, both 2D and 3D. GVS has been used successfully as a tool to enhance community/stakeholder understanding and knowledge of groundwater systems and is of value for training and educational purposes. Projects completed confirm that GVS provides a powerful support to management and decision making, and as a tool for interpretation of groundwater system hydrological processes. A highly effective visualisation output is the production of short videos (e.g. 2-5 min) based on sequences of camera 'fly-throughs' and screen images. Further work involves developing support for multi-screen displays and touch-screen technologies, distributed rendering, gestural interaction systems. To highlight the visualisation and animation capability of the GVS software, links to related multimedia hosted online sites are included in the references.

  15. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  16. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  17. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques

  18. Developing and Testing the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Astoul, Anthony; Mason, Eric; Rau-Chaplin, Andrew; Shridhar, Kunal; Varghese, Blesson; Varshney, Naman

    2013-01-01

    An automated, real-time, multiple sensor data source relying and globally applicable earthquake loss model and visualiser is desirable for post-event earthquake analysis. To achieve this there is a need to support rapid data ingestion, loss estimation and integration of data from multiple data sources and rapid visualisation at multiple geographic levels. In this paper, the design and development of the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) system for real-time estimation and visualisation of insured losses incurred due to earthquakes is presented. A model for estimating ground up and net of facultative losses due to earthquakes in near real-time is implemented. Since post-event data is often available immediately from multiple disparate sources, a geo-browser is employed to facilitate the visualisation and integration of earthquake hazard, exposure and loss data. The feasibility of APE-ELEV is demonstrated using a test case earthquake that occurred in Tohoku, Japan (201...

  19. Present Condition and Progress in Treatment of Traumatic Brain Edema%创伤性脑水肿的治疗现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 黄文彬

    2015-01-01

    Annually hundreds of thousands of people die of trauma every year in our country,about 50% of them die of fatal craniocerebral trauma.The mortality of craniocerebral trauma is high and postoperative quality of life is not ideal even the lives of patients are saved by treatment,which posing a severe burden to families and society.Craniocerebral trauma has been a serious public health problem.The patients with cerebral trauma show different degree of cerebral edema.Traumatic brain edema is secondary pathological physiological reaction when the cerebra suffers from serious brain damage.Excessive moisture assembles in the gap inside and outside of cerebral cells,which enlarging the brain volume, aggravating the intracranial pressure and even causing cerebral hernia or brain shift.Cerebral edema is a main death cause of the injured with craniocerebral trauma.Therefore,the efficacy on brain edema directly determines the prognosis of patients with craniocerebral trauma.The treatment and the present conditions of traumatic brain edema are summed in this paper from the pathogenesis,classification,treatment and other aspects,which aiming at providing the reference basis for improving the treatment efficacy of traumatic brain edema and the prognosis of patients with craniocerebral trauma.%我国每年死于创伤者可达数十万,其中约50%是死于致命性颅脑创伤。颅脑创伤具有高死亡率,即使通过治疗挽留患者生命,其术后生存质量并不理想,给家庭以及社会造成巨大负担,已经成为一个严重的公共卫生问题。颅脑创伤者均有不同程度脑水肿出现。创伤性脑水肿是颅脑遭受重创后的严重继发性的病理生理反应,过多水分在脑细胞内外间隙聚集,使脑体积增大,致使颅内高压加重,严重时患者出现脑疝或脑移位。颅脑创伤患者多死于脑水肿。因此,脑水肿疗效直接决定颅脑创伤患者的预后。本文从创伤性脑水肿的发病

  20. A Hierarchical Framework for Visualising and Simulating Supply Chains in Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan Zhang; Zheng-Xu Zhao

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents research into applying virtual environment (VE) technology to supply chain management (SCM). Our research work has employed virtual manufacturing environments to represent supply chain nodes to simulate processes and activities in supply chain management. This will enable those who are involved in these processes and activities to gain an intuitive understanding of them, so as to design robust supply chains and make correct decisions at the right time.A framework system and its hierarchical structure for visualising and simulating supply chains in virtual environments are reported and detailed in this paper.

  1. BIG DATA VISUALISATION IN IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENTS: EMBODIED PHENOMENOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES TO INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Teras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing human-computer interactions with various tracking technologies are creating unprecedented amounts of data. The amount and complexity of this ‘big data’ creates various challenges for its storage, analysis and presentation, but at the same time, big data is suggested to open up opportunities for those who can leverage it. This paper will discuss using immersive virtual reality environments for visualising, interacting and making sense of big data. It reveals that many of the developed applications do not justify their approaches to presentation or interaction. A phenomenological perspective of embodied perception and interaction is discussed to ground future developments.

  2. A cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention for anxiety in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to design a cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention with the aim of reducing both overt and covert anxiety associated with the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was tweeledig. Eerstens is daar gepoog om ‘n kognitiewe ontspanningsvisualiserings-intervensie te ontwerp wat die vermindering van overte en koverte angs geassosieer met die diagnose en behandeling van borskanker ten doel het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  3. Visualisation of axolotl blastema cells and pig endothelial progenitor cells using very small super paramagnetic iron oxide particles in MRI: A technique with applications for non invasive visualisation of regenerative processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Kjær, N.B.; Bek, Maria;

    Objectives: Regenerative studies on model animals often require invasive techniques such as tissue sampling and histology for visualisation of regenerative processes. These interactions are avoided using non invasive imaging techniques. The internalisation of very small super paramagnetic iron...... oxide particles (VSOP) in animal cells enable non invasive cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and can prove useful, when visualising regenerative processes. This study examines the possibility of labelling limited numbers of axolotl blastema cells (aBC) and pig endothelial progenitor...... labelling concentration and signal decrease (F-ratio = 36.52, p spin-echo sequence on samples of 10˄6 cells yielded a significant...

  4. Modèles physiques pour la visualisation d'objets très déformables. Relations Mouvement-Forme-Image

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Arash

    1997-01-01

    Ce travail se situe dans le domaine de la synthèse d’images par ordinateur et de l’animation par modèles physiques. La modélisation et la visualisation d’un objet physique suppose un travail sur la forme, le mouvement et l’image. Plus cet objet de référence est déformable et plus la relation entre ces trois entités est complexe. Dans ce travail, nous étudions cette relation et nous déterminons dans quelles conditions le comportement (forme, mouvement, image) des objets peut être représenté pa...

  5. Real-time Interactive Steerable Scientific Visualisation of Free Surface Flow in the Context of Synthetic Vision (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Lingaraju

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing techniques in the context of fluid modelling and simulation have been reviewed. Generic framework that enables an easy integration of various modules has been developed, extending the work to real-time simulation and visualisation, and developed user interaction during run-time using the concept of computational steering. Inthe generic framework developed, a new class of visualisation technique that simplifies the visualisation tasks of a scientist has been identified. Investigating these techniques is important as the tools such as visualisation tool kit (VTK and VTK designer are freely available (Open Source and easy to integrate. A technique for interactivevisualisation of the free surface flow, that introduces the concepts of geometrical steering and properties steering, has been developed. These techniques constitute computational steering. The concept of real-time interactive scientific visualisation using a surface flow application has been demonstrated. As a proof of concept, the behaviour of flow is simulated and visualised during training in a virtual environment on a desktop computer. It is expected that the generic framework, device, interface, and simulation engine, used in this work will not only have a significant impact in the area of free surface flow, but also in real-time applications such as synthetic vision in avionics. The underlying formulation/methodology involved in parametric approach is explained.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.299-305, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1115

  6. GrayStar: A Web application for pedagogical stellar atmosphere and spectral line modelling and visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C Ian

    2014-01-01

    GrayStar is a stellar atmospheric and spectral line modelling, post-processing, and visualisation code, suitable for classroom demonstrations and laboratory-style assignments, that has been developed in Java and deployed in JavaScript and HTML. The only software needed to compute models and post-processed observables, and to visualise the resulting atmospheric structure and observables, is a common Web browser. Therefore, the code will run on any common PC or related X86 (-64) computer of the type that typically serves classroom data projectors, is found in undergraduate computer laboratories, or that students themselves own, including those with highly portable form-factors such as net-books and tablets. The user requires no experience with compiling source code, reading data files, or using plotting packages. More advanced students can view the JavaScript source code using the developer tools provided by common Web browsers. The code is based on the approximate gray atmospheric solution and runs quickly eno...

  7. Complexity for artificial substrates (CASU: software for creating and visualising habitat complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H L Loke

    Full Text Available Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss of habitats worldwide. One way to restore physical complexity to anthropogenically simplified habitats is through the use of artificial substrates, which also offer excellent opportunities to explore the effects of different components (variables of complexity on biodiversity and community structure that would be difficult to separate in natural systems. Here, we describe a software program (CASU that enables users to visualise static, physical complexity. CASU also provides output files that can be used to create artificial substrates for experimental and/or restoration studies. It has two different operational modes: simple and advanced. In simple mode, users can adjust the five main variables of informational complexity (i.e. the number of object types, relative abundance of object types, density of objects, variability and range in the objects' dimensions, and their spatial arrangement and visualise the changes as they do so. The advanced mode allows users to design artificial substrates by fine-tuning the complexity variables as well as alter object-specific parameters. We illustrate how CASU can be used to create tiles of different designs for application in a marine environment. Such an ability to systematically influence physical complexity could greatly facilitate ecological restoration by allowing conservationists to rebuild complexity in degraded and simplified habitats.

  8. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest D

    2015-05-13

    Background Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights into the genomic variation underlying intra- and inter-strain diversity, thereby assisting with the classification and molecular barcoding of the bacteria. One roadblock to strain investigation is the lack of user-interactive solutions to interrogate and visualise variation within a phylogenetic tree setting. Results We have developed a web-based tool called PhyTB (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/phytblive/index.php webcite) to assist phylogenetic tree visualisation and identification of M. tuberculosis clade-informative polymorphism. Variant Call Format files can be uploaded to determine a sample position within the tree. A map view summarises the geographical distribution of alleles and strain-types. The utility of the PhyTB is demonstrated on sequence data from 1,601 M. tuberculosis isolates. Conclusion PhyTB contextualises M. tuberculosis genomic variation within epidemiological, geographical and phylogenic settings. Further tool utility is possible by incorporating large variants and phenotypic data (e.g. drug-resistance profiles), and an assessment of genotype-phenotype associations. Source code is available to develop similar websites for other organisms (http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotrack webcite).

  9. GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Šmejda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case-study demonstrating the potential of GIS visualisations for analyses of mortuary data, recorded half a century ago at the site of Holešov, Kroměříž district, in the Czech Republic. This cemetery consists of 10 Bell Beaker and 420 Early Bronze Age graves, giving the impression of continuous development over a considerable period of time. The temporality of the cemetery is examined in detail, via its chronological development, as well as the inseparable aspects of its social use and structuring through time. The original data were converted from the printed catalogue into a Geographical Information System (GIS consisting of digitised plans and a database. Exploratory analyses of the data were conducted, based on two complementary perspectives: the spatial reference of recorded features and objects, and the formal similarity of burial assemblages. The former approach includes spatial density and trend surface analyses, the latter applies multivariate factor analysis visualised in GIS, where the extracted factor scores define a new reference system. The methods employed are sometimes unorthodox, specifically because such plots describing formal space have been little employed in GIS-based studies of mortuary behaviour. This article strives to highlight the positive aspects of contemporary computer software in order to encourage researchers to pursue new ways of conceptualising their research ideas through the integration of concepts and methods, which traditionally have been applied to different research domains.

  10. Application of growing hierarchical SOM for visualisation of network forensics traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, E J; North, J; Elizondo, D; Luque, R M; Watson, T

    2012-08-01

    Digital investigation methods are becoming more and more important due to the proliferation of digital crimes and crimes involving digital evidence. Network forensics is a research area that gathers evidence by collecting and analysing network traffic data logs. This analysis can be a difficult process, especially because of the high variability of these attacks and large amount of data. Therefore, software tools that can help with these digital investigations are in great demand. In this paper, a novel approach to analysing and visualising network traffic data based on growing hierarchical self-organising maps (GHSOM) is presented. The self-organising map (SOM) has been shown to be successful for the analysis of highly-dimensional input data in data mining applications as well as for data visualisation in a more intuitive and understandable manner. However, the SOM has some problems related to its static topology and its inability to represent hierarchical relationships in the input data. The GHSOM tries to overcome these limitations by generating a hierarchical architecture that is automatically determined according to the input data and reflects the inherent hierarchical relationships among them. Moreover, the proposed GHSOM has been modified to correctly treat the qualitative features that are present in the traffic data in addition to the quantitative features. Experimental results show that this approach can be very useful for a better understanding of network traffic data, making it easier to search for evidence of attacks or anomalous behaviour in a network environment.

  11. Real-time Photorealistic Visualisation of Large-scaleMultiresolution Terrain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Agrawal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Height field terrain rendering is an important aspect of GIS, outdoor virtual reality applicationssuch as flight simulation, 3-D games, etc. A polygonal model of very large terrain data requiresa large number of triangles. So, even most high-performance graphics workstations have greatdifficulty to display even moderately sized height fields at interactive frame rates. To bringphotorealism in visualisation, it is required to drape corresponding high-resolution satellite oraerial phototexture over 3-D digital terrain and also to place multiple collections of point-location-based static objects such as buildings, trees, etc and to overlay polyline vector objects suchas roads on top of the terrain surface. It further complicates the requirement of interactive framerates while navigation over the terrain. This paper describes a novel approach for objects andterrain visualisation by combination of two algorithms, one for terrain data and the other forobjects. The terrain rendering is accomplished by an efficient dynamic multiresolution view-dependent level-of-detail mesh simplification algorithm. It is augmented with out-of-corevisualisation of large-height geometry and phototexture terrain data populated with 3-D/2-Dstatic objects as well as vector overlays without extensive memory load. The proposedmethodology provides interactive frame rates on a general-purpose desktop PC with OpenGL-enabled graphics hardware. The software TREND has been successfully tested on different real-world height maps and satellite phototextures of sizes up to 16K*16K coupled with thousandsof static objects and polyline vector overlays.

  12. Visualising many-body electron dynamics using one-body densities and orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutoi, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    As experimental techniques begin to probe electronic motions in increasing detail, the need is arising for compact and informative visualisations of simulations of such processes. The inherent challenge is that a full many-electron wavefunction is a high-dimensional object, representing the complicated correlations of strongly repulsive bodies in a small molecular volume. A general procedure is needed to distill this to a smaller amount of information that does not rely on any specific level of approximation. The result should allow for easy and intuitive interpretation while drawing out nontrivial aspects of the underlying many-body dynamics, such as the complex phase information inherent of a nonstationary state. Current visualisation schemes based on physical observables or the qualitative information contained in simple wavefunctions, such as time-dependent configuration-interaction-singles (TD-CIS) and time-dependent self-consistent-field (TD-SCF), are discussed. This information is compared to an analysis based on the one-body reduced density operator (1-RDO), which is well-defined for general wavefunctions. It is seen that the distinction between two paradigms of many-body dynamics, electron transport and energy transport, is reflected in the coherences of a difference-1-RDO, or lack thereof.

  13. Alignment of Hyperspectral Imagery and Full-Waveform LIDAR Data for Visualisation and Classification Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltiadou, M.; Warren, M. A.; Grant, M.; Brown, M.

    2015-04-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to enhance the visualisations and classifications of airborne remote sensing data for remote forest surveys. A new open source tool is presented for aligning hyperspectral and full-waveform LiDAR data. The tool produces coloured polygon representations of the scanned areas and aligned metrics from both datasets. Using data provided by NERC ARSF, tree coverage maps are generated and projected into the polygons. The 3D polygon meshes show well-separated structures and are suitable for direct rendering with commodity 3D-accelerated hardware allowing smooth visualisation. The intensity profile of each wave sample is accumulated into a 3D discrete density volume building a 3D representation of the scanned area. The 3D volume is then polygonised using the Marching Cubes algorithm. Further, three user-defined bands from the hyperspectral images are projected into the polygon mesh as RGB colours. Regarding the classifications of full-waveform LiDAR data, previous work used extraction of point clouds while this paper introduces a new approach of deriving information from the 3D volume representation and the hyperspectral data. We generate aligned metrics of multiple resolutions, including the standard deviation of the hyperspectral bands and width of the reflected waveform derived from the volume. Tree coverage maps are then generated using a Bayesian probabilistic model and due to the combination of the data, higher accuracy classification results are expected.

  14. Exploring Visualisation of Channel Activity, Levels and EQ for User Interfaces Implementing the Stage Metaphor for Music Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Uhrenholt, Anders Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This short précis outlines a collection of different strategies for visualising simple audio features for a GUI- based audio mixing interface that uses the stage metaphor control scheme. Audio features such as activity, loudness and spectral centroid are extracted in real-time and mapped to diffe......This short précis outlines a collection of different strategies for visualising simple audio features for a GUI- based audio mixing interface that uses the stage metaphor control scheme. Audio features such as activity, loudness and spectral centroid are extracted in real-time and mapped...

  15. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. PMID:25601575

  16. Oligomeric amyloid-{beta} inhibits the proteolytic conversion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AMPA receptor trafficking, and classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoqing; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Keifer, Joyce

    2010-11-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is thought to have a significant role in the progressive memory loss observed in patients with Alzheimer disease and inhibits synaptic plasticity in animal models of learning. We previously demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for synaptic AMPA receptor delivery in an in vitro model of eyeblink classical conditioning. Here, we report that acquisition of conditioned responses was significantly attenuated by bath application of oligomeric (200 nm), but not fibrillar, Aβ peptide. Western blotting revealed that BDNF protein expression during conditioning is significantly reduced by treatment with oligomeric Aβ, as were phosphorylation levels of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), and ERK. However, levels of PKA and PKCζ/λ were unaffected, as was PDK-1. Protein localization studies using confocal imaging indicate that oligomeric Aβ, but not fibrillar or scrambled forms, suppresses colocalization of GluR1 and GluR4 AMPA receptor subunits with synaptophysin, indicating that trafficking of these subunits to synapses during the conditioning procedure is blocked. In contrast, coapplication of BDNF with oligomeric Aβ significantly reversed these findings. Interestingly, a tolloid-like metalloproteinase in turtle, tTLLs (turtle tolloid-like protein), which normally processes the precursor proBDNF into mature BDNF, was found to degrade oligomeric Aβ into small fragments. These data suggest that an Aβ-induced reduction in BDNF, perhaps due to interference in the proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, results in inhibition of synaptic AMPA receptor delivery and suppression of the acquisition of conditioning.

  17. 3D Digitisation and Visualisation of the Vače Situla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Vidmar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The project of 3D digitisation and visualisation of the Vače situla was implemented at the beginning of 2011 in cooperation with the National Museum of Slovenia where the situla is kept and the company MFC.2 which, among other services, develops and implements 3 D digitisation and visualisation projects. The purpose of the project was to digitise and visualise a famous and precious piece of cultural heritage and to  1. show what modern 3D shape and texture scanning technologies allow us to do,  2. show how to ensure safety and reach high quality in digitising cultural heritage objects.  3. measure the added value of the 3 D visualisation of cultural heritage as a powerful tool for preservation, conservation, research, education, knowledge sharing and promotion of cultural heritage objects. Furthermore, the aims of the project were:  1. 3D capture of the shape and texture of the situla using the 3D scanning method.  2. 3D image of the situla and its details with expert descriptions.  3. 3D stereoscopic projection of the situla viewed with 3D glasses and with the possibility of controlling it remotely.  4. 3D animation giving professional interpretation of certain facts about the situla.  5. Public presentation of the project results on Slovenian cultural holiday, 8th February 2011, at the National Museum of Slovenia. The 3D capture of the shape and texture of the situla was carried out using the white light 3D scanning method followed by 3D flesh animation to show the object and its details. A touch screen was used to provide user access to the content. Reality based model enabled vertical rotation of the situla as well as the interactive display of individual engravings. By clicking a situla detail a photo with an extensive professional explanation of the scene was displayed in a new browser window. For attractive public presentation of the exhibition a 3D stereoscopic animation of the situla rotating and seemingly

  18. Prenatal L-DOPA exposure produces lasting changes in brain dopamine content, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine conditioned place preference

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jia-Qian; Jiang, Yan; WANG, Zhihui; McCarthy, Deirdre; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M.; Tropea, Thomas F.; Kosofsky, Barry E.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine, its receptors and transporter are present in the brain beginning from early in the embryonic period. Dopamine receptor activation can influence developmental events including neurogenesis, neuronal migration and differentiation raising the possibility that dopamine imbalance in the fetal brain can alter development of the brain and behavior. We examined whether elevated dopamine levels during gestation can produce persisting changes in brain dopamine content and dopamine-mediated be...

  19. Wit & visualisation : visualising Jane Austen

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Jane Austen is famed for her pervasive use of irony. There are many other things one could praise in Jane Austen's writing: Her perfectly crafted plots, her deep understanding of human nature, her true-to-life depictions of everyday society, but it is her use of irony that makes her a really great writer, and which also contributes to making these other aspects of her writing so praiseworthy. It might be said that the characteristics that make her such a good writer also make her an attra...

  20. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  4. The phenomenon of "pre-ischaemic conditioning" in the brain only partly involves the NMDA receptor: a magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Malcolm; Thatcher, Nicola; Morris, Peter; Reese, Torsten; Bachelard, Herman

    2005-10-01

    We have investigated in more detail our previous observations on a form of ischaemic pre-conditioning "metabolic adaptation", i.e.--that sequential metabolic insults (hypoxia followed 40 min later by combined hypoxia + hypoglycaemia, or vice versa) are less injurious (monitored by increased [Ca2+]i and decreased PCr) than the immediate combined insult. We have now observed that the "adaptation" occurs between 10 and 20 min. Pre-treatment of the tissues with 10 microM-MK801 showed that it had no effect on the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by the sequential insult and only partially blocked the increase observed by exposure to the immediate combined insult. Exposure to both the delayed and immediate combined insults with low extracellular Ca2+ resulted in a two-fold increase in [Ca2+]i, similar to the increase observed with normal extracellular Ca2+ in the presence of MK801. The results are discussed in terms of the possible origins of the increases in [Ca2+]i.

  5. Predictive gene lists for breast cancer prognosis: A topographic visualisation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe David

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The controversy surrounding the non-uniqueness of predictive gene lists (PGL of small selected subsets of genes from very large potential candidates as available in DNA microarray experiments is now widely acknowledged 1. Many of these studies have focused on constructing discriminative semi-parametric models and as such are also subject to the issue of random correlations of sparse model selection in high dimensional spaces. In this work we outline a different approach based around an unsupervised patient-specific nonlinear topographic projection in predictive gene lists. Methods We construct nonlinear topographic projection maps based on inter-patient gene-list relative dissimilarities. The Neuroscale, the Stochastic Neighbor Embedding(SNE and the Locally Linear Embedding(LLE techniques have been used to construct two-dimensional projective visualisation plots of 70 dimensional PGLs per patient, classifiers are also constructed to identify the prognosis indicator of each patient using the resulting projections from those visualisation techniques and investigate whether a-posteriori two prognosis groups are separable on the evidence of the gene lists. A literature-proposed predictive gene list for breast cancer is benchmarked against a separate gene list using the above methods. Generalisation ability is investigated by using the mapping capability of Neuroscale to visualise the follow-up study, but based on the projections derived from the original dataset. Results The results indicate that small subsets of patient-specific PGLs have insufficient prognostic dissimilarity to permit a distinction between two prognosis patients. Uncertainty and diversity across multiple gene expressions prevents unambiguous or even confident patient grouping. Comparative projections across different PGLs provide similar results. Conclusion The random correlation effect to an arbitrary outcome induced by small subset selection from very high

  6. VMStools: Open-source software for the processing, analysis and visualisation of fisheries logbook and VMS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Bastardie, F.; Beare, D.J.; Piet, G.J.; Ulrich, C.; Deporte, N.; Egekvist, J.; Degel, H.

    2012-01-01

    VMStools is a package of open-source software, build using the freeware environment R, specifically developed for the processing, analysis and visualisation of landings (logbooks) and vessel location data (VMS) from commercial fisheries. Analyses start with standardized data formats for logbook (EFL

  7. An Analysis of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Performance in Modelling Tasks in Terms of Spatial Visualisation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasova, Halil Ibrahim; Delice, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modelling involves mathematical constructions chosen to represent some real world situations and the relationships among them; it is the process of expressing a real world situation mathematically. Visualisation can play a significant role in the development of thinking or understanding mathematical concepts, and also makes abstract…

  8. Designing Spatial Visualisation Tasks for Middle School Students with a 3D Modelling Software: An Instrumental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Melih; Uygan, Candas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, certain task designs to enhance middle school students' spatial visualisation ability, in the context of an instrumental approach, have been developed. 3D modelling software, SketchUp®, was used. In the design process, software tools were focused on and, thereafter, the aim was to interpret the instrumental genesis and spatial…

  9. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  10. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor TrkB is critical for the acquisition but not expression of conditioned incentive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander W; Chen, Xi; Crombag, Hans S; Zhang, Chao; Smith, Dani R; Shokat, Kevan M; Gallagher, Michela; Holland, Peter C; Ginty, David D

    2008-09-01

    Stimuli paired with reward acquire incentive properties that are important for many aspects of motivated behavior, such as feeding and drug-seeking. Here we used a novel chemical-genetic strategy to determine the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, known to be critical to many aspects of neural development and plasticity, during acquisition and expression of positive incentive value by a cue paired with food. We assessed that cue's learned incentive value in a conditioned reinforcement task, in which its ability to reinforce instrumental responding later, in the absence of food itself, was examined. In TrkB (F616A) knock-in mice, TrkB kinase activity was suppressed by administering the TrkB inhibitor 1NMPP1 during the period of initial cue incentive learning only (i.e. Pavlovian training), during nose-poke conditioned reinforcement testing only, during both phases, or during neither phase. All mice acquired cue-food associations as indexed by approach responses. However, TrkB (F616A) mice that received 1NMPP1 during initial cue incentive learning failed to show conditioned reinforcement of nose-poking, regardless of their treatment in testing, whereas administration of 1NMMP1 only during the testing phase had no effect. The effects of 1NMPP1 administration were due to inhibition of TrkB(F616A), because the performance of wild-type mice was unaffected by administration of the compound during either phase. These data indicate that BDNF or NT4 signaling through TrkB receptors is required for the acquisition of positive incentive value, but is not needed for the expression of previously acquired incentive value in the reinforcement of instrumental behavior.

  11. Visualisation of morphological interactionof diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria Monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna;

    2011-01-01

    Currently, medicine intensively searches for methods to transport drugs to a target (sick) point within the body. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of silver or diamond nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis (G-) or Listeria......) were added to bacteria suspension (200 microl) in the following order: nano-D + Salmonella E.; nano-D + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Ag + Salmonella E; nano-Ag + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Visualisation of nanoparticles and bacteria interaction...... showed harmful effects of both nanoparticles on bacteria morphology. The most spectacular effect of nano-D were strong links between nano-D packages and the flagella of Salmonella E. Nano-Ag were closely attached to Listeria monocytogenes but not to Salmonella E. There was no evidence of entering nano...

  12. STM visualisation of counterions and the effect of charges on self-assembled monolayers of macrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Kudernac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in self-assembly processes, the influence of charged counterions on the geometry of self-assembled organic monolayers and their direct localisation within the monolayers has been given little attention. Recently, various examples of self-assembled monolayers composed of charged molecules on surfaces have been reported, but no effort has been made to prove the presence of counterions within the monolayer. Here we show that visualisation and exact localisation of counterions within self-assembled monolayers can be achieved with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM. The presence of charges on the studied shape-persistent macrocycles is shown to have a profound effect on the self-assembly process at the liquid–solid interface. Furthermore, preferential adsorption was observed for the uncharged analogue of the macrocycle on a surface.

  13. The Starfish Diagram: Visualising Data Within the Context of Survey Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S

    2014-01-01

    As astronomy becomes increasingly invested in large surveys, the ample representation of an individual target becomes a significant challenge. Tabulations of basic properties can convey the message in an absolute sense, but not within the context of the sample from which the individual is drawn. We present a novel but simple plot that simultaneously visualises the properties of the sample and the individual. Numbers and characters are kept at an absolute minimum to enable the stacking of such plots without introducing too much verbal information. Once the user becomes accustomed to their appearance, a set of 'starfish diagrams' provide a direct representation of the individual within a sample, or between various samples. The utility and versatility of the plot is demonstrated through its application to astrophysical data and sports statistics. We provide a brief description of the concept and the source code, which is simple to adapt to any statistical dataset, be it descriptive of physics, demographics, fina...

  14. Metal–biomass interactions: a comparison of visualisation techniques available in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Burgess

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metals and biological materials is of interest for reasons such as metal recovery, toxicity and production of high-value products such as gold and platinum nanoparticles. Understanding the way in which metals interact with the biomass surface and intracellular components provides insights into the biosorption and bioaccumulation processes and increases the potential for process optimisation. Three technologies are available for the qualitative visualisation of metal–biomass interactions in South Africa, namely, micro-PIXE, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. Each technique provides unique information and has specific shortcomings which should be taken into account when selecting the appropriate technology. This paper focuses on evaluating the various techniques.

  15. Integration of biotechnology, visualisation technology and robot technology for automated mass propagation af elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is one of the promisisng methods for integration of biotechnology into breeding and propagation of conifers. Especially because SE has some particular advantages for the development of cost effective methods for clonal mass propagation of elite trees: It is a very...... effective and fast method for clonal propagation. The method is suitable for automatisation and robot technology. The method is, for several plant species, the preferred basis for development of additional biotechnological breeding technologies as e.g. genetic transformation. Elite clones can be stored over...... of robot- and visualisation technologies. (From Afreen & Zobayed, p. 96, 2005) The presentation will report on two present project that takes advantage of effective methods for SE in Nordmanns fir (Abies nordmanniana) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Nordmanns fir has special interest...

  16. Engaging with the Canopy—Multi-Dimensional Vegetation Mark Visualisation Using Archived Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Verhoeven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using Montarice in central Adriatic Italy as a case study, this paper focuses on the extraction of the spectral (i.e., plant colour and geometrical (i.e., plant height components of a crop canopy from archived aerial photographs, treating both parameters as proxies for archaeological prospection. After the creation of orthophotographs and a canopy height model using image-based modelling, new archaeological information is extracted from this vegetation model by applying relief-enhancing visualisation techniques. Through interpretation of the resulting data, a combination of the co-registered spectral and geometrical vegetation dimensions clearly add new depth to interpretative mapping, which is typically based solely on colour differences in orthophotographs.

  17. Visualisering på arkitektkontor, En effektivitetsjämförelse mellan fyra visualiseringsprogram

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Mattias; Olander, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Idag har det blivit allt vanligare att visualisering tillämpas inom byggsektorn. Det finns en mängd olika program där det kan vara stora skillnader på användarvänlighet samt kvalitet på de bilder programmen producerar. Några av de program som används på många arkitektkontor är Revit, ArchiCad, 3DS Max Design och Lumion. Ett stort problem idag är att för att få bra säljande bilder kostar det ofta mer än vad det är möjligt att ta betalt. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta reda på vilka vi...

  18. Architecture of Collaborating Frameworks:Simulation,Visualisation,User Interface and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Pfeiffer; R.Giannitrapani; 等

    2001-01-01

    In modern high energy and astrophysics experiments the variety of user requirements and the complexity of the problem domain often involve the collaboration of several software frameworks,and different components are responsible for providing the functionalities related to each domain.For instance,a common use case consists in studying the physics effects and the detector performance,resulting from primary events,in a given detector configuration,to evaluate the physics reach of the experiment or optimise the detector design,Such a study typically involves various components:simulation,Visualisation,Analysis and (interactive)User Interface.We focus on the design aspects of the collaboration of these frameworks and on the technologies that help to simplify the complex process of software design.

  19. Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.

  20. Visualisation in imaging mass spectrometry using the minimum noise fraction transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS provides a means to measure the spatial distribution of biochemical features on the surface of a sectioned tissue sample. IMS datasets are typically huge and visualisation and subsequent analysis can be challenging. Principal component analysis (PCA is one popular data reduction technique that has been used and we propose another; the minimum noise fraction (MNF transform which is popular in remote sensing. Findings The MNF transform is able to extract spatially coherent information from IMS data. The MNF transform is implemented through an R-package which is available together with example data from http://staff.scm.uws.edu.au/∼glenn/∖#Software. Conclusions In our example, the MNF transform was able to find additional images of interest. The extracted information forms a useful basis for subsequent analyses.

  1. Visualisation of Radioactivity in Real-Time on a Tablet Measured by a Hybrid Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749233; Bantel, Michael; Grünhaupt, Ulrich

    This work explores a method to visualise and interact with radioactivity over time and space by means of augmented reality on a screen. A prototype, iPadPix, was built to demonstrate use as an intuitive new tool for educative and training purposes. Measured by a hybrid pixel detector, Timepix, traces of radioactive decays are displayed in real- time on a mobile device. Its detection principle and properties are detailed as well as the calibration of the sensor. An embedded board is used to process and forward the sensor data to a tablet over a wireless network connection. Software was developed to processes and overlay signatures of ionising radiation and particles on a live camera feed. It is described here and published as open source.

  2. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  4. THE POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF VISUALISATION AS A METHOD IN LEARNING SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana T. Sidelnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the paper is concerned with potential and barriers of application of visualisation as a method in learning social sciences and humanities. Using and employing visual aids becomes the most important resource in modern pedagogical theory and learning process due to the improvement of traditional pedagogical tools and new interpretation of well-known methods. Materials and Methods: the methods of observation, analysis of test results, results of examination session, data of questionnaires were used during the elaboration of the paper. Results: a good visual aid in teaching political science is the smiley as a simplified graphical representation expressing the emotions of a speaker or a writer. Observation, survey and results of examinations indicate that the above visual solutions not only improve students’ knowledge of subjects, but also improve the intellectual activity, contribute to the formation of the methodical approach to learning, associative thinking and creativity. Discussion and Conclusion: visualisation is a sign presentation of the content, functions, structures, stages of a process, a phenomenon through schematisation and associative and illustrative arrays. At the same time it is a way of transforming knowledge into real visual product with the author’s personal touch. Initially, students learn to reflect by drawing the essence of rather abstract concepts such as “parity”, “power” “freedom” etc. Assignments of higher levels involve the use of associative arrays, free images. By doing this, students do not just paint, but on their own initiative work with colours, seek to schematise information, sometimes dressing comments in lyrics.

  5. Energy Potential Mapping: Visualising Energy Characteristics for the Exergetic Optimisation of the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Fremouw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to fully satisfy the energy demand of today’s society with renewables. Nevertheless, most of the energy we use is lost as non-functional waste energy, whereas a large part of the built environment’s energy demand is only for low-quality energy, so the initial demand for primary, high-quality energy can be reduced by more effective usage, such as by low-exergy means. Gaining insight into the parameters of energy demands and local renewable and residual energy potentials enables matching energy demand with a fitting potential, not only concerning quantity but taking into account location, temporality and quality as well. The method of Energy Potential Mapping (EPM aims to visualise the energy potentials and demands by making information of quantity, quality and location of demand and supply accessible. The aspect of quality specifically applies to heat and cold. The methodology of EPM will be described and explained with case studies. The focus specifically lies on mapping heat (and cold, one of the main reasons for energy demand in the built environment. The visualisation of exergy, to be simplified as the quality of energy, becomes an extra parameter in the case of Dutch Heat Maps. These maps can help finding opportunities of practical implementations of exchanging or cascading heat or cold. This way EPM and Heat Mapping (HM enables application of exergy principles in the built environment. EPM and HM can be seen as a local energy catalogue and can be useful in spatial planning for energy-based urban and rural plans.

  6. Computer Supported Argument Visualisation: Modelling in Consultative Democracy Around Wicked Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Ricky

    In this case study, computer supported argument visualisation has been applied to the analysis and representation of the draft South East Queensland Regional Plan Consultation discourse, demonstrating how argument mapping can help deliver the transparency and accountability required in participatory democracy. Consultative democracy for regional planning falls into a category of problems known as “wicked problems”. Inherent in this environment is heterogeneous viewpoints, agendas and voices, built on disparate and often contradictory logic. An argument ontology and notation that was designed specifically to deal with consultative urban planning around wicked problems is the Issue Based Information System (IBIS) and IBIS notation (Rittel & Webber, 1984). The software used for argument visualisation in this case was Compendium, a derivative of IBIS. The high volume of stakeholders and discourse heterogeneity in this environment calls for a unique approach to argument mapping. The map design model developed from this research has been titled a “Consultation Map”. The design incorporates the IBIS ontology within a hybrid of mapping approaches, amalgamating elements from concept, dialogue, argument, debate, thematic and tree-mapping. The consultation maps developed from the draft South East Queensland Regional Plan Consultation provide a transparent visual record to give evidence of the themes of citizen issues within the consultation discourse. The consultation maps also link the elicited discourse themes to related policies from the SEQ Regional Plan providing explicit evidence of SEQ Regional Plan policy-decisions matching citizen concerns. The final consultation map in the series provides explicit links between SEQ Regional Plan policy items and monitoring activities reporting on the ongoing implementation of the SEQ Regional Plan. This map provides updatable evidence of and accountability for SEQ Regional Plan policy implementation and developments.

  7. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  8. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  9. Quantitative investigation of the brain-to-cerebrospinal fluid unbound drug concentration ratio under steady-state conditions in rats using a pharmacokinetic model and scaling factors for active efflux transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Hiroshi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Eiichi; Ushiki, Junko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2014-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic model was constructed to explain the difference in brain- and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma and brain-to-CSF unbound drug concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain, Kp,uu,CSF, and Kp,uu,CSF/brain, respectively) of drugs under steady-state conditions in rats. The passive permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), PS1, was predicted by two methods using log(D/molecular weight(0.5)) for PS1(1) or the partition coefficient in octanol/water at pH 7.4 (LogD), topologic van der Waals polar surface area, and van der Waals surface area of the basic atoms for PS1(2). The coefficients of each parameter were determined using previously reported in situ rat BBB permeability. Active transport of drugs by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) measured in P-gp- and Bcrp-overexpressing cells was extrapolated to in vivo by introducing scaling factors. Brain- and CSF-to-plasma unbound concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF, respectively) of 19 compounds, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates (daidzein, dantrolene, flavopiridol, genistein, loperamide, quinidine, and verapamil), were simultaneously fitted to the equations in a three-compartment model comprising blood, brain, and CSF compartments. The calculated Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF of 17 compounds were within a factor of three of experimental values. Kp,uu,CSF values of genistein and loperamide were outliers of the prediction, and Kp,uu,brain of dantrolene also became an outlier when PS1(2) was used. Kp,uu,CSF/brain of the 19 compounds was within a factor of three of experimental values. In conclusion, the Kp,uu,CSF/brain of drugs, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates, could be successfully explained by a kinetic model using scaling factors combined with in vitro evaluation of P-gp and Bcrp activities.

  10. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  11. Comparison of molecular signatures in large scale protein interaction networks in normal and cancer conditions of brain, cervix, lung, ovary and prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Suvra Banik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer, the disease of intricateness, has remained beyond our complete perception so far. Network systems biology (termed NSB is one of the most recent approaches to understand the unsolved problems of cancer development. From this perspective, differential protein networks (PINs have been developed based on the expression and interaction data of brain, cervix, lung, ovary and prostate for normal and cancer conditions. Methods Differential expression database GeneHub-GEPIS and interaction database STRING were applied for primary data retrieval. Cytoscape platform and related plugins named network analyzer; MCODE and ModuLand were used for visualization of complex networks and subsequent analysis. Results Significant differences were observedamong different common network parameters between normal and cancer states. Moreover, molecular complex numbers and overlapping modularization found to be varying significantly between normal and cancerous tissues. The number of the ranked molecular complex and the nodes involved in the overlapping modules were meaningfully higher in cancer condition.We identified79 commonly up regulated and 6 down regulated proteins in all five tissues. Number of nodes, edges; multi edge node pair, and average number of neighbor are found with significant fluctuations in case of cervix and ovarian tissues.Cluster analysis showed that the association of Myc and Cdk4 proteins is very close with other proteins within the network.Cervix and ovarian tissue showed higher increment of the molecular complex number and overlapping module network during cancer in comparison to normal state. Conclusions The differential molecular signatures identified from the work can be studied further to understand the cancer signaling process, and potential therapeutic and detection approach. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(4.000: 605-615

  12. 3D digitalizacija in vizualizacija situle z Vač: 3D digitisation and visualisation of the Vače situla:

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The project of 3D digitisation and visualisation of the Vače situla was implemented at the beginning of 2011 in cooperation with the National Museum of Slovenia where the situla is kept and the company MFC.2 which, among other services, develops and implements 3D digitisation and visualisation projects. The purpose of the project was to digitise and visualise a famous and precious piece of cultural heritage and to 1. show what modern 3D shape and texture scanning technologies allow us to do, ...

  13. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  14. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  15. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  16. Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Expression in the Rat Brain Both in Basal Condition and following Learning Predominantly Derives from the Maternal Allele

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojing Ye; Amy Kohtz; Gabriella Pollonini; Andrea Riccio; Alberini, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor 2 (Igf2) is known as a maternally imprinted gene involved in growth and development. Recently, Igf2 was found to also be regulated and required in the adult rat hippocampus for long-term memory formation, raising the question of its allelic regulation in adult brain regions following experience and in cognitive processes. We show that, in adult rats, Igf2 is abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in cognitive functions, like hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...

  17. Non-overlapping, Time-coherent Visualisation of Action Commands in the AscoGraph Interactive Music User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Burloiu, Grigore; Cont, Arshia

    2015-01-01

    International audience Integrated authoring and performing of mixed music scores, where musicians interact dynamically with computer controlled electronics, is enabled by the Antescofo state-of-the-art software package. Composers are able to plan computerised actions through a dedicated programming language, and performances are then synchronised in real time. AscoGraph is the dedicated graphical interface that allows users to configure Antescofo behaviours and vi-sualise their layout over...

  18. Visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments in fixed BY-2 suspension cells using an optimised whole mount immunolabelling protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Wedzony, M.; Dubas, E.; Kieft, H; Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre

    2006-01-01

    Excellent visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments was obtained in fixed tobacco BY-2 suspension cells after optimising a protocol for whole mount immunolabelling. The procedure is based on modification of fixation, cell wall digestion, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, post fixation, and blocking. The most critical aspects of successful preservation and visualization of cytoskeletal elements appeared to be: a two-step fixation with paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde before enzym...

  19. Automation strategies in five domains - A comparison of levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted as a field study where control room operators and engineers from the refinery, heat and power, aviation, shipping and nuclear domain were interviewed regarding use of automation and the visualisation of automatic functions. The purpose of the study was to collect experiences and best practices from the five studied domains on levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions. In total, nine different control room settings were visited. The studied settings were compared using a systemic approach based on a human-machine systems model. The results show that the 'left over principle' is still the most common applied approach for function allocation but in high risk settings the decision whether to automate or not is more carefully considered. Regarding the visualisation of automatic functions, it was found that as long as each display type (process based, functional oriented, situation oriented and task based) are applied so that they correspond to the same level of abstraction as the technical system the operators mental model will be supported. No single display type can however readily match all levels of abstraction at the same time - all display types are still needed and serve different purposes. (Author)

  20. Visualisation of the Dynamics for Longitudinal Analysis of Computer-mediated Social Networks-concept and Exemplary Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Andreas; Zeini, Sam; Ziebarth, Sabrina

    In this paper we will demonstrate the potential of processing and visualising the dynamics of computer-mediated communities by means of Social Network Analysis. According to the fact that computer-mediated community systems are manifested also as structured data, we use data structures like e-mail, discussion boards, and bibliography sources for an automatic transformation into social network data formats. The paper will demonstrate a 3-dimensional visualisation of two cases: the first presents an author community based on bibliography data converted into GraphML. Based on this dataset we visualise publications networks with a tool called Weaver, which is developed in our research group. According to Lothar Krempel's algorithm, Weaver uses the first two dimensions to embed the network structure within a common solution space. The third dimension is used for representing the time axis and thus the dynamics of co-authorship relations. The second case describes recent research in open source communities and highlights how our visualization approach can be used as a complement to more traditional approaches, such as content analysis and statistics based on specific SNA indices.

  1. Automation strategies in five domains - A comparison of levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology. Division Design and Human factors. Dept. of Product and Production Development, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This study was conducted as a field study where control room operators and engineers from the refinery, heat and power, aviation, shipping and nuclear domain were interviewed regarding use of automation and the visualisation of automatic functions. The purpose of the study was to collect experiences and best practices from the five studied domains on levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions. In total, nine different control room settings were visited. The studied settings were compared using a systemic approach based on a human-machine systems model. The results show that the 'left over principle' is still the most common applied approach for function allocation but in high risk settings the decision whether to automate or not is more carefully considered. Regarding the visualisation of automatic functions, it was found that as long as each display type (process based, functional oriented, situation oriented and task based) are applied so that they correspond to the same level of abstraction as the technical system the operator's mental model will be supported. No single display type can however readily match all levels of abstraction at the same time - all display types are still needed and serve different purposes. (Author)

  2. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  3. Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An

    2013-09-30

    When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development.

  4. Visualisation of morphological interaction of diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna; Mitura, Stanisław; Szeliga, Jacek; Niemiec, Tomasz; Rupiewicz, Marlena; Grodzik, Marta; Sokołowska, Aleksandra

    2011-09-01

    Currently, medicine intensively searches for methods to transport drugs to a target (sick) point within the body. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of silver or diamond nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis (G-) or Listeria monocytogenes (G+), to reveal possibilities of constructing nanoparticle-bacteria vehicles. Diamond nanoparticles (nano-D) were produced by the detonation method. Hydrocolloids of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were produced by electric non-explosive patented method. Hydrocolloids of nanoparticles (200 microl) were added to bacteria suspension (200 microl) in the following order: nano-D + Salmonella E.; nano-D + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Ag + Salmonella E; nano-Ag + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Visualisation of nanoparticles and bacteria interaction showed harmful effects of both nanoparticles on bacteria morphology. The most spectacular effect of nano-D were strong links between nano-D packages and the flagella of Salmonella E. Nano-Ag were closely attached to Listeria monocytogenes but not to Salmonella E. There was no evidence of entering nano-Ag inside Listeria monocytogenes but smaller particles were placed inside Salmonella E. The ability of nano-D to attach to the flagella and the ability of nano-Ag to penetrate inside bacteria cells can be utilized to design nano-bacteria vehicles, being carriers for active substances attached to nanoparticles. PMID:22097468

  5. Direct visualisation of gaze and hypometric saccades in cerebellar patients during visually guided stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple-Horvat, D E; Crowdy, K A

    2005-01-01

    Four patients suffering from primary cerebellar degeneration and healthy matched controls undertook a test of functional mobility that demanded precise foot placement at each step. Vertical and horizontal eye movements were measured (using a head mounted eye tracking system) together with footfall patterns. Healthy subjects stepped accurately onto all targets and produced a clear pattern of saccadic eye movements, fixating each target in the sequence just prior to footlift. Still video frames, showing direction of gaze while walking, provide direct visual confirmation that these saccades serve to transfer gaze between successive targets in the walkway sequence. The planning of the saccade to the next target probably provides the locomotor control system with information useful for planning the corresponding (and shortly following) step. Cerebellar patients showed characteristic locomotor and oculomotor deficits. Dysmetric saccades to fixate footfall targets were seen in 39% of steps. Analysis confirms that these multi-saccadic eye movements include an initial hypometric saccade, which undershoots the target, followed by one or more additional saccades in the same direction. Direct visualisation of gaze at the end of a saccadic sequence confirms that these additional saccades are indeed corrective resulting in a foveal image of the footfall target. PMID:15536032

  6. Visualisation of the interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and oil shale by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Jelena S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study visually documents the mechanical contact and interaction between the bacterial cells of two biogeocenotically different strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans and oil shale containing pyrite. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging was used to visualise initial interaction between the microorganisms and the surface minerals of an oil shale and to evaluate bacterial effects in the first hours of the bioleaching process. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was attached to the shale surface already after 2 h, and after 48 h, numerous cells covered the surface with a biofilm. After 5 day incubation with At. ferrooxidans, AFM imaging revealed ellipsoid etched pits that represent footprints left by detached cells. Combining AFM surface imaging and leaching analysis following bacterial colonisation of oil shale layers demonstrates that an initial attachment to the surface is necessary for the leaching and that later on, once a sufficient concentration of Fe2+ ions in the solution is achieved, cells detach to become free cells, and leaching occurs primarily by the Fe3+. This experiment confirmed that microorganisms isolated from sites in which a particular substrate is found will demonstrate stronger binding to that substrate.

  7. Three-Dimensional Visualisation as an Innovation Approach to Forecasting the City Budget Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markuts Yuliya I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting city budget income is a very important instrument of the budget management through which it is possible to assume the future financial influence of the current budget policy and economic tendencies for achievement of long-term plans and identify alternative ways of solution of existing problems. The goal of the article is development of a model for complex system analysis, economic assessment of execution and forecasting income of the budget of the city of Donetsk with the aim to make high quality, timely and efficient managerial decisions with respect to the budget on the basis of an innovation approach, which is a combination of methods of interpolation, imitation and three-dimensional visualisation. The result of the study is diagnostics of narrow places in execution of the city budget for the studied period of 2008 – 2012, detection of interconnected budget income items, identification of existing tendencies of execution of the budget income and forecasting the income part of the city budget for the period of 2013 – 2017.

  8. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms.Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometricapproach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Visualisation of Coastal Flows in Tidal Channels Supporting Ocean Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Zangiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow characteristics in coastal regions are strongly influenced by the topography of the seabed and understanding the fluid dynamics is necessary before installation of tidal stream turbines (TST. In this paper, the bathymetry of a potential TST deployment site is used in the development of the a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model. The steady state k-ϵ and transient Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence methods are employed and compared. The simulations are conducted with a fixed representation of the ocean surface, i.e., a rigid lid representation. In the vicinity of Horse Rock a study of the pressure difference shows that the small change in height of the water column is negligible, providing confidence in the simulation results. The stream surface method employed to visualise the results has important inherent characteristics that can enhance the visual perception of complex flow structures. The results of all cases are compared with the flow data transect gathered by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. It has been understood that the k-ϵ method can predict the flow pattern relatively well near the main features of the domain and the LES model has the ability to simulate some important flow patterns caused by the bathymetry.

  10. Intracoronary imaging using attenuation-compensated optical coherence tomography allows better visualisation of coronary artery diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foin, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.foin@gmail.com [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Mari, Jean Martial [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Ghione, Matteo; Di Mario, Carlo [Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davies, Justin E. [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Girard, Michaël J.A. [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Eye Research Institute (Singapore)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To allow an accurate diagnosis of coronary artery diseases by enhancing optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of atheromatous plaques using a novel automated attenuation compensation technique. Background: One of the major drawbacks of coronary OCT imaging is the rapid attenuation of the OCT signal, limiting penetration in tissue to only few millimetres. Visualisation of deeper anatomy is however critical for accurate assessment of plaque burden in-vivo. Methods: A compensation algorithm, previously developed to correct for light attenuation in soft tissues and to enhance contrast in ophthalmic OCT images, was applied to intracoronary plaque imaging using spectral-domain OCT. Results: Application of the compensation algorithm significantly increased tissue contrast in the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaque boundaries. Contrast enhancement allows a better differentiation of plaque morphology, which is particularly important for the identification of lipid rich fibro atheromatous plaques and to guide decision on treatment strategy. Conclusion: The analysis of arterial vessel structure clinically captured with OCT is improved when used in conjunction with automated attenuation compensation. This approach may improve the OCT-based interpretation of coronary plaque morphology in clinical practice.

  11. The art of visualising dose distributions: Improved plotting flexibility for the R-package 'Luminescence'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Michael; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Burow, Christoph; Fuchs, Margret; Fischer, Manfred; Schmidt, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence dating profoundly relies on the compelling presentation of equivalent doses. However, there is no perfect way to depict equivalent dose distributions with all their measures of uncertainty. Amongst others, most common approaches are the Radial Plot and kernel density estimate (KDE) graphs. Both plot types are supported by the R-package 'Luminescence', a comprehensive and flexible compilation of functions for convenient analysis and presentation of luminescence dating data. In its upcoming version, the package comprises updated versions of these two most popular plot functions to allow the user sound control over a wide variety of graphical parameters. Furthermore, a new plot type is added: The Abanico Plot (plot_AbanicoPlot()). It combines the strengths of both, the classic Radial Plot and a KDE plot. Our contribution will show all updated data visualisation approaches and provide a quick guide (workflow chart) on how to get from measurement data to high-quality dose distribution plots. It may serve to raise further discussions about the package in general and specific plot approaches in particular.

  12. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  13. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  14. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  15. The multilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed.

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  17. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  18. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  3. Introduction to use of virtual reality visualisations in the exploitation and virtual testing of machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Foit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Due to quick evolution of virtual reality systems, this technology is more often used in processes of prototype’s design. On the other hand it could be also effective in others applications like virtual manuals, help systems, catalogues, education, visualisation, testing and virtual prototyping. The aim of this paper is to show some properties of the selected virtual reality systems, which could be used in the exploitation and virtual tests of machines.Design/methodology/approach: All software tests have been provided on Windows platform using selected ActiveX plugins for browsers.Findings: Creation of presentations, virtual manuals or catalogues is not a difficult task. It can be done using widely available software. However, virtual prototyping and testing are harder to manage and requires more knowledge about computer simulation. EON/EonX and Cortona software are rather presentation than simulation tools, but there is still possibility to create interaction with other application or external hardware.Research limitations/implications: In described tests only selected software have been used. All results and conclusions are related to EON/EonX and Cortona applications.Practical implications: The use of ActiveX technology gives a possibility to use a ActiveX control in almost any modern Windows application that supports it. Windows platform is also often used in handheld devices and industrial applications, so it is possible to create a virtual manual or a presentation, which could be displayed directly on machine interface.Originality/value: VR technology is worldwide used in many areas. EON software creates new possibilities in the field of virtual reality by handling special interfaces and display features. In the paper it is shown that the software can be used for more conventional purposes, like creation of virtual manuals or interactive 3D presentation

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  6. Pre-surgical planning and MR-tractography utility in brain tumour resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; D'Andrea, G; Minniti, G; Mastronardi, L; Ferrante, L; Fantozzi, L M; Bozzao, A

    2009-12-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the possible identification of trajectories of fibre tracts, (2) to examine the useful of a neuronavigation system for presurgical planning, (3) to assess pre- and post-surgery patients' clinical condition and (4) to evaluate the impact of this information on surgical planning and procedure. Twenty-eight right-handed patients were prospectively and consecutively studied. All the patients were clinically assessed by a neurologist in both pre- and postsurgical phases. Separately the pyramidal tract, optic radiation and arcuate fasciculus were reconstructed. The trajectories were considered suitable for surgical planning if there were no interruptions of any of the layers at the level of the lesion. Dedicated software 'merged' the acquired images with the tractographic processing, and the whole dataset was sent to the neuronavigation system. The assessment of the 37 visualised trajectories close to the tumour resulted in a modification of the surgical approach to corticotomy in six patients (21%); the impact on the definition of the resection margins during surgery was 64%(18 cases). The overall impact percentage on the surgical procedure was 82%. In 27 cases, the symptoms had not changed. MR-tractography provides the neurosurgeon with a new anatomical view that has an impact on the surgical resection planning for brain neoplasms. PMID:19533147

  7. Exteriör och interiör visualisering av ett bostadshus i 3ds max

    OpenAIRE

    Ekman, Viktor; Moen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Denna rapport beskriver och drar jämförelser mellan olika visualiseringstekniker i 3D Studio Max och Adobe Photoshop CS3. Syftet med studien är att undersöka olika visualiserings- och renderingstekniker för att se vilka tekniker som ger ett smidigast och mest verklighetstroget resultat utifrån olika förutsättningar. Studien grundar sig på en huvudfråga och två stycken underfrågor. Hur skapar man ett effektivt och verklighetstroget visualiseringsresultat av ett bostadskvarter för intressenter?...

  8. Optical vortex tracking studies of a horizontal axis wind turbine in yaw using laser-sheet, flow visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, I.; Parkin, P.; Wang, X.

    Experimental studies have been conducted on a 0.9 m diameter, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) placed in the open jet of a closed return wind tunnel. The turbine was tested in a three blade and a two blade configuration. The power coefficient of the turbine was measured and wake flow studies conducted for a range of yawed flows by tilting the rotor plane at various angles up to 30° to the incident wind direction. The motion of the shed vorticity was followed using laser-sheet flow visualisation with the overall wake deflection being measured. The results were compared with theoretical predictions and with studies conducted elsewhere.

  9. Visualising DEM-related flood-map uncertainties using a disparity-distance equation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, S. Anders; Lim, Nancy J.

    2016-05-01

    The apparent absoluteness of information presented by crisp-delineated flood boundaries can lead to misconceptions among planners about the inherent uncertainties associated in generated flood maps. Even maps based on hydraulic modelling using the highest-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), and calibrated with the most optimal Manning's roughness (n) coefficients, are susceptible to errors when compared to actual flood boundaries, specifically in flat areas. Therefore, the inaccuracies in inundation extents, brought about by the characteristics of the slope perpendicular to the flow direction of the river, have to be accounted for. Instead of using the typical Monte Carlo simulation and probabilistic methods for uncertainty quantification, an empirical-based disparity-distance equation that considers the effects of both the DEM resolution and slope was used to create prediction-uncertainty zones around the resulting inundation extents of a one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic model. The equation was originally derived for the Eskilstuna River where flood maps, based on DEM data of different resolutions, were evaluated for the slope-disparity relationship. To assess whether the equation is applicable to another river with different characteristics, modelled inundation extents from the Testebo River were utilised and tested with the equation. By using the cross-sectional locations, water surface elevations, and DEM, uncertainty zones around the original inundation boundary line can be produced for different confidences. The results show that (1) the proposed method is useful both for estimating and directly visualising model inaccuracies caused by the combined effects of slope and DEM resolution, and (2) the DEM-related uncertainties alone do not account for the total inaccuracy of the derived flood map. Decision-makers can apply it to already existing flood maps, thereby recapitulating and re-analysing the inundation boundaries and the areas that are uncertain

  10. Visualising biological data: a semantic approach to tool and database integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh James

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation In the biological sciences, the need to analyse vast amounts of information has become commonplace. Such large-scale analyses often involve drawing together data from a variety of different databases, held remotely on the internet or locally on in-house servers. Supporting these tasks are ad hoc collections of data-manipulation tools, scripting languages and visualisation software, which are often combined in arcane ways to create cumbersome systems that have been customised for a particular purpose, and are consequently not readily adaptable to other uses. For many day-to-day bioinformatics tasks, the sizes of current databases, and the scale of the analyses necessary, now demand increasing levels of automation; nevertheless, the unique experience and intuition of human researchers is still required to interpret the end results in any meaningful biological way. Putting humans in the loop requires tools to support real-time interaction with these vast and complex data-sets. Numerous tools do exist for this purpose, but many do not have optimal interfaces, most are effectively isolated from other tools and databases owing to incompatible data formats, and many have limited real-time performance when applied to realistically large data-sets: much of the user's cognitive capacity is therefore focused on controlling the software and manipulating esoteric file formats rather than on performing the research. Methods To confront these issues, harnessing expertise in human-computer interaction (HCI, high-performance rendering and distributed systems, and guided by bioinformaticians and end-user biologists, we are building reusable software components that, together, create a toolkit that is both architecturally sound from a computing point of view, and addresses both user and developer requirements. Key to the system's usability is its direct exploitation of semantics, which, crucially, gives individual components knowledge of their

  11. Visualisation of Gasoline and Exhaust Gases Distribution in a 4-Valve Si Engine; Effects of Stratification on Combustion and Pollutants Visualisation de la répartition du carburant et des gaz brûlés dans un moteur à 4 soupapes à allumage commandé ; effet de la stratification sur la combustion et les polluants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available sAn indirect method to map the burned gases in SI engine has been developed. It is based on visualisation by Laser Induced Fluorescence of the unburned mixture seeded with biacetyl. Both internally and externally recirculated burned gases are monitored. This diagnostic is complementary to the LIF technique applied to measure the gasoline distribution. These LIF gasoline and burned gases measurements are applied in a 4-valve optical access SI engine for a large range of operating conditions. These include variations of both fuel injection and burned gas recirculation modes causing different types of stratification leading to very distinct heat release and exhaust emissions characteristics. Tumble level and spark location are also modified. The observation of the actual stratification in the engine forms a sound basis explanation of the engine performance. Parameters allowing an optimisation of NOx and HC levels can be inferred, and in particular the effectiveness of recirculation and fuel injection strategies. The conclusions are confirmed by measurements in a single engine cylinder conventional head with the same geometry. Une méthode indirecte pour cartographier les gaz brûlés dans un moteur à allumage commandé a été développée. Elle est fondée sur une visualisation à partir de la fluorescence induite par laser (LIF du mélange air-carburant non brûlé et ensemencé avec du biacétyl. Les gaz brûlés provenant à la fois des recirculations internes et externes sont observés. Ce type de diagnostic est complémentaire des techniques de LIF utilisées pour observer la distribution du carburant. Ces mesures de concentration sont réalisées dans un moteur à 4 soupapes avec accès optiques, pour une gamme étendue de conditions opératoires. Celles-ci comprennent des variations des modes d'injection du carburant et des modes de recirculation des gaz brûlés, provoquant ainsi différents types de stratifications qui correspondent

  12. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  13. GrayStar: A Web application for pedagogical stellar atmosphere and spectral line modelling and visualisation II: Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C Ian

    2014-01-01

    GrayStar is a stellar atmospheric and spectral line modelling, post-processing, and visualisation code, suitable for classroom demonstrations and laboratory-style assignments, that has been developed in Java and deployed in JavaScript and HTML. The only software needed to compute models and post-processed observables, and to visualise the resulting atmospheric structure and observables, is a common Web browser. Therefore, the code will run on any common PC or related X86 (-64) computer of the type that typically serves classroom data projectors, is found in undergraduate computer laboratories, or that students themselves own, including those with highly portable form-factors such as net-books and tablets. The user requires no experience with compiling source code, reading data files, or using plotting packages. More advanced students can view the JavaScript source code using the developer tools provided by common Web browsers. The code is based on the approximate gray atmospheric solution and runs quickly eno...

  14. The Markyt visualisation, prediction and benchmark platform for chemical and gene entity recognition at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining methods and technologies have improved significantly in the last decade. Considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the main challenges of biomedical literature retrieval and extraction and proposing solutions to problems of practical interest. Most notably, community-oriented initiatives such as the BioCreative challenge have enabled controlled environments for the comparison of automatic systems while pursuing practical biomedical tasks. Under this scenario, the present work describes the Markyt Web-based document curation platform, which has been implemented to support the visualisation, prediction and benchmark of chemical and gene mention annotations at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge. Creating this platform is an important step for the systematic and public evaluation of automatic prediction systems and the reusability of the knowledge compiled for the challenge. Markyt was not only critical to support the manual annotation and annotation revision process but also facilitated the comparative visualisation of automated results against the manually generated Gold Standard annotations and comparative assessment of generated results. We expect that future biomedical text mining challenges and the text mining community may benefit from the Markyt platform to better explore and interpret annotations and improve automatic system predictions.Database URL: http://www.markyt.org, https://github.com/sing-group/Markyt. PMID:27542845

  15. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  9. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  17. The Cerebellum in Maintenance of a Motor Skill: A Hierarchy of Brain and Spinal Cord Plasticity Underlies H-Reflex Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2006-01-01

    Operant conditioning of the H-reflex, the electrical analog of the spinal stretch reflex, is a simple model of skill acquisition and involves plasticity in the spinal cord. Previous work showed that the cerebellum is essential for down-conditioning the H-reflex. This study asks whether the cerebellum is also essential for maintaining…

  18. BRAIN CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Yashin К.S.; Medyanik I.А.

    2014-01-01

    The review analyzes Russian and foreign reports concerned with a rapidly developing brain cancer treatment technique — immunotherapy. There has been presented a current view on the basic concept of antitumor immunity, on the problem of immune system interaction with a tumor in general and under the conditions of an immunologically privileged nervous system, shown the theoretical background of efficiency of immunotherapy used against brain cancer (the capability of tumor antigens and activated...

  19. The multilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed. Ass et gutt e Kand méisproocheg ze erzéien? Wat sinn déi optimal Konditio...

  20. Some technological aspects of an evaluation and visualisation component for the safeguards integrated information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Safeguards strengthening measures which include both Measures under Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Measures under Model Additional Protocol, the Agency receives much more information than some years before. It seems reasonable to develop an integrated information system (IIS) because information evaluation and review are important parts of Safeguards assessments. An integrated information system can include the following components: information search, primary messages selection, evaluation of received information, data storage, visualisation and evaluation of State's nuclear programme (SNP) and elaboration of management decisions. Hereby, IIS is a human-computer system where all components listed above are implemented. Within the framework of SNP a human factor plays an important role. SNP has a number of special properties such as uniqueness, multi-dimensions, subjectivity of its state evaluation, time variation, incompleteness of its description and the mentioned above human factor. For realistic simulation of SNP development it is necessary to reduce usage of quantitative methods and apply methods which are closer to perception of the outward things by a human being. This task requires to convert all available information, both qualitative and quantitative, into a special format. The format requires methods which are being developed on the basis of pragmatic, visual and Zadeh's linguistic variables which define corresponding scales. A pragmatic scale is defined on a basic metric scale taking into account a particular pragmatic cut of SNP. In other words pragmatic scale maps a pragmatic cut of the problem which is important from the point of view of IIS goal. By using pragmatic scales it is possible, for example, to estimate the speed of development of processes existing within the framework of SNP. The visual variable allows to solve the following engineering tasks: input of the expert's evaluations in the system and interpretations of its

  1. Technological evolution of axillary lymph nodes: Radiological visualisation in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In patients with breast cancer, detection of axillary lymph node spread has a great prognostic significance. Visualisation of lymphatic glands is attracting attention of radiologists since long. Lymphogram usually shows 4-9 lymph glands as compared to 8 to 50 identified during surgical intervention. Lymphography is a laborious and complicated process requiring specific skills. Likewise, the evaluation and interpretation of results depends upon the experience of the specialist. We evaluated 234 breast cancer patients and found that lymphograms of these patients initially detected 1-2 central axillary lymph nodes followed by others. During surgical intervention, the total number of lymphatic glands removed from these patients was 3,241 of which only 2,693 (83.1%) were seen on lymphography. On further evaluation it was found that the largest groups of lymphatic nodes were seen in the following pattern (i) central axillary (ii) subclavicular (iii) lateral, with central axillary lymph nodes being the biggest (1.5 - 2 cm) and subclavicular the smallest (0.2 - 0.5 cm). Sternal lymph nodes receive lymph from medial quadrants of the breast and / or if the axillary lymph nodes are obstructed by metastases. The results of lymphography and post-operative examination matched in 71.7-75 % of cases. False positivity was seen in 19.2 % and false negative 9.1 % instances. As this method was not sufficiently selective and specific, its relative upsurge receded backwards and was forgotten. The last decade of the twentieth century saw a sentinel node (SN) concept. In advanced countries, the possibility to detect breast cancer of up to 1 cm diameter corresponding to T1A category, when the axillary lymph nodes still are not involved in malignant growth, accounts about 50%. Hence the search of lymphatic spread vis-a-vis sentinel node detection has gained more importance. Earlier, SN detection involved colour contrast methods, which was reasonably sensitive and specific in

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  4. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  5. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.;

    2013-01-01

    a reduction in stress response, aggression and stress-induced anorexia. In land farmed animals, TRP supplemented diets have also been shown to improve meat quality as a result of reduced stress during slaughter while in fish no data is currently available. This study aims at investigating whether short......-term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments......Tryptophan (TRP) supplemented diets have been shown to have therapeutic effects in farmed animals including fish by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The effects reported in fish have been obtained using individually-housed fish and include...

  6. Exercise pre‑conditioning alleviates brain damage via excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 following ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Min; Feng, Rui; Li, Wen-Bin; Ren, Shi-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that physical exercise may exert a neuroprotective effect in humans as well as animals. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of exercise has remained to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible signaling pathways involved in the protective effect of pre‑ischemic treadmill training for ischemic stroke in rats. A total of 36 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided at random into three groups as follows (n=12 for each): Sham surgery group; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group; and exercise with MCAO group. Following treadmill training for three weeks, the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 90 min in order to induce ischemic stroke, followed by reperfusion. Following 24 h post‑reperfusion, six rats from each group were assessed for neurological deficits and then sacrificed to calculate the infarct volume. The remaining rats (n=6 for each group) were sacrificed and the expression levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT‑2) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected using western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that rats that underwent pre‑ischemic exercise intervention had a significantly decreased brain infarct volume and neurological deficits; in addition, the pre‑ischemic exercise group showed decreased overexpression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and increased expression of EAAT‑2 following ischemic stroke. In conclusion, treadmill training exercise prior to ischemic stroke alleviated brain damage in rats via regulation of EAAT‑2 and ERK1/2. PMID:25370789

  7. Gene cloning and mRNA expression of glutamate dehydrogenase in the liver, brain and intestine of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to freshwater, terrestrial conditions, environmental ammonia or salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Y Toh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can survive long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and acclimate from fresh to brackish water. This study was undertaken to clone and sequence gdh expressed in the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus, to verify whether more than one form of gdh were expressed, and to examine the gdh mRNA expressions in these three organs in fish exposed to various adverse conditions using quantitative real-time PCR. Only one gdh gene sequence, consisted of a 133 bp 5’ UTR, a CDS region spanning 1629 bp and a 3’ UTR of approximately 717 bp, was obtained from the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence from the liver of M. albus had 542 residues and was confirmed to be Gdh1a. It had sequence identity of >90% with Oncorhynchus mykiss Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1, Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a and Tribolodon hakonensis Gdh1a, and formed a monophyletic clade with B. sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2 and O. mykiss Gdh1a. An increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a could be essential for increased glutamate production in support of increases in glutamine synthesis under certain environmental condition. Indeed, exposure of M. albus to 1 day of terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l-1 NH4Cl, but not brackish water, resulted in a significant increase in gdh1a mRNA expression in the liver. However, exposure to brackish water, but not terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l-1 NH4Cl, lead to a significant increase in the intestinal mRNA expression of gdh1a. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus. Our results indicate for the first time that gdh mRNA expression was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus, in responses to ammonia toxicity and

  8. Resting state brain activity and functional brain mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging studies commonly use either resting or passive task states as their control conditions, and typically identify the activation brain region associated with a specific task by subtracting the resting from the active task conditions. Numerous studies now suggest, however, that the resting state may not reflect true mental "rest" conditions. The mental activity that occurs during"rest" might therefore greatly influence the functional neuroimaging observations that are collected through the usual subtracting analysis strategies. Exploring the ongoing mental processes that occur during resting conditions is thus of particular importance for deciphering functional brain mapping results and obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of human brain functions. In this review article, we will mainly focus on the discussion of the current research background of functional brain mapping at resting state and the physiological significance of the available neuroimaging data.

  9. Visualisation to enhance biomechanical tuning of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs in stroke: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carse Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of gaps in the evidence base for the use of ankle-foot orthoses for stroke patients. Three dimensional motion analysis offers an ideal method for objectively obtaining biomechanical gait data from stroke patients, however there are a number of major barriers to its use in routine clinical practice. One significant problem is the way in which the biomechanical data generated by these systems is presented. Through the careful design of bespoke biomechanical visualisation software it may be possible to present such data in novel ways to improve clinical decision making, track progress and increase patient understanding in the context of ankle-foot orthosis tuning. Methods A single-blind randomised controlled trial will be used to compare the use of biomechanical visualisation software in ankle-foot orthosis tuning against standard care (tuning using observation alone. Participants (n = 70 will have experienced a recent hemiplegia (1-12 months and will be identified by their care team as being suitable candidates for a rigid ankle-foot orthosis. The primary outcome measure will be walking velocity. Secondary outcome measures include; lower limb joint kinematics (thigh and shank global orientations & kinetics (knee and hip flexion/extension moments, ground reaction force FZ2 peak magnitude, step length, symmetry ratio based on step length, Modified Ashworth Scale, Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and EuroQol (EQ-5D. Additional qualitative measures will also be taken from participants (patients and clinicians at the beginning and end of their participation in the study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether or not the visualisation of biomechanical data can be used to improve the outcomes of tuning ankle-foot orthoses for stroke patients. Discussion In addition to answering the primary research question the broad range of measures that will be taken during this study are likely to contribute to a

  10. Visualisation of the oscillation dynamics of cytoplasm in a living cell of Physarum mixomycete plasmodium by the method of optical coherence Doppler tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. V.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä, Risto

    2009-04-01

    The method of optical coherence Doppler tomography is used for the first time to visualise the oscillatory amoeboid mobility in strands of Physarum polycephalum mixomycete plasmodium and to record periodic radial contractions of the strands and spatiotemporal variations in the velocity of the cytoplasmic flow inside them.

  11. What Do Cells Really Look Like? An Inquiry into Students' Difficulties in Visualising a 3-D Biological Cell and Lessons for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Kawalkar, Aisha; Nambiar, Priya

    2014-01-01

    In our explorations of students' concepts in an inquiry science classroom with grade 6 students from urban schools in India, we uncovered a variety of problems in their understanding of biological cells as structural and functional units of living organisms. In particular, we found not only that they visualised the cell as a two-dimensional…

  12. Effect of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon on the glutamate release from rat brain nerve terminals under altered gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.

    L-glutamate acts within the mammalian central nervous system as the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter and as a potent neurotoxin The balance between these physiological and pathological actions of glutamate is thought to be kept in check by the rapid removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft The majority of uptake is mediated by the high-affinity Na -dependent glutamate transporters Depolarization leads to stimulation of glutamate efflux mediated by reversal of the high-affinity glutamate transporters The effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon FCCP on the glutamate release from isolated nerve terminals rat brain synaptosomes were investigated in control and after centrifuge-induced hypergravity rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period The treatment of synaptosomes with 1 mu M FCCP during 11 min resulted in the increase in L- 14 C glutamate release by 23 0 pm 2 3 of total accumulated synaptosomal label in control animals and 24 0 pm 2 3 animals subjected to hypergravity FCCP evoked release of L- 14 C glutamate from synaptosomes was not altered in animals exposed to hypergravity as compared to control Glutamate transport is of electrogenic nature and thus depends on the membrane potential The high-KCl stimulated L- 14 C glutamate release in Ca 2 -free media occurred due to reversal of the glutamate transporters Carrier --mediated release of L- 14 C glutamate 6 min slightly increased as a result of

  13. Integration of biotechnology, robot technology and visualisation technology for development of methods for automated mass production of elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    Biotechnology has become an integrated part of plant breeding, and in recent years new methods have been developed for breeding and propagation of important plants in the agricultural-, ornamental- and forestry sector. One of the promising methods is somatic embryogenesis (SE), where plants....... The method is, for several plant species, the preferred basis for development of additional biotechnological breeding technologies as e.g. genetic transformation. Elite clones can be stored over extended periods in liquid nitrogen at -196°C However, commercial application of the technology has until now been...... & germination' and 'ex-vitro acclimatization'). The aim of the present project is to reduce labour costs associated with the late stages of the production of cloned plants through development of robot- and visualisation technologies. (From Afreen & Zobayed, p. 96, 2005)   The presentation will report on two...

  14. Healed or non-healed? computed tomography (CT) visualisation of morphology of bite trace ichnotaxa on a dinosaur bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Lauridsen, Henrik; Fiirgaard, Bente;

    2015-01-01

    of stereomicroscopy and a radiologist analysed the CT scans. Sixteen different scanner settings were used to optimise the CT parameters and avoid signal at tenuation, in the form of hypointense artefacts in the central trabeculated part of the bone fragment. The use of CT scanning provided information on internal...... examined by correlating traditional naked-eye in spection with computed to mography (CT) imaging, used to visualise the internal morphology of the bite traces and in particular, to clarify the appearance of one possibly healed bite trace. A forensic pathologist visually examined the bone with the aid...... morphology from the vicinity of the bite trace, including hyperdense zones, not identified using visual inspection alone. By applying the extended CT scale, the dense and radiopaque cortical bone layer could be clearly identified and applied as a pathomorphological marker to correctly distinguish non...

  15. Steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy imaging under evanescent excitation for visualisation of FRET at the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Devauges

    Full Text Available We present a novel imaging system combining total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy with measurement of steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy in order to perform live cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET imaging at the plasma membrane. We compare directly the imaging performance of fluorescence anisotropy resolved TIRF with epifluorescence illumination. The use of high numerical aperture objective for TIRF required correction for induced depolarization factors. This arrangement enabled visualisation of conformational changes of a Raichu-Cdc42 FRET biosensor by measurement of intramolecular FRET between eGFP and mRFP1. Higher activity of the probe was found at the cell plasma membrane compared to intracellularly. Imaging fluorescence anisotropy in TIRF allowed clear differentiation of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor from negative control mutants. Finally, inhibition of Cdc42 was imaged dynamically in live cells, where we show temporal changes of the activity of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor.

  16. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  17. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: technical considerations and normal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Kubik-Huch, Rahel; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Martin, Ernst [Department of Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MRI examines non-invasively the unborn fetus. Ultrafast MRI sequences effectively suppress fetal motion. Multiple case reports and studies have shown that fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the central nervous system. The high contrast-to-noise ratio, the high spatial resolution, the multiplanar capabilities, the large field of view and the simultaneous visualisation of fetal and maternal structures have proven to be advantageous. Fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the evaluation of the normal and pathological development of the brain. Despite the fact that no side effects have been reported or are to be expected, the use of MRI during pregnancy is still limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast media are not to be used as it passes the placenta. Ultrasound remains the primary screening modality for fetal pathology; fetal MRI can serve as an adjunct or second-line imaging modality. (orig.)

  18. Can inferred provenance and its visualisation be used to detect erroneous annotation? A case study using UniProtKB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Bell

    Full Text Available A constant influx of new data poses a challenge in keeping the annotation in biological databases current. Most biological databases contain significant quantities of textual annotation, which often contains the richest source of knowledge. Many databases reuse existing knowledge; during the curation process annotations are often propagated between entries. However, this is often not made explicit. Therefore, it can be hard, potentially impossible, for a reader to identify where an annotation originated from. Within this work we attempt to identify annotation provenance and track its subsequent propagation. Specifically, we exploit annotation reuse within the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB, at the level of individual sentences. We describe a visualisation approach for the provenance and propagation of sentences in UniProtKB which enables a large-scale statistical analysis. Initially levels of sentence reuse within UniProtKB were analysed, showing that reuse is heavily prevalent, which enables the tracking of provenance and propagation. By analysing sentences throughout UniProtKB, a number of interesting propagation patterns were identified, covering over [Formula: see text] sentences. Over [Formula: see text] sentences remain in the database after they have been removed from the entries where they originally occurred. Analysing a subset of these sentences suggest that approximately [Formula: see text] are erroneous, whilst [Formula: see text] appear to be inconsistent. These results suggest that being able to visualise sentence propagation and provenance can aid in the determination of the accuracy and quality of textual annotation. Source code and supplementary data are available from the authors website at http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/m.j.bell1/sentence_analysis/.

  19. 3D visualisation and artistic imagery to enhance interest in `hidden environments' - new approaches to soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilford, J.; Falconer, R. E.; Wade, R.; Scott-Brown, K. C.

    2014-09-01

    Interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to increase student interest in soil science. Accordingly a bespoke 'soil atlas' was created using Java3D as an interactive 3D VE, to show soil information in the context of (and as affected by) the over-lying landscape. To display the below-ground soil characteristics, four sets of artistic illustrations were produced, each set showing the effects of soil organic-matter density and water content on fungal density, to determine potential for visualisations and interactivity in stimulating interest in soil and soil illustrations, interest being an important factor in facilitating learning. The illustrations were created using 3D modelling packages, and a wide range of styles were produced. This allowed a preliminary study of the relative merits of different artistic styles, scientific-credibility, scale, abstraction and 'realism' (e.g. photo-realism or realism of forms), and any relationship between these and the level of interest indicated by the study participants in the soil visualisations and VE. The study found significant differences in mean interest ratings for different soil illustration styles, as well as in the perception of scientific-credibility of these styles, albeit for both measures there was considerable difference of attitude between participants about particular styles. There was also found to be a highly significant positive correlation between participants rating styles highly for interest and highly for scientific-credibility. There was furthermore a particularly high interest rating among participants for seeing temporal soil processes illustrated/animated, suggesting this as a particularly promising method for further stimulating interest in soil illustrations and soil itself.

  20. Quantitative myocardial perfusion PET combined with coronary anatomy derived from CT angiography. Validation of a new fusion and visualisation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Harald; Weise, Reiner; Burchert, Wolfgang; Fricke, Eva [Inst. of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Centre North Rhine-Westphalia, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Elsner, Andreas; Bolte, Matthias; Domik, Gitta [Research Group Computergraphics, Visualization and Image Processing, Univ. of Paderborn (Germany); Hoff, Joerg van den [PET Center, Inst. of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Aim: Dynamic perfusion PET offers a clinical relevant advantage over myocardial perfusion scintigraphy due to its ability to measure myocardial blood flow quantitatively. This leads to an improved detection of multivessel disease and the possibility to assess not only the culprit lesion but lower grade stenoses as well. For appropriate revascularization, perfusion defects must be matched to coronary lesions. It has been shown that image fusion of morphological and functional images is superior to side-by-side analysis. Still, software for quantitative perfusion PET combined with CT angiography is rare. In this paper we present a new software tool for image fusion and visualization of quantitative perfusion PET and coronary morphology derived from CT angiography. Methods: In our software, a PET uptake image is used for manual co-registration. Co-registration results are then applied to the functional data derived from compartment modelling. To evaluate the reproducibility of the manual co-registration, we calculated the deviation between a series of manual co-registrations performed on nine pairs of unregistered PET and CT datasets by five trained participants. Two dimensional transfer functions were used to highlight the coronary arteries from the CT study in the combined data sets. Results: The average Euclidian distances for three references points were between 3.7 and 4.1 mm. The maximum distance was 10.6 mm. By the use of the two dimensional transfer functions, coronary anatomy could be easily visualised either by user-interaction or automatically by use of neuronal networks. Conclusions: With this approach it is possible to combine quantitative perfusion PET with coronary anatomy derived from CT angiography. Our first experiences indicate that manual image fusion with our tool is reproducible and that visualisation of the combined datasets is achieved within short time. (orig.)

  1. Enhanced Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference and Associated Brain Regional Levels of BDNF, P-ERK1/2 and P-Ser845-GluA1 in Food-Restricted Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Zheng, Danielle; Peng, Xing-Xiang; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, a learning-free measure was used to demonstrate that chronic food restriction (FR) increases the reward magnitude of a wide range of abused drugs. Moreover, a variety of striatal neuroadaptations were detected in FR subjects, some of which are known to be involved in synaptic plasticity but have been ruled out as modulators of acute drug reward magnitude. Little is known about effects of FR on drug-conditioned place preference (CPP) and brain regional mechanisms that may enhance CPP in FR subjects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the expression and persistence of a conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by a relatively low dose of cocaine (7.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in ad libitum fed (AL) and FR rats and take several brain regional biochemical measures following the first CPP conditioning session to probe candidate mechanisms that may underlie the more robust CPP observed in FR subjects. Behaviorally, AL subjects displayed a CPP upon initial testing which extinguished rapidly over the course of subsequent test sessions while CPP in FR subjects persisted. Despite previous reports of elevated BDNF protein in forebrain regions of FR rats, the FR protocol used in the present study did not alter BDNF levels in dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens or medial prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, FR rats, whether injected with cocaine or vehicle, displayed elevated p-ERK1/2 and p-Ser845-GluA1 in dorsal hippocampus. FR rats also displayed elevated p-ERK1/2 in medial prefrontal cortex and elevated p-ERK1 in nucleus accumbens, with further increases produced by cocaine. The one effect observed exclusively in cocaine-treated FR rats was increased p-Ser845-GluA1 in nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest a number of avenues for continuing investigation with potential translational significance. PMID:21640333

  2. Post-conditioning exacerbates the MnSOD immune-reactivity after experimental cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in the rat brain hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Miroslava; Danielisova, Viera; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Burda, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored the effects of sub-lethal ischemia (post-conditioning) applied after a previous ischemic attack by way of the MnSOD immune-reactivity examined in CA1 and dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. The experimental 10 min transient cerebral ischemia was followed by 2 days of reperfusion, the rats then underwent a second ischemia (4 or 6 min post-conditioning). MnSOD immune-reactivity was evaluated after 5 h, 1 and 2 days. Results obtained by computer microdensitometric image analysis indicated that 4 min of ischemic post-conditioning caused higher MnSOD immune-reactivity than 6 min. However, higher viability of CA1 neurons after stronger (6 min) post-conditioning when production of MnSOD is lower, as well as differences between MnSOD in CA1 and dentate gyrus indicates another mechanism switching pro-apoptotic destination of CA1 neurons to anti-apoptotic. PMID:17936646

  3. Quantum Brain States

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    If conscious observers are to be included in the quantum mechanical universe, we need to find the rules that engage observers with quantum mechanical systems. The author has proposed five rules that are discovered by insisting on empirical completeness; that is, by requiring the rules to draw empirical information from Schrodinger's solutions that is more complete than is currently possible with the (Born) probability interpretation. I discard Born's interpretation, introducing probability solely through probability current. These rules tell us something about brains. They require the existence of observer brain states that are neither conscious nor unconscious. I call them 'ready' brain states because they are on stand-by, ready to become conscious the moment they are stochastically chosen. Two of the rules are selection rules involving ready brain states. The place of these rules in a wider theoretical context is discussed. Key Words: boundary conditions, consciousness, decoherence, macroscopic superpositio...

  4. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  5. Autoradiographic localisation of D-3-dopamine receptors in the human brain using the selective D-3-dopamine receptor agonist (+)-[H-3]PD 128907

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, H; Halldin, C; Dijkstra, D; Wikstrom, H; Wise, LD; Pugsley, TA; Sokoloff, P; Pauli, S; Farde, L; Sedvall, G

    1996-01-01

    The selective D-3-dopamine receptor agonist 4aR,10bR-(+)-trans-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-[N-propyl-2,3- H-3]-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol ([H-3]PD 128907) was used to visualise D-3-dopamine receptors in whole hemisphere cryosections from post-mortem human brain. [H-3]PD 128907 has an 18

  6. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  13. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  14. Brain Abscess after Esophageal Dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

    2007-01-01

    Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted...... with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case...... illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation....

  15. Visualisation of the velocity field in a scaled water model for validation of numerical calculations for a powder fuelled boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumortier, Laurent [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Validation of numerical predictions of the flow field in a powder fired industry boiler by flow visualisation in a water model has been studied. The bark powder fired boiler at AssiDomaen Kraftliner in Piteaa has been used as a case study. A literature study covering modelling of combusting flows by water models and different flow visualisation techniques has been carried out. The main conclusion as regards the use of water models is that only qualitative information can be expected. As far as turbulent flow is assured in the model as well as the real furnace, the same Reynolds number is not required. Geometrical similarity is important but modelling of burner jets requires adaptation of the jet diameters in the model. Guidelines for this are available and are presented in the report. The review of visualisation techniques shows that a number of methods have been used successfully for validation of flow field predictions. The conclusion is that the Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry methods could be very suitable for validation purposes provided that optical access is possible. The numerical predictions include flow fields in a 1130 scale model of the AssiDomaen furnace with water flow as well as flow and temperature fields in the actual furnace. Two burner arrangements were considered both for the model and the actual furnace, namely the present configuration with four front burners and a proposed modification where an additional burner is positioned at a side wall below the other burners. There are many similarities between the predicted flow fields in the model and the full scale furnace but there are also some differences, in particular in the region above the burners and the effects of the low region re-circulation on the lower burner jets. The experiments with the water model have only included the arrangement with four front burners. There were problems determining the velocities in the jets and the comparisons with predictions are

  16. Visualising uncertainty: Examining women's views on the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kate; Kochetkova, Inna; Whitby, Elspeth

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal screening occupies a prominent role within sociological debates on medical uncertainty. A particular issue concerns the limitations of routine screening which tends to be based on risk prediction. Computer assisted visual technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are now starting to be applied to the prenatal realm to assist in the diagnosis of a range of fetal and maternal disorders (from problems with the fetal brain to the placenta). MRI is often perceived in popular and medical discourse as a technology of certainty and truth. However, little is known about the use of MRI as a tool to confirm or refute the diagnosis of a range of disorders in pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research with pregnant women attending a fetal medicine clinic in the North of England this paper examines the potential role that MRI can play in mediating pregnancy uncertainty. The paper will argue that MRI can create and manage women's feelings of uncertainty during pregnancy. However, while MRI may not always provide women with unequivocal answers, the detailed information provided by MR images combined with the interpretation and communication skills of the radiologist in many ways enables women to navigate the issue. Our analysis of empirical data therefore highlights the value of this novel technological application for women and their partners. It also seeks to stress the merit of taking a productive approach to the study of diagnostic uncertainty, an approach which recognises the concepts dual nature. PMID:27451338

  17. Reporting of the air pollution situation in Norway according to EU's new air quality directives. Proposal of a GIS-based tool for reporting on visualisation of the air pollution situation in Norway; Rapportering av forurensningstilstanden i Norge etter EUs nye luftkvalitetsdirektiver. Forslag til verktoey for rapportering og visualisering av forurensningstilstanden i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larssen, Steinar; Thanh, The Nguyen; Hagen, Leif Otto; Endregard, Geir

    1999-12-01

    Norway shall, after 2001, annually report to the EU on the air quality situation in all zones. This report presents a proposal on a data (GIS)-based tool that will make this reporting more efficient. the concept is to visualise the AQ situation in the zones by means of values and isolines on maps, with zooming possibilities. (author)

  18. Enhancing watching experience of football matches on TV via modes of interaction and types of visualisation of match-related information on second screen

    OpenAIRE

    Sezen, Ege

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of a doctoral research that is into enhancing user experience of watching football matches on TV through second screen. The focus of investigation, in this regard, is on the modes of interaction and types of visualisation of match-related information on second screen. The process started with a literature review. It is found out that user behaviour of accessing to non-TV- provided match-related information on second screen during the activity of watching football...

  19. Development of a Moodle VLE Plug-in to Support Simultaneous Visualisation of a Collection of Multi-Media Sign Language Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Brian

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Using Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) to support blended learning is very common in educational institutes. Delivering learning material in a flexible and semi-structured manner to the learner transforms such systems into powerful eLearning tools. However, the presentation and visualisation of individual or multiple learning objects is mostly dictated by the system and cannot be altered easily. This paper reports on a project between Trinity College Dublin (TCD) and ...

  20. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  1. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  2. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ... normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts Depression, Sustains Remission in Older ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... NIMH Strategic Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET General Health Information ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... sends impulses and extends from cell bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons ... in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change the way a gene is ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... or serious and cause severe disability. Through research, we know that mental disorders are brain disorders. Evidence ... many different types of cells in the body. We say that cells differentiate as the embryo develops, ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  2. Brain Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay Mentally and Socially Active We Can Help ... of any wellness plan. Learn More Adopt a Healthy Diet > Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... stay focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as ... brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the ... as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control and memory. serotonin —A neurotransmitter ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  12. What do Cells Really Look Like? An Inquiry into Students' Difficulties in Visualising a 3-D Biological Cell and Lessons for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Kawalkar, Aisha; Nambiar, Priya

    2014-04-01

    In our explorations of students' concepts in an inquiry science classroom with grade 6 students from urban schools in India, we uncovered a variety of problems in their understanding of biological cells as structural and functional units of living organisms. In particular, we found not only that they visualised the cell as a two-dimensional (2-D) structure, instead of a closed three-dimensional (3-D) functional unit, but that they had a strong resistance to changing their 2-D conception to a 3-D one. Based on analyses of students' oral as well as written descriptions of cells in the classroom, and of models they made of the cell, we were able to identify the causes of students' difficulties in correctly visualising the cell. These insights helped us design a pedagogy involving guided discussions and activities that challenges students' 2-D conceptions of the cell. The activities entail very simple, low-cost, easily doable techniques to help students visualise the cell and to understand that it would not be able to function if its structure were 2-D. We also present the results of our investigations of conceptions of grade 7 students and biology undergraduates, revealing that the incorrect 2-D mental model can persist right up to the college level if it is not explicitly addressed. The classroom interactions described in this study illustrate how students' ideas can be probed and addressed in the classroom using pedagogical action research.

  13. A solution (data architecture) for handling time-series data - sensor data (4D), its visualisation and the questions around uncertainty of this data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayembil, Martin; Barkwith, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Geo-environmental research is increasingly in the age of data-driven research. It has become necessary to collect, store, integrate and visualise more subsurface data for environmental research. The information required to facilitate data-driven research is often characterised by its variability, volume, complexity and frequency. This has necessitated the development of suitable data workflows, hybrid data architectures, and multiple visualisation solutions to provide the proper context to scientists and to enable their understanding of the different trends that the data displays for their many scientific interpolations. However this data, predominantly time-series (4D) acquired through sensors and being mostly telemetered, poses significant challenges/questions in quantifying the uncertainty of the data. To validate the research answers including the data methodologies, the following open questions around uncertainty will need addressing, i.e. uncertainty generated from: • the instruments used for data capture; • the transfer process of the data often from remote locations through telemetry; • the data processing techniques used for harmonising and integration from multiple sensor outlets; • the approximations applied to visualize such data from various conversion factors to include units standardisation The main question remains: How do we deal with the issues around uncertainty when it comes to the large and variable amounts of time-series data we collect, harmonise and visualise for the data-driven geo-environmental research that we undertake today?

  14. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express3D [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4j1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek W. Wright

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BioLayout Express3D is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an ‘Advanced’ query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools.

  15. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  16. D Recording, Modelling and Visualisation of the Fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (norway) by Photogrammetric Methods and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the Framework of Erasmus Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T.; Lindstaedt, M.; Maziull, L.; Schreyer, K.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Holm, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution the 3D recording, 3D modelling and 3D visualisation of the fortification Kristiansten in Trondheim (Norway) by digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are presented. The fortification Kristiansten was built after the large city fire in the year 1681 above the city and has been a museum since 1997. The recording of the fortress took place in each case at the end of August/at the beginning of September 2010 and 2011 during two two-week summer schools with the topic "Digital Photogrammetry & Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Cultural Heritage Documentation" at NTNU Trondheim with international students in the context of ERASMUS teaching programs. For data acquisition, a terrestrial laser scanner and digital SLR cameras were used. The establishment of a geodetic 3D network, which was later transformed into the Norwegian UTM coordinate system using control points, ensured a consistent registration of the scans and an orientation of the photogrammetric images. The fortress buildings were constructed in detail from photogrammetric photographs and point clouds using AutoCAD, while the fortress area and walls were modelled by triangle meshing in Geomagic. The visualisation of the fortress was carried out 2013 with the software Cinema 4D in the context of a lecture in the Master study programme Geomatics. The 3D model was textured and afterwards presented in a video. This 3D model was finally transferred into the game engine Unity for an interactive 3D visualisation on 3D monitors.

  17. Three-dimensional fracture visualisation of multidetector CT of the skull base in trauma patients: comparison of three reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the detection rate of skull-base fractures for three different three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction methods of cranial CT examinations in trauma patients. A total of 130 cranial CT examinations of patients with previous head trauma were subjected to 3D reconstruction of the skull base, using solid (SVR) and transparent (TVR) volume-rendering technique and maximum intensity projection (MIP). Three radiologists independently evaluated all reconstructions as well as standard high-resolution multiplanar reformations (HR-MPRs). Mean fracture detection rates for all readers reading rotating reconstructions were 39, 36, 61 and 64% for SVR, TVR, MIP and HR-MPR respectively. Although not significantly different from HR-MPR with respect to sensitivity (P = 0.9), MIP visualised 18% of fractures that were not reported in HR-MPR. Because of the relatively low detection rate using HR-MPRs alone, we recommend reading MIP reconstructions in addition to the obligatory HR-MPRs to improve fracture detection. (orig.)

  18. Un outil pour la sélection et la visualisation de flux : le package flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beauguitte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente un package R permettant de sélectionner, analyser et visualiser les flux. Après avoir brièvement rappelé les enjeux et principes des méthodes mobilisées (flux principaux, flux dominants et flux majeurs, nous présentons les trois principales fonctionnalités mises en œuvre : sélection des flux, production d’indicateurs statistiques décrivant les flux sélectionnés et renseignant sur le volume d’information perdue, cartographie des flux dominants. Enfin, cet outil de sélection raisonnée des flux est appliqué au cas des navettes domicile-travail entre villes du Grand-Est français, afin d’illustrer les effets du choix d’une variante de la méthode des flux dominants de Nystuen et Dacey sur la hiérarchie des villes et la représentation de leurs aires d’influence.

  19. Energy data visualisation requires additional approaches to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Grant Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  20. Computer-assisted orthognathic surgery: waferless maxillary positioning, versatility, and accuracy of an image-guided visualisation display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Max J; Mischkowski, Robert A; Dreiseidler, Timo; Thamm, Oliver C; Rothamel, Daniel; Zöller, Joachim E

    2013-12-01

    There may well be a shift towards 3-dimensional orthognathic surgery when virtual surgical planning can be applied clinically. We present a computer-assisted protocol that uses surgical navigation supplemented by an interactive image-guided visualisation display (IGVD) to transfer virtual maxillary planning precisely. The aim of this study was to analyse its accuracy and versatility in vivo. The protocol consists of maxillofacial imaging, diagnosis, planning of virtual treatment, and intraoperative surgical transfer using an IGV display. The advantage of the interactive IGV display is that the virtually planned maxilla and its real position can be completely superimposed during operation through a video graphics array (VGA) camera, thereby augmenting the surgeon's 3-dimensional perception. Sixteen adult class III patients were treated with by bimaxillary osteotomy. Seven hard tissue variables were chosen to compare (ΔT1-T0) the virtual maxillary planning (T0) with the postoperative result (T1) using 3-dimensional cephalometry. Clinically acceptable precision for the surgical planning transfer of the maxilla (orthognathic planning.

  1. Cysticercosis of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence and radiologic findings of neurocysticercosis were investigated in a series of 23 800 consecutive head examinations using computed tomography (CT). The condition was diagnosed in 168 case (0.7%). The parenchymatous form was the most common presentation (96.3%), while the meningeal form corresponded to only 11.9% of cases. These two forms coexisted in some cases. These findings reversed the knowledge on the condition based on conventional radiography. The different CT appearances in the brain are described and a new radiologic protocol for the CT evaluation of the condition is advocated, which includes a follow-up after a trial cure with Praziquantel in the presence of cysts not associated with suggestive brain calcifications. CT were more sensitive than conventional radiography in the differentiation between dead and living larvae, thus having an impact on the therapeutic management of the patients. (orig.)

  2. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  3. A novel staining method for quantification and 3D visualisation of capillaries and muscle fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cebasek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce a combined fluorescent staining that clearly demonstrates capillaries and distinguishes them from the basal lamina of muscle fibres in skeletal muscle tissue. The triple staining with CD31, Griffonia (Bandeira simplicifolia lectin (GSL I and laminin efficiently distinguishes vascular endothelium from the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibres in physiological and pathological conditions. The presented triple staining method has several advantages, which facilitate quantitative analysis of the capillary network, and its relation to individual muscle fibres.

  4. Gitools: analysis and visualisation of genomic data using interactive heat-maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Perez-Llamas

    Full Text Available Intuitive visualization of data and results is very important in genomics, especially when many conditions are to be analyzed and compared. Heat-maps have proven very useful for the representation of biological data. Here we present Gitools (http://www.gitools.org, an open-source tool to perform analyses and visualize data and results as interactive heat-maps. Gitools contains data import systems from several sources (i.e. IntOGen, Biomart, KEGG, Gene Ontology, which facilitate the integration of novel data with previous knowledge.

  5. [Effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test under conditions of altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu; Zamorskiĭ, I I

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of free radical processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, globus pallidus. nucleus accumbens. amygdaloid complex) of the brain, and the rat behaviour in the open field test has been studied under conditions of altered photoperiod. It has been shown that constant darkness levels the effect of acute hypoxia on the intensity of lipid peroxidation, preserves the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase at a higher level, lowers the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Under light, the sensitivity of basal nuclei neurons to acute hypoxia is enhanced, the latter being reflected in intensification of lipid peroxidation at the expense of increased formation of dien conjugates. The activity of catalase at that considerably exceeds the level of even intact rats in all the structures. It has been established that an altered photoperiod modulates the effect of acute hypoxia on the parameters of rat's activity in the open field, the character of their change depending on the nature of a photophase change.

  6. Dosimetry comparison of irradiation with conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, conformal radiotherapy in stereotactic conditions and robotic stereotactic radiotherapy for benign brain tumours; Comparaison dosimetrique de la radiotherapie conformationnelle, la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite, la radiotherapie conformationnelle en conditions stereotaxiques et la radiotherapie en conditions stereotaxiques robotisee des tumeurs cerebrales benignes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasic, E.; Noel, A. [Departement de radiophysique, centre Alexis-Vautrin, avenue de Bourgogne, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); UMR 7039 CNRS, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy (Cran), BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); Cran UMR 7039, faculte des sciences et techniques, universite Henri-Poincare Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); Cran UMR 7039, institut national polytechnique de Lorraine, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); Buchheit, I.; Bernier, V. [Departement de radiophysique, centre Alexis-Vautrin, avenue de Bourgogne, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose. - To compare several techniques in order to determine the best treatment for benign brain tumours. Methods and patients. - A retrospective study was performed for five patients who received 3D-conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy or CyberKnife{sup R}. These patients had a meningioma, a pituitary tumour, a cranio-pharyngioma or a neurinoma. In each case, these treatment plans were optimised and compared with the three other dosimetries. Radiobiological or positioning parameters were evaluated, as well as dosimetric parameters, in order to compare treatments with different characteristics. Results. - The dosimetric parameters showed that the choice of treatment seemed to be determined mostly by tumour size, shape and proximity with organs at risk (not tumour localisation). Whereas the results showed no significant deviations with regards to the radiobiological parameters. Therefore, with these parameters, it was difficult to give priority to a treatment. Conclusions. - With regards to benign brain tumours of medium or large size, intensity modulated radiotherapy seemed the recommended treatment. It enabled to obtain a good ratio between efficacy and toxicity for tumours that are really close to organs at risk. Concerning small benign brain tumours, the CyberKnife{sup R} was probably the best treatment. (authors)

  7. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function, or ...

  8. Eggshell penetration of hen's eggs by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis upon various storage conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Messens, Winy; Grijspeerdt, Koen; Herman, Lieve

    2006-01-01

    Abstract 1. The survival and penetration of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) inoculated on the eggshell was examined upon storage for up to 20 d at real-life conditions (15?C to 25?C and 45% to 75% relative humidity (RH)). 2. Penetration was assessed by emptying the egg contents and filling the eggs with a selective medium that allowed visualising Salmonella growth on the inside of the shell and membrane complex. 3. The study of survival on the eggshells was base...

  9. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  10. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  11. Scanning probe microscopy characterisation of immobilised enzyme molecules on a biosensor surface: visualisation of individual molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOE G. SHAPTER

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopy techniques were used to study immobilised enzyme molecules of glucose oxidase (GOD on a biosensor surface. The study was carried out in order to optimise atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and reveal the molecular resolution of individual GOD molecules. Chemically modified AFM tips and the light tapping mode were found to be the optimal conditions for imaging soft biomolecules such as GOD. The information obtained from the AFM images included spatial distribution and organization of the enzyme molecules on the surface, surface coverage and shape, size and orientation of individual molecules. Two typical shapes of GOD molecules were found, spherical and butterfly, which are in accordance with the shapes obtained from scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM images. Using a model of the orientation of the GOD molecules on the surface, these shapes are assigned to the enzyme standing and lying on the surface. After AFM tip deconvolution, the size of the spherical shaped GOD molecules was found to be 12 ± 2.1 nm in diameter, whereas the butterfly shapes were 16.5 ± 3.3 nm ´10.2 ± 2.5 nm. Corresponding STM images showed smaller lateral dimensions of 10 ± 1 nm ´ 6 ± 1 nm and 6.5 ± 1 nm ´ 5 ± 1 nm. The disagreement between these two techniques is attributed to the deformation of the GOD molecules caused by the tapping process.

  12. Public participation in Full dome digital visualisations of large datasets in a planetarium sky theater : An experiment in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasree, Nandivada

    2015-08-01

    A full dome digital planetarium system with a userfriendly content creation possibility can be used very effectively for communicating points of interest in large Astronomical datsets, to public and student visitors to a planetarium. Periodic public lectures by Astronomers, "Under the Stars", which use full dome visualisations of data sets, foster a regular interest group which becomes associated with the planetarium, ensuring a regular inflow of students (and a smaller number of non student visitors) willing to contribute to the entries in the full dome datasets.Regardless of whether or not completion is achieved for any of the data sets, the very process of this project is extremely rewarding in terms of generating a quickening of interest, for the casual visitor to a planetarium, in aspects related to intricacies of datasets. The casual visitor who gets interested, may just make one entry in the dataset, following instructions provided in the planetarium public interaction. For students who show sustained interest in this data entry project, it becomes a really fruitful learning process.Combining this purely data entry process with some interactions and discussions with Astronomers on the excitements in the areas related to specific data sets, allows a more organised enrichment possibility for student participants, nudging them towards exploring related possibilities of some "Hands on Astronomy" analysis oriented projects.Datasets like Gamma Ray bursts, variable stars, TGSS, and so on, are being entered within the planetarium production software at the New Delhi planetarium, by public and student visitors to the planetarium, as weekend activities.The Digital Universe data sets pre-existing in the planetarium system, allow preliminary discussions for weekend crowds related to Astronomical data sets, introduction of ever increasing multiwavelength data sets and onwwards to facilitating public participation in data entry within the planetarium software, for some

  13. Virtual Visualisation Laboratory for Science and Mathematics Content (Vlab-SMC) with Special Reference to Teaching and Learning of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Bakar, Norashiken; Ahmad, Azlina; Sulaiman, Riza; Arshad, Haslina; Mohd. Yatim, Nor Faezah

    Research on the teaching of science and mathematics in schools and universities have shown that available teaching models are not effective in instilling the understanding of scientific and mathematics concepts, and the right scientific and mathematics skills required for learners to become good future scientists (mathematicians included). The extensive development of new technologies has a marked influence on education, by facilitating the design of new learning and teaching materials, that can improve the attitude of learners towards Science and Mathematics and the plausibility of advanced interactive, personalised learning process. The usefulness of the computer in Science and Mathematics education; as an interactive communication medium that permits access to all types of information (texts, images, different types of data such as sound, graphics and perhaps haptics like smell and touch); as an instrument for problem solving through simulations of scientific and mathematics phenomenon and experiments; as well as measuring and monitoring scientific laboratory experiments. This paper will highlight on the design and development of the virtual Visualisation Laboratory for Science & Mathematics Content (VLab-SMC) based on the Cognitivist- Constructivist-Contextual development life cycle model as well as the Instructional Design (ID) model, in order to achieve its objectives in teaching and learning. However, this paper with only highlight one of the virtual labs within VLab-SMC that is, the Virtual Lab for teaching Chemistry (VLab- Chem). The development life cycle involves the educational media to be used, measurement of content, and the authoring and programming involved; whilst the ID model involves the application of the cognitivist, constructivist and contextual theories in the modeling of the modules of VLab-SMC generally and Vlab-Chem specifically, using concepts such as 'learning by doing', contextual learning, experimental simulations 3D and real

  14. FoodMicrobionet: A database for the visualisation and exploration of food bacterial communities based on network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Cocolin, Luca; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Ferrocino, Ilario; O'Sullivan, Orla; Neviani, Erasmo; De Angelis, Maria; Cotter, Paul D; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-02-16

    Amplicon targeted high-throughput sequencing has become a popular tool for the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities. Although the data obtained with this approach are portable and the number of sequences available in public databases is increasing, no tool has been developed yet for the analysis and presentation of data obtained in different studies. This work describes an approach for the development of a database for the rapid exploration and analysis of data on food microbial communities. Data from seventeen studies investigating the structure of bacterial communities in dairy, meat, sourdough and fermented vegetable products, obtained by 16S rRNA gene targeted high-throughput sequencing, were collated and analysed using Gephi, a network analysis software. The resulting database, which we named FoodMicrobionet, was used to analyse nodes and network properties and to build an interactive web-based visualisation. The latter allows the visual exploration of the relationships between Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and samples and the identification of core- and sample-specific bacterial communities. It also provides additional search tools and hyperlinks for the rapid selection of food groups and OTUs and for rapid access to external resources (NCBI taxonomy, digital versions of the original articles). Microbial interaction network analysis was carried out using CoNet on datasets extracted from FoodMicrobionet: the complexity of interaction networks was much lower than that found for other bacterial communities (human microbiome, soil and other environments). This may reflect both a bias in the dataset (which was dominated by fermented foods and starter cultures) and the lower complexity of food bacterial communities. Although some technical challenges exist, and are discussed here, the net result is a valuable tool for the exploration of food bacterial communities by the scientific community and food industry. PMID:26704067

  15. Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and LIDAR Data for Photo-Realistic Visualisation of Climate Impacts at Heritage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettley, A.; Anderson, K.; De Silvey, C.; Caseldine, C.

    2011-09-01

    Remote sensing technologies such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can now provide accurate spatial data for describing topographic patterns in landscapes and mapping the fine geometric detail of complex structures. Interdisciplinary studies using such data for characterising heritage sites are now widespread, but it is less common for data derived from these technologies to be used in an operational setting to 'engage' local people with the idea of future change. Three- dimensional landscape models using TLS and LIDAR are a powerful way of communicating climate change to lay audiences on a local level and the use of multi-scale spatial data can help to show the anticipated impacts of climate change at heritage sites. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a project designed to produce a photorealistic geospatial model of the historic quayside at Cotehele Quay, Cornwall, UK. Our central aim was to generate a spatially accurate and visually realistic three-dimensional model of the site for use in local engagement strategies. TLS and LIDAR data were collected and processed to produce a three-dimensional model. The key image processing stages included: registration to a national co-ordinate system, meshing using 3D reshaper and visualisation creation in 3DS Max. The resulting model will permit spatial consideration of the impact of management strategies at the site. The over-arching application of this method beyond the study site will provide a platform for discussion that addresses the needs of site managers and the expectations of local communities.

  16. USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING AND LIDAR DATA FOR PHOTO-REALISTIC VISUALISATION OF CLIMATE IMPACTS AT HERITAGE SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nettley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technologies such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and light detection and ranging (LIDAR can now provide accurate spatial data for describing topographic patterns in landscapes and mapping the fine geometric detail of complex structures. Interdisciplinary studies using such data for characterising heritage sites are now widespread, but it is less common for data derived from these technologies to be used in an operational setting to 'engage' local people with the idea of future change. Three- dimensional landscape models using TLS and LIDAR are a powerful way of communicating climate change to lay audiences on a local level and the use of multi-scale spatial data can help to show the anticipated impacts of climate change at heritage sites. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a project designed to produce a photorealistic geospatial model of the historic quayside at Cotehele Quay, Cornwall, UK. Our central aim was to generate a spatially accurate and visually realistic three-dimensional model of the site for use in local engagement strategies. TLS and LIDAR data were collected and processed to produce a three-dimensional model. The key image processing stages included: registration to a national co-ordinate system, meshing using 3D reshaper and visualisation creation in 3DS Max. The resulting model will permit spatial consideration of the impact of management strategies at the site. The over-arching application of this method beyond the study site will provide a platform for discussion that addresses the needs of site managers and the expectations of local communities.

  17. Robust approximation of the Medial Axis Transform of LiDAR point clouds as a tool for visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ravi; Ledoux, Hugo

    2016-05-01

    Governments and companies around the world collect point clouds (datasets containing elevation points) because these are useful for many applications, e.g. to reconstruct 3D city models, to understand and predict the impact of floods, and to monitor dikes. We address in this paper the visualisation of point clouds, which is perhaps the most essential instrument a practitioner or a scientist has to analyse and understand such datasets. We argue that it is currently hampered by two main problems: (1) point clouds are often massive (several billion points); (2) the viewer's perception of depth and structure is often lost (because of the sparse and unstructured points). We propose solving both problems by using the Medial Axis Transform (MAT) and its properties. This allows us to (1) smartly simplify a point cloud in a geometry-dependent way (to preserve only significant features), and (2) to render splats whose radii are adaptive to the distribution of points (and thus obtain less "holes" in the surface). Our main contribution is a series of heuristics that allows us to compute the MAT robustly for noisy real-world LiDAR point clouds, and to compute the MAT for point clouds that do not fit into the main memory. We have implemented our algorithms, we report on experiments made with point clouds (of more than one billion points), and we demonstrate that we are able to render scenes with much less points than in the original point cloud (we preserve around 10%) while retaining good depth-perception and a sense of structure at close viewing distances.

  18. Vizuelizacija 3D modela geopodataka i njihova primjena : Visualisation of the 3D geodata models and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Borisov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available U radu se opisuju 3D modeli geopodataka i njihova primjena. Na geodetskim planovima i topografskim kartama najčešće se primjenjuju metode prikaza terena (reljefa pomoću kota i izohipsi. Međutim, sa pojavom novih tehnologija mijenja se način vizualizacije i naglašava koncept 3D modela geopodataka. Pritom, koriste se različiti pojmovi: digitalni model visina (DMV, digitalni model terena (DMT, digitalni model površi (DMP i drugo. Infrastruktura i 3D modeli geopodataka su standardizovani, ali se vizualizacija i detaljnost sadržaja mijenja i usklađuje prema namjeni i razmjeri prikaza. Primjena 3D modela geopodataka u digitalnom obliku (raster ili vektor postaje sve više aktuelna i putem interneta. Zato je važno razlikovati navedene pojmove i odlike 3D modela geopodataka kao i mogućnosti njihove primjene. : This paper describes the 3D geodata models and their application. On geodetic plans and topographic maps commonly applied methods of terrain (relief by spots elevation and contour lines. However, with the advent of new technologies the way of the visualisation is changing and highlights the concept 3D geodata model. Namely, there are different concepts: digital elevation model (DEM, digital terrain model (DTM, digital surface model (DSP and so on. Infrastructure and 3D geodata models are standardized, while the visualization and details of information change and adjust the needs and aspect ratio display. Application of 3D geodata models in digital format (raster or vector is becoming increasingly topical over the internet. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between certain concepts and features of 3D geodata models and the possibility of their application.

  19. myGRN: a database and visualisation system for the storage and analysis of developmental genetic regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Jamil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological processes are regulated by complex interactions between transcription factors and signalling molecules, collectively described as Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs. The characterisation of these networks to reveal regulatory mechanisms is a long-term goal of many laboratories. However compiling, visualising and interacting with such networks is non-trivial. Current tools and databases typically focus on GRNs within simple, single celled organisms. However, data is available within the literature describing regulatory interactions in multi-cellular organisms, although not in any systematic form. This is particularly true within the field of developmental biology, where regulatory interactions should also be tagged with information about the time and anatomical location of development in which they occur. Description We have developed myGRN (http://www.myGRN.org, a web application for storing and interrogating interaction data, with an emphasis on developmental processes. Users can submit interaction and gene expression data, either curated from published sources or derived from their own unpublished data. All interactions associated with publications are publicly visible, and unpublished interactions can only be shared between collaborating labs prior to publication. Users can group interactions into discrete networks based on specific biological processes. Various filters allow dynamic production of network diagrams based on a range of information including tissue location, developmental stage or basic topology. Individual networks can be viewed using myGRV, a tool focused on displaying developmental networks, or exported in a range of formats compatible with third party tools. Networks can also be analysed for the presence of common network motifs. We demonstrate the capabilities of myGRN using a network of zebrafish interactions integrated with expression data from the zebrafish database, ZFIN. Conclusion Here we

  20. Visualisation by high resolution synchrotron X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography of gas films on submerged superhydrophobic leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Torsten; Glavina, Kyriaki; Colmer, Timothy David; Winkel, Anders; Irvine, Sarah; Lefmann, Kim; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pedersen, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Floods can completely submerge terrestrial plants but some wetland species can sustain O2 and CO2 exchange with the environment via gas films forming on superhydrophobic leaf surfaces. We used high resolution synchrotron X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography in a novel approach to visualise gas films on submerged leaves of common cordgrass (Spartina anglica). 3D tomograms enabled a hitherto unmatched level of detail regarding the micro-topography of leaf gas films. Gas films formed only on the superhydrophobic adaxial leaf side (water droplet contact angle, Φ=162°) but not on the abaxial side (Φ=135°). The adaxial side of the leaves of common cordgrass is plicate with a longitudinal system of parallel grooves and ridges and the vast majority of the gas film volume was found in large ∼180μm deep elongated triangular volumes in the grooves and these volumes were connected to each neighbouring groove via a fine network of gas tubules (∼1.7μm diameter) across the ridges. In addition to the gas film retained on the leaf exterior, the X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography also successfully distinguished gas spaces internally in the leaf tissues, and the tissue porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) ranged from 6.3% to 20.3% in tip and base leaf segments, respectively. We conclude that X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography is a powerful tool to obtain quantitative data of exterior gas features on biological samples because of the significant difference in electron density between air, biological tissues and water. PMID:25175398

  1. 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and trench logging using terrestrial remote sensing and GPR - a multiparametric interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwind, Sascha; Mason, Jack; Wiatr, Thomas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two normal faults on the island of Crete and mainland Greece were studied to test an innovative workflow with the goal of obtaining a more objective palaeoseismic trench log, and a 3-D view of the sedimentary architecture within the trench walls. Sedimentary feature geometries in palaeoseismic trenches are related to palaeoearthquake magnitudes which are used in seismic hazard assessments. If the geometry of these sedimentary features can be more representatively measured, seismic hazard assessments can be improved. In this study more representative measurements of sedimentary features are achieved by combining classical palaeoseismic trenching techniques with multispectral approaches. A conventional trench log was firstly compared to results of ISO (iterative self-organising) cluster analysis of a true colour photomosaic representing the spectrum of visible light. Photomosaic acquisition disadvantages (e.g. illumination) were addressed by complementing the data set with active near-infrared backscatter signal image from t-LiDAR measurements. The multispectral analysis shows that distinct layers can be identified and it compares well with the conventional trench log. According to this, a distinction of adjacent stratigraphic units was enabled by their particular multispectral composition signature. Based on the trench log, a 3-D interpretation of attached 2-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles collected on the vertical trench wall was then possible. This is highly beneficial for measuring representative layer thicknesses, displacements, and geometries at depth within the trench wall. Thus, misinterpretation due to cutting effects is minimised. This manuscript combines multiparametric approaches and shows (i) how a 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and logging can be accomplished by combining t-LiDAR and GPR techniques, and (ii) how a multispectral digital analysis can offer additional advantages to interpret palaeoseismic and stratigraphic

  2. Synchrotron x-ray visualisation of ice formation in insects during lethal and non-lethal freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent J Sinclair

    Full Text Available Although the biochemical correlates of freeze tolerance in insects are becoming well-known, the process of ice formation in vivo is subject to speculation. We used synchrotron x-rays to directly visualise real-time ice formation at 3.3 Hz in intact insects. We observed freezing in diapausing 3(rd instar larvae of Chymomyza amoena (Diptera: Drosophilidae, which survive freezing if it occurs above -14 degrees C, and non-diapausing 3(rd instar larvae of C. amoena and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae, neither of which survive freezing. Freezing was readily observed in all larvae, and on one occasion the gut was seen to freeze separately from the haemocoel. There were no apparent qualitative differences in ice formation between freeze tolerant and non-freeze tolerant larvae. The time to complete freezing was positively related to temperature of nucleation (supercooling point, SCP, and SCP declined with decreasing body size, although this relationship was less strong in diapausing C. amoena. Nucleation generally occurred at a contact point with the thermocouple or chamber wall in non-diapausing larvae, but at random in diapausing larvae, suggesting that the latter have some control over ice nucleation. There were no apparent differences between freeze tolerant and non-freeze tolerant larvae in tracheal displacement or distension of the body during freezing, although there was markedly more distension in D. melanogaster than in C. amoena regardless of diapause state. We conclude that although control of ice nucleation appears to be important in freeze tolerant individuals, the physical ice formation process itself does not differ among larvae that can and cannot survive freezing. This suggests that a focus on cellular and biochemical mechanisms is appropriate and may reveal the primary adaptations allowing freeze tolerance in insects.

  3. FoodMicrobionet: A database for the visualisation and exploration of food bacterial communities based on network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Cocolin, Luca; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Ferrocino, Ilario; O'Sullivan, Orla; Neviani, Erasmo; De Angelis, Maria; Cotter, Paul D; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-02-16

    Amplicon targeted high-throughput sequencing has become a popular tool for the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities. Although the data obtained with this approach are portable and the number of sequences available in public databases is increasing, no tool has been developed yet for the analysis and presentation of data obtained in different studies. This work describes an approach for the development of a database for the rapid exploration and analysis of data on food microbial communities. Data from seventeen studies investigating the structure of bacterial communities in dairy, meat, sourdough and fermented vegetable products, obtained by 16S rRNA gene targeted high-throughput sequencing, were collated and analysed using Gephi, a network analysis software. The resulting database, which we named FoodMicrobionet, was used to analyse nodes and network properties and to build an interactive web-based visualisation. The latter allows the visual exploration of the relationships between Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and samples and the identification of core- and sample-specific bacterial communities. It also provides additional search tools and hyperlinks for the rapid selection of food groups and OTUs and for rapid access to external resources (NCBI taxonomy, digital versions of the original articles). Microbial interaction network analysis was carried out using CoNet on datasets extracted from FoodMicrobionet: the complexity of interaction networks was much lower than that found for other bacterial communities (human microbiome, soil and other environments). This may reflect both a bias in the dataset (which was dominated by fermented foods and starter cultures) and the lower complexity of food bacterial communities. Although some technical challenges exist, and are discussed here, the net result is a valuable tool for the exploration of food bacterial communities by the scientific community and food industry.

  4. Venous air embolism in consecutive balloon kyphoplasties visualised on CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We noted a large amount of intravenous gas during balloon kyphoplasty on CT imaging. Formal assessment to understand the extent, possible causes and implications was undertaken. Ten consecutive cases of balloon kyphoplasty were performed under general anaesthesia in the prone position, on a single vertebral level using a two-step technique under combined fluoroscopic and CT guidance. CT of the affected vertebra was performed before, after, and intermittently during the procedure. In 2 cases delayed CT was carried out in the supine position. Gas was seen on CT imaging, but not on conventional fluoroscopy. The gas is most likely to be air introduced during the procedure and was seen in the epidural and paravertebral venous plexus, posterior intercostal veins, renal veins, IVC and azygos vein. The average measured volume of gas seen on the post-procedure CT imaging was 1.07 mL, range 0.16-3.97 mL. There was no correlation of the measured amount of gas to the procedure duration or location, the use of a curette or the injected cement volume. Delayed CT in the supine position no longer showed air in the local venous system. Balloon kyphoplasty is associated with the fluoroscopically invisible introduction of air into the vertebral and paravertebral veins and deep systemic veins and is likely to be much more extensive than identified on CT imaging. There is potential for serious air embolism in kyphoplasty and if there is a sudden deterioration in patient condition during the procedure the possibility of this complication needs to be considered. (orig.)

  5. Venous air embolism in consecutive balloon kyphoplasties visualised on CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, Bernhard J.; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Lalam, Radhesh; Haddaway, Mike [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    We noted a large amount of intravenous gas during balloon kyphoplasty on CT imaging. Formal assessment to understand the extent, possible causes and implications was undertaken. Ten consecutive cases of balloon kyphoplasty were performed under general anaesthesia in the prone position, on a single vertebral level using a two-step technique under combined fluoroscopic and CT guidance. CT of the affected vertebra was performed before, after, and intermittently during the procedure. In 2 cases delayed CT was carried out in the supine position. Gas was seen on CT imaging, but not on conventional fluoroscopy. The gas is most likely to be air introduced during the procedure and was seen in the epidural and paravertebral venous plexus, posterior intercostal veins, renal veins, IVC and azygos vein. The average measured volume of gas seen on the post-procedure CT imaging was 1.07 mL, range 0.16-3.97 mL. There was no correlation of the measured amount of gas to the procedure duration or location, the use of a curette or the injected cement volume. Delayed CT in the supine position no longer showed air in the local venous system. Balloon kyphoplasty is associated with the fluoroscopically invisible introduction of air into the vertebral and paravertebral veins and deep systemic veins and is likely to be much more extensive than identified on CT imaging. There is potential for serious air embolism in kyphoplasty and if there is a sudden deterioration in patient condition during the procedure the possibility of this complication needs to be considered. (orig.)

  6. Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Perlmutter, Joel. S.; Mink, Jonathan W.

    2006-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided remarkable benefits for people with a variety of neurologic conditions. Stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus can dramatically relieve tremor associated with essential tremor or Parkinson disease (PD). Similarly, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the internal segment of the globus pallidus can substantially reduce bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and gait difficulties in people with PD. Multiple groups are attempting t...

  7. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as ... making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD , schizophrenia , and depression . Hippocampus —Helps create and file new memories. When the hippocampus is damaged, a ... portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A ...

  12. Sex and the migraine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, D; Erpelding, N; Lebel, A; Linnman, C; Veggeberg, R; Grant, P E; Buettner, C; Becerra, L; Burstein, R

    2014-08-01

    The brain responds differently to environmental and internal signals that relate to the stage of development of neural systems. While genetic and epigenetic factors contribute to a premorbid state, hormonal fluctuations in women may alter the set point of migraine. The cyclic surges of gonadal hormones may directly alter neuronal, glial and astrocyte function throughout the brain. Estrogen is mainly excitatory and progesterone inhibitory on brain neuronal systems. These changes contribute to the allostatic load of the migraine condition that most notably starts at puberty in girls. PMID:24662368

  13. Fully Automatic Method for 3D T1-Weighted Brain Magnetic Resonance Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchaib Cherradi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of brain MR images is of interest for many brain disorders. However, dueto several factors such noise, imaging artefacts, intrinsic tissue variation and partial volumeeffects, brain extraction and tissue segmentation remains a challenging task. So, in this paper, afull automatic method for segmentation of anatomical 3D brain MR images is proposed. Themethod consists of many steps. First, noise reduction by median filtering is done; secondsegmentation of brain/non-brain tissue is performed by using a Threshold Morphologic BrainExtraction method (TMBE. Then initial centroids estimation by gray level histogram analysis isexecuted, this stage yield to a Modified version of Fuzzy C-means Algorithm (MFCM that is usedfor MRI tissue segmentation. Finally 3D visualisation of the three clusters (CSF, GM and WM isperformed. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by extensive segmentationexperiments using simulated and real MR images. A confrontation of the method with similarmethods of the literature has been undertaken trough different performance measures. TheMFCM for tissue segmentation introduce a gain in rapidity of convergence of about 70%.

  14. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  15. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  16. Visualisation of respiratory tumour motion and co-moving isodose lines in the context of respiratory gating, IMRT and flattening-filter-free beams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Dzierma

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion during percutaneous radiotherapy can be considered based on respiration-correlated computed tomography (4DCT. However, most treatment planning systems perform the dose calculation based on a single primary CT data set, even though cine mode displays may allow for a visualisation of the complete breathing cycle. This might create the mistaken impression that the dose distribution were independent of tumour motion. We present a movie visualisation technique with the aim to direct attention to the fact that the dose distribution migrates to some degree with the tumour and discuss consequences for gated treatment, IMRT plans and flattening-filter-free beams. This is a feasibility test for a visualisation of tumour and isodose motion. Ten respiratory phases are distinguished on the CT, and the dose distribution from a stationary IMRT plan is calculated on each phase, to be integrated into a movie of tumour and dose motion during breathing. For one example patient out of the sample of five lesions, the plan is compared with a gated treatment plan with respect to tumour coverage and lung sparing. The interplay-effect for small segments in the IMRT plan is estimated. While the high dose rate, together with the cone-shaped beam profile, makes the use of flattening-filter-free beams more problematic for conformal and IMRT treatment, it can be the option of choice if gated treatment is preferred. The different effects of respiratory motion, dose build-up and beam properties (segments and flatness for gated vs. un-gated treatment can best be considered if planning is performed on the full 4DCT data set, which may be an incentive for future developments of treatment planning systems.

  17. The use of virtual reality and intelligent database systems for procedure planning, visualisation, and real-time component tracking in remote handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organisation of remote handling (RH) operations in fusion environments is increasingly critical as the number of tasks, components and tooling that RH operations teams must deal with inexorably rises. During the recent JET EP1 RH shutdown the existing virtual reality (VR) and procedural database systems proved essential for visualisation and tracking of operations, particularly due to the increasing complexity of remote tasks. A new task planning system for RH operations is in development, and is expected to be ready for use during the next major shutdown, planned for 2009. The system will make use of information available from the remote operations procedures, the RH equipment human-machine interfaces, the on-line RH equipment control systems and also the virtual reality (VR) system to establish a complete database for the location of plant items and RH equipment as RH operations progress. It is intended that the system be used during both preparation and implementation of shutdowns. In the preparations phase the system can be used to validate procedures and overall logistics by allowing an operator to increment through each operation step and to use the VR system to visualise the location and status of all components, manipulators and RH tools. During task development the RH operations engineers can plan and visualise movement of components and tooling to examine handling concepts and establish storage requirements. In the implementation of operations the daily work schedules information will be integrated with the RH operations procedures tracking records to enable the VR system to provide a visual representation of the status of remote operations in real time. Monitoring of the usage history of items will allow estimates of radiation dosage and contaminant exposure to be made. This paper describes the overall aims, structure and use of the system, discusses its application to JET and also considers potential future developments.

  18. Non-invasive visualisation of the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and tumour regression after 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy using bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive imaging of tumour development remains a challenge, especially for tumours in the intraperitoneal cavity. Therefore, the aim of this study was the visualisation of both the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and tumour regression after radioimmunotherapy with tumour-specific 213Bi-Immunoconjugates, via in vivo bioluminescence imaging of firefly luciferase-transfected cells. Human diffuse-type gastric cancer cells expressing mutant d9-E-cadherin were stably transfected with firefly luciferase (HSC45-M2-luc). For bioluminescence imaging, nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 x 107 HSC45-M2-luc cells. On days 4 and 8 after tumour cell inoculation, imaging was performed following D-luciferin injection using a cooled CCD camera with an image intensifier unit. For therapy, mice were injected with 2.7 MBq 213Bi-d9MAb targeting d9-E-cadherin on day 8 after tumour cell inoculation. Bioluminescence images were taken every 4 days to monitor tumour development. After i.p. inoculation of HSC45-M2-luc cells into nude mice, development as well as localisation of peritoneal carcinomatosis could be visualised using bioluminescence imaging. Following 213Bi-d9MAb therapy on day 8 after intraperitoneal inoculation of HSC45-M2-luc cells, small tumour nodules were totally eliminated and larger nodules showed a clear reduction in size on day 12 after tumour cell inoculation. Subsequently a recurrence of tumour mass was observed, starting from the remaining tumour spots. By measuring the mean grey level intensity, tumour development over time could be demonstrated. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging permits visualisation of the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis, localisation of tumour in the intraperitoneal cavity and evaluation of therapeutic success after 213Bi-d9MAb treatment. (orig.)

  19. Constitution d'une base de données et visualisation 3D pour la recherche en archéologie et urbanisme à Samarcande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Coulais

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La visualisation du paysage urbain en 3 dimensions constitue un problème auquel la recherche informatique s’efforce d’apporter, depuis une quinzaine d’années, des solutions, certes de plus en plus performantes mais relativement parcellaires. Les technologies contribuant à l’émergence de nouveaux modes de représentation 3D progressent en effet rapidement, mais ces avancées sont issues de secteurs de recherche - SIG, télédétection, synthèse d’image - dont les objectifs diffèrent sensiblement de...

  20. Quantum Brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Skoulakis, E M C

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a novel model of memory and brain function, we focus our approach on the sub-molecular (electron), molecular (tubulin) and macromolecular (microtubule) components of the neural cytoskeleton. Due to their size and geometry, these systems may be approached using the principles of quantum physics. We identify quantum-physics derived mechanisms conceivably underlying the integrated yet differentiated aspects of memory encoding/recall as well as the molecular basis of the engram. We treat the tubulin molecule as the fundamental computation unit (qubit) in a quantum-computational network that consists of microtubules (MTs), networks of MTs and ultimately entire neurons and neural networks. We derive experimentally testable predictions of our quantum brain hypothesis and perform experiments on these.

  1. Brain connectivity and sensory stimulation in disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores brain connectivity and sensory stimulation in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). These are serious conditions where massive brain damage can lead to a dissociation between arousal and awareness (e.g., UWS and MCS). Part I explores brain connectivity. We highlight that brain function and structure are intimately related to each other, and to consciousness. The decrease in brain function can be used to distinguish between the clinically indicated states of ...

  2. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  3. Tomographic brain imaging with nucleolar detail and automatic cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Chicherova, Natalia; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2016-09-01

    Brain tissue evaluation is essential for gaining in-depth insight into its diseases and disorders. Imaging the human brain in three dimensions has always been a challenge on the cell level. In vivo methods lack spatial resolution, and optical microscopy has a limited penetration depth. Herein, we show that hard X-ray phase tomography can visualise a volume of up to 43 mm3 of human post mortem or biopsy brain samples, by demonstrating the method on the cerebellum. We automatically identified 5,000 Purkinje cells with an error of less than 5% at their layer and determined the local surface density to 165 cells per mm2 on average. Moreover, we highlight that three-dimensional data allows for the segmentation of sub-cellular structures, including dendritic tree and Purkinje cell nucleoli, without dedicated staining. The method suggests that automatic cell feature quantification of human tissues is feasible in phase tomograms obtained with isotropic resolution in a label-free manner.

  4. Tomographic brain imaging with nucleolar detail and automatic cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Chicherova, Natalia; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Brain tissue evaluation is essential for gaining in-depth insight into its diseases and disorders. Imaging the human brain in three dimensions has always been a challenge on the cell level. In vivo methods lack spatial resolution, and optical microscopy has a limited penetration depth. Herein, we show that hard X-ray phase tomography can visualise a volume of up to 43 mm(3) of human post mortem or biopsy brain samples, by demonstrating the method on the cerebellum. We automatically identified 5,000 Purkinje cells with an error of less than 5% at their layer and determined the local surface density to 165 cells per mm(2) on average. Moreover, we highlight that three-dimensional data allows for the segmentation of sub-cellular structures, including dendritic tree and Purkinje cell nucleoli, without dedicated staining. The method suggests that automatic cell feature quantification of human tissues is feasible in phase tomograms obtained with isotropic resolution in a label-free manner. PMID:27581254

  5. Visualisering av FRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Toftgård, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Resonance Accident Model is a method developed to analyze complex systems for the purpose of accident prevention. In FRAM-analysis a visualization of the complex system is created as an aid for identifying points of interaction in the system where the risk of accidents is high, and to determine where preventive measures are to be placed. FRAM Visualizer is a computer program developed as a tool for creating such visualizations. Many usability problems have been identified in FR...

  6. Development of luciferase tagged brain tumour models in mice for chemotherapy intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, E M; Leenders, W; Küsters, B; Lyons, S; Buckle, T; Heerschap, A; Boogerd, W; Beijnen, J H; van Tellingen, O

    2006-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered one of the major causes for the low efficacy of cytotoxic compounds against primary brain tumours. The aim of this study was to develop intracranial tumour models in mice featuring intact or locally disrupted BBB properties, which can be used in testing chemotherapy against brain tumours. These tumours were established by intracranial injection of suspensions of different tumour cell lines. All cell lines had been transfected with luciferase to allow non-invasive imaging of tumour development using a super-cooled CCD-camera. Following their implantation, tumours developed which displayed the infiltrative, invasive or expansive growth patterns that are also found in primary brain cancer or brain metastases. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed that the Mel57, K1735Br2 and RG-2 lesions grow without disruption of the BBB, whereas the BBB was leaky in the U87MG and VEGF-A-transfected Mel57 lesions. This was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Bioluminescence measurements allowed the visualisation of tumour burden already within 4 days after injection of the tumour cells. The applicability of our models for performing efficacy studies was demonstrated in an experiment using temozolomide as study drug. In conclusion, we have developed experimental brain tumour models with partly disrupted, or completely intact BBB properties. In vivo imaging by luciferase allows convenient follow-up of tumour growth and these models will be useful for chemotherapeutic intervention studies.

  7. QueryArch3D: Querying and Visualising 3D Models of a Maya Archaeological Site in a Web-Based Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Agugiaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Constant improvements in the field of surveying, computing and distribution of digital-content are reshaping the way Cultural Heritage can be digitised and virtually accessed, even remotely via web. A traditional 2D approach for data access, exploration, retrieval and exploration may generally suffice, however more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features require 3D tools, which, in some cases, have not yet been implemented or are not yet generally commercially available. Efficient organisation and integration strategies applicable to the wide array of heterogeneous data in the field of Cultural Heritage represent a hot research topic nowadays. This article presents a visualisation and query tool (QueryArch3D conceived to deal with multi-resolution 3D models. Geometric data are organised in successive levels of detail (LoD, provided with geometric and semantic hierarchies and enriched with attributes coming from external data sources. The visualisation and query front-end enables the 3D navigation of the models in a virtual environment, as well as the interaction with the objects by means of queries based on attributes or on geometries. The tool can be used as a standalone application, or served through the web. The characteristics of the research work, along with some implementation issues and the developed QueryArch3D tool will be discussed and presented.

  8. Comparative study of four immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines, hCMEC/D3, hBMEC, TY10, and BB19, and optimization of culture conditions, for an in vitro blood–brain barrier model for drug permeability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Eigenmann, Daniela E; Xue, Gongda; Kwang S Kim; Moses, Ashlee V.; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable human in vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) models suitable for high-throughput screening are urgently needed in early drug discovery and development for assessing the ability of promising bioactive compounds to overcome the BBB. To establish an improved human in vitro BBB model, we compared four currently available and well characterized immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines, hCMEC/D3, hBMEC, TY10, and BB19, with respect to barrier tightness and paracellu...

  9. D-BRAIN: Anatomically Accurate Simulated Diffusion MRI Brain Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how accurately these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume effect, and a limited spatial and angular resolution. The difficulty lies in the lack of a realistic brain phantom on the one hand, and a sufficiently accurate way of modeling the acquisition-related degradation on the other. This paper proposes a software phantom that approximates a human brain to a high degree of realism and that can incorporate complex brain-like structural features. We refer to it as a Diffusion BRAIN (D-BRAIN) phantom. Also, we propose an accurate model of a (DW) MRI acquisition protocol to allow for validation of methods in realistic conditions with data imperfections. The phantom model simulates anatomical and diffusion properties for multiple brain tissue components, and can serve as a ground-truth to evaluate FT algorithms, among others. The simulation of the acquisition process allows one to include noise, partial volume effects, and limited spatial and angular resolution in the images. In this way, the effect of image artifacts on, for instance, fiber tractography can be investigated with great detail. The proposed framework enables reliable and quantitative evaluation of DW-MR image processing and FT algorithms at the level of large-scale WM structures. The effect of noise levels and other data characteristics on cortico-cortical connectivity and tractography-based grey matter parcellation can be investigated as well. PMID:26930054

  10. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  12. Brain drain and factor complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice PIERETTI; Zou, Benteng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a neoclassical growth model that aggregates different types of labor skills from strict complementarity to perfect substitution. After having derived general balanced growth conditions and developed explicit growth paths for capital and aggregate labor force, the model serves to qualitatively study the effect of brain drain on income and wages of the source country.

  13. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel ...

  14. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  15. Effects of diabetes on brain metabolism - is brain glycogen a significant player?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle M; Waagepetersen, Helle S.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glycogen, being an intracellular glucose reservoir, contributes to maintain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Under conditions with a disturbance in systemic glucose metabolism such as in diabetes, the supply of glucose to the br......Brain glycogen, being an intracellular glucose reservoir, contributes to maintain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Under conditions with a disturbance in systemic glucose metabolism such as in diabetes, the supply of glucose...... to the brain may be affected and have important impacts on brain metabolism and neurotransmission. This also implies that brain glycogen may serve an essential role in the diabetic state to sustain appropriate brain function. There are two main types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2 diabetes and both types may...... be associated with brain impairments e.g. cognitive decline and dementia. It is however, not clear how these impairments on brain function are linked to alterations in brain energy and neurotransmitter metabolism. In this review, we will illuminate how rodent diabetes models have contributed to a better...

  16. The significance of diagnostic MRI for visualisation of trauma-induced cervical nerve root avulsion. Case report; Die Bedeutung der MRT-Diagnostik zur Darstellung traumatisch bedingter zervikaler Wurzelausrisse. Kasuistik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, C.P. [Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, Cottbus (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Biemelt, F. [Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, Cottbus (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Kamenz, M. [Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, Cottbus (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1996-11-01

    The article is intended to show the value of MRI for diagnostic visualisation and evaluation of posttraumatic nerve root avulsion as a brachial plexus injury. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Ziel der Arbeit besteht in der Darstellung des Wertes der MRT-Diagnostik bei der Abklaerung traumatischer Wurzelausrisse im Bereich des Plexus brachialis. (orig./MG)

  17. Atelier Fouille visuelle de données temporelles GT1 - Visualisation d'information, Interaction, et Fouille de données

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntz, Pascale; Prié, Yannick; Tabard, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Cet atelier organisé 'à IHM 2013 dans le cadre du groupe de travail (GT) VIF a pour objectif de réunir les chercheurs francophones intéressés par les problématiques liées à la visualisation d'informations, à la fouille visuelle de données et plus généralement aux approches visuelles et interactives pour la représentation et l'extraction d'informations et de connaissances. L'atelier porte sur la fouille visuelle de données temporelles. Les chercheurs invités présenteront leurs travaux en cours...

  18. The Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVO) local exemplar: A cloud based local landscape learning visualisation tool for communicating flood risk to catchment stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Beven, Keith; Brewer, Paul; El-khatib, Yehia; Gemmell, Alastair; Haygarth, Phil; Mackay, Ellie; Macklin, Mark; Marshall, Keith; Quinn, Paul; Stutter, Marc; Thomas, Nicola; Vitolo, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Today's world is dominated by a wide range of informatics tools that are readily available to a wide range of stakeholders. There is growing recognition that the appropriate involvement of local communities in land and water management decisions can result in multiple environmental, economic and social benefits. Therefore, local stakeholder groups are increasingly being asked to participate in decision making alongside policy makers, government agencies and scientists. As such, addressing flooding issues requires new ways of engaging with the catchment and its inhabitants at a local level. To support this, new tools and approaches are required. The growth of cloud based technologies offers new novel ways to facilitate this process of exchange of information in earth sciences. The Environmental Virtual Observatory Pilot project (EVOp) is a new initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for new tools and approaches to support the challenges as outlined above (http://www.evo-uk.org/). The long term vision of the Environmental Virtual Observatory is to: • Make environmental data more visible and accessible to a wide range of potential users including public good applications; • Provide tools to facilitate the integrated analysis of data, greater access to added knowledge and expert analysis and visualisation of the results; • Develop new, added-value knowledge from public and private sector data assets to help tackle environmental challenges. As part of the EVO pilot, an interactive cloud based tool has been developed with local stakeholders. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tool attempts to communicate flood risk in local impacted communities. The tool has been developed iteratively to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. This tool (assessable via a web portal) combines numerous cloud based tools and services, local catchment datasets, hydrological models and

  19. A novel alternative method for 3D visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a 3D model of a parasite from 2D illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723

  20. Visualisation de mesures agrégées pour l'estimation de la qualité des articles Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Fanny; Huot, Stéphane; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia, devenue l'une des bases de connaissances les plus populaires, pose le problème de la fiabilité de l'information qu'elle dissémine. Nous proposons WikipediaViz, un ensemble de visualisations basé sur un mecanisme de collecte et d'agrégation de données d'édition Wikipedia pour aider le lecteur à appréhender la maturité d'un article. Nous listons cinq métriques importantes, déterminées lors de sessions de conception participative avec des experts Wikipedia pour juger de la qualité, qu...

  1. Visualisation of sentinel lymph node with indium-based near infrared emitting Quantum Dots in a murine metastatic breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Helle

    Full Text Available Due to its non-invasiveness, high temporal resolution and lower cost, fluorescence imaging is an interesting alternative to the current method (blue dye and radiocolloid of sentinel lymph node (SLN mapping in breast cancer. Near-infrared (NIR emitting cadmium-based Quantum Dots (QDs could be used for this purpose; however, their wide application is limited because of the toxicity of heavy metals composing the core. Our recent work demonstrated that indium-based QDs exhibit a weak acute local toxicity in vivo compared to their cadmium-based counterparts. In the present study we confirmed the weak toxicity of CuInS(2/ZnS QDs in different in vitro models. Further in vivo studies in healthy mice showed that In-based QDs could be visualised in SLN in a few minutes after administration with a progressive increase in fluorescence until 8 h. The quantity of indium was assessed in selected organs and tissues by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS as a function of post-injection time. QD levels decrease rapidly at the injection point in the first hours after administration with a parallel increase in the lymph nodes and to a lesser extent in the liver and spleen. In addition, we observed that 3.5% of the injected indium dose was excreted in faeces in the first 4 days, with only trace quantities in the urine. Metastatic spread to the lymph nodes may hamper its visualisation. Therefore, we further performed non-invasive fluorescence measurement of QDs in SLN in tumour-bearing mice. Metastatic status was assessed by immunohistology and molecular techniques and revealed the utmost metastatic invasion of 36% of SLN. Fluorescence signal was the same irrespective of SLN status. Thus, near-infrared emitting cadmium-free QDs could be an excellent SLN tracer.

  2. 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and trench logging using terrestrial remote sensing and GPR – combining techniques towards an objective multiparametric interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schneiderwind

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two normal faults on the Island of Crete and mainland Greece were studied to create and test an innovative workflow to make palaeoseismic trench logging more objective, and visualise the sedimentary architecture within the trench wall in 3-D. This is achieved by combining classical palaeoseismic trenching techniques with multispectral approaches. A conventional trench log was firstly compared to results of iso cluster analysis of a true colour photomosaic representing the spectrum of visible light. Passive data collection disadvantages (e.g. illumination were addressed by complementing the dataset with active near-infrared backscatter signal image from t-LiDAR measurements. The multispectral analysis shows that distinct layers can be identified and it compares well with the conventional trench log. According to this, a distinction of adjacent stratigraphic units was enabled by their particular multispectral composition signature. Based on the trench log, a 3-D-interpretation of GPR data collected on the vertical trench wall was then possible. This is highly beneficial for measuring representative layer thicknesses, displacements and geometries at depth within the trench wall. Thus, misinterpretation due to cutting effects is minimised. Sedimentary feature geometries related to earthquake magnitude can be used to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard assessments. Therefore, this manuscript combines multiparametric approaches and shows: (i how a 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and logging can be accomplished by combining t-LiDAR and GRP techniques, and (ii how a multispectral digital analysis can offer additional advantages and a higher objectivity in the interpretation of palaeoseismic and stratigraphic information. The multispectral datasets are stored allowing unbiased input for future (re-investigations.

  3. Correlation of brain cell glucose metabolism and patient's condition in children with epileptic encephalopathy An assessment using fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiongxiang Zhai; Yuxiong Guo; Yuxin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jian Ding; Juan Gui; Ying Hao

    2011-01-01

    We examined a total of 16 children with epileptic encephalopathy using fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography.Children with infantile spasms showed significant mental retardation, severely abnormal electroencephalogram recordings, and bilateral diffuse cerebral cortex hypometabolism with 18F-FDG PET imaging.MRI in these cases showed brain atrophy, multi-micropolygyria, macrogyria, and porencephalia.In cases with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 18F-FDG PET showed bilateral diffuse glucose hypometabolism, while MRI showed cortical atrophy, heterotopic gray matter and tuberous sclerosis.MRI in cases with myoclonic encephalopathy demonstrated bilateral frontal and temporal cortical and white matter atrophy and 18F-FDG PET imaging showed bilateral frontal lobe atrophy with reduced bilateral frontal cortex, occipital cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellar glucose uptake.In children who could not be clearly classified, MRI demonstrated cerebral cortical atrophy and 18F-FDG PET exhibited multifocal glucose hypometabolism.Overall, this study demonstrated that the degree of brain metabolic abnormality was consistent with clinical seizure severity.In addition, 18F-FDG PET imaging after treatment was consistent with clinical outcomes.These findings indicate that 18F-FDG PET can be used to assess the severity of brain injury and prognosis in children with epileptic encephalopathy.

  4. Applications of fMRI for Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Daimiwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-mapping techniques have proven to be vital in understanding the molecular, cellular, and functional mechanisms of the brain. Normal anatomical imaging can provide structural information on certain abnormalities in the brain. However there are many neurological disorders for which only structure studies are not sufficient. In such cases it is required to investigate the functional organization of the brain. Further it is necessary to study the brain functions under normal as well as diseased conditions. Brain mapping techniques can help in deriving useful and important information on these issues. Brain functions and brain area responsible for the particular activities like motor, sensory speech and memory process could be investigated. The authors provide an overview of various Brain Mapping techniques and fMRI signal processing methods.

  5. Nocardial brain abscess in a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Kiana; Poulsen, Asger Nyborg; Hakamifard, Atousa

    2015-01-01

    Brain abscesses caused by Nocardia are rare but have a very high mortality and specific requirements of antibiotic treatment. Nocardial brain abscesses are mainly found in patients with predisposing conditions such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disease associated with chronic exposure to silica dust. We present a case of multiple nocardial brain abscesses in a man with PAP probably due to long-term occupational exposure to silica dust. Conclusively, in patients presenting brain a...

  6. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  7. Brain Drain Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Borta, Oxana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the widely acknowledged so-called brain drain controversy. More concretely on developments in the traditional brain drain literature towards a new shift, claiming the brain gain effect, as an alternative to the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. The research investigates not only the obvious direct loss effects – the so called brain drain – but also the possibility of more subtle indirect beneficial effects.

  8. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S;

    2010-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre)). A severe impairment...... by BDNF depletion. 5-HT(2A) ([(3)H]-MDL100907) and 5-HT(1A) ([(3)H]-WAY100635) receptor autoradiography revealed site-specific alterations in BDNF mutant mice. They exhibited lower 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in frontal cortex but increased binding in hippocampus. Additionally, 5-HT(1A) receptor binding...... was decreased in hippocampus of BDNF mutants, but unchanged in frontal cortex. Molecular analysis indicated corresponding changes in 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) mRNA expression but normal 5-HT(2C) content in these brain regions in BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre) mice. We investigated whether the reduction in frontal 5-HT(2A...

  9. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  10. 小鼠短跑缺氧状态下脑部含氧量下降趋势分析%Analysis of Mice Brain Oxygen Levels Decline Under a Lack of Oxygen Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁本坛

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyse tate of brain oxygen levels decline under mice sprint training. Methods:Choose healthy kunming mice, divided into 1 hou ,2 hours, 3 hours sprint training group (18), each group included in the control group, a lack of oxygen and oxygen to four group three groups, each group 6 mice, male and female half, each big groups of mice, the Griess method detection means, in different sprint training group mice, in hypoxia state changes of the cerebral oxygen, are analyzed in the experiment. Results:With the increase of physical activity in mice, the mice body weight, decrease of 3 hours training group mice body weight was significantly less than 1 hour training, 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours of sprint training small white mouse tissue oxygenation of the midbrain as sprint motion of oxygen level enhancement, and the average and 3 hours for sprint training group mice brain oxygen levels below the average of 2 hours training mice brain oxygen, far below the average of 1 hour training mice brain oxygen. Conclusion:In this paper, the experiment result shows that the brain oxygen levels in the process of sprint movement in mice with the degree of movement of oxygen, increase the number of times is reduced, and the sprint exercise intensity, the greater the little mouse higher oxygen levels decline.%目的:分析短跑缺氧状态下脑部含氧量下降趋势。方法:选用健康昆明小鼠,分为1h、2h、3h短跑训练组(各18只),每组包括对照组、1次缺氧组和4次缺氧组3小组,每小组6只小鼠,雌雄各半,每大组18只小鼠,采用Griess法检测手段,对不同短跑训练组小鼠,在缺氧状态脑含氧量的变化情况,进行了实验分析。结果:随着小鼠运动量的增加,小鼠体重不断降低,3h训练组小鼠体重显著低于1h训练组,1h、2h以及3h短跑训练组小白鼠脑组织中脑含氧量随着短跑运动缺氧程度的增强而降低,并且3h短跑训练组

  11. The Brain Never Stops

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Your brain is doing a lot of work when you are engaged in activities such as sports, playing a game, or watching a movie. Your brain is also a master of associating one thought with another and making your mind wander. But what does your brain do when you are not engaged in particular thoughts or actions? Interestingly, similar to the heart that always keeps beating, the brain never stops its activity. For example, your brain is highly active even when you are fast asleep. In fact, brain cell...

  12. The stomach-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    required instead of widely utilised opportunistic stool microbiome studies. In summary, it is now well established that there are important links between the brain and the stomach that have significant effects on gastric function. However, the stomach also influences the brain. Disturbances in the crosstalk between the stomach and the brain may manifest as functional GI disorders while disturbances in the stomach-brain communication may also result in an altered regulation of satiety and as a consequence may affect eating behaviour and mood. These observations may enable the identification of novel therapies targeted at the gastroduodenum that positively alter brain function and treat or prevent conditions such as obesity or functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and blood-brain barrier: Versatile breakers and makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Ralf G; Hartz, Anika Ms; Bauer, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are versatile endopeptidases with many different functions in the body in health and disease. In the brain, matrix metalloproteinases are critical for tissue formation, neuronal network remodeling, and blood-brain barrier integrity. Many reviews have been published on matrix metalloproteinases before, most of which focus on the two best studied matrix metalloproteinases, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their role in one or two diseases. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the role various matrix metalloproteinases play in brain disorders. We summarize and review current knowledge and understanding of matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammation, multiple sclerosis, cerebral aneurysms, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer. We discuss the detrimental effects matrix metalloproteinases can have in these conditions, contributing to blood-brain barrier leakage, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, demyelination, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. We also discuss the beneficial role matrix metalloproteinases can play in neuroprotection and anti-inflammation. Finally, we address matrix metalloproteinases as potential therapeutic targets. Together, in this comprehensive review, we summarize current understanding and knowledge of matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier in brain disorders.

  14. Simulation of hydrocephalus condition in infant head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Erna; Arif, Idam

    2014-03-01

    Hydrocephalus is a condition of an excessive of cerebrospinal fluid in brain. In this paper, we try to simulate the behavior of hydrocephalus conditions in infant head by using a hydro-elastic model which is combined with orthotropic elastic skull and with the addition of suture that divide the skull into two lobes. The model then gives predictions for the case of stenosis aqueduct by varying the cerebral aqueduct diameter, time constant and brain elastic modulus. The hydrocephalus condition which is shown by the significant value of ventricle displacement, as the result shows, is occurred when the aqueduct is as resistant as brain parenchyma for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. The decrement of brain elastic modulus causes brain parenchyma displacement value approach ventricle displacement value. The smaller of time constant value causes the smaller value of ventricle displacement.

  15. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  16. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional brain-derived neurotrophic factor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, A B; Santini, M A; Aznar, S;

    2010-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF(2L/2LCk-cre)). A severe impairment...... specific for the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) in prefrontal cortex was described previously in these mice. This is of much interest, as 5-HT(2A)Rs have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders and anxiety-related behavior. Here we further characterized the serotonin receptor alterations triggered...... by BDNF depletion. 5-HT(2A) ([(3)H]-MDL100907) and 5-HT(1A) ([(3)H]-WAY100635) receptor autoradiography revealed site-specific alterations in BDNF mutant mice. They exhibited lower 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in frontal cortex but increased binding in hippocampus. Additionally, 5-HT(1A) receptor binding...

  17. 农业信息搜索可视化平台研究%RESEARCH ON VISUALISED PLATFORM OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION SEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恬; 李书琴; 王志伟

    2016-01-01

    针对传统搜索引擎检索返回结果数量庞大、专业性差且只能为用户提供一维、线性搜索结果的问题,在分析研究农业垂直搜索引擎的基础上,构建农业信息搜索可视化服务平台。基于农业文献,对数据进行信息抽取、关联分析,并设计了一种基于最大距离法选取初始质心的 K-means 层次聚类算法来发现领域概念间关系;在此基础上,利用信息可视化模型与基于 Java 的 Prefuse 插件包为用户提供图形化的结果呈现方式,实现信息的交互控制,优化检索过程。通过实验验证,改进的层次聚类算法提高了领域概念间关系聚类效果的同时降低了聚类总耗时,平台满足用户检索的专业性需求。%Aiming at the problem of traditional search engines that they return a large number of retrieving results,be poor in professional capability and can only provide users with one-dimensional and linear search results,based on analysing and studying vertical agricultural search engines,we constructed the visualised service platform for agricultural information search.On the basis of agriculture literatures,we carried out the information extraction and association analysis on data,and designed a k-means hierarchical clustering algorithm,which is based on selecting initial centroid with maximum distance method,to discover the relationship between domain concepts.Based on this,we used the model of information visualisation and the Java-based Prefuse plugins pack to provide for users a graphical representation means for results,thus realised the interactive control of information,and optimised the retrieval process as well.It is verified through experiment that the improved hierarchical clustering algorithm in this paper improves the effect of correlation clustering between domain concepts and meanwhile reduces total clustering time consumption.The platform can meet the professional demand of users retrieval.

  18. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  19. Information processing in miniature brains

    OpenAIRE

    Chittka, L.; Skorupski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinning...

  20. Functional brain mapping of psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, G.; Fletcher, P.; BULLMORE, E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provi...