WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain visualisation conditions

  1. Visualising Deteriorating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews, RN, B.Sc. (Hons, M.Sc., Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims were to investigate the difficulties ward staff experienced in detecting deterioration and how these were resolved. The emphasis within the literature tends to be on identifying premonitory signs that may be useful in predicting deterioration. Changes in respiratory rate is the most consistent of these (Fieselmann et al. 1993; Sax and Charlson 1987; Schein et al. 1990; Smith and Wood 1998 but in common with other signs, it lacks sensitivity and specificity. The sample consisted of 44 nurses, doctors (Interns and health care support workers from a general medical and surgical ward. Data were collected by means of nonparticipant observations and interviews, using grounded theory as originated by (Glaser and Strauss 1967 and (Glaser 1978. As data were collected, the constant comparative method and theoretical sensitivity were used as outlined in grounded theory. A core category of “visualising deteriorating conditions” emerged, together with its sub-core categories of “intuitive knowing”, “baselining” and “grabbing attention”.The main concern in visualising deteriorating conditions is to ensure that patients suspected of deterioration are successfully referred to medical staff. The aim is to convince those who can treat or prevent further deterioration to intervene. Through intuitive knowing they pick up that patients have changed in a way that requires a medical assessment. To make the referral more credible, nurses attempt to contextualise any changes in patients by baselining (establishing baselines. Finally with the backup of colleagues, nurses refer patients by providing as much persuasive information as possible in a way that grabs attention. The whole process is facilitated by knowledge and experience, together with mutual trust and respect.

  2. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Roger

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradigraphy) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomograpy (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as d...

  3. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give.

  4. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with (99m)Tc- and (123)I-labelled probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Meyer-Kirchrath, J; Hohlfeld, T; Vollmar, S; Oros-Peusquens, A M; Flögel, U; Jacoby, C; Krügel, U; Schramm, N

    2009-09-01

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of (123)I- and (99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D(2) receptor ligand [(123)I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [(99m)Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [(123)I]IPPA (0.94 +/- 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [(99m)Tc]sestamibi (3.8 +/- 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP(3) receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [(123)I]IBZM and of cardiac [(99m)Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [(123)I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [(99m)Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [(123)I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of (123)I- and (99m)Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers.

  5. Targeting murine heart and brain: visualisation conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 123}I-labelled probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissarek, M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Nuclear Chemistry (INB-4), Juelich (Germany); Meyer-Kirchrath, J.; Hohlfeld, T. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Vollmar, S. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, A.M. [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics-Medicine (INB-3), Juelich (Germany); Floegel, U.; Jacoby, C. [Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Heart and Circulation Physiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kruegel, U. [University of Leipzig, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schramm, N. [Research Centre Juelich, Central Institute for Electronics, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The study serves to optimise conditions for multi-pinhole SPECT small animal imaging of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals with different distributions in murine heart and brain and to investigate detection and dose range thresholds for verification of differences in tracer uptake. A Triad 88/Trionix system with three 6-pinhole collimators was used for investigation of dose requirements for imaging of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor ligand [{sup 123}I]IBZM and the cerebral perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO (1.2-0.4 MBq/g body weight) in healthy mice. The fatty acid [{sup 123}I]IPPA (0.94 {+-} 0.05 MBq/g body weight) and the perfusion tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi (3.8 {+-} 0.45 MBq/g body weight) were applied to cardiomyopathic mice overexpressing the prostaglandin EP{sub 3} receptor. In vivo imaging and in vitro data revealed 45 kBq total cerebral uptake and 201 kBq cardiac uptake as thresholds for visualisation of striatal [{sup 123}I]IBZM and of cardiac [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi using 100 and 150 s acquisition time, respectively. Alterations of maximal cerebral uptake of [{sup 123}I]IBZM by >20% (116 kBq) were verified with the prerequisite of 50% striatal of total uptake. The labelling with [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi revealed a 30% lower uptake in cardiomyopathic hearts compared to wild types. [{sup 123}I]IPPA uptake could be visualised at activity doses of 0.8 MBq/g body weight. Multi-pinhole SPECT enables detection of alterations of the cerebral uptake of {sup 123}I- and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled tracers in an appropriate dose range in murine models targeting physiological processes in brain and heart. The thresholds of detection for differences in the tracer uptake determined under the conditions of our experiments well reflect distinctions in molar activity and uptake characteristics of the tracers. (orig.)

  6. brain-coX: investigating and visualising gene co-expression in seven human brain transcriptomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Saskia; Burgess, Rosemary; Oliver, Karen L; Bahlo, Melanie

    2017-06-08

    The pathogenesis of neurological and mental health disorders often involves multiple genes, complex interactions, as well as brain- and development-specific biological mechanisms. These characteristics make identification of disease genes for such disorders challenging, as conventional prioritisation tools are not specifically tailored to deal with the complexity of the human brain. Thus, we developed a novel web-application-brain-coX-that offers gene prioritisation with accompanying visualisations based on seven gene expression datasets in the post-mortem human brain, the largest such resource ever assembled. We tested whether our tool can correctly prioritise known genes from 37 brain-specific KEGG pathways and 17 psychiatric conditions. We achieved average sensitivity of nearly 50%, at the same time reaching a specificity of approximately 75%. We also compared brain-coX's performance to that of its main competitors, Endeavour and ToppGene, focusing on the ability to discover novel associations. Using a subset of the curated SFARI autism gene collection we show that brain-coX's prioritisations are most similar to SFARI's own curated gene classifications. brain-coX is the first prioritisation and visualisation web-tool targeted to the human brain and can be freely accessed via http://shiny.bioinf.wehi.edu.au/freytag.s/ .

  7. Visualisation of the zona incerta for deep brain stimulation at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerl, H U; Gerigk, L; Huck, S; Al-Zghloul, M; Groden, C; Nölte, I S

    2012-03-01

    Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the zona incerta (ZI) has shown promising results for medication-refractory neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). The success of the intervention is indispensably dependent on the reliable visualisation of the ZI. The aim of the study was to evaluate different promising new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at 3.0 Tesla for pre-stereotactic visualisation of the ZI using a standard installation the protocol. MRI of nine healthy volunteers was acquired (T1-MPRAGE, T2-FLAIR, T2*-FLASH2D, T2-SPACE and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Image quality and visualisation of the ZI for each sequence were analysed independently by two neuroradiologists using a 6-point scale. For T2*-FLASH2D the axial, coronal and sagittal planes were compared. The delineation of the ZI versus the internal capsule, the subthalamic nucleus and the pallidofugal fibres was evaluated in all sequences and compared to T2-FLAIR using a paired t-test. Inter-rater reliability, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the ZI were computed. For illustration, coronal T2*-FLASH2D images were co-registered with the corresponding section schema of the Schaltenbrand-Wahren stereotactic atlas. Only the rostral part of the ZI (rZI) could be identified. The rZI was best and reliably visualised in T2*-FLASH2D (particularly coronal orientation; p FLASH imaging offered significant higher CNR values for the rZI compared to T2-FLAIR imaging using standard parameters. The co-registration of the coronal T2*-FLASH2D images projected the ZI clearly into the boundaries of the anatomical sections. The delineation of the rZI is best possible in T2*-FLASH2D (particularly coronal view) using a standard installation protocol at 3.0 T. The caudal ZI could not be discerned in any of the sequences.

  8. Visualising leukocyte trafficking in the living brain with 2-photon intravital microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saparna ePai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravital imaging of the superficial brain tissue in mice represents a powerful tool for the dissection of the cellular and molecular cues underlying inflammatory and infectious central nervous system diseases. We present here a step-by-step protocol that will enable a non-specialist to set up a two-photon brain-imaging model. The protocol offers a two-part approach that is specifically optimised for imaging leukocytes but can be easily adapted to answer varied CNS-related biological questions. The protocol enables simultaneous visualization of fluorescently labelled immune cells, the pial microvasculature and extracellular structures such as collagen fibres at high spatial and temporal resolution. Intracranial structures are exposed through a cranial window, and physiologic conditions are maintained during extended imaging sessions via continuous superfusion of the brain surface with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Experiments typically require 1-2 hours of preparation, which is followed by variable periods of immune cell tracking. Our methodology converges the experience of two laboratories over the past 10 years in diseased animal models such as cerebral ischemia, lupus, cerebral malaria and toxoplasmosis. We exemplify the utility of this protocol by tracking leukocytes in transgenic mice in the pial vessels under steady-state conditions.

  9. Dynamic simulation and visualisation of fermentation: Effect of process conditions on beer quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Alistair; Gerogiorgis, DI

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is the central, most important unit operation in alcoholic beverage manufacturing and has already been studied by means of first-principles dynamic models which explicitly consider  temperature effects and employ parameterisations obtained using industrial beer brewing campaign data. Nevertheless, the precise effect of initial conditions on beer quality and flavour has not been documented. Multi-objective optimization encompasses ethyl alcohol maximization and batch duration mini...

  10. Human creativity in the data visualisation pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Featherstone, Coral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available to generating effective visualisations. Specific criteria were used to further refine the results thereby refining what results were included. These inclusion and exclusion criteria are listed in Table 1. Several visualisation tools are built on formal grammars... – such as the Law of Similarity, Law of Closure and the Law of Proximity – emerged from studies of how our brains form a global sense of pattern. Critical to this understanding is the fact that our visual per- ception is faster and more efficient than our cognit...

  11. Streamlets for visualisation and data exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liptrot, Matthew George

    is to find connections between regions of the brain by integrating voxelwise information across a tensor field. However, simple quantification of propagation success, such as counting the number of streamlines between two end regions, are often combined with visualisation of all the streamlines to assess......, which represents only a sample pathway through a tensor field, with a single in vivo brain fibre can be problematic. The recently proposed Streamlets method {Liptrot, 2015} addresses the latter issue, but here we also demonstrate how it can also benefit data visualisation and thereby also data...... of the streamlets was then done in MRtrix. Results The figures show the streamlets in a coronal slice through the mid-brain. The total number of streamlets was reduced by filtering, and by removing any that did not pass through the chosen slice. Results are colour coded either by direction, following the standard...

  12. Visualisation of the medial longitudinal fasciculus using fibre tractography in multiple sclerosis patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, J P; Lonergan, R; Bannigan, J; O'Laoide, R; Rainford, L A; Tubridy, N

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of fibre tractography to facilitate visualisation of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and the impact of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) causing lesions on these reconstructions of the tract. Improved visualisation of such tracts may improve knowledge, understanding and confidence related to neurological conditions. To explore the use of fibre tractography for the visualisation of the MLF in patients with INO. Twelve MS subjects with clinical evidence of INO and 12 matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), of the brain. Fibre tractography reconstructions were then evaluated and validated by an experienced neuroanatomist. The evaluating neuroanatomist confirmed that the MLF had been reproduced in all of the reconstructed cases (fibre tractography was unsuccessful in five cases). The sensitivity of fibre tractography to MLF pathology was 58.3 % while the specificity was much higher at 85.7 % with a positive predictive value of 87.5 % and a negative predictive value of 54.6 %, with excellent intra-reader reliability. This study demonstrates that fibre tractography of the MLF can potentially be performed with a view to facilitating improved visualisation of the tract and associated pathology in cases of INO. This may help explain the association between lesion type and location with clinical symptomatology and may assist in monitoring disease progression. These reconstructions may provide a valuable addition to the teaching and understanding of clinical signs related to subtle pathology.

  13. Visualising detection and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A.; Aina, T.; Ingram, W.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in detection and attribution is communicating results -- specifically, allowing non-specialists to visualise the strength of the evidence for external influences on climate, rather than simply presenting the outcomes of opaque statistical tests. At the heart of the problem is the fact that climate is subject to multiple competing influences, with responses that are often mutually correlated. Attribution is therefore an intrinsically multi-dimensional problem. We demonstrate how the attribution problem can be visualised as an animated, interactive, 3D graphic. Here, we present the attribution of global mean temperature change over the past century to anthropogenic and natural factors (as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble) as an example. We show how this simple example can be used to address a number of key challenges in the communication of attribution results, including that: 1) Models appear, on average, to over-respond to volcanic forcing while still being consistent with observed anthropogenic change 2) The combination of anthropogenic and natural changes simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble provides an account of changes in global mean temperature over the past 150 years consistent with observations; 3) The much-discussed discrepancy between the CMIP5 ensemble and observed changes over the past decade can be attributed to the models' over-response to volcanoes and that once this is corrected, observed temperatures are consistent with the multi-model mean and expected internal variability over this period 4) There is no evidence for missing multi-decadal variability in global mean temperatures once the responses to external forcing have been accounted for. A key novel element in this presentation of attribution results is a smart-phone application to allow members of the public to download, visualise and interact with attribution results: we will demonstrate this concept and invite feedback from the audience.

  14. Non-visualisation of cavum septi pellucidi: implication in prenatal diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, K; Luo, J; Borhani, A; Hill, L

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript reviews congenital anomalies and imaging findings associated with non-visualisation of the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) found on prenatal sonogram. Observation of a normal cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) is an important landmark in the second and third trimester prenatal ultrasound evaluation of the fetal brain, and its visualisation provides reassurance of normal central forebrain development. Non-visualisation of the CSP is a prenatal sonographic finding, which in most cases is associated with neuroanatomical anomalies that include agenesis of the corpus callosum, schizencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia, holoprosencephaly, chronic hydrocephalus and acquired fetal brain injury. Isolated septal deficiency, a rare but controversial entity, is considered a variant of normal. Common pitfalls in the sonographic evaluation of CSP include columns of the fornix that mimic CSP, and prominent cavum vergae that can simulate non-visualisation of the CSP. When non-visualisation of the CSP is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetal brain can confirm and evaluate associated anomalies. Visualisation of the CSP is an integral component of the prenatal ultrasound and its non-visualisation is associated with other malformations, diagnosis of which is aided by MRI. • Cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) is an important landmark in the prenatal ultrasound evaluation of the fetal brain, and is a marker for normal central forebrain development. • Non-visualisation of the CSP is most commonly associated with other neuroanatomical abnormalities. • Examination of the fetal brain by MRI can confirm the sonographic findings and evaluate for associated anomalies.

  15. Using Visualisation to Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Learning to use visualisation techniques in the classroom enables pupils and teachers to gain new insights into how concepts are formed and how to strengthen them, but visualisation is sometimes not what it seems. Learning by constructing meaning is a long-standing principle underpinning much of today's school science. In "Primary Science…

  16. CMS Tracker Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    To provide improvements in the performance of existing tracker data visualization tools in IGUANA, a 2D visualisation software has been developed, using the object oriented paradigm and software engineering techniques. We have designed 2D graphics objects and some of them have been implemented. The access to the new objects is made in ORCA plugin of IGUANA CMS. A new tracker object oriented model has been designed for developing these 2D graphics objects. The model consists of new classes which represent all its components (layers, modules, rings, petals, rods).The new classes are described here. The last part of this document contains a user manual of the software and will be updated with new releases.

  17. Visualisation in Applied Learning Contexts: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twissell, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This literature review explores visualisation within the context of learning in design, engineering and technology education. The investigation first defines visualisation, providing examples of activities that utilise visualisation skills within an applied field. Then exploration of the mental mechanisms of visualisation used to engage with those…

  18. Aquaporins in Brain Edema and Neuropathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis S. Filippidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquaporin (AQP family of water channels are a group of small, membrane-spanning proteins that are vital for the rapid transport of water across the plasma membrane. These proteins are widely expressed, from tissues such as the renal epithelium and erythrocytes to the various cells of the central nervous system. This review will elucidate the basic structure and distribution of aquaporins and discuss the role of aquaporins in various neuropathologies. AQP1 and AQP4, the two primary aquaporin molecules of the central nervous system, regulate brain water and CSF movement and contribute to cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, where they control the size of the intracellular and extracellular fluid volumes, respectively. AQP4 expression is vital to the cellular migration and angiogenesis at the heart of tumor growth; AQP4 is central to dysfunctions in glutamate metabolism, synaptogenesis, and memory consolidation; and AQP1 and AQP4 adaptations have been seen in obstructive and non-obstructive hydrocephalus and may be therapeutic targets.

  19. One decade of functional imaging in schizophrenia research. From visualisation of basic information processing steps to molecular brain imaging; Zehn Jahre funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie in der Schizophrenieforschung. Von der Abbildung einfacher Informationsverarbeitungsprozesse zur molekulargenetisch orientierten Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, H. [Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, NMR-Forschung in der Psychiatrie (Germany); Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, NMR-Forschung in der Psychiatrie, Mannheim (Germany); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. [Genes, Neuroimaging Core Facility and Unit on Integrative Neuroimaging, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health (United States); Ruf, M.; Demirakca, T.; Grimm, O.; Henn, F.A.; Ende, G. [Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, NMR-Forschung in der Psychiatrie (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have contributed tremendously to our current understanding of psychiatric disorders in the context of functional, biochemical and microstructural alterations of the brain. Since the mid-nineties, functional MRI has provided major insights into the neurobiological correlates of signs and symptoms in schizophrenia. The current paper reviews important fMRI studies of the past decade in the domains of motor, visual, auditory, attentional and working memory function. Special emphasis is given to new methodological approaches, such as the visualisation of medication effects and the functional characterisation of risk genes. (orig.) [German] Bildgebende Verfahren wie die Magnetresonanz- und Positronenemissionstomographie haben entscheidend dazu beigetragen, dass psychiatrische Erkrankungen heutzutage im Kontext funktioneller, biochemischer und feinstruktureller Veraenderungen des Gehirns verstanden werden. Im Bereich der Schizophrenieforschung gibt insbesondere die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie seit Mitte der 90er-Jahre wichtige Einblicke in die neurobiologischen Grundlagen schizophrener Defizitbereiche. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt die wichtigsten fMRT-Befunde der letzten Dekade in den Bereichen Psychomotorik, visuelle bzw. akustische Informationsverarbeitung, Aufmerksamkeit und Arbeitsgedaechtnis vor. Die Betrachtung erfolgt dabei unter der besonderen Beruecksichtigung aktueller methodischer Ansaetze wie der Darstellung von Therapieeffekten und der funktionellen Charakterisierung psychiatrischer Risikogene. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of Brain Creatine Levels Under the Mental Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Burjanadze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in brain creatine levels are considered to be associated with various pathological conditions. However, there is still no exact evidence on character of this changes and clear link between disorders and upstream and downstream direction of creatine changes. Chronic mental stress conditions are thought to be connected with upstream regulation of cellular oxidative pathways, thus oxidizing various structural and active compounds. Oxidative stress also takes part in increase of permeability of blood brain barrier (BBB that, in turn, makes it possible for a number of molecules to cross the BBB in both directions. Observations on long-term social isolation and circadian rhythm violation show a rising trend in brain creatine amount, while there was remarkable down-regulation in creatine synthesizing system, as the key-enzymes’ (AGAT and GAMT activity was decreased. Investigations of BBB permeability for creatine under the stress conditions by mass-spectrometric analyses revealed no changes in creatine transport in the stress group, compared to the control. However, the activity of mitochondrial CK was reduced for about 25% and Vmax had fallen down in the stressed group, the Km was not drastically changed. To sum up, it could be supposed that the reason for the elevations of creatine levels in brain under the mental stress conditions could be stimulated by the activated oxidative stress that induces conformational changes in mitochondrial Creatine Kinase structure and decreasing the ability of enzyme to phosphorylate the creatine and as a result free creatine levels in brain are being arisen.

  1. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-08-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs’) has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs’, 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs’ obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs’ was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3- at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3- at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs’. Brain μs’ depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth.

  2. Visualisations and Calculations of Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Tryggestad, Kjell; Holm Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is a complex relationship between the use of visualisations, and the production of both designs and physical spaces. In the case of hospitals, technical, aesthetic and practice-based requirements are incorporated into negotiations around facilities, layout and operation, and a plethora...... of stakeholders are engaged in the process. This paper describes a case of the ‘on-boarding’ phase in the design of a new hospital in North Zealand, Denmark. It describes the use of various visualisations in the engagement of actors concerned with managing the budget and delivering the building programme as well...... as the eventual users of the hospital. It reveals how visualisations are mobilised to form different and overlapping types of spaces. These are described as economic spaces, concerned with maintaining the economic budget frame, when the client organization is communicating the project and the design to healthcare...

  3. Graph Creation, Visualisation and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a tool to create, edit, visualise and compute with interaction nets - a form of graph rewriting systems. The editor, called GraphPaper, allows users to create and edit graphs and their transformation rules using an intuitive user interface. The editor uses the functionalities of the TULIP system, which gives us access to a wealth of visualisation algorithms. Interaction nets are not only a formalism for the specification of graphs, but also a rewrite-based computation model. We discuss graph rewriting strategies and a language to express them in order to perform strategic interaction net rewriting.

  4. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  5. Endocytosis in tobacco pollen tubes: visualisation and measurement of plasma membrane retrieval during different gravity conditions indicates gravity-dependence of endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Y S; Scherer, G E F; Quader, H

    2002-07-01

    We studied the effect of microgravity on endocytosis in growing tobacco pollen tubes by measuring the plasma membrane retrieval employing the fluorescent phospholipid bis-Bodipy FL C11- phosphatidylcholine as marker. Time course experiments under 1xg condition revealed a localised and relatively fast plasma membrane retrieval in the pollen tube tip region within the first minutes after lipid application. The rate of endocytotic bis-Bodipy FL C11- PC-modified plasma membrane retrieval is inhibited by hyper-g conditions achieved by centriftigal forces. In contrast, during the microgravity phase of a parabolic rocket flight the retrieval of the fluorescently-marked plasma membrane is distinctly enhanced. Our results show that microgravity exerts an unspecific physiological response in pollen tubes, most likely involving the cytoskeleton as inhibitor experiments indicate under 1xg condition.

  6. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-07-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC.

  7. Improved vessel painting with carbocyanine dye-liposome solution for visualisation of vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Alu; Matsumoto, Naoya; Okazaki, Shigetoshi

    2017-08-30

    Vessel painting is one of the most accessible and cost-effective techniques for visualising vasculature by fluorescence microscopy. In this method, the hydrophobic carbocyanine dye DiIC18 labels the plasma membrane via insertion of its alkyl chains into the lipid bilayer. A major disadvantage of this procedure is that it does not stain veins and some microvessels in mouse brain. Furthermore, DiIC18 molecules can aggregate during perfusion, thereby occluding arteries and reducing the success rate and reproducibility of the experiment. To overcome these problems, we developed an improved vessel painting procedure that employs neutral liposomes (NLs) and DiIC12. NLs prevented DiI aggregation under physiological conditions whereas DiIC12 showed enhanced dye incorporation into liposomes and consequently increased staining intensity. Using this method, we successfully labelled all major blood vessel types in the mouse brain, including both veins and microvessels. Thus, liposome-mediated vessel painting is a simple and efficient method for visualising vasculature.

  8. Conditional gene expression systems in the transgenic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönig Kai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turning gene expression on and off at will is one of the most powerful tools for the study of gene function in vivo. While several conditional systems were successful in invertebrates, in mice the Cre/loxP recombination system and the tet-controlled transcription activation system are predominant. Both expression systems allow for spatial and temporal control of gene activities, and, in the case of tet regulation, even for the reversible activation/inactivation of gene expression. Although the rat is the principal experimental model in biomedical research, in particular in studies of neuroscience, conditional rat transgenic systems are exceptionally rare in this species. Results We addressed this lack of technology, and established and thoroughly characterized CreERT2 and tTA transgenic rats with forebrain-specific transgene expression, controlled by the CaMKII alpha promoter. In addition, we developed new universal rat reporter lines for both transcription control systems and established inducible and efficient reporter gene expression in forebrain neurons. Conclusions We demonstrate that conditional genetic manipulations in the rat brain are both feasible and practicable and outline advantages and limitations of the Tet and Cre/loxP system in the rat brain.

  9. Visualisation of Massive Military Datasets: Human Factors, Applications, and Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This final report of IST-0l3/RTG-O()2 "Visualisation of Massive Military Datasets" presents some of the issues involved in visualisation as well as techniques that have been used in support of visualisation for military applications...

  10. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  11. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  12. Envisioning futures: visualising Newcastle city futures 2065

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Emine Mine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to create an accompanying visualisation for the Newcastle City Futures 2065 Report and to contribute to knowledge exchange and public engagement activities for the ‘Greater Newcastle’ city region development case study by exploring appropriate visualisation methodologies and techniques.

  13. Geometrical Visualisation--Epistemic and Emotional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    A well-documented experience of students of elementary Euclidean geometry is "seeing" a geometric result and being sure about its truth; this sort of experience gives rise to the notion of geometrical visualisation that is developed here. In this essay a philosophical argument for the epistemic potential of geometrical visualisation is reviewed,…

  14. Microstructure-informed slow diffusion tractography in humans enhances visualisation of fibre pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Farida; Maximov, Ivan I; Farrher, Ezequiel; Shah, N Jon

    2017-09-01

    Conventional fibre tractography methods based on diffusion tensor imaging exploit diffusion anisotropy and directionality in the range of low diffusion weightings (b-values). High b-value Biexponential Diffusion Tensor Analysis reported previously has demonstrated that fractional anisotropy of the slow diffusion component is essentially higher than that of conventional diffusion tensor imaging whereas popular compartment models associate this slow diffusion component with axonal water fraction. One of the primary aims of this study is to elucidate the feasibility and potential benefits of "microstructure-informed" whole-brain slow-diffusion fibre tracking (SDIFT) in humans. In vivo diffusion-weighted images in humans were acquired in the extended range of diffusion weightings≤6000smm(-2) at 3T. Fast and slow diffusion tensors were reconstructed using the bi-exponential tensor decomposition, and a detailed statistical analysis of the relevant whole-brain tensor metrics was performed. We visualised three-dimensional fibre tracts in in vivo human brains using deterministic streamlining via the major eigenvector of the slow diffusion tensor. In particular, we demonstrated that slow-diffusion fibre tracking provided considerably higher fibre counts of long association fibres and allowed one to reconstruct more short association fibres than conventional diffusion tensor imaging. SDIFT is suggested to be useful as a complimentary method capable to enhance reliability and visualisation of the evaluated fibre pathways. It is especially informative in precortical areas where the uncertainty of the mono-exponential tensor evaluation becomes too high due to decreased anisotropy of low b-value diffusion in these areas. Benefits can be expected in assessment of the residual axonal integrity in tissues affected by various pathological conditions, in surgical planning, and in evaluation of cortical connectivity, in particular, between Brodmann's areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  15. Opioid suppression of conditioned anticipatory brain responses to breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, Anja; Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Faull, Olivia K; Campbell, Stewart F; Garry, Payashi S; Raby, Simon J M; Robertson, Josephine; Webster, Ruth; Wise, Richard G; Herigstad, Mari; Pattinson, Kyle T S

    2017-04-15

    Opioid painkillers are a promising treatment for chronic breathlessness, but are associated with potentially fatal side effects. In the treatment of breathlessness, their mechanisms of action are unclear. A better understanding might help to identify safer alternatives. Learned associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g. stairs) and repeated breathlessness induce an anticipatory threat response that may worsen breathlessness, contributing to the downward spiral of decline seen in clinical populations. As opioids are known to influence associative learning, we hypothesized that they may interfere with the brain processes underlying a conditioned anticipatory response to breathlessness in relevant brain areas, including the amygdala and the hippocampus. Healthy volunteers viewed visual cues (neutral stimuli) immediately before induction of experimental breathlessness with inspiratory resistive loading. Thus, an association was formed between the cue and breathlessness. Subsequently, this paradigm was repeated in two identical neuroimaging sessions with intravenous infusions of either low-dose remifentanil (0.7ng/ml target-controlled infusion) or saline (randomised). During saline infusion, breathlessness anticipation activated the right anterior insula and the adjacent operculum. Breathlessness was associated with activity in a network including the insula, operculum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the primary sensory and motor cortices. Remifentanil reduced breathlessness unpleasantness but not breathlessness intensity. Remifentanil depressed anticipatory activity in the amygdala and the hippocampus that correlated with reductions in breathlessness unpleasantness. During breathlessness, remifentanil decreased activity in the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex and sensory motor cortices. Remifentanil-induced reduction in breathlessness unpleasantness was associated with increased activity in the rostral anterior

  16. Brain Region-Specific Activity Patterns after Recent or Remote Memory Retrieval of Auditory Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or…

  17. Exposure visualisation of ultrafine particle counts in a transport microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S.; Clark, R. D. R.; Walsh, P. T.; Arnold, S. J.; Colvile, R. N.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.

    An increasing number of studies indicate that short-term peak exposures, such as those seen in the transport microenvironment, pose particular health threats. Short-term exposure can only be sufficiently characterised using portable, fast-response monitoring instrumentation with detailed summaries of individual activity. In this paper, we present an exposure visualisation system that addresses this issue—it allows the simultaneous presentation of mobile video imagery synchronised with measured real-time ultrafine particle count exposure of an individual. The combined data can be examined in detail for the contribution of the surrounding environment and the individual's activities to their peak and overall exposure. The exposure visualisation system is demonstrated and evaluated around the DAPPLE study site in Central London using different modes of transport (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi). The video images, synchronised with the exposure profile, highlight the extent to which ultrafine particle exposure is associated with traffic density and proximity to pollutant source. The extremely rapid decline in concentration with increasing distance away from the pollutant source, such as from the main street to the backstreets, is clearly evident. The visualisation technique allows these data to be presented to both technical audiences and laypersons thus making it an effective environmental risk communication tool. Some exposure peaks however are not obviously associated with any event recorded on video—in these cases it will be necessary to use advanced dispersion modelling techniques to investigate meteorological conditions and other variables influencing in-street conditions to identify their possible causes.

  18. A Framework for Network Visualisation: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    dataspace, but must resort to visualisation and logical analysis, so the human’s visualisation processes cannot telepathically communicate with the engines...block labelled “Display Technologies” contains others. Just as the human cannot telepathically understand the implications of the contents of the...and must use physical sensors and muscles to communicate through input- output devices. The VisTG Reference model shows the actual connections by the

  19. Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-ModalWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hammoudeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.

  20. Phase distribution visualisation in continuous counter-current extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Remco; Sutherland, Ian

    2009-05-08

    Flow visualisation is essential when trying to understand hydrodynamic equilibrium in continuous counter-current extraction (CCCE) (also known as dual-flow counter-current chromatography). The technique allows two immiscible liquid phases to be pumped through the spinning coil simultaneously in opposite directions. When this process was described previously it was assumed that the phases were evenly distributed throughout the coil. Visualisation studies by van den Heuvel and Sutherland in 2007 showed that this was not the case. A special centrifuge, where the coil is cantilevered so that the coil and the fluids inside the coil can be visualised, was used to study the distribution of the phases. Factorial experimental design was used to systematically study the effect of the starting conditions inside the coil on the phase distribution at equilibrium. For each experiment the eluted volumes and the volume of upper phase in the coil at the end of the experiment (at equilibrium) were recorded. In addition, two photographs were taken when the phases in the coil had reached equilibrium. One of these photographs was taken during the experiment when the phases were still being pumped through and one when the flow was stopped. The systematic experiments showed that the initial phase inside the coil has no effect on the phase distribution achieved at equilibrium. Statistical analysis also showed that the lower phase flow rate has double the effect on the phase distribution compared to the upper phase flow rate. From these visualisation studies, it can be concluded that the balance of the phases flowing through the coil at equilibrium is complex. The volumes of upper and lower phase and how they are distributed does influence the separation. It is important therefore to understand the relationship between respective flow rates and the phase distribution if peak elution is to be accurately predicted.

  1. Brain mineralocorticoid receptors as resilience factor under adverse life conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanatsou, S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in human cohorts have underlined the importance of gene-environment interactions for brain structure and function during development and in adulthood. Such interactions can make the difference between staying healthy or succumbing to disease, e.g. depression or posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. Visualisation turns down energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael [Danish Building and Urban Research, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    After many energy saving campaigns, Danish families give the impression that they are conscious of energy consumption. Children have learned to turn off the light and adults to buy low-energy bulbs and household appliances. Questioned about their energy consumption and its fluctuations, the same people nevertheless confess to not really knowing. You pay your energy bill but pay no attention to the current consumption, or its level. Unlike other types of consumption, energy consumption is an almost invisible type of consumption. Nevertheless, as a secondary consumption it is much affected by primary consumption in the form of white goods, appliances, cars, food etc., the main purpose of which usually is visibility. This paper presents the result of an experiment to make the energy consumption visible. Meters in the flats showing actual electricity, heat and water consumption confront tenants with the consequences of their own behaviour. The experiment also investigates different set-ups concerning information and communication about energy consumption. Monthly consumption and levels of consumption compared within the neighbourhood are elements of this information. Also quarterly eco-accounting, with key-figures of consumption and environmental considerations like CO{sub 2} emission, are part of the information set-up. Within the first year of visualisation one case shows a 9% reduction of heat and a 22% reduction of electricity. The other cases seem to follow the same tendency. The philosophy of the experiment is that you must know your position in order to change it. You must know about the level of your own energy consumption in order to turn down energy demand. The visible meters are elements in 'Urban Ecological Renewal of a Housing Block' (Hedebygade Block) in a central district of Copenhagen.

  3. Arthroscopic visualisation of the distal radioulnar joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Michiro; Koh, Shukuki; Tatebe, Masahiro; Shinohara, Takaaki; Shionoya, Kaori; Nakamura, Ryogo; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic wrist pain is challenging and wrist arthroscopy has been recognised as the "gold standard". The present study investigated the efficacy of adding distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) arthroscopy to routine wrist arthroscopy. The records of 67 patients who underwent DRUJ arthroscopy were reviewed, and the success rates for visualisation of intra-articular structures were determined. Pathological findings were correlated with ulnar-side wrist pain. In seven patients, pre-operative diagnoses were altered after DRUJ arthroscopy. The ulnar head and proximal surface of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) were visualised in 100% and 99% of patients, respectively, while the foveal insertion of TFCC and sigmoid notch were visualised in 57% and 69%, respectively. Pathological findings of the proximal surface of TFCC tended to relate to ulnar wrist pain (p = 0.06). DRUJ arthroscopy should be included in routine wrist arthroscopy to enhance the accuracy of diagnosis.

  4. 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, N.H.

    Statens Forsknings- og Uddannelsesbygninger har på forskellige nybyggerier eksperimenteret med anvendelse af 3D-visualisering i tilknytning til bedømmelsen af arkitektkonkurrencer. Interview af dommerkomitéen på konkurrencerne på Muskikkens Hus i Nordjylland og nye bygninger til Roskilde...... Universitetscenter har givet input til forslag om den fremtidige udvikling. Forslagene retter sig både mod arkitekternes kompetence og udvalgte forretningsstrategier og mod den professionelle bygherres fremtidige krav til 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer. Et indbudt seminar om rapportens anbefalinger samler...

  5. A Task Taxonomy for Temporal Graph Visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerracher, Natalie; Kennedy, Jessie; Chalmers, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    By extending and instantiating an existing formal task framework, we define a task taxonomy and task design space for temporal graph visualisation. We discuss the process involved in their generation, and describe how the design space can be 'sliced and diced' into multiple overlapping task categories, requiring distinct visual techniques for their support. The approach addresses deficiencies in the task literature, offering domain independence, greater task coverage, and unambiguous task specification. The taxonomy and design space capture tasks for temporal graphs, and also static graphs, multivariate graphs, and graph comparison, and will be of value in the design and evaluation of temporal graph visualisation systems.

  6. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  7. The Use of Metadata Visualisation Assist Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    centred issues have been identified and they include; usability, prior knowledge, understanding of elementary perceptual-cognitive tasks and education ...pertain to information visualisation is required. • Education and Training The problems associated with education and training can be overcome... customised data. A coordinated visualisation interface consists of a set of visualisations, which can interact, portraying the relationship that

  8. Examining the Contribution of Critical Visualisation to Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, Peter A.; Heath, Claude P.; Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Tanner, Axel

    This paper examines the use of visualisations in the field of information security and in particular focuses on the practice of information security risk assessment. We examine the current roles of information security visualisations and place these roles in the wider information visualisation

  9. A Multiview Visualisation Architecture for Open Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, E.; Oldengarm, P.; van Halteren, Aart

    1998-01-01

    Program visualisation is an attractive way for understanding collaboration structures of complex distributed systems. By using the concepts of the open distributed processing-reference model (ODP-RM) as entities for visualisation, a multiview visualisation architecture is presented, which provides a

  10. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  11. Karma: Visualisation Test-Bed Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Karma is a toolkit for interprocess communications, authentication, encryption, graphics display, user interface and manipulating the Karma network data structure. It contains KarmaLib (the structured libraries and API) and a large number of modules (applications) to perform many standard tasks. A suite of visualisation tools are distributed with the library.

  12. A Framework for Network Visualisation (Un Cadre Pour la Visualisation des Reseaux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Visualisation http://www.visn-x.net Cologne Cathedral Workshop: Social Network Analysis and Visualisation for Public Safety 18th – 19th October 2005...Research Porton Down Danish Acquisition and Logistics Organization (DALO) Establishment Salisbury SP4 0JQ Lautrupbjerg 1-5, 2750 Ballerup Attn...909 Warszawa Porton Down D-53229 Bonn Salisbury SP4 0JQ PORTUGAL GREECE (Point of Contact) Estado Maior da Força Aérea UNITED STATES Defence

  13. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  14. HaploForge: A Comprehensive Pedigree Drawing and Haplotype Visualisation Web Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mehmet; Medlar, Alan; Mozere, Monika; Kleta, Robert; Stanescu, Horia

    2017-08-14

    Haplotype reconstruction is an important tool for understanding the aetiology of human disease. Haplotyping infers the most likely phase of observed genotypes conditional on constraints imposed by the genotypes of other pedigree members. The results of haplotype reconstruction, when visualised appropriately, show which alleles are identical by descent despite the presence of untyped individuals. When used in concert with linkage analysis, haplotyping can help delineate a locus of interest and provide a succinct explanation for the transmission of the trait locus. Unfortunately, the design choices made by existing haplotype visualisation programs do not scale to large numbers of markers. Indeed, following haplotypes from generation to generation requires excessive scrolling back and forth. In addition, the most widely-used program for haplotype visualisation produces inconsistent recombination artefacts for the X chromosome. To resolve these issues, we developed HaploForge, a novel web application for haplotype visualisation and pedigree drawing. HaploForge takes advantage of HTML5 to be fast, portable and avoid the need for local installation. It can accurately visualise autosomal and X-linked haplotypes from both outbred and consanguineous pedigrees. Haplotypes are coloured based on identity by descent using a novel A* search algorithm and we provide a flexible viewing mode to aid visual inspection. HaploForge can currently process haplotype reconstruction output from Allegro, GeneHunter, Merlin and Simwalk. HaploForge is licensed under GPLv3 and is hosted and maintained via GitHub. Supplementary data is available from Bioinformatics online.

  15. Fitness training for cardiorespiratory conditioning after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Moseley, Anne M; Harmer, Alison R

    2017-12-29

    Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiorespiratory deconditioning) is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fitness training may be implemented to address this impairment. The primary objective of this updated review was to evaluate whether fitness training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in people who have sustained a TBI. The secondary objectives were to evaluate whether fitness training improves body function and structure (physical and cognitive impairments, psychological responses resulting from the injury), activity limitations and participation restrictions in people who have sustained a TBI as well as to evaluate its safety, acceptance, feasibility and suitability. We searched 10 electronic databases (the Cochrane Injuries Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Embase; PubMed (MEDLINE); CINAHL; AMED; SPORTDiscus; PsycINFO; PEDro and PsycBITE) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for relevant trials. In addition we screened reference lists from systematic reviews related to the topic that we identified from our search, and from the included studies, and contacted trialists to identify further studies. The search was run in August 2017. Randomised controlled studies with TBI participants were eligible if they compared an exercise programme incorporating cardiorespiratory fitness training to usual care, a non-exercise intervention, or no intervention. Two authors independently screened the search results, extracted data and assessed bias. We contacted all trialists for additional information. We calculated mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous data, and odds ratio with 95% CI for dichotomous data. We pooled data when there were sufficient studies with homogeneity. Two new studies incorporating 96 participants were identified in this update and were added to the six previously included studies. A total of

  16. Bird brains and tool use: beyond instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedter, Georg F

    2013-01-01

    Few displays of complex cognition are as intriguing as nonhuman tool use. Long thought to be unique to humans, evidence for tool use and manufacture has now been gathered in chimpanzees, dolphins, and elephants. Outside of mammals, tool use is most common in birds, especially in corvids and parrots. The present paper reviews the evidence for avian tool use, both in the wild and in laboratory settings. It also places this behavioral evidence in the context of longstanding debates about the kinds of mental processes nonhumans can perform. Descartes argued that animals are unable to think because they are soulless machines, incapable of flexible behavior. Later, as human machines became more sophisticated and psychologists discovered classical and instrumental conditioning, skepticism about animal thinking decreased. However, behaviors that involve more than simple conditioning continued to elicit skepticism, especially among behaviorists. Nonetheless, as reviewed here, strong behavioral data now indicate that tool use in some birds cannot be explained as resulting entirely from instrumental conditioning. The neural substrates of tool use in birds remain unclear, but the available data point mainly to the caudolateral nidopallium, which shares both functional and structural features with the mammalian prefrontal cortex. As more data on the neural mechanisms of complex cognition in birds accrue, skepticism about those mental capacities should continue to wane. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of lighting conditions on brain network complexity associated with response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L

    2013-10-25

    Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect in the brain networks involved in a response learning task. Animals were trained in a water T-maze under two different lighting conditions (light versus dark). All subjects reached the learning criterion of 80% correct arm choices. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry was used as a metabolic brain mapping technique. Our results show that the ventral hippocampus and the parietal cortex are associated with the acquisition of a response learning task regardless of lighting conditions. In addition, when the same task is run in the dark, widespread recruitment of structures involving cortical, limbic and striatal regions was found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comment visualiser l'invisible?

    CERN Multimedia

    Develay, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    In the big hadron collider, LHC, nearly finished, particle will be accelerated to make collisions, with the aim to re-create the conditions of the birth of Universe, some seconds after the Big Bang. (1 page)

  19. Digital visualisering i udbygning af Roskilde Universitetscenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke

    Rapporten beskriver tre forsøg med 3D-visualisering i forbindelse med konkurrencer vedrørende udbygning af Roskilde Universitetscenter. Første forsøg var en metode til hurtigt at skabe en række digitale modeller i højt abstraktionsniveau. Forsøget resulterede i 15 små animationer, der blev benytt...

  20. A study of the application of Brain Atlas with and without +Gz acceleration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifeng; Zhang, Lihui; Zhang, Tao; Li, Baohui

    2017-07-20

    The purposes of this study were to utilize Brain Atlas to investigate the fluctuations in the characteristics of human EEG, with and without +Gz acceleration produced by human centrifuge, and also to examine the G load endurance of human body. The Brain Atlas of the EEG signal with and without +Gz acceleration in a static state were compared in order to reveal the correlation and differences. When compared with those in a static state, it was found that for the EEG readings of the subjects undergoing +Gz acceleration conditions, the energy and gray scale values of the low-frequency component-delta rhythm showed significant increases, while the energy and gray scale values of the high-frequency component-beta rhythm showed significant decreases. Among these, the beta2 rhythm was determined to be significantly inhibited. These fluctuations suggested that the ischemia conditions of brain had been improved. Also, the recoveries in the energy and gray-scale values were determined to be faster, which suggested that the G load endurance of human body had been enhanced. The Brain Atlas was found to show observable changes in color. The experimental results indicated that the Brain Atlas was able to provide assistance during the exploration of the fluctuations in the characteristics of EEG, and provided a criterion to assist in the observations of the function state fluctuations of human brain with +Gz acceleration. It also assisted in the evaluations of the G load endurance of human body.

  1. Expansion of brain T cells in homeostatic conditions in lymphopenic Rag2(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Nicholson, James D; Clark, Sarah M; Li, Xin; Keegan, Achsah D; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2016-10-01

    The concept of the brain as an immune privileged organ is rapidly evolving in light of new findings outlining the sophisticated relationship between the central nervous and the immune systems. The role of T cells in brain development and function, as well as modulation of behavior has been demonstrated by an increasing number of studies. Moreover, recent studies have redefined the existence of a brain lymphatic system and the presence of T cells in specific brain structures, such as the meninges and choroid plexus. Nevertheless, much information is needed to further the understanding of brain T cells and their relationship with the central nervous system under non-inflammatory conditions. In the present study we employed the Rag2(-/-) mouse model of lymphocyte deficiency and reconstitution by adoptive transfer to study the temporal and anatomical expansion of T cells in the brain under homeostatic conditions. Lymphopenic Rag2(-/-) mice were reconstituted with 10 million lymphoid cells and studied at one, two and four weeks after transfer. Moreover, lymphoid cells and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from transgenic GFP expressing mice were used to define the neuroanatomical localization of transferred cells. T cell numbers were very low in the brain of reconstituted mice up to one week after transfer and significantly increased by 2weeks, reaching wild type values at 4weeks after transfer. CD4(+) T cells were the most abundant lymphocyte subtype found in the brain followed by CD8(+) T cells and lastly B cells. Furthermore, proliferation studies showed that CD4(+) T cells expand more rapidly than CD8(+) T cells. Lymphoid cells localize abundantly in meningeal structures, choroid plexus, and circumventricular organs. Lymphocytes were also found in vascular and perivascular spaces and in the brain parenchyma across several regions of the brain, in particular in structures rich in white matter content. These results provide proof of concept that the brain meningeal

  2. Network functional connectivity and whole-brain functional connectomics to investigate cognitive decline in neurodegenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, O; Cercignani, Mara

    Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration of the brain, and graph theory, which provides a quantitative characterization of the whole-brain FC. In this paper we provide an overview of these two techniques and some examples of their clinical applications in the most common neurodegenerative disorders associated with cognitive decline, including mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy Bodies and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

  3. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomarkers for Musculoskeletal Pain Conditions: Use of Brain Imaging and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Sevel, Landrew; Letzen, Janelle; Robinson, Michael; Staud, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain condition often shows poor correlations between tissue abnormalities and clinical pain. Therefore, classification of pain conditions like chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia depends mostly on self report and less on objective findings like X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. However, recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging have identified brain abnormalities in chronic pain conditions that can be used for illness classification. Because the analysis of complex and multivariate brain imaging data is challenging, machine learning techniques have been increasingly utilized for this purpose. The goal of machine learning is to train specific classifiers to best identify variables of interest on brain MRIs (i.e., biomarkers). This report describes classification techniques capable of separating MRI-based brain biomarkers of chronic pain patients from healthy controls with high accuracy (70-92%) using machine learning, as well as critical scientific, practical, and ethical considerations related to their potential clinical application. Although self-report remains the gold standard for pain assessment, machine learning may aid in the classification of chronic pain disorders like chronic back pain and fibromyalgia as well as provide mechanistic information regarding their neural correlates.

  5. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  6. Techniques and software architectures for medical visualisation and image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a flexible software platform for medical visualisation and image processing, a technique for the segmentation of the shoulder skeleton from CT data and three techniques that make contributions to the field of direct volume rendering. Our primary goal was to investigate the use of visualisation techniques to assist the shoulder replacement process. This motivated the need for a flexible environment within which to test and develop new visualisation and also image processin...

  7. A survey of visualisation for live cell imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, AJ; Khan, IA; Errington, RJ

    2017-01-01

    Live cell imaging is an important biomedical research paradigm for studying dynamic cellular behaviour. Although phenotypic data derived from images are difficult to explore and analyse, some researchers have successfully addressed this with visualisation. Nonetheless, visualisation methods for live cell imaging data have been reported in an ad hoc and fragmented fashion. This leads to a knowledge gap where it is difficult for biologists and visualisation developers to evaluate the advantages...

  8. Cerebroprotective and regenerative effects of alkaloid Z77 under conditions of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuz'kov, G N; Suslov, N I; Losev, E A; Ermolaeva, L A; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Demkin, V P; Povet'eva, T N; Nesterova, Yu V; Udut, V V; Minakova, M Yu; Dygai, A M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the psychopharmacological effects of atisine-type diterpene alkaloid Z77 in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. Pronounced cerebroprotective effect was found consisting in normalization of the orienting and exploratory activity and conditioned behavior associated with significant correction of morphological changes in the brain. The direct stimulatory effect of Z77 on neural stem cells was shown in vitro.

  9. Optimization of image reconstruction conditions with phantoms for brain FDG and amyloid PET imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akamatsu, Go; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Akihito; Aita, Kazuki; Sasaki, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Senda, Michio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize image reconstruction conditions for brain 18F-FDG, 11C-PiB, 18F-florbetapir and 18F-flutemetamol PET imaging with Discovery-690 PET/CT for diagnosis and research on Alzheimer’s disease (AD...

  10. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  11. Methods for optimizing the display conditions of brain magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yusuke; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Hata, Hirofumi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a method for optimizing the display conditions of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. We retrospectively analyzed brain MR images of 120 adults classified into screening, acute cerebral infarction, and brain tumor groups (n = 40 each). Two observers independently displayed the images on a monitor and optimized the display conditions using the W/L and U/L methods. In the W/L method, the observers manipulated the width and level of the display window, while in the U/L method they manipulated the upper and lower levels of the window. The times required were compared between the two methods. Additionally, the appropriateness of the determined window setting was evaluated visually by the respective observer to exclude the possibility that rough, suboptimal adjustment shortened the adjustment time. For both observers and all groups, the time required for optimization was significantly shorter for the U/L method than for the W/L method. The appropriateness of the window setting for the U/L method was equal to or better than that for the W/L method. Manipulating the upper and lower levels of the display window appears to improve the efficiency of interpreting brain MR images through rapid optimization of the display condition.

  12. Visualising Matter and Cosmologies: A Transhistorical Example

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a connection between the visualisation of cosmic matter and structure formation in the Cartesian tradition and that used by contemporary astrophysics. More precisely, we identify cosmological simulations of large scale structure in the Universe with the system of vortices in Descartes physics. This connection operates at different levels of the images: their representational purpose; the theoretical systems behind their use; and, finally, their function and materiality as visual productions. A skilled use of image analysis is necessary to stress the continuities and peculiarities between different epochs and disciplines.

  13. Fingermark visualisation on uncirculated £5 (Bank of England) polymer notes: Initial process comparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downham, Rory P; Brewer, Eleigh R; King, Roberto S P; Luscombe, Aoife M; Sears, Vaughn G

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a range of fingermark visualisation processes on brand new, uncirculated, £5 polymer banknotes (and their test note predecessors), as produced by the Bank of England (BoE). In the main study of this paper, a total of 14 individual processes were investigated on BoE £5 polymer banknotes, which included both 'Category A' processes (as recommended in the Home Office Fingermark Visualisation Manual) as well as recently developed processes, including fpNatural(®) 2 powder (cuprorivaite) from Foster+Freeman and a vacuum metal deposition sequence that evaporates silver followed by zinc. Results from this preliminary investigation indicate that fpNatural(®) 2, multimetal deposition, Wet Powder(™) Black, iron oxide powder suspension and black magnetic powder are the most effective processes on these uncirculated £5 BoE polymer banknotes, when viewed under "primary viewing" conditions (white light or fluorescence). Additional fingermarks were visualised on the polymer banknotes following the subsequent use of reflected infrared imaging and lifting techniques, and with the benefit of these techniques taken into consideration, the aforementioned processes remained amongst the most effective overall. This work provides initial insight into fingermark visualisation strategies for BoE £5 polymer banknotes, and the need for further studies in order to generate mature operational guidance is emphasised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The in vitro blood-brain barrier model under OGD condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornabene, Erica; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Berndt, Philipp

    Introduction - The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical, transport and metabolic barrier which plays a key role in preventing uncontrolled exchanges between blood and brain, ensuring an optimal environment for neurons activity. This extent interface is created by the endothelial cells forming...... of therapies to treat this devastating disease. Materials and Methods - Primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels were cocultured with rat astrocytes in transwell inserts. At day 11, cells were treated with 4h of OGD by changing the culture medium with glucose-free medium...... of this regulation, further experiments will be performed. Conclusions – We have established an in vitro model of BBB in OGD condition and its characterization showed the disassembly of tight junctions at cell-cell contact with subsequent recovery during reperfusion....

  15. Distinct brain imaging characteristics of autoantibody-mediated CNS conditions and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurynczyk, Maciej; Geraldes, Ruth; Probert, Fay; Woodhall, Mark R; Waters, Patrick; Tackley, George; DeLuca, Gabriele; Chandratre, Saleel; Leite, Maria I; Vincent, Angela; Palace, Jacqueline

    2017-03-01

    Brain imaging characteristics of MOG antibody disease are largely unknown and it is unclear whether they differ from those of multiple sclerosis and AQP4 antibody disease. The aim of this study was to identify brain imaging discriminators between those three inflammatory central nervous system diseases in adults and children to support diagnostic decisions, drive antibody testing and generate disease mechanism hypotheses. Clinical brain scans of 83 patients with brain lesions (67 in the training and 16 in the validation cohort, 65 adults and 18 children) with MOG antibody (n = 26), AQP4 antibody disease (n = 26) and multiple sclerosis (n = 31) recruited from Oxford neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis clinical services were retrospectively and anonymously scored on a set of 29 predefined magnetic resonance imaging features by two independent raters. Principal component analysis was used to perform an overview of patients without a priori knowledge of the diagnosis. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to build models separating diagnostic groups and identify best classifiers, which were then tested on an independent cohort set. Adults and children with MOG antibody disease frequently had fluffy brainstem lesions, often located in pons and/or adjacent to fourth ventricle. Children across all conditions showed more frequent bilateral, large, brainstem and deep grey matter lesions. MOG antibody disease spontaneously separated from multiple sclerosis but overlapped with AQP4 antibody disease. Multiple sclerosis was discriminated from MOG antibody disease and from AQP4 antibody disease with high predictive values, while MOG antibody disease could not be accurately discriminated from AQP4 antibody disease. Best classifiers between MOG antibody disease and multiple sclerosis were similar in adults and children, and included ovoid lesions adjacent to the body of lateral ventricles, Dawson's fingers, T1 hypointense lesions (multiple

  16. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d. infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu, lithium chloride (F(LiCl, or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl. One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl than the F(NaCl or F(Glu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl and F(Glu foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl food was also preferred over the F(Glu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  17. Visualising higher order Brillouin zones with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, R. C.; Salagaram, T.; Chetty, N.

    2017-05-01

    A key concept in material science is the relationship between the Bravais lattice, the reciprocal lattice and the resulting Brillouin zones (BZ). These zones are often complicated shapes that are hard to construct and visualise without the use of sophisticated software, even by professional scientists. We have used a simple sorting algorithm to construct BZ of any order for a chosen Bravais lattice that is easy to implement in any scientific programming language. The resulting zones can then be visualised using freely available plotting software. This method has pedagogical value for upper-level undergraduate students since, along with other computational methods, it can be used to illustrate how constant-energy surfaces combine with these zones to create van Hove singularities in the density of states. In this paper we apply our algorithm along with the empirical pseudopotential method and the 2D equivalent of the tetrahedron method to show how they can be used in a simple software project to investigate this interaction for a 2D crystal. This project not only enhances students’ fundamental understanding of the principles involved but also improves transferable coding skills.

  18. Self organising maps for visualising and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G

    2012-05-02

    The paper describes the motivation of SOMs (Self Organising Maps) and how they are generally more accessible due to the wider available modern, more powerful, cost-effective computers. Their advantages compared to Principal Components Analysis and Partial Least Squares are discussed. These allow application to non-linear data, are not so dependent on least squares solutions, normality of errors and less influenced by outliers. In addition there are a wide variety of intuitive methods for visualisation that allow full use of the map space. Modern problems in analytical chemistry include applications to cultural heritage studies, environmental, metabolomic and biological problems result in complex datasets. Methods for visualising maps are described including best matching units, hit histograms, unified distance matrices and component planes. Supervised SOMs for classification including multifactor data and variable selection are discussed as is their use in Quality Control. The paper is illustrated using four case studies, namely the Near Infrared of food, the thermal analysis of polymers, metabolomic analysis of saliva using NMR, and on-line HPLC for pharmaceutical process monitoring.

  19. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  20. Two N-visualisation tools: game versus reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, A.; Bleeker, A.; Erisman, J.W.; Syakila, A.; Kroeze, C.; Vries, de W.; Kros, H.; Sanders, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes two different visualisation instruments that can be used for awareness raising and educational purposes: Nitrogenius and the N-visualisation tool. Both instruments aim to convey the complex interactions that occur in the nitrogen (N) cycle and the need for integrated measures

  1. Visualising the Structure of an IC-card Security Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, Hugh; Hartel, Pieter H.; de Jong Frz, Eduard K.J.

    The standard way of visualising protocols using pictures with boxes and arrows is insufficient to study the protocols in detail. The problem is that the structuring of the protocols relies on elements not explicit in the standard visual rendering. To solve the problem one should visualise not only

  2. A Game-theoretic View on Behavioural Visualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To bridge the gap between domain experts and formal methods experts, visualisations of the behaviour of formal models are used to let the domain expert understand and experiment with the formal model. In this paper we provide a definition of visualisations, founded in game-theory, which regards...

  3. Drawing, Visualisation and Young Children's Exploration of "Big Ideas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    It is in the visualisation of ideas, and the expression or representation of our ideas, that we can bring something more clearly into consciousness. A drawing might be seen as an externalisation of a concept or idea. Drawing has the potential to play a mediating role in the visualisation of ideas and concepts in relation to young children…

  4. Visualisation of future task performance improves naturalistic prospective memory for some younger adults living with HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faytell, Marika P; Doyle, Katie L; Naar-King, Sylvie; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Nichols, Sharon L; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Woods, Steven Paul

    2017-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is commonly associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM), which increase the risk of suboptimal health behaviours, like medication non-adherence. This study examined the potential benefits of a brief future visualisation exercise during the encoding stage of a naturalistic PM task in 60 young adults (aged 19-24 years) with HIV disease. Participants were administered a brief clinical neuropsychological assessment, which included a standardised performance-based measure of time- and event-based PM. All participants were also given a naturalistic PM task in which they were asked to complete a mock medication management task when the examiner showed them the Grooved Pegboard Test during their neuropsychological evaluation. Participants were randomised into: (1) a visualisation condition in which they spent 30 sec imagining successfully completing the naturalistic PM task; or (2) a control condition in which they repeated the task instructions. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant interactions between clinical neurocognitive functions and visualisation. HIV positive (HIV+) participants with intact retrospective learning and/or low time-based PM demonstrated observable gains from the visualisation technique, while HIV+ participants with impaired learning and/or intact time-based PM did not evidence gains. Findings indicate that individual differences in neurocognitive ability moderate the response to visualisation in HIV+ young adults. The extent to which such cognitive supports improve health-related PM outcomes (e.g., medication adherence) remains to be determined.

  5. Mechanisms of psychopharmacological effects of alkaloid Z77 under conditions of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuz'kov, G N; Suslov, N I; Losev, E A; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Povet'eva, T N; Nesterova, Yu V; Udut, V V; Minakova, M Yu; Zamoshchina, T A; Dygai, A M

    2015-04-01

    We studied the psychopharmacological effects of atisine-type diterpene alkaloid Z77 in a rat model of brain ischemia in the morning and at night. The type of developing locomotor disorders in animals was shown to depend on circadian rhythms. Administration of Z77 substantially corrected manifestations of psychoneurological symptoms. The parameters of orientation and exploratory behavior and conditioned reflex activity were normalized. The key role of receptors of neural stem cells to fibroblast growth factor in the realization of their growth potential under the influence of the alkaloid was demonstrated. Under in vitro conditions, antibodies to fibroblast growth factor receptor abolished the increase in the number of neural CFU caused by Z77 in the culture of intact cells from the paraventricular region of the brain.

  6. Brain magnetic resonance imaging examination in a patient with non-magnetic resonance conditional pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Nakai, MD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical dilemmas arise when patients with a non-magnetic resonance (MR conditional pacemaker are required to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We encountered a pacemaker patient with debilitating non-motor symptoms of Parkinson׳s disease, who required an MRI prior to deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery. MRI was performed safely without adverse events despite the presence of a conventional pacemaker.

  7. Benign partial epilepsy and related conditions: multifactorial pathogenesis with hereditary impairment of brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, H; Baier, W K

    1989-12-01

    The main clinical and bioelectrical features of the benign partial epilepsies and related conditions are described. Based on highly selected groups, the definition of these suggested syndromes disregards the considerable overlap between borderline and intermediate cases. To understand the great phenotypic variability of these epilepsies, the complexity of causal especially genetic factors must be considered. Different genetic traits, expressed in certain EEG patterns, determine the level of cerebral excitability. These hereditary variables are widespread in the general population. Most are polygenic, focal sharp waves possibly autosomal dominant. In individuals, the coincidence of different traits with little or no clinical significance, results in additive effects lowering the seizure threshold and raising the risk of clinical manifestation. The complexity of causal factors, which, potentially include organic brain lesions, account for the wide spectrum of epileptic and non-epileptic conditions ranging from mild selective performance deficits to complex psychomental retardation, and from simple rolandic epilepsy to severe epilepsies with minor seizures or bioelectrical status. These conditions are not "syndromes" in the stricter sense, but sets of variably weighted symptoms of a complex pathogenetic background. A genetic disposition to focal pathogenetic background. A genetic disposition to focal anomalies of brain function is of decisive importance. The biological background is as of yet unknown. The marked age-dependency of symptoms and almost regular disappearance of seizures and EEG abnormalities at puberty justify the assumption of an hereditary impairment of brain maturation. The hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance awaits appraisal by studies of larger populations and quantitative genetic approaches.

  8. Conditional N-WASP knockout in mouse brain implicates actin cytoskeleton regulation in hydrocephalus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neeraj; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Wei Ting; George, Bhawana; Makeyev, Eugene; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2014-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus and moved by multi-ciliated ependymal cells through the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain. Defects in the ependymal layer functionality are a common cause of hydrocephalus. N-WASP (Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) is a brain-enriched regulator of actin cytoskeleton and N-WASP knockout caused embryonic lethality in mice with neural tube and cardiac abnormalities. To shed light on the role of N-WASP in mouse brain development, we generated N-WASP conditional knockout mouse model N-WASP(fl/fl); Nestin-Cre (NKO-Nes). NKO-Nes mice were born with Mendelian ratios but exhibited reduced growth characteristics compared to their littermates containing functional N-WASP alleles. Importantly, all NKO-Nes mice developed cranial deformities due to excessive CSF accumulation and did not survive past weaning. Coronal brain sections of these animals revealed dilated lateral ventricles, defects in ciliogenesis, loss of ependymal layer integrity, reduced thickness of cerebral cortex and aqueductal stenosis. Immunostaining for N-cadherin suggests that ependymal integrity in NKO-Nes mice is lost as compared to normal morphology in the wild-type controls. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses of coronal brain sections with anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies revealed the absence of cilia in ventricular walls of NKO-Nes mice indicative of ciliogenesis defects. N-WASP deficiency does not lead to altered expression of N-WASP regulatory proteins, Fyn and Cdc42, which have been previously implicated in hydrocephalus pathology. Taken together, our results suggest that N-WASP plays a critical role in normal brain development and implicate actin cytoskeleton regulation as a vulnerable axis frequently deregulated in hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design Creativity: Future Directions for Integrated Visualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steven Goulding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC sectors are facing unprecedented challenges, not just with increased complexity of projects per se, but design-related integration. This requires stakeholders to radically re-think their existing business models (and thinking that underpins them, but also the technological challenges and skills required to deliver these projects. Whilst opponents will no doubt cite that this is nothing new as the sector as a whole has always had to respond to change; the counter to this is that design ‘creativity’ is now much more dependent on integration from day one. Given this, collaborative processes embedded in Building Information Modelling (BIM models have been proffered as a panacea solution to embrace this change and deliver streamlined integration. The veracity of design teams’ “project data” is increasingly becoming paramount - not only for the coordination of design, processes, engineering services, fabrication, construction, and maintenance; but more importantly, facilitate ‘true’ project integration and interchange – the actualisation of which will require firm consensus and commitment. This Special Issue envisions some of these issues, challenges and opportunities (from a future landscape perspective, by highlighting a raft of concomitant factors, which include: technological challenges, design visualisation and integration, future digital tools, new and anticipated operating environments, and training requirements needed to deliver these aspirations. A fundamental part of this Special Issue’s ‘call’ was to capture best practice in order to demonstrate how design, visualisation and delivery processes (and technologies affect the finished product viz: design outcome, design procedures, production methodologies and construction implementation. In this respect, the use of virtual environments are now particularly effective at supporting the design and delivery processes. In

  10. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  11. Coherence between brain cortical function and neurocognitive performance during changed gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Vera; Schneider, Stefan; Vogt, Tobias; Strüder, Heiko; Carnahan, Heather; Askew, Christopher D; Csuhaj, Roland

    2011-05-23

    Previous studies of cognitive, mental and/or motor processes during short-, medium- and long-term weightlessness have only been descriptive in nature, and focused on psychological aspects. Until now, objective observation of neurophysiological parameters has not been carried out--undoubtedly because the technical and methodological means have not been available--, investigations into the neurophysiological effects of weightlessness are in their infancy (Schneider et al. 2008). While imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be hardly applicable in space, the non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique represents a method of mapping hemodynamic processes in the brain in real time that is both relatively inexpensive and that can be employed even under extreme conditions. The combination with electroencephalography (EEG) opens up the possibility of following the electrocortical processes under changing gravity conditions with a finer temporal resolution as well as with deeper localization, for instance with electrotomography (LORETA). Previous studies showed an increase of beta frequency activity under normal gravity conditions and a decrease under weightlessness conditions during a parabolic flight (Schneider et al. 2008a+b). Tilt studies revealed different changes in brain function, which let suggest, that changes in parabolic flight might reflect emotional processes rather than hemodynamic changes. However, it is still unclear whether these are effects of changed gravity or hemodynamic changes within the brain. Combining EEG/LORETA and NIRS should for the first time make it possible to map the effect of weightlessness and reduced gravity on both hemodynamic and electrophysiological processes in the brain. Initially, this is to be done as part of a feasibility study during a parabolic flight. Afterwards, it is also planned to use both techniques during medium- and long-term space flight. It

  12. Targeting myeloid cells to the brain using non-myeloablative conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotima Böttcher

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs are able to colonize the central nervous system (CNS at sites of damage. This ability makes BMDCs an ideal cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic genes/molecules to the CNS. However, conditioning is required for bone marrow-derived myeloid cells to engraft in the brain, which so far has been achieved by total body irradiation (TBI and by chemotherapy (e.g. busulfan treatment. Unfortunately, both regimens massively disturb the host's hematopoietic compartment. Here, we established a conditioning protocol to target myeloid cells to sites of brain damage in mice using non-myeloablative focal head irradiation (HI. This treatment was associated with comparatively low inflammatory responses in the CNS despite cranial radiation doses which are identical to TBI, as revealed by gene expression analysis of cytokines/chemokines such as CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-α and CCL5. HI prior to bone marrow transplantation resulted in much lower levels of blood chimerism defined as the percentage of donor-derived cells in peripheral blood ( 95% or busulfan treatment (> 50%. Nevertheless, HI effectively recruited myeloid cells to the area of motoneuron degeneration in the brainstem within 7 days after facial nerve axotomy. In contrast, no donor-derived cells were detected in the lesioned facial nucleus of busulfan-treated animals up to 2 weeks after transplantation. Our findings suggest that myeloid cells can be targeted to sites of brain damage even in the presence of very low levels of peripheral blood chimerism. We established a novel non-myeloablative conditioning protocol with minimal disturbance of the host's hematopoietic system for targeting BMDCs specifically to areas of pathology in the brain.

  13. Multimodal diagnosis and visualisation of oncologic pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, V P; Bratchenko, I A; Myakinin, O O; Artemyev, D N; Kornilin, D V [S.P. Korolev Samara State Aerospace University, Samara (Russian Federation); Kozlov, S V; Moryatov, A A [Samara State Medical University, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The combined application of optical coherence tomography, Raman and autofluorescence spectroscopy of biotissues for the analysis of human malignant neoplasms is demonstrated. Rapid investigation of vast biotissue regions (at the scale of entire organs) is possible using the autofluorescence response. After selection of possible zones of pathologies one can visualise the neoplasm topology in the zone of interest with micron precision by using optical coherence tomography. In the case of suspecting the malignancy the analysis of the biotissue Raman spectrum is carried out that allows identification of the neoplasm type with the sensitivity and specificity ∼85%. An experimental scheme is proposed with the combined use of the abovementioned methods, which is a prototype of the medical system for complex analysis of neoplasms. (laser biophotonics)

  14. Multimodal diagnosis and visualisation of oncologic pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.; Kornilin, D. V.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The combined application of optical coherence tomography, Raman and autofluorescence spectroscopy of biotissues for the analysis of human malignant neoplasms is demonstrated. Rapid investigation of vast biotissue regions (at the scale of entire organs) is possible using the autofluorescence response. After selection of possible zones of pathologies one can visualise the neoplasm topology in the zone of interest with micron precision by using optical coherence tomography. In the case of suspecting the malignancy the analysis of the biotissue Raman spectrum is carried out that allows identification of the neoplasm type with the sensitivity and specificity ~85%. An experimental scheme is proposed with the combined use of the abovementioned methods, which is a prototype of the medical system for complex analysis of neoplasms.

  15. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine vs. social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai K; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction.

  16. Ischemic conditioning-induced endogenous brain protection: Applications Pre-, Per- or Post-Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuechun; Reis, Cesar; Applegate, Richard; Stier, Gary; Martin, Robert; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    In the area of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases, a plethora of experimental and clinical evidence strongly indicates the promise of therapeutically exploiting the endogenous adaptive system at various levels like triggers, mediators and the end-effectors to stimulate and mobilize intrinsic protective capacities against brain injuries. It is believed that ischemic pre- or post-conditioning are actually the strongest known interventions to stimulate the innate neuroprotective mechanism to prevent or reverse neurodegenerative diseases including stoke and traumatic brain injury. Recently, studies showed the effectiveness of ischemic per-conditioning in some organs. Therefore the term ischemic conditioning, including all interventions applied pre-, per- and post- ischemia, which spans therapeutic windows in 3 time periods, has recently been broadly accepted by scientific communities. In addition, it is extensively acknowledged that ischemia-mediated protection not only affects the neurons but also all the components of the neurovascular network (consisting of neurons, glial cells, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and venule/veins). The concept of cerebroprotection has been widely used in place of neuroprotection. Intensive studies on the cellular signaling pathways involved in ischemic conditioning have improved the mechanistic understanding of tolerance to cerebral ischemia. This has added impetus to exploration for potential pharmacologic mimetics, which could possibly induce and maximize inherent protective capacities. However, most of these studies were performed in rodents, and the efficacy of these mimetics remains to be evaluated in human patients. Several classical signaling pathways involving apoptosis, inflammation, or oxidation have been elaborated in the past decades. Newly characterized mechanisms are emerging with the advances in biotechnology and conceptual renewal. In this review we are going to focus on those

  17. [The anatomy of a reduced skull model--visualisation of Leonardo da Vinci's anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, E

    2008-04-02

    The article focuses on a rare example of a miniature skull of unknown origin. The profoundness of the anatomical details, conjoint with outstanding virtuosity, reminds of Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical skull studies and asks for additional interpretation beside the emblematic "memento mori"-character. Following the miscellaneous topics of his skull studies an anatomical-anthropological interpretation is proposed. For such a project the mergence of anthropology, history of medicine and history of art was mandatory. Concerning some discrepancies within the anatomical realism, the depiction of a pathology is discussed and beyond the visualisation of a historic concept of brain function.

  18. The colorful brain: compact visualisation of routine EEG recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Jarm, Tomaz; Kramar, Peter; Zupanic, Anze

    2007-01-01

    Clinical EEG recordings are typically evaluated by visual analysis of the various waveforms. Besides the long learning curve, it is rather subjective and prone to human error. To assist in the visual interpretation, various quantitative techniques have been proposed. Here, we describe a triplet of

  19. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain | Baichoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  20. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    friction and texture through the use of a common high level framework. [RUSPINI ... for friction. [SAUPIN 08] proposes a similar idea to [RUSPINI 97], as [SAUPIN. 08] also, proposes the separation of simulation from the haptic rendering. A ... SF algorithms, less commonly called feature-extraction or iso-surfacing, fit surface.

  1. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain | Baichoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Inspection, visualisation and analysis of quantitative proteomics data

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Material Quantitative Proteomics and Data Analysis Course. 4 - 5 April 2016, Queen Hotel, Chester, UK Table D - Inspection, visualisation and analysis of quantitative proteomics data, Laurent Gatto (University of Cambridge)

  3. The NUMLAB numerical laboratory for computation and visualisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maubach, J.; Telea, A.

    2005-01-01

    A large range of software environments addresses numerical simulation, interactive visualisation and computational steering. Most such environments are designed to cover a limited application domain, such as finite element or finite difference packages, symbolic or linear algebra computations or

  4. Visualisation of the information resources for cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchanau, A.V.; Nijholt, Antinus; Roosendaal, Hans E.; Zudilova-Seinstra, E.V.; Adriaansen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent multimodal interfaces can facilitate scientists in utilising available information resources. Combining scientific visualisations with interactive and intelligent tools can help create a “habitable��? information space. Development of such tools remains largely iterative. We discuss an

  5. Scenario visualisation for participatory landscape planning - a study from Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, different functions must be integrated simultaneously in the Danish countryside, demanding a common effort of planners, decision-makers, researchers, and stakeholders. The study proposes a transdisciplinary method that combines scenario technique, photorealistic visualisation, and

  6. An Open Toolkit for Reverse Engineering Data Visualisation and Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.; Maccari, A.; Riva, C.

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance and evolution of complex software systems (such as mobile telephones) involves activities such as reverse engineering (RE) and software visualisation. The RE conceptual framework for describing software understanding and concept abstraction is implemented up to different degrees by

  7. The role of visualisation in developing critical thinking in mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makina, A

    2010-01-01

    Research has been conducted on the role and importance of visualisation in many fields, including psychology, but very little has been done to extend its role to mathematics education in particular...

  8. Stress-induced changes of neurosteroid profiles in rat brain and plasma under immobilized condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myeong Hyeon; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Kim, In Sook; Choi, Min Sun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-05-10

    In this study, various neurosteroids in brain and plasma were simultaneously determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and their profile changes in a stress-induced rats were investigated. The investigated neurosteroids are as follows: progesterone (P4), 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), 5β-dihydroprogesterone, estrone, androstenedione (AE), cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone (CORT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnanolone (3α,5β-THP), allopregnanolone (ALLO), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), 11-deoxycortisol, pregnenolone (PREG), and 5α/5β-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (5α/5β-THDOC). Brain and plasma samples were processed using solid-phase extraction with methanol and acetic acid (99:1), and derivatized with a hydroxylamine reagent. Separation was achieved within 13min at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min with a C18 column (3.0×50mm, 2.7μm). The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Using this method, the neurosteroid level variation was quantitated and investigated in the brain and plasma upon immobilization stress in rats. As a result, AE, CORT, DOC, P4, 5α-DHP, 5α/5β-THDOC, DHEA, 3α,5β-THP, ALLO, and PREG levels were significantly altered in both the brain and plasma samples when stress was induced. These findings demonstrated that stress leads to the alteration of the GABAergic neurosteroid profile. The present results will be helpful for furthering an understanding of the role of neurosteroids in stressed conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling 3D product visualisation for the online retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Algharabat, Raed S

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This research aims to explain the process that previous researchers have discussed concerning the consumer virtual experience, using three-dimensional (3D) product visualisations, within online retailers. In addition, this research aims to identify the main advantages of using 3D product visualisation in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) static pictures within online retailers. More...

  10. Conditional ablation of the RFX4 isoform 1 transcription factor: Allele dosage effects on brain phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available Regulatory factor X4 (RFX4 isoform 1 is a recently discovered isoform of the winged helix transcription factor RFX4, which can bind to X-box consensus sequences that are enriched in the promoters of cilia-related genes. Early insertional mutagenesis studies in mice first identified this isoform, and demonstrated that it was crucial for mouse brain development. RFX4 isoform 1 is the only RFX4 isoform significantly expressed in the mouse fetal and adult brain. In this study, we evaluated conditional knock-out (KO mice in which one or two floxed alleles of Rfx4 were deleted early in development through the use of a Sox2-Cre transgene. Heterozygous deletion of Rfx4 resulted in severe, non-communicating congenital hydrocephalus associated with hypoplasia of the subcommissural organ. Homozygous deletion of Rfx4 resulted in formation of a single ventricle in the forebrain, and severe dorsoventral patterning defects in the telencephalon and midbrain at embryonic day 12.5, a collection of phenotypes that resembled human holoprosencephaly. No anatomical abnormalities were noted outside the brain in either case. At the molecular level, transcripts encoded by the cilia-related gene Foxj1 were significantly decreased, and Foxj1 was identified as a direct gene target of RFX4 isoform 1. The phenotypes were similar to those observed in the previous Rfx4 insertional mutagenesis studies. Thus, we provide a novel conditional KO animal model in which to investigate the downstream genes directly and/or indirectly regulated by RFX4 isoform 1. This model could provide new insights into the pathogenesis of obstructive hydrocephalus and holoprosencephaly in humans, both relatively common and disabling birth defects.

  11. Brain-computer interface and semantic classical conditioning of communication in paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massari, Daniele; Matuz, Tamara; Furdea, Adrian; Ruf, Carolin A; Halder, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-02-01

    We propose a classical semantic conditioning procedure to allow basic yes-no communication in the completely locked-in state as an alternative to instrumental-operant learning of brain responses, which is the common approach in brain-computer interface research. More precisely, it was intended to establish cortical responses to the trueness of a statement irrespective of the particular constituent words and letters or sounds of the words. As unconditioned stimulus short aversive stimuli consisting of 1-ms electrical pulses were used. True and false statements were presented acoustically and only the true statements were immediately followed by electrical stimuli. 15 healthy participants and one locked-in ALS patient underwent the experiment. Three different classifiers were employed in order to differentiate between the two cortical responses by means of electroencephalographic recordings. The offline analysis revealed that semantic classical conditioning can be applied successfully to enable basic communication using a non-muscular channel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain oxytocin in social fear conditioning and its extinction: involvement of the lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoicas, Iulia; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-12-01

    Central oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and pro-social properties both in humans and rodents, and has been proposed as a therapeutic option for anxiety and social dysfunctions. Here, we utilized a mouse model of social fear conditioning (SFC) to study the effects of OXT on social fear, and to determine whether SFC causes alterations in central OXT receptor (OXTR) binding and local OXT release. Central infusion of OXT, but not arginine vasopressin, prior to social fear extinction training completely abolished social fear expression in an OXTR-mediated fashion without affecting general anxiety or locomotion. SFC caused increased OXTR binding in the dorso-lateral septum (DLS), central amygdala, dentate gyrus, and cornu ammunis 1, which normalized after social fear extinction, suggesting that these areas form part of a brain network involved in the development and neural support of social fear. Microdialysis revealed that the increase in OXT release observed in unconditioned mice within the DLS during social fear extinction training was attenuated in conditioned mice. Consequently, increasing the availability of local OXT by infusion of OXT into the DLS reversed social fear. Thus, alterations in the brain OXT system, including altered OXTR binding and OXT release within the DLS, play an important role in SFC and social fear extinction. Thus, we suggest that the OXT system is adversely affected in disorders associated with social fear, such as social anxiety disorder and reinstalling an appropriate balance of the OXT system may alleviate some of the symptoms.

  13. Visualisation of needle position using ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G A; Johnson, D; Bodenham, A R

    2006-02-01

    Anaesthetists and intensivists spend a considerable proportion of their working time inserting needles and catheters into patients. In order to access deeper structures like central veins and nerves, they have traditionally relied on surface markings to guide the needle into the correct position. However, patients may present challenges due to anatomical abnormalities and size. Irrespective of the skill of the operator, there is the ever-present risk of needle misplacement with the potential of damage to structures like arteries, nerve bundles and pleura. Repeated attempts, even if ultimately successful, cause patient suffering and probably increase the risk of infection and other long term complications. Portable and affordable, high-resolution ultrasound scanners, has accelerated the interest in the use of ultrasound guidance for interventional procedures. Ultrasound guidance offers several advantages including a greater likelihood of success, fewer complications and less time spent on the procedure. Even if the target structure is identified correctly there is still the challenge to place the needle or other devices in the optimum site. The smaller and deeper the target, the greater the challenge and potential usefulness of ultrasound guidance. As a result of limited training in the use of ultrasound we believe that many clinicians fail to use it to its full potential. A lack of understanding, with regard to imaging the location of the needle tip remains a major obstacle. Needle visualisation and related topics form the basis for this review.

  14. Primary cerebral lymphoma visualised by means of In-111-pentetreotide scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, J; Pickut, B A; Abib, A; Vandevivere, J; De Deyn, P P

    1998-12-01

    Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system, until recently representing about 1% of all brain tumours, shows a dramatically increased incidence in the general population as well as in high-risk groups (immunocompromised, AIDS), and may rise up to 6% in a population of AIDS patients. The clinical presentation is variable and cannot reliably be distinguished from other intracerebral tumours. At present, CT and MRI are the methods of choice for diagnosing cerebral lymphomas. However, their characteristics are not specific. The radiological picture may suggest glioma, meningioma, metastatic carcinoma or even a cerebrovascular accident. A labelled somatostatin analogue (pentetreotide) has been proposed as a new tracer for the imaging of somatostatin receptors, which have been identified by immunocytochemical or radioimmunoassay techniques in several organ systems. Somatostatin receptors were also identified in surgical biopsy samples from patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and extracerebral lymphoma has already been visualised in vivo by means of In-111-labelled pentetreotide. While CT images of the brain showed a regression of the tumour after radiotherapeutic treatment, the scintigraphic images showed persistence of the tumoural tissue, corresponding with the clinical evolution and outcome. Furthermore, the absence of extra-cerebral lymphoma tissue, seen on the whole body images, was confirmed by post-mortem examination. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a primary intracerebral lymphoma visualised by means In-111-pentetreotide.

  15. Brain morphology correlates of interindividual differences in conditioned fear acquisition and extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Tobias; Grimm, Oliver; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Nees, Frauke; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Steiger, Frauke; Wicking, Manon; Ruttorf, Michaela; Schad, Lothar R; Flor, Herta

    2016-05-01

    The neural circuits underlying fear learning have been intensively investigated in pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms across species. These studies established a predominant role for the amygdala in fear acquisition, while the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to be important in the extinction of conditioned fear. However, studies on morphological correlates of fear learning could not consistently confirm an association with these structures. The objective of the present study was to investigate if interindividual differences in morphology of the amygdala and the vmPFC are related to differences in fear acquisition and extinction learning in humans. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging in 68 healthy participants who underwent a differential cued fear conditioning paradigm. Volumes of subcortical structures as well as cortical thickness were computed by the semi-automated segmentation software Freesurfer. Stronger acquisition of fear as indexed by skin conductance responses was associated with larger right amygdala volume, while the degree of extinction learning was positively correlated with cortical thickness of the right vmPFC. Both findings could be conceptually replicated in an independent sample of 53 subjects. The data complement our understanding of the role of human brain morphology in the mechanisms of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear.

  16. Histone deacetylases exert class specific roles in conditioning the brain and heart against acute ischemic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Erik Aune

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury comprises a significant portion of morbidity and mortality from heart and brain diseases worldwide. This enduring clinical problem has inspired myriad reports in the scientific literature of experimental interventions seeking to elucidate the pathology of IR injury. Elective cardiac surgery presents perhaps the most viable scenario for protecting the heart and brain from IR injury, due to the opportunity to condition the organs prior to insult. The physiological parameters for the preconditioning of vital organs prior to insult through mechanical and pharmacologic maneuvers have been heavily examined. These investigations have revealed new insights into how preconditioning alters cellular responses to IR injury. However, the promise of preconditioning remains unfulfilled at the clinical level, and research seeking to implicate cell signals essential to this protection continues. Recent discoveries in molecular biology have revealed that gene expression can be controlled through posttranslational modifications, without altering the chemical structure of the genetic code. In this scenario, gene expression is repressed by enzymes that cause chromatin compaction through catalytic removal of acetyl moieties from lysine residues on histones. These enzymes, called histone deacetylases (HDACs, can be inhibited pharmacologically, leading to the de-repression of protective genes. The discovery that HDACs can also alter the function of non-histone proteins through posttranslational deacetylation has expanded the potential impact of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of human disease. HDAC inhibitors have been applied in a very small number of experimental models of IR. However, the scientific literature contains an increasing number of reports demonstrating that HDACs converge on preconditioning signals in the cell. This review will describe the influence of HDACs on major preconditioning signaling pathways in the heart and

  17. Classical conditioning leads to changes in extracellular concentrations of ependymin in goldfish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashoua, V E; Hesse, G W

    1989-04-10

    ELISA measurements showed that brain extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of ependymin decreased for animals that learned to associate a paired presentation of a light stimulus (CS) with the onset of an electric shock (US), whereas no changes were obtained for control goldfish that received the same number of stimuli delivered in a random unpaired order. Studies of the time course of the changes showed an immediate decrease (19%) after training followed by an increase (20%) above baseline by 5 h and a final return to baseline by 25 h. These data extend the findings of previous experiments, which demonstrated a role for ependymin in two training procedures that involved motor learning, to classical conditioning where no motor learning occurs. Thus it appears that ependymin may have a functional role in molecular mechanisms of learning and memory in general.

  18. Hemorheological effects of ortho-isobornyl phenol derivative under conditions of brain ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, M B; Smolyakova, V I; Ivanov, I S; Chernisheva, G A; Kuchin, A V; Chukicheva, I J; Krasnov, E A

    2010-11-01

    Hemorheological activity of 4-methyl-2,6-di-isobornyl phenol, a new o-isobornyl phenol derivative, was studied under conditions of experimental prolonged partial cerebral ischemia. Brain ischemia is associated with hemorheological disorders which can be characterized as blood hyperviscosity syndrome: increased viscosity of the whole blood (within a wide range of shear rates), plasma viscosity, fibrinogen content in blood plasma, and platelet aggregation; deterioration of platelet deformability and reduced availability of oxygen for tissues. A course (5 days) of intragastric 4-methyl-2,6-di-isobornyl phenol (100 mg/kg) prevented the development of blood hyperviscosity syndrome by modulating blood macrorheology (reduction of plasma viscosity and fibrinogen content) and microrheology (reduction of erythrocyte aggregation and improvement of their deformability).

  19. Nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes to record electrophysiological brain signals in prolonged, unconventional or extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Luisa Di Vona, M; Romagnoli, Paola; Narici, Livio; Acquaviva, Massimo; Carozzo, Simone; Marco, Stefano Di; Saturno, Moreno; Sannita, Walter G; Traversa, Enrico

    2006-09-01

    Chemically stable nanocomposite iono-conducting polymeric membranes (based on lithium salts and nanocrystalline oxide powders dispersed in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix) performed successfully in the recording of human brain responses to visual stimulation. Impedance was higher than that of conventional electrodes. However, the electrophysiological signals recorded by acid Al(2)O(3) and neutral Al(2)O(3) 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% nanocomposite gel electrolytes were comparable to those obtained with standard electrodes, even without preliminary skin cleaning and in the absence of gel electrolytes allowing better contact with and skin-electrode ionic conductance. The electrochemical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes make them fit for human and animal research, for clinical application (specifically in emergencies, prolonged electrophysiological recordings), or in unconventional or extreme conditions when fluid electrolytes are unsuitable (e.g., biomedical space research).

  20. Ensemble of Neural Network Conditional Random Fields for Self-Paced Brain Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bashashati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classification of EEG signals in self-paced Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI is an extremely challenging task. The main difficulty stems from the fact that start time of a control task is not defined. Therefore it is imperative to exploit the characteristics of the EEG data to the extent possible. In sensory motor self-paced BCIs, while performing the mental task, the user’s brain goes through several well-defined internal state changes. Applying appropriate classifiers that can capture these state changes and exploit the temporal correlation in EEG data can enhance the performance of the BCI. In this paper, we propose an ensemble learning approach for self-paced BCIs. We use Bayesian optimization to train several different classifiers on different parts of the BCI hyper- parameter space. We call each of these classifiers Neural Network Conditional Random Field (NNCRF. NNCRF is a combination of a neural network and conditional random field (CRF. As in the standard CRF, NNCRF is able to model the correlation between adjacent EEG samples. However, NNCRF can also model the nonlinear dependencies between the input and the output, which makes it more powerful than the standard CRF. We compare the performance of our algorithm to those of three popular sequence labeling algorithms (Hidden Markov Models, Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines and CRF, and to two classical classifiers (Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. The classifiers are compared for the two cases: when the ensemble learning approach is not used and when it is. The data used in our studies are those from the BCI competition IV and the SM2 dataset. We show that our algorithm is considerably superior to the other approaches in terms of the Area Under the Curve (AUC of the BCI system.

  1. Integrated geoscience data visualisation and exploration - GeoVisionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrington, Ricky; Napier, Bruce; Ramos, Luz

    2013-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) provides a wide variety of options for communicating and delivering geoscience data, information and knowledge to external partners and the public. These include the traditional reports, maps and GIS data products. However since the early 2000's, the BGS has invested significant resources into developing its 3D geosciences knowledge base which has lead to advancements in visualising geoscience data. This in turn has lead to the improvement in the communication of surface and subsurface data, which has, in turn, led to far larger volumes of data that challenged visualisation technology. The BGS has developed a number of applications and exports to feed into this 3D environment such as those commonly used which include 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat), 3D shapefiles (ESRI) and KML/KMZ (GoogleEarth files). Bespoke software such as GroundhogTM and the LithoFrame Viewer has also been developed to help the user analyse 3D geology through synthetic boreholes and cross-sections. All of the above mentioned have limitations when visualising this type of 3D data due to the integration of data, file sizes and the limitations of the software applications. The most advanced of all of these 3D applications that have been developed is GeoVisionary. Initially, the BGS commissioned UK Virtual Reality specialists, Virtalis Ltd., to create an immersive 3-dimensional visualisation and interpretation software environment to capture linework and descriptive information in a virtual 3D environment either on their desktop PC or in specialised 3D suites, replicating the work undertaken by field geologists. GeoVisionary has since developed into an environmental application for visualising all different types of subsurface and surface data while suffering none of the limitations of other applications due to its ability to stream terabytes of data seamlessly. GeoVisionary is able to integrate a wide variety of GIS and CAD based data with the highest resolution

  2. New understanding of adolescent brain development: relevance to transitional healthcare for young people with long term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Allan; Longwell, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Whether or not adolescence should be treated as a special period, there is now no doubt that the brain changes much during adolescence. From an evolutionary perspective, the idea of an under developed brain which is not fit for purpose until adulthood is illogical. Rather, the adolescent brain is likely to support the challenges specific to that period of life. New imaging techniques show striking changes in white and grey matter between 11 and 25 years of age, with increased connectivity between brain regions, and increased dopaminergic activity in the pre-frontal cortices, striatum and limbic system and the pathways linking them. The brain is dynamic, with some areas developing faster and becoming more dominant until other areas catch up. Plausible mechanisms link these changes to cognitive and behavioural features of adolescence. The changing brain may lead to abrupt behavioural change with attendant risks, but such a brain is flexible and can respond quickly and imaginatively. Society allows adolescent exuberance and creativity to be bounded and explored in relative safety. In healthcare settings these changes are especially relevant to young people with long term conditions as they move to young adult life; such young people need to learn to manage their health conditions with the support of their healthcare providers.

  3. Interpreting climate data visualisations to inform adaptation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Daron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate development of graphical visualisations to communicate climate data is fundamental to the provision of climate services to guide climate change adaptation decisions. However, at present there is a lack of empirical evidence, particularly in Africa, to help climate information providers determine how best to communicate and display climate data. To help address this issue, an online survey, primarily targeted at the African vulnerability, impacts and adaptation community, was designed and disseminated widely. The survey examines the interpretation of climate data as a function of the style and information content of graphical visualisations. It is shown that choices made when constructing the visualisations, such as presenting percentile information versus showing the range, significantly impact on interpretation. Results also show that respondents who interpret a higher likelihood of future changes to climate, based on the visualisation of climate model projections, express greater confidence in their interpretations. The findings have relevance to the climate risk community in Africa and elsewhere across the world, and imply that a naïve approach to visualising climate data risks misinterpretation and unjustified levels of trust, with the potential to misinform adaptation and policy decisions.

  4. 2.5D visualisation of overlapping biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y; Hong, Seok-Hee; Koschützki, Dirk; Schreiber, Falk; Xu, Kai

    2008-11-10

    Biological data is often structured in the form of complex interconnected networks such as protein interaction and metabolic networks. In this paper, we investigate a new problem of visualising such overlapping biological networks. Two networks overlap if they share some nodes and edges. We present an approach for constructing visualisations of two overlapping networks, based on a restricted three dimensional representation. More specifically, we use three parallel two dimensional planes placed in three dimensions to represent overlapping networks: one for each network (the top and the bottom planes) and one for the overlapping part (in the middle plane). Our method aims to achieve both drawing aesthetics (or conventions) for each individual network, and highlighting the intersection part by them. Using three biological datasets, we evaluate our visualisation design with the aim to test whether overlapping networks can support the visual analysis of heterogeneous and yet interconnected networks.

  5. Visualisation and Immersion Dome Experience for Inspired Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Gawlikowska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public protests, which lead to increased administrative and permission procedures, are amongst the most important obstacles in development of wind energy projects. The community’s fears of visual and acoustic impacts of new power plants are commonly recognized as the weakest aspects of public acceptance. To address these issues Visualisation Dome has been designed to better communicate the economic, political, spatial, ecological and social benefits of wind power plants and the associated risks to local communities. The approach combines the experimental and simulation method. The integrated analysis software tool, which allows assessing the impacts of planed wind power plants underpins their 360-degree video and audio simulations. The Visualisation Dome demonstration resulted in 57% of the interviewed participants improving their opinion of wind power following the experience. Visualisation Dome’s novel approach for improving procedural justice of wind energy projects development forms innovative, interactive and streamlined processes, and enables constructive participation of audiences.

  6. Critical role of peripheral vasoconstriction in fatal brain hyperthermia induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under conditions that mimic human drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Kim, Albert H; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-06-04

    MDMA (Ecstasy) is an illicit drug used by young adults at hot, crowed "rave" parties, yet the data on potential health hazards of its abuse remain controversial. Here, we examined the effect of MDMA on temperature homeostasis in male rats under standard laboratory conditions and under conditions that simulate drug use in humans. We chronically implanted thermocouple microsensors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain reward area), temporal muscle, and facial skin to measure temperature continuously from freely moving rats. While focusing on brain hyperthermia, temperature monitoring from the two peripheral locations allowed us to evaluate the physiological mechanisms (i.e., intracerebral heat production and heat loss via skin surfaces) that underlie MDMA-induced brain temperature responses. Our data confirm previous reports on high individual variability and relatively weak brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA under standard control conditions (quiet rest, 22-23°C), but demonstrate dramatic enhancements of drug-induced brain hyperthermia during social interaction (exposure to male conspecific) and in warm environments (29°C). Importantly, we identified peripheral vasoconstriction as a critical mechanism underlying the activity- and state-dependent potentiation of MDMA-induced brain hyperthermia. Through this mechanism, which prevents proper heat dissipation to the external environment, MDMA at a moderate nontoxic dose (9 mg/kg or ~1/5 of LD50 in rats) can cause fatal hyperthermia under environmental conditions commonly encountered by humans. Our results demonstrate that doses of MDMA that are nontoxic under cool, quiet conditions can become highly dangerous under conditions that mimic recreational use of MDMA at rave parties or other hot, crowded venues. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347754-09$15.00/0.

  7. Technology Corner: Visualising Forensic Data: Evidence Guidelines (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Schofield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visualisation is becoming increasingly important for understanding information, such as investigative data (for example: computing, medical and crime scene evidence and analysis (for example, network capability assessment, data file reconstruction and planning scenarios. Investigative data visualisation is used to reconstruct a scene or item and is used to assist the viewer (who may well be a member of the general public with little or no understanding of the subject matter to understand what is being presented. Analysis visualisations, on the other hand, are usually developed to review data, information and assess competing scenario hypotheses for those who usually have an understanding of the subject matter.Courtroom environments are morphing into cinematic display environments, the media consumed by an audience who are increasingly visually literate and media savvy (Heintz, 2002. There are a number of fundamental implications inherent in the shift from oral to visual mediation and a number of facets of this modern evidence presentation technology needs to be investigated and analysed. One of the primary issues of visualisation is that no matter how coherent the data, there will always be conjecture and debate as to how the information is/has-been visualised and, is it presented in an acceptable and meaningful way.This paper presents a range of examples of where forensic data has been visualised using various techniques and technology, the paper then examines aspects of the visual courtroom evidence presented and discusses some of the benefits and potential problems of implementing this technology. This paper is part two of a two-part series that aims to describe the use of, and provide guidelines for, the use of graphical displays in courtrooms.

  8. Increased susceptibility to amyloid-β toxicity in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells under hyperglycemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristina; Katz, Paige S; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V G; Moreira, Paula I; Busija, David W

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are closely associated with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) toxicity in endothelial cells. Brain microvascular endothelial cells from rat (RBMEC) and mice (MBMEC) were isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley rats and homozygous db/db (Leprdb/Leprdb) and heterozygous (Dock7m/Leprdb) mice, and cultured under normo- and hyperglycemic conditions for 7 d followed by 24 h exposure to Aβ1-40. Some experiments were also performed with two mitochondrial superoxide (O2•-) scavengers, MitoTempo and Peg-SOD. Cell viability was measured by the Alamar blue assay and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and H2O2 production was confirmed by microplate reader. Hyperglycemia or Aβ1-40 alone did not affect cell viability in RBMEC. However, the simultaneous presence of high glucose and Aβ1-40 reduced cell viability and ΔΨm, and enhanced mitochondrial O2•- and H2O2 production. MitoTempo and PEG-SOD prevented Aβ1-40 toxicity. Interestingly, MBMEC presented a similar pattern of alterations with db/db cultures presenting higher susceptibility to Aβ1-40. Overall, our results show that high glucose levels increase the susceptibility of brain microvascular endothelial cells to Aβ toxicity supporting the idea that hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for vascular injury associated with AD.

  9. Divergent effects of brain interleukin-1ß in mediating fever, lethargy, anorexia and conditioned fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartman, Tamzyn L; Swanepoel, Tanya; Barrientos, Ruth M; Laburn, Helen P; Mitchell, Duncan; Harden, Lois M

    2017-05-01

    The influence of brain interleukin-1 (IL-1ß) on memory processes includes both detrimental and beneficial effects. To further explore the dynamics of brain IL-1ß in mediating learning and memory during acute sickness, we injected species-homologous rat IL-1ß (100ng/5μl) or vehicle (0.1% bovine serum albumin, 5μl) directly into the cisterna magna (i.c.m.) of male Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured, in parallel, body temperature, food intake, body mass, cage activity, as well as learning and memory using contextual fear conditioning. To investigate the effects of IL-1ß on learning and memory processes we used: (1) a retrograde experiment that involved injecting rats i.c.m. with IL-1ß immediately after training in the novel context, and (2) an anterograde experiment that involved injecting rats i.c.m. with IL-1ß two hours before training in the novel context. In addition, hypothalamic and hippocampal concentrations of IL-1β were measured at several time points following injection. Administration of IL-1ß induced fever, lethargy and anorexia for∼two-to-three days and increased the concentration of IL-1ß in the hippocampus and hypothalamus for at least eight hours. Training in the context immediately before IL-1ß administration (retrograde experiment), did not impair contextual and auditory fear memory. However, when training in the context occurred concurrently with elevated hippocampal IL-1ß levels, two hours after IL-1ß administration (anterograde experiment), contextual, but not auditory, fear memory was impaired. Our results show that there are instances where memory consolidation can occur concurrently with elevated levels of IL-1ß in the hippocampus, fever, anorexia and lethargy during acute short-term sickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TBI and sex: crucial role of progesterone protecting the brain in an omega-3 deficient condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ethika; Agrawal, Rahul; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the protective action of progesterone on traumatic brain injury (TBI) could be influenced by the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids during early life. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on omega-3 adequate or deficient diet from 3rd day of pregnancy and their female offspring were kept on the same diets up to the age of 15 weeks. Ovariectomy was performed at the age of 12 weeks to deprive animals from endogenous steroids until the time of a fluid percussion injury (FPI). Dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency increased anxiety in sham animals and TBI aggravated the effects of the deficiency. Progesterone replacement counteracted the effects of TBI on the animals reared under n-3 deficiency. A similar pattern was observed for markers of membrane homeostasis such as 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) and secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2), synaptic plasticity such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), syntaxin (STX)-3 and growth associated protein (GAP)-43, and for growth inhibitory molecules such as myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and Nogo-A. Results that progesterone had no effects on sham n-3 deficient animals suggest that the availability of progesterone is essential under injury conditions. Progesterone treatment counteracted several parameters related to synaptic plasticity and membrane stability reduced by FPI and n-3 deficiency suggest potential targets for therapeutic applications. These results reveal the importance of n-3 preconditioning during early life and the efficacy of progesterone therapy during adulthood to counteract weaknesses in neuronal and behavioral plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of conditional probability of chord progression on brain response: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual.

  12. Movement visualisation in virtual reality rehabilitation of the lower limb: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, Luara; Christ, Oliver; Mate, Kedar; Schmidt, Henning; Krüger, Jörg; Dohle, Christian

    2016-12-19

    Virtual reality (VR) based applications play an increasing role in motor rehabilitation. They provide an interactive and individualized environment in addition to increased motivation during motor tasks as well as facilitating motor learning through multimodal sensory information. Several previous studies have shown positive effect of VR-based treatments for lower extremity motor rehabilitation in neurological conditions, but the characteristics of these VR applications have not been systematically investigated. The visual information on the user's movement in the virtual environment, also called movement visualisation (MV), is a key element of VR-based rehabilitation interventions. The present review proposes categorization of Movement Visualisations of VR-based rehabilitation therapy for neurological conditions and also summarises current research in lower limb application. A systematic search of literature on VR-based intervention for gait and balance rehabilitation in neurological conditions was performed in the databases namely; MEDLINE (Ovid), AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo. Studies using non-virtual environments or applications to improve cognitive function, activities of daily living, or psychotherapy were excluded. The VR interventions of the included studies were analysed on their MV. In total 43 publications were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Seven distinct MV groups could be differentiated: indirect MV (N = 13), abstract MV (N = 11), augmented reality MV (N = 9), avatar MV (N = 5), tracking MV (N = 4), combined MV (N = 1), and no MV (N = 2). In two included articles the visualisation conditions included different MV groups within the same study. Additionally, differences in motor performance could not be analysed because of the differences in the study design. Three studies investigated different visualisations within the same MV group and hence limited information can be extracted from one study. The review demonstrates

  13. Automatic detection of gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis lesions in brain MRI using conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Shah, Mohak; Francis, Simon J; Arnold, Douglas L; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2012-06-01

    Gadolinium-enhancing lesions in brain magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are of great interest since they are markers of disease activity. Identification of gadolinium-enhancing lesions is particularly challenging because the vast majority of enhancing voxels are associated with normal structures, particularly blood vessels. Furthermore, these lesions are typically small and in close proximity to vessels. In this paper, we present an automatic, probabilistic framework for segmentation of gadolinium-enhancing lesions in MS using conditional random fields. Our approach, through the integration of different components, encodes different information such as correspondence between the intensities and tissue labels, patterns in the labels, or patterns in the intensities. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on 80 multimodal clinical datasets acquired from relapsing-remitting MS patients in the context of multicenter clinical trials. The experimental results exhibit a sensitivity of 98% with a low false positive lesion count. The performance of the proposed algorithm is also compared to a logistic regression classifier, a support vector machine and a Markov random field approach. The results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed algorithm at successfully detecting all of the gadolinium-enhancing lesions while maintaining a low false positive lesion count.

  14. Feeding Systems and the Gut Microbiome: Gut-Brain Interactions With Relevance to Psychiatric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L

    2017-06-08

    Physical and mental health is dependent on the environment, and feeding is a prime example of this environmental exchange. While the hypothalamus controls both feeding behavior and the stress response, the integration of the neural control centers and the peripheral gut allows for disruption in the gastrointestinal systems and dysfunctional communication to the brain. The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinicians with the physiology controlling feeding behavior and its implications for psychiatric conditions, such as anorexia nervosa and depression. Growing understanding of how integrated bacterial life is in the body has shown that gut bacteria regulate basic physiologic processes and are implicated in various disease states and contribute to regulation of mood. Responses to stress have effects on feeding behavior and mood and the regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota could contribute to the dysfunction seen in patients with psychiatric illnesses. Gut microbiota may contribute to dysfunction in psychiatric illnesses. New opportunities to modulate existing gut microbiota using probiotics could be novel targets for clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of brain activity underlying working memory for music in a naturalistic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Numminen, Jussi; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-08-01

    We aimed at determining the functional neuroanatomy of working memory (WM) recognition of musical motifs that occurs while listening to music by adopting a non-standard procedure. Western tonal music provides naturally occurring repetition and variation of motifs. These serve as WM triggers, thus allowing us to study the phenomenon of motif tracking within real music. Adopting a modern tango as stimulus, a behavioural test helped to identify the stimulus motifs and build a time-course regressor of WM neural responses. This regressor was then correlated with the participants' (musicians') functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal obtained during a continuous listening condition. In order to fine-tune the identification of WM processes in the brain, the variance accounted for by the sensory processing of a set of the stimulus' acoustic features was pruned from participants' neurovascular responses to music. Motivic repetitions activated prefrontal and motor cortical areas, basal ganglia, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, and cerebellum. The findings suggest that WM processing of motifs while listening to music emerges from the integration of neural activity distributed over cognitive, motor and limbic subsystems. The recruitment of the hippocampus stands as a novel finding in auditory WM. Effective connectivity and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analyses indicate that the hippocampal connectivity is modulated by motif repetitions, showing strong connections with WM-relevant areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - dlPFC, supplementary motor area - SMA, and cerebellum), which supports the role of the hippocampus in the encoding of the musical motifs in WM, and may evidence long-term memory (LTM) formation, enabled by the use of a realistic listening condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal an...... digital models of animal soft and hard tissue anatomy in quality similar or superior to time consuming dissection, and we propose MRI and CT as valuable tools in future studies of animal anatomy in research and education.......Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal...... bone anatomy, and there is a considerable lack of non-interpreted soft-tissue visualisation in figures of anatomical literature and databases. This study aims to present the endless possibilities of high resolution visualisation of both soft and hard structures in animals using magnetic resonance...

  17. Visualising the Roots of Quadratic Equations with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural extension of the root visualisation techniques first presented by Bardell (2012) for quadratic equations with real coefficients. Consideration is now given to the familiar quadratic equation "y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c" in which the coefficients "a," "b," "c" are generally…

  18. Visualising Learning Design in LAMS: A Historical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, James

    2011-01-01

    The Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) provides a web-based environment for the creation, sharing, running and monitoring of Learning Designs. A central feature of LAMS is the visual authoring environment, where educators use a drag-and-drop environment to create sequences of learning activities. The visualisation is based on boxes…

  19. The role of visualisation in developing critical thinking in mathematics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has been conducted on the role and importance of visualisation in many fields, including psychology, but very little has been done to extend its role to mathematics education in particular. Furthermore, much research has been done on the importance of critical thinking. However, to date not much has been done ...

  20. A cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention for anxiety in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cognitive-relaxation-visualisation intervention for anxiety in women with breast cancer. ... of the intervention in two groups of randomly selected female subjects, the one group (N = 72) being pre-diagnosis (awaiting mammogram results) and the other group (N = 16) being post-diagnosis (beginning radiation therapy).

  1. Tangible air: An interactive installation for visualising audience engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Röggla (Tom); C. Wang (Chen); L. Pérez Romero (Lilia); A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents an end-to-end system for capturing physiological sensor data and visualising it on a real-time graphic dashboard and as part of an art installation. More specifically, it describes an event where the level of engagement of the audience was measured by means of

  2. Tangible air : An Interactive Installation for Visualising Audience Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röggla, Thomas; Wang, Chen; Perez Romero, Lilia; Jansen, Jack; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an end-to-end system for capturing physiological sensor data and visualising it on a real-time graphic dashboard and as part of an art installation. More specifically, it describes an event where the level of engagement of the audience was measured by means of Galvanic Skin

  3. Large-scale comparative visualisation of sets of multidimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Vohl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present encube—a qualitative, quantitative and comparative visualisation and analysis system, with application to high-resolution, immersive three-dimensional environments and desktop displays. encube extends previous comparative visualisation systems by considering: (1 the integration of comparative visualisation and analysis into a unified system; (2 the documentation of the discovery process; and (3 an approach that enables scientists to continue the research process once back at their desktop. Our solution enables tablets, smartphones or laptops to be used as interaction units for manipulating, organising, and querying data. We highlight the modularity of encube, allowing additional functionalities to be included as required. Additionally, our approach supports a high level of collaboration within the physical environment. We show how our implementation of encube operates in a large-scale, hybrid visualisation and supercomputing environment using the CAVE2 at Monash University, and on a local desktop, making it a versatile solution. We discuss how our approach can help accelerate the discovery rate in a variety of research scenarios.

  4. Becoming Teacher: A/r/tographical Inquiry and Visualising Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Adrienne; Grauer, Kit; L. Irwin, Rita

    2017-01-01

    A great deal has been written about the representational use of metaphor to understand teacher candidates'/new teachers' conceptions of teacher practice. This article will discuss recent research that explored secondary visual art teacher candidates'/new teachers' "visualising" of visual metaphors to provoke their a/r/tographical inquiry…

  5. 4D confocal microscopy for visualisation of bone remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, GA; Vardaxis, NJ; Boon, ME; Kok, LP; Rietveld, DC; SCHUT, JJ

    Until recently it was very time consuming and difficult to make three-dimensional (3D) images of newly formed bone. With the advent of confocal technologies and increased computer power 3D imaging is greatly facilitated. In this paper we demonstrate that enhanced confocal visualisation of newly

  6. Techniques and software architectures for medical visualisation and image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a flexible software platform for medical visualisation and image processing, a technique for the segmentation of the shoulder skeleton from CT data and three techniques that make contributions to the field of direct volume rendering. Our primary goal was to investigate the use

  7. Ultrasound as method to visualise and compare the different sucking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this pilot study research was to determine whether ultrasonography can be used to directly visualise and compare the difference in sucking patterns and -mechanisms between infants who were breastfeeding and infants who were bottle-feeding with different types of bottle teats. The main aim of the study ...

  8. The Role of Visualisation in Developing Critical Thinking in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makina, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research has been conducted on the role and importance of visualisation in many fields, including psychology, but very little has been done to extend its role to mathematics education in particular. Furthermore, much research has been done on the importance of critical thinking. However, to date not much has been done to clarify the fact that…

  9. Analysis and visualisation of movement: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Urška; Buchin, Kevin; Cagnacci, Francesca; Safi, Kamran; Speckmann, Bettina; Van de Weghe, Nico; Weiskopf, Daniel; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The processes that cause and influence movement are one of the main points of enquiry in movement ecology. However, ecology is not the only discipline interested in movement: a number of information sciences are specialising in analysis and visualisation of movement data. The recent explosion in availability and complexity of movement data has resulted in a call in ecology for new appropriate methods that would be able to take full advantage of the increasingly complex and growing data volume. One way in which this could be done is to form interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and experts from information sciences that analyse movement. In this paper we present an overview of new movement analysis and visualisation methodologies resulting from such an interdisciplinary research network: the European COST Action "MOVE - Knowledge Discovery from Moving Objects" (http://www.move-cost.info). This international network evolved over four years and brought together some 140 researchers from different disciplines: those that collect movement data (out of which the movement ecology was the largest represented group) and those that specialise in developing methods for analysis and visualisation of such data (represented in MOVE by computational geometry, geographic information science, visualisation and visual analytics). We present MOVE achievements and at the same time put them in ecological context by exploring relevant ecological themes to which MOVE studies do or potentially could contribute.

  10. Visualising Knowledge Structures in Biology: Discipline, Curriculum and Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is discussed as a tool for the visualisation of knowledge structures that can be exploited within biological education. Application of this tool makes it possible to relate the structure of the curriculum to the structure of the discipline, in order to support the development of robust student knowledge structures in ways that…

  11. Visualisation of interaction footprints for enagement in online communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2009). Visualisation of interaction footprints for engagement in online communities [Special issue]. In M. Kalz, R. Koper & V. Hornung-Prähauser (Eds.), Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(3), 44-57.

  12. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  13. Using game engine for 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Mat, Ruzinoor; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohammed; Nasir Zulkifli, Abdul; Shafry Mohd Rahim, Mohd; Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews on the 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data using game engines that are available in the market as well as open source. 3D terrain visualisation is a technique used to visualise terrain information from GIS data such as a digital elevation model (DEM), triangular irregular network (TIN) and contour. Much research has been conducted to transform the 2D view of map to 3D. There are several terrain visualisation softwares that are available for free, which include Cesium, Hftool and Landserf. This review paper will help interested users to better understand the current state of art in 3D terrain visualisation of GIS data using game engines.

  14. Visualisation during ablation of atrial fibrillation - stimulating the patient's own resources: Patients' experiences in relation to pain and anxiety during an intervention of visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Marianne W; Pedersen, Preben U; Bjerrum, Merete

    2015-12-01

    Going through ablation of atrial fibrillation can be accompanied by pain and discomfort when a light, conscious sedation is used. Visualisation has been shown to reduce the patients' perception of pain and anxiety during invasive procedures, when it is used together with the usual pain management. The purpose of this study was to investigate patients' experiences with visualisation in relation to pain and anxiety during an intervention consisting of visualisation, when undergoing ablation of atrial fibrillation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 14 patients from a study population of a clinical controlled study with 147 patients. The transcribed interviews were analysed according to qualitative methodology of inductive content analysis. Four categories emerged from the interviews: 'approach to visualisation'; 'strategies of managing pain'; 'strategies of managing anxiety' and 'benefits of visualisation'. The transversal analyses revealed two overall themes which highlight the experiences of being guided in visualisation during ablation of atrial fibrillation: 'stimulation of the patients' own resources' and 'being satisfied without complete analgesia' Visualisation used during ablation of atrial fibrillation was reported as a positive experience with no serious inconvenience: It seemed that visualisation did not produce complete analgesia but the patients expressed that it provided some pain relief and supported their individual strategies in managing pain and anxiety. Our findings indicate that visualisation for acute pain during ablation of atrial fibrillation was associated not only with a decrease in experience of pain but also with high levels of treatment satisfaction and other non-pain-related benefits. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. Gaia Data Release 1. The archive visualisation service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Savietto, H.; Barros, M.; Barata, C.; Falcão, A. J.; Fernandes, T.; Alves, J.; Silva, A. F.; Gomes, M.; Bakker, J.; Brown, A. G. A.; González-Núñez, J.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Hernández, J.; Jordan, S.; Luri, X.; Merin, B.; Mignard, F.; Mora, A.; Navarro, V.; O'Mullane, W.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Salgado, J.; Segovia, J. C.; Utrilla, E.; Arenou, F.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Jansen, F.; McCaughrean, M.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Taylor, M. B.; Vallenari, A.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The first Gaia data release (DR1) delivered a catalogue of astrometry and photometry for over a billion astronomical sources. Within the panoplyof methods used for data exploration, visualisation is often the starting point and even the guiding reference for scientific thought. However, this is a volume of data that cannot be efficiently explored using traditional tools, techniques, and habits. Aims: We aim to provide a global visual exploration service for the Gaia archive, something that is not possible out of the box for most people. The service has two main goals. The first is to provide a software platform for interactive visual exploration of the archive contents, using common personal computers and mobile devices available to most users. The second aim is to produce intelligible and appealing visual representations of the enormous information content of the archive. Methods: The interactive exploration service follows a client-server design. The server runs close to the data, at the archive, and is responsible for hiding as far as possible the complexity and volume of the Gaia data from the client. This is achieved by serving visual detail on demand. Levels of detail are pre-computed using data aggregation and subsampling techniques. For DR1, the client is a web application that provides an interactive multi-panel visualisation workspace as well as a graphical user interface. Results: The Gaia archive Visualisation Service offers a web-based multi-panel interactive visualisation desktop in a browser tab. It currently provides highly configurable 1D histograms and 2D scatter plots of Gaia DR1 and the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) with linked views. An innovative feature is the creation of ADQL queries from visually defined regions in plots. These visual queries are ready for use in the Gaia Archive Search/data retrieval service. In addition, regions around user-selected objects can be further examined with automatically generated SIMBAD

  16. Intra-operative visualisation of 3D temperature maps and 3D navigation during tissue cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, E; Mala, T; Aurdal, L; Balasingham, I

    2005-09-01

    Thermotherapeutic tools are increasingly used for tissue ablation, although the intra-operative monitoring is not adequate for such procedures. This is a main challenge for more extensive use of any ablative technique. The present work focuses on treatment of hepatic tumours by cryo therapy. For any thermotherapeutic tool there are specific thermal conditions that have to be met to ensure treatment adequacy. A software tool was made to calculate and visualise 3D temperature distributions during hepatic cryoablation combined with a 3D intra-operative navigation system. This system aids the user in placing the cryoprobe using an optical tracking system and 3D visualisation of the probe placement in relation to the target anatomy and the planned trajectory. 3D temperature distributions are calculated and visualized intra-operatively. The system is integrated with an interventional Magnetic Resonance 0.5T scanner. The system was tested in an animal experiment, exemplifying the usefulness of the navigation system and its ability to give intuitive feedback to the user on thermodynamic conditions induced in the target region. The system constitutes a novel tool for enhanced intra-operative control during cryoablative procedures, and motivates for studies using this tool to investigate predictors applied as indicators of treatment adequacy and patient outcome.

  17. Time-Dependent Reorganization of the Brain Components Underlying Memory Retention in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takehara, Kaori; Kawahara, Shigenori; Kirino, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the time-limited involvement of the hippocampus in mnemonic processes and suggested that there is reorganization of the responsible brain circuitry during memory consolidation...

  18. The Impact of Active Visualisation of High School Students on the Ability to Memorise Verbal Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Šmajdek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The era of visual communication influences the cognitive strategies of the individual. Education, too, must adjust to these changes, which raises questions regarding the use of visualisation in teaching. In the present study, we examine the impact of visualisation on the ability of high school students to memorise text. In the theoretical part of the research, we first clarify the concept of visualisation. We define the concept of active visualisation and visualisation as a means of acquiring and conveying knowledge, and we describe the different kinds of visualisation (appearance-based analogies and form-based analogies, specifically defining appearance-based schemata visualisations (where imagery is articulated in a typical culturally trained manner. In the empirical part of the research, we perform an experiment in which we evaluate the effects of visualisation on students’ ability to memorise a difficult written definition. According to the theoretical findings, we establish two hypotheses. In the first, we assume that the majority of the visualisations that students form will be appearance-based schemata visualisations. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that, in visualisation, people spontaneously use analogies based on imagery and schemas that are typical of their society. In the second hypothesis, we assume that active visualisation will contribute to the students’ ability to memorise text in a statistically significant way. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that the combination of verbal and visual experiences enhances cognitive learning. Both hypotheses were confirmed in the research. As our study only dealt with the impact of the most spontaneous type of appearance based schemata visualisations, we see further possibilities in researching the influence of visualisations that are more complex formally.

  19. Dysregulation of brain adenosine is detrimental to the expression of conditioned freezing but not general Pavlovian learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Philipp; Zhang, Chuchu; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K

    2013-03-01

    Glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is modulated by adenosine, whose ambient level in the brain is in turn regulated by the metabolic enzyme, adenosine kinase (ADK). Brain adenosinergic tone can therefore be effectively reduced and increased by up- and down-regulation of ADK expression, respectively. Although changes in brain ADK levels can yield multiple behavioral effects, the precise functional significance of telencephalon (neocortical and limbic structures) adenosine remains ill-defined. Among the phenotypes identified in transgenic mice with brain-wide ADK overexpression (ADK(TG) mice) and reduced adenosinergic tone, working memory deficiency and potentiated response to systemic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade were exacerbated by the introduction of local ADK disruption (elevated adenosinergic tone) restricted to the telencephalon (ADK(TG):ADK(Tel-def) mice). These two phenotypes, which are central to schizophrenia cognitive/negative symptoms, appear to be regulated by adenosinergic activities within and outside the telencephalon in a complementary manner. Here, we extended this unique comparison between ADK(TG) mice ADK(TG):ADK(Tel-def) mice to another prominent phenotype previously documented in ADK(TG) mice - namely, impaired Pavlovian conditioned freezing. We found that ADK(TG):ADK(Tel-def) mice again were associated with a more severe phenotype while sharing a similar phenotype profile. Furthermore, we qualified that this Pavlovian phenotype did not translate into a general deficiency in associative learning, since no such deficit was evident in three other (aversive and appetitive) Pavlovian learning paradigms. The present study has thus identified a hitherto unknown function of brain adenosine: the execution of conditioned freezing behavior, which is dependent on the balance of adenosinergic changes between the telencephalon and the rest of the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Brain Machine Interface for command based control of a wheelchair using conditioning of oscillatory brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Eyad M; Al-Gharabli, Samer I; Saket, Munib M; Jubran, Omar

    2017-07-01

    In this research a new method of wheelchair control using a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is proposed, in an attempt to bridge the gap between in-lab and real life applications, we believe it would provide a high level control over the BCI instead of the normal low level commands. It is anticipated to emphasis on mu rhythm to provide the control signals. The wheelchair is equipped with a mapping system, which scans the area and provides a map containing information about the user's current location and next possible destinations, then provides an optimized list of possible trajectories to reach the destination. The paradigm allows users to control the interface using motor imagery and issue commands to switch between possible trajectories and then confirm the choice. Commands trigger the motion of the wheelchair to the intended destination using a user selected path with speed up to 0.5 m/s. The interface also allows the user to interact with different robots through a common robotic system. Evaluation results indicate that this paradigm is indeed usable and could lead to promising outcomes.

  2. Insula and inferior frontal triangularis activations distinguish between conditioned brain responses using emotional sounds for basic BCI communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda evan der Heiden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI, it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (yes and negative (no responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting.Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS, respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1 and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2, in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR. The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI.

  3. UTILISING BTTRACE VISUALISER AND LTL FORMULAE PATTERNS FOR ANALYSING COUNTEREXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ully Havsa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the utilisation of a Behavior Tree trace visualiser called BTTrace and generalised LTL formulae patterns to help system analysts analyse counterexamples and generate valuable ones. Counterexample generated by SAL model checker from a Behavior Tree model and an LTL formulae is translated into a BTTrace file. This file is rendered by BTTrace to visualise the counterexample on Behavior Tree diagram in animated fashion. Generalised LTL formulae patterns are exploited using a particular technique to assist analyst on constructing new yet meaningful property formulas. These formulas are used to obtain different and valuable counterexamples for further analysis. It is shown that BTTrace and LTL formulae patterns give significant support for analysing counterexamples of Behavior Tree model.

  4. Integrated data visualisation: an approach to capture older adults’ wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire

    2013-01-01

    Informatics tools can help support the health and independence of older adults. In this paper, we present an approach towards integrating health-monitoring data and describe several techniques for the assessment and visualisation of integrated health and well-being of older adults. We present three different visualisation techniques to provide distinct alternatives towards display of the same information, focusing on reducing the cognitive load of data interpretation. We demonstrate the feasibility of integrating health-monitoring information into a comprehensive measure of wellness, while also highlighting the challenges of designing visual displays targeted at multiple user groups. These visual displays of wellness can be incorporated into personal health records and can be an effective support for informed decision-making. PMID:23079025

  5. Aging-dependent brain electrophysiological effects in rats after distinct lactation conditions, and treadmill exercise: a spreading depression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-de-Oliveira, Manuella; Lopes, Andréia Albuquerque Cunha; Mendes-da-Silva, Rosangela Figueiredo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araujo

    2012-06-01

    Aging-related neurophysiological alterations are a matter of growing concern in gerontology. Physical exercise has been therapeutically employed to ameliorate aging-associated deleterious neurological changes. The aging process, as well as the effects of treadmill exercise on brain excitability, can be influenced by nutritional demands during lactation. In this study we investigated whether physical exercise, lactation conditions, and aging interact and modulate brain electrophysiology as indexed by the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Wistar male rats were suckled in litters of 12 or 6 pups (constituting two groups named L12 and L6), with different lactation conditions. Each group was subdivided into exercised (treadmill) and sedentary. CSD was recorded immediately after the exercise period for young, adult, and aged groups (respectively 45-60, 120-130, and 600-700 days old). In L6 groups, the mean CSD velocity (in mm/min) ranged from 2.57±0.24 in aged rats to 3.67±0.13 in young rats, indicating an aging-related CSD deceleration. The L12 condition accelerated CSD (velocities ranging from 3.11±0.21 to 4.35±0.16 in aged and young rats, respectively) while treadmill exercise decelerated it in both L6 groups (range: 3.02±0.19 to 2.57±0.24) and L12 groups (3.32±0.16 to 3.11±0.21), with an observed interaction between factors in the aged group. Furthermore, aging led to a significant failure of CSD propagation. These results contribute to the understanding of underlying mechanisms by which exercise and aging influence brain electrophysiological functioning, previously associated with distinct lactation conditions during the period of brain development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Visualising and animating visual information foraging in context

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.; Cribbin, T

    2001-01-01

    Optimal information foraging provides a potentially useful framework for modelling, analysing, and interpreting search strategies of users through a spatial-semantic interface. Improving the understanding of behavioural patterns of users in such environments has implications for the design and refinement of a range of user interfaces. In this article, we outline the role of optimal information foraging in the study of visual information retrieval and how one may use visualisation and animatio...

  7. Development of Visualisations for Multi-Hazard Environments in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present an adaptation of global interacting hazard matrices for the purpose of improving disaster risk reduction in multi-hazard environments of Guatemala. Guatemala is associated with multiple natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, mass movements and floods. These processes are often not independent and it is therefore important to consider and understand the ways by which they interact to generate cascades or networks of natural hazard events. We first present a review of such hazard interactions and hazard chains in Guatemala, focusing on the volcanic environments around Pacaya, Fuego and Santiaguito. Interactions discussed are those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards. Consideration is also given to interactions where two hazards combine to trigger a third hazard, or two concurring hazards result in impacts greater than the sum of components. Second, we utilise and adapt global interacting hazard matrices designed to understand and communicate information about interactions. We explore the use of this hazard visualisation framework within the more regional Guatemalan context. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews, and a workshop with 16 participants, were held with hazard and civil protection professionals in Guatemala to solicit feedback on: (i) how visualisations with a global focus can be modified for use in Guatemala, (ii) possible end users for such visualisations, and (iii) participants' understanding of hazard interactions and their opinion of community understanding of these themes. Core ideas that emerged from these interviews were (i) the importance of such tools in rapid response, preparedness and community education, (ii) the appropriate scales for visualisation development, in order to have maximum impact, and (iii) the need to integrate anthropic factors to fully understand hazard cascades. It is hoped that the development of improved tools to understand natural hazard

  8. Construction, visualisation, and clustering of transcription networks from microarray expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom C Freeman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis transcends conventional pairwise approaches to data analysis as the context of components in a network graph can be taken into account. Such approaches are increasingly being applied to genomics data, where functional linkages are used to connect genes or proteins. However, while microarray gene expression datasets are now abundant and of high quality, few approaches have been developed for analysis of such data in a network context. We present a novel approach for 3-D visualisation and analysis of transcriptional networks generated from microarray data. These networks consist of nodes representing transcripts connected by virtue of their expression profile similarity across multiple conditions. Analysing genome-wide gene transcription across 61 mouse tissues, we describe the unusual topography of the large and highly structured networks produced, and demonstrate how they can be used to visualise, cluster, and mine large datasets. This approach is fast, intuitive, and versatile, and allows the identification of biological relationships that may be missed by conventional analysis techniques. This work has been implemented in a freely available open-source application named BioLayout Express(3D.

  9. Kunskap in/om pedagogik - Produktion, visualisering och effekter av skolresultat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lundahl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge in and about education: The production, visualisation and effects of education outcomes. This paper is built upon an inaugural speech I gave at Örebro University on 1 October 2014. I start by positioning the disciplinary subject ‘Pedagogik’ within the larger field of ‘Utbildningsvetenskap’ [educational research] and I claim that ‘Pedagogik’ can serve the purpose of being an especially reflexive discipline within the field of ‘Utbildningsvetenskap’ based on its tradition and strength in the fields of knowledge production, knowledge dissemination and learning. Thereafter, I position myself in the discipline of education as a curricular theorist with a particular interest in the retrospective sociology of knowledge. My research emphasizes the processes and the context of knowledge production as well as the correspondence between actors, places and networks. I give three examples from my own research to illustrate the complexities of the production, visualisation and use of knowledge: the transnational flows of ideas at the world fairs; the production and editorial work of the International Encyclopaedia of Education; and the use of international comparisons of assessment systems in local politics. I conclude by stressing that a reflexive ‘Pedagogik’ has important politics of its own when it is used to scrutinise the structures and conditions that build up everyday discourses in and about education.

  10. "GenotypeColour™": colour visualisation of SNPs and CNVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlati, Sergio; Chiesa, Sergio; Magri, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Background The volume of data available on genetic variations has increased considerably with the recent development of high-density, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Several software programs have been developed to assist researchers in the analysis of this huge amount of data, but few can rely upon a whole genome variability visualisation system that could help data interpretation. Results We have developed GenotypeColour™ as a rapid user-friendly tool able to upload, visualise and compare the huge amounts of data produced by Affymetrix Human Mapping GeneChips without losing the overall view of the data. Some features of GenotypeColour™ include visualising the entire genome variability in a single screenshot for one or more samples, the simultaneous display of the genotype and Copy Number state for thousands of SNPs, and the comparison of large amounts of samples by producing "consensus" images displaying regions of complete or partial identity. The software is also useful for genotype analysis of trios and to show regions of potential uniparental disomy (UPD). All information can then be exported in a tabular format for analysis with dedicated software. At present, the software can handle data from 10 K, 100 K, 250 K, 5.0 and 6.0 Affymetrix chips. Conclusion We have created a software that offers a new way of displaying and comparing SNP and CNV genomic data. The software is available free at and is especially useful for the analysis of multiple samples. PMID:19193232

  11. Nondestructive optical visualisation of graphene domains and boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingyi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John

    2016-09-15

    The domain boundaries of polycrystalline graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) adversely influence the graphene transporting properties. The existing domain visualisation methods for large area graphene always cause detrimental damage or contamination. Here we report a nondestructive method for spatial visualisation of the domains and boundaries of large area continuous graphene grown on Cu foils (Gr/Cu) by CVD. Using a rationally modified optical microscope, we can directly observe novel star-like bright line sets of Gr/Cu in an enhanced dark field mode. Each set of the bright lines is identified as the ridges of one Cu surface pyramid which arises beneath one enlarging graphene domain due to slower evaporation of graphene-covered Cu than that of graphene-free Cu. This one to one correspondence thereby enables nondestructive visualisation. This method offers an advantageous pathway for monitoring the spatial distribution of the graphene domains and boundaries. We have further discovered for the first time various types of star-like ridge structures which are governed by the underlying Cu crystallographic orientations. This gives rise to a new phenomenon for research on the complex 2D material-metal interfacing.

  12. Hypoxic conditioning and the central nervous system: A new therapeutic opportunity for brain and spinal cord injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillieul, S; Chacaroun, S; Doutreleau, S; Detante, O; Pépin, J L; Verges, S

    2017-06-01

    Central nervous system diseases are among the most disabling in the world. Neuroprotection and brain recovery from either acute or chronic neurodegeneration still represent a challenge in neurology and neurorehabilitation as pharmacology treatments are often insufficiently effective. Conditioning the central nervous system has been proposed as a potential non-pharmacological neuro-therapeutic. Conditioning refers to a procedure by which a potentially deleterious stimulus is applied near to but below the threshold of damage to the organism to increase resistance to the same or even different noxious stimuli given above the threshold of damage. Hypoxic conditioning has been investigated in several cellular and preclinical models and is now recognized as inducing endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection. Ischemic, traumatic, or chronic neurodegenerative diseases can benefit from hypoxic conditioning strategies aiming at preventing the deleterious consequences or reducing the severity of the pathological condition (preconditioning) or aiming at inducing neuroplasticity and recovery (postconditioning) following central nervous system injury. Hypoxic conditioning can consist in single (sustained) or cyclical (intermittent, interspersed by short period of normoxia) hypoxia stimuli which duration range from few minutes to several hours and that can be repeated over several days or weeks. This mini-review addresses the existing evidence regarding the use of hypoxic conditioning as a potential innovating neuro-therapeutic modality to induce neuroprotection, neuroplasticity and brain recovery. This mini-review also emphasizes issues which remain to be clarified and future researches to be performed in the field. Impact statement Neuroprotection and brain recovery from either acute or chronic neurodegeneration still represent a challenge in neurology and neurorehabilitation. Hypoxic conditioning may represent a harmless and efficient non-pharmacological new therapeutic

  13. Visualisation of cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns in albino Xenopus larvae in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It has long been known that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), its composition and flow, play an important part in normal brain development, and ependymal cell ciliary beating as a possible driver of CSF flow has previously been studied in mammalian fetuses in vitro. Lower vertebrate animals are potential models for analysis of CSF flow during development because they are oviparous. Albino Xenopus laevis larvae are nearly transparent and have a straight, translucent brain that facilitates the observation of fluid flow within the ventricles. The aim of these experiments was to study CSF flow and circulation in vivo in the developing brain of living embryos, larvae and tadpoles of Xenopus laevis using a microinjection technique. Methods The development of Xenopus larval brain ventricles and the patterns of CSF flow were visualised after injection of quantum dot nanocrystals and polystyrene beads (3.1 or 5.8 μm in diameter) into the fourth cerebral ventricle at embryonic/larval stages 30-53. Results The fluorescent nanocrystals showed the normal development of the cerebral ventricles from embryonic/larval stages 38 to 53. The polystyrene beads injected into stage 47-49 larvae revealed three CSF flow patterns, left-handed, right-handed and non-biased, in movement of the beads into the third ventricle from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius). In the lateral ventricles, anterior to the third ventricle, CSF flow moved anteriorly along the outer wall of the ventricle to the inner wall and then posteriorly, creating a semicircle. In the cerebral aqueduct, connecting the third and fourth cerebral ventricles, CSF flow moved rostrally in the dorsal region and caudally in the ventral region. Also in the fourth ventricle, clear dorso-ventral differences in fluid flow pattern were observed. Conclusions This is the first visualisation of the orchestrated CSF flow pattern in developing vertebrates using a live animal imaging approach. CSF flow in Xenopus albino larvae

  14. Control of the bacteriological condition of calf brain. I. Impact of improving hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Frans J.M.; Korteknie, Frank; Woolthuis, Caspar H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sixty calves of the Dutch Friesian (FH) breed were stunned mechanically. Without previously having been stunned, another 30 calves were stuck according to the Jewish rite. Upon opening of the skulls (1–2 h post mortem) brains of mechanically stunned calves were collected either conventionally (n =

  15. NEUROREHABILITATION OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS AND DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIORS BY BRAIN STATE CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra K. SINGH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain State Conditioning™ (BSC is an innovative technology that optimizes brainwaves in real-time to achieve balance and harmony of the human brain. Since the brain function is imbalanced in individuals with psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases, we explored the possibility of using this technology to help people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We conducted a pilot study of 8 adult subjects who had symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety problems. The severity of symptoms was evaluated by Objective survey and Beck’s inventory for depression and anxiety. After the initial assessment of brain maps, individuals were administered with highly personalized training sessions, for example 4-5 sessions over 4-5 days. After the administration of BSC, we found a consistent decline in Beck’s inventory scores, which implied alleviation of depressive and anxiety tendencies. All subjects in the study responded to BSC technology and showed noticeable improvement in the quality of their lives. Thus we suggest that BSC is a viable approach to brainwave optimization to help people overcome health problems due to PTSD and depression.

  16. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchmanov, A. [State Research Center of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics

    2000-05-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  17. Relational and procedural memory systems in the goldfish brain revealed by trace and delay eyeblink-like conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; Rodríguez-Expósito, B; Durán, E; Martín-Monzón, I; Broglio, C; Salas, C; Rodríguez, F

    2016-12-01

    The presence of multiple memory systems supported by different neural substrata has been demonstrated in animal and human studies. In mammals, two variants of eyeblink classical conditioning, differing only in the temporal relationships between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), have been widely used to study the neural substrata of these different memory systems. Delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time, depends on a non-relational memory system supported by the cerebellum and associated brainstem circuits. In contrast, trace conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the CS and the US, requires a declarative or relational memory system, thus depending on forebrain structures in addition to the cerebellum. The distinction between the explicit or relational and the implicit or procedural memory systems that support trace and delay classical conditioning has been extensively studied in mammals, but studies in other vertebrate groups are relatively scarce. In the present experiment we analyzed the differential involvement of the cerebellum and the telencephalon in delay and trace eyeblink-like classical conditioning in goldfish. The results show that whereas the cerebellum lesion prevented the eyeblink-like conditioning in both procedures, the telencephalon ablation impaired exclusively the acquisition of the trace conditioning. These data showing that comparable neural systems support delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in teleost fish and mammals suggest that these separate memory systems and their neural bases could be a shared ancestral brain feature of the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  19. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: Functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg eBock

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method in 8 day old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A pups together with parents and siblings (control, (B separation of the litter from the parents, (C individual separation from parents and siblings, (D individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C, where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D maternal vocalizations reactivated brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other

  20. Sex-based differences in brain alterations across chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Fling, Connor; Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce D; Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2017-01-02

    Common brain mechanisms are thought to play a significant role across a multitude of chronic pain syndromes. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of sex differences in the prevalence of chronic pain and in the neurobiology of pain. Thus, it is important to consider sex when developing general principals of pain neurobiology. The goal of the current Mini-Review is to evaluate what is known about sex-specific brain alterations across multiple chronic pain populations. A total of 15 sex difference and 143 single-sex articles were identified from among 412 chronic pain neuroimaging articles. Results from sex difference studies indicate more prominent primary sensorimotor structural and functional alterations in female chronic pain patients compared with male chronic pain patients: differences in the nature and degree of insula alterations, with greater insula reactivity in male patients; differences in the degree of anterior cingulate structural alterations; and differences in emotional-arousal reactivity. Qualitative comparisons of male-specific and female-specific studies appear to be consistent with the results from sex difference studies. Given these differences, mixed-sex studies of chronic pain risk creating biased data or missing important information and single-sex studies have limited generalizability. The advent of large-scale neuroimaging databases will likely aid in building a more comprehensive understanding of sex differences and commonalities in brain mechanisms underlying chronic pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Identification of brain nuclei implicated in cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference: a behaviour dissociable from sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Mary Brown

    Full Text Available Relapse prevention represents the primary therapeutic challenge in the treatment of drug addiction. As with humans, drug-seeking behaviour can be precipitated in laboratory animals by exposure to a small dose of the drug (prime. The aim of this study was to identify brain nuclei implicated in the cocaine-primed reinstatement of a conditioned place preference (CPP. Thus, a group of mice were conditioned to cocaine, had this place preference extinguished and were then tested for primed reinstatement of the original place preference. There was no correlation between the extent of drug-seeking upon reinstatement and the extent of behavioural sensitization, the extent of original CPP or the extinction profile of mice, suggesting a dissociation of these components of addictive behaviour with a drug-primed reinstatement. Expression of the protein product of the neuronal activity marker c-fos was assessed in a number of brain regions of mice that exhibited reinstatement (R mice versus those which did not (NR mice. Reinstatement generally conferred greater Fos expression in cortical and limbic structures previously implicated in drug-seeking behaviour, though a number of regions not typically associated with drug-seeking were also activated. In addition, positive correlations were found between neural activation of a number of brain regions and reinstatement behaviour. The most significant result was the activation of the lateral habenula and its positive correlation with reinstatement behaviour. The findings of this study question the relationship between primed reinstatement of a previously extinguished place preference for cocaine and behavioural sensitization. They also implicate activation patterns of discrete brain nuclei as differentiators between reinstating and non-reinstating mice.

  2. Visualisation of Kiss1 Neurone Distribution Using a Kiss1-CRE Transgenic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, S-H; Kyle, V; Morris, P G; Jackman, S; Sinnett-Smith, L C; Schacker, M; Chen, C; Colledge, W H

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurones are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus: one in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and another in the RP3V region, which includes the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurones will help with our understanding of the action of these neurones in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region is disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter. As expected, mutant mice of both sexes are sterile with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and do not show the normal rise in luteinising hormone after gonadectomy. Mutant female mice do not develop mature Graafian follicles or form corpora lutea consistent with ovulatory failure. Mutant male mice have low blood testosterone levels and impaired spermatogenesis beyond the meiosis stage. Breeding Kiss-CRE heterozygous mice with CRE-activated tdTomato reporter mice allows fluorescence visualisation of Kiss1 neurones in brain slices. Approximately 80-90% of tdTomato positive neurones in the ARC were co-labelled with kisspeptin and expression of tdTomato in the AVPV region was sexually dimorphic, with higher expression in females than males. A small number of tdTomato-labelled neurones was also found in other locations, including the lateral septum, the anterodorsal preoptic nucleus, the amygdala, the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the periaquaductal grey, and the mammillary nucleus. Three dimensional visualisation of Kiss1 neurones and fibres by CLARITY processing of whole brains showed an increase in ARC expression during puberty and higher numbers of Kiss1 neurones in the caudal region of the ARC compared to the rostral region. ARC Kiss1 neurones sent fibre projections to several

  3. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  4. "GenotypeColour™": colour visualisation of SNPs and CNVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magri Chiara

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The volume of data available on genetic variations has increased considerably with the recent development of high-density, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays. Several software programs have been developed to assist researchers in the analysis of this huge amount of data, but few can rely upon a whole genome variability visualisation system that could help data interpretation. Results We have developed GenotypeColour™ as a rapid user-friendly tool able to upload, visualise and compare the huge amounts of data produced by Affymetrix Human Mapping GeneChips without losing the overall view of the data. Some features of GenotypeColour™ include visualising the entire genome variability in a single screenshot for one or more samples, the simultaneous display of the genotype and Copy Number state for thousands of SNPs, and the comparison of large amounts of samples by producing "consensus" images displaying regions of complete or partial identity. The software is also useful for genotype analysis of trios and to show regions of potential uniparental disomy (UPD. All information can then be exported in a tabular format for analysis with dedicated software. At present, the software can handle data from 10 K, 100 K, 250 K, 5.0 and 6.0 Affymetrix chips. Conclusion We have created a software that offers a new way of displaying and comparing SNP and CNV genomic data. The software is available free at http://www.med.unibs.it/~barlati/GenotypeColour and is especially useful for the analysis of multiple samples.

  5. LIME: 3D visualisation and interpretation of virtual geoscience models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon; Ringdal, Kari; Dolva, Benjamin; Naumann, Nicole; Kurz, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional and photorealistic acquisition of surface topography, using methods such as laser scanning and photogrammetry, has become widespread across the geosciences over the last decade. With recent innovations in photogrammetric processing software, robust and automated data capture hardware, and novel sensor platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles, obtaining 3D representations of exposed topography has never been easier. In addition to 3D datasets, fusion of surface geometry with imaging sensors, such as multi/hyperspectral, thermal and ground-based InSAR, and geophysical methods, create novel and highly visual datasets that provide a fundamental spatial framework to address open geoscience research questions. Although data capture and processing routines are becoming well-established and widely reported in the scientific literature, challenges remain related to the analysis, co-visualisation and presentation of 3D photorealistic models, especially for new users (e.g. students and scientists new to geomatics methods). Interpretation and measurement is essential for quantitative analysis of 3D datasets, and qualitative methods are valuable for presentation purposes, for planning and in education. Motivated by this background, the current contribution presents LIME, a lightweight and high performance 3D software for interpreting and co-visualising 3D models and related image data in geoscience applications. The software focuses on novel data integration and visualisation of 3D topography with image sources such as hyperspectral imagery, logs and interpretation panels, geophysical datasets and georeferenced maps and images. High quality visual output can be generated for dissemination purposes, to aid researchers with communication of their research results. The background of the software is described and case studies from outcrop geology, in hyperspectral mineral mapping and geophysical-geospatial data integration are used to showcase the novel

  6. Visualisation of biomechanical data to assist therapeutic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, A S; Loudon, D; Rowe, P J

    2010-12-01

    PURPOSE: The biomechanics community have to date had limited success in communicating complex biomechanical data and analyses outside of their field. The authors have created an innovative prototype software tool to visualise objective dynamic movement data captured from older adults undertaking activities of daily living (ADLs). Evaluation of this tool has shown it to be a successful way of communicating the complexity of older adult mobility data in an accessible manner for non-biomechanical specialists and lay audiences(1,2). METHODS: A software tool was developed, which generates a 3D animated human 'stick figure', on which the biomechanical demands of ADLs are represented visually at the joints as a percentage of each individual's maximum capability using a continuous colour gradient from green at 0%, amber at 50%, through to red at 100% (Figure 1). The tool was evaluated using a qualitative methodology of interviews and focus groups, where older adults and professionals viewed a series of visualisations of dynamic movement data(3). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Analysis of focus group discussions facilitated by the visualizations revealed new kinds of dialogues about biomechanical issues. The method of visualising and presenting the data clearly enabled people without training in biomechanics, both professionals and lay older people, to access and interpret the biomechanical information, based on their background, knowledge of a field or their personal experience. Further, the common visual medium enabled the sharing of different insights without recourse to specialist terminology or knowledge. New kinds of dialogues occurred in focus groups between older people and professionals about their experiences, based on real understanding of where the mobility problems were occurring. New dialogues also emerged between professionals from a range of different disciplines, crucial for different aspects of the care, wellbeing or design of the built environment for older

  7. Conditional deletion of Ccm2 causes hemorrhage in the adult brain: a mouse model of human cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kirk; Uchida, Yutaka; O'Donnell, Erin; Claudio, Estefania; Li, Wenling; Soneji, Kosha; Wang, Hongshan; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2011-08-15

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are irregularly shaped and enlarged capillaries in the brain that are prone to hemorrhage, resulting in headaches, seizures, strokes and even death in patients. The disease affects up to 0.5% of the population and the inherited form has been linked to mutations in one of three genetic loci, CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3. To understand the pathophysiology underlying the vascular lesions in CCM, it is critical to develop a reproducible mouse genetic model of this disease. Here, we report that limited conditional ablation of Ccm2 in young adult mice induces observable neurological dysfunction and reproducibly results in brain hemorrhages whose appearance is highly reminiscent of the lesions observed in human CCM patients. We first demonstrate that conventional or endothelial-specific deletion of Ccm2 leads to fatal cardiovascular defects during embryogenesis, including insufficient vascular lumen formation as well as defective arteriogenesis and heart malformation. These findings confirm and extend prior studies. We then demonstrate that the inducible deletion of Ccm2 in adult mice recapitulates the CCM-like brain lesions in humans; the lesions display disrupted vascular lumens, enlarged capillary cavities, loss of proper neuro-vascular associations and an inflammatory reaction. The CCM lesions also exhibit damaged neuronal architecture, the likely cause of neurologic defects, such as ataxia and seizure. These mice represent the first CCM2 animal model for CCM and should provide the means to elucidate disease mechanisms and evaluate therapeutic strategies for human CCM.

  8. An examination of co-occurring conditions and management of psychotropic medication use in soldiers with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinde, Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 1.4 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) per year in the United States, with about 23 000 survivors requiring hospitalization. The incidence of TBI has increased in the patient population of the Department of Defense and Veterans Healthcare Administration as a result of injuries suffered during recent military and combat operations. Within the past few years, TBI has emerged as a common form of injury in service members with a subset of patients experiencing postinjury symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Traumatic brain injury can occur when sudden trauma (ie, penetration blast or blunt) causes damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injury produces a cascade of potentially injurious processes that include focal contusions and cytotoxic damage. The results of TBI can include impaired physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning, which may or may not require the initiation of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions when deemed appropriate. Associated outcomes of TBI include alterations in mental state at the time of injury (confusion, disorientation, slowed thinking, and alteration of consciousness). Neurological deficits include loss of balance, praxis, aphasia, change in vision that may or may not be transient. Individuals who sustain a TBI are more likely to have or developed co-occurring conditions (ie, sleep problems, headaches, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) that may require the administration of multiple medications. It has been identified that veterans being discharged on central nervous system and muscular skeletal drug classes can develop addiction and experience medication misadventures. With the severity of TBI being highly variable but typically categorized as either mild, moderate, or severe, it can assist health care providers in determining which patients are more susceptible to medication misadventures compared with others. The unique development of

  9. Method for exploratory cluster analysis and visualisation of single-trial ERP ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N J; Nasuto, S J; Saddy, J D

    2015-07-30

    The validity of ensemble averaging on event-related potential (ERP) data has been questioned, due to its assumption that the ERP is identical across trials. Thus, there is a need for preliminary testing for cluster structure in the data. We propose a complete pipeline for the cluster analysis of ERP data. To increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the raw single-trials, we used a denoising method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Next, we used a bootstrap-based method to determine the number of clusters, through a measure called the Stability Index (SI). We then used a clustering algorithm based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to define initial cluster centroids for subsequent k-means clustering. Finally, we visualised the clustering results through a scheme based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After validating the pipeline on simulated data, we tested it on data from two experiments - a P300 speller paradigm on a single subject and a language processing study on 25 subjects. Results revealed evidence for the existence of 6 clusters in one experimental condition from the language processing study. Further, a two-way chi-square test revealed an influence of subject on cluster membership. Our analysis operates on denoised single-trials, the number of clusters are determined in a principled manner and the results are presented through an intuitive visualisation. Given the cluster structure in some experimental conditions, we suggest application of cluster analysis as a preliminary step before ensemble averaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Near-death-like experiences without life-threatening conditions or brain disorders: a hypothesis from a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eFacco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Near-death experiences (NDEs are profound psychic experiences commonly occurring in life-threatening conditions. They include feeling a sense of peace, of seeing a bright light, encountering deceased relatives or religious figures, and of transcending space and time. To explain them, it has been suggested that they stem from brain disorders and/or psychological reactions to approaching death, a sort of wishful thinking in response to the perceived threat.This is a report on a case with most of the features typical of NDEs except that it occurred entirely without any life-threatening conditions. This evidence is theoretically incompatible with either of the above hypotheses, suggesting that a broader interpretation of the phenomenon is needed.

  11. Pan-Tetris: an interactive visualisation for Pan-genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, André; Bernhardt, Jörg; Nieselt, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genome projects have paved the way to microbial pan-genome analyses. Pan-genomes describe the union of all genes shared by all members of the species or taxon under investigation. They offer a framework to assess the genomic diversity of a given collection of individual genomes and moreover they help to consolidate gene predictions and annotations. The computation of pan-genomes is often a challenge, and many techniques that use a global alignment-independent approach run the risk of not separating paralogs from orthologs. Also alignment-based approaches which take the gene neighbourhood into account often need additional manual curation of the results. This is quite time consuming and so far there is no visualisation tool available that offers an interactive GUI for the pan-genome to support curating pan-genomic computations or annotations of orthologous genes. We introduce Pan-Tetris, a Java based interactive software tool that provides a clearly structured and suitable way for the visual inspection of gene occurrences in a pan-genome table. The main features of Pan-Tetris are a standard coordinate based presentation of multiple genomes complemented by easy to use tools compensating for algorithmic weaknesses in the pan-genome generation workflow. We demonstrate an application of Pan-Tetris to the pan-genome of Staphylococcus aureus. Pan-Tetris is currently the only interactive pan-genome visualisation tool. Pan-Tetris is available from http://bit.ly/1vVxYZT.

  12. Visualisation for Stochastic Process Algebras: The Graphic Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew; Gilmore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    There have historically been two approaches to performance modelling. On the one hand, textual language-based formalisms such as stochastic process algebras allow compositional modelling that is portable and easy to manage. In contrast, graphical formalisms such as stochastic Petri nets and stoch......There have historically been two approaches to performance modelling. On the one hand, textual language-based formalisms such as stochastic process algebras allow compositional modelling that is portable and easy to manage. In contrast, graphical formalisms such as stochastic Petri nets...... and stochastic activity networks provide an automaton-based view of the model, which may be easier to visualise, at the expense of portability. In this paper, we argue that we can achieve the benefits of both approaches by generating a graphical view of a stochastic process algebra model, which is synchronised...... with the textual representation, giving the user has two ways in which they can interact with the model. We present a tool, as part of the PEPA Eclipse Plug-in, that allows the components of models in the Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA) to be visualised in a graphical way. This also provides...

  13. High-Speed Visualisation of Combustion in Modern Gasoline Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, W.; Nauwerck, A.; Han, K.-M.; Pfeil, J.; Velji, A.; Spicher, U.

    2006-07-01

    Today research and development in the field of gasoline engines have to face a double challenge: on the one hand, fuel consumption has to be reduced, while on the other hand, ever more stringent emission standards have to be fulfilled. The development of engines with its complexity of in-cylinder processes requires modern development tools to exploit the full potential in order to reduce fuel consumption. Especially optical, non-intrusive measurement techniques will help to get a better understanding of the processes. With the presented high-speed visualisation system the electromagnetic radiation from combustion in the UV range is collected by an endoscope and transmitted to a visualisation system by 10, 000 optical fibres. The signal is projected to 1, 920 photomultipliers, which convert the optical into electric signals with a maximum temporal resolution of 200 kHz. This paper shows the systematic application of flame diagnostics in modern combustion systems. For this purpose, a single-cylinder SI engine has been modified for a spray guided combustion strategy as well as for HCCI. The characteristics of flame propagation in both combustion modes were recorded and correlated with thermodynamic analyses. In case of the spray guided GDI engine, high pressure fuel injection was applied and evaluated.

  14. Visualising the Global Shift in Energy Demand and Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Isma'il

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global energy demand depends on supplies from fossil fuels responsible for climate change. The supply of the fossil fuels required to meet the global energy demand depends on production from the available proved reserves of oil, coal and gas unevenly distributed around the world. On the other hand, the energy demand of a country is determined by its economic growth and population dynamics. The industrialised nations accounted for the rising demand in global primary energy. However, a global shift is underway with the developing economies being responsible for most of the increase in global energy demand. Moreover, statistics suggest that the global energy production and consumption vary spatially and temporally. This study utilised cartograms to visualise the global shift in production and consumption of fossil fuels; because of its implication on global energy security and climate change. We observed that cartograms which are rarely used in energy visualisations provide informative and intuitive picture of the global shift in energy demand and supply.

  15. Visualisation of the Bonebridge by means of CT and CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background With the Bonebridge, a new bone-anchored hearing aid has been available since March 2012. The objective of the study was to analyse the visualisation of the implant itself as well as its impact on the representation of the bony structures of the petrosal bone in CT, MRI and cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods The Bonebridge was implanted unilaterally in two completely prepared human heads. The radiological imaging by means of CBCT, 64-slice CT, 1.5-T and 3.0-T MRI was conducted both preoperatively and postoperatively. The images were subsequently evaluated from both the ENT medical and nd radiological perspectives. Results As anticipated, no visualisation of the implant or of the petrosal bones could be realised on MRI because of the interactive technology and the magnet artefact. In contrast, an excellent evaluability of the implant itself as well as of the surrounding neurovascular structures (sinus sigmoideus, skull base, middle ear, inner ear, inner auditory canal) was exhibited in both the CT and in the CBCT. Conclusion The Bonebridge can be excellently imaged with the radiological imaging technologies of CT and CBCT. In the process, CBCT shows discrete advantages in comparison with CT. No relevant restrictions in image quality in the evaluation of the bony structures of the petrosal bones could be seen. PMID:24004903

  16. No Effect of Different Stimulation Conditions on Verbal Fluency and Visuospatial Orientation in Patients with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rezzak; Akbostancı, M Cenk; Mercan, F Nazlı; Sorgun, Mine H; Savaş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation is an effective treatment for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Apart from the obvious motor benefits, some cognitive side effects have been reported, particularly in verbal fluency. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of the stimulation on verbal fluency and visuospatial orientation with changing stimulation conditions in 35 patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients were randomized for their stimulation conditions as 'both on', 'both off', 'right on', and 'left on' and underwent verbal fluency and visuospatial orientation tasks during their drug-on periods. Letter and categorical fluency tasks and Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test were used for assessment. Overall, 6 patients were excluded due to dementia or depression. For verbal fluency, the number of words they produced in 1 min was similar in four stimulation conditions (p > 0.05). No significant difference was found between stimulation conditions in the spatial orientation task. We were unable to find any significant changes in verbal fluency and visuospatial orientation task scores with different stimulation conditions. This result suggests that either stimulation has no effect on given domains or the effect is so small that more detailed batteries are required to detect the difference. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Selecting 3D urban visualisation models for disaster management : Fethiye tsunami inundation case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemec, S.; Duzgun, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Dilmen, D.I.; Yalciner, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Urban 3D visualisation rarely considers integrated data visualisation in disaster management. In general, such methods should incorporate interoperable approaches and data to avoid duplicating efforts and to reduce costs. To achieve such interoperability, it is important to investigate the link

  18. Spatial Visualisation and Cognitive Style: How Do Gender Differences Play Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated potential gender differences in a sample of 807 Year 6 Singaporean students in relation to two variables: spatial visualisation ability and cognitive style. In contrast to the general trend, overall there were no significant gender differences on spatial visualisation ability. However, gender differences were prevalent…

  19. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. ACORNS: A Tool for the Visualisation and Modelling of Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; George, R.

    2011-01-01

    Across many academic disciplines visualisation and notation systems are used for modelling data and developing theory, but in child development visual models are not widely used; yet researchers and students of developmental difficulties may benefit from a visualisation and notation system which can clearly map developmental outcomes and…

  1. Use of Data Visualisation in the Teaching of Statistics: A New Zealand Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sharleen; Chapman, Jeanette; Harraway, John; Stirling, Doug; Wild, Chris

    2014-01-01

    For many years, students have been taught to visualise data by drawing graphs. Recently, there has been a growing trend to teach statistics, particularly statistical concepts, using interactive and dynamic visualisation tools. Free down-loadable teaching and simulation software designed specifically for schools, and more general data visualisation…

  2. The Impact of Active Visualisation of High School Students on the Ability to Memorise Verbal Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajdek, Anamarija; Selan, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    The era of visual communication influences the cognitive strategies of the individual. Education, too, must adjust to these changes, which raises questions regarding the use of visualisation in teaching. In the present study, we examine the impact of visualisation on the ability of high school students to memorise text. In the theoretical part of…

  3. Scientific Visualisations for Developing Students' Understanding of Concepts in Chemistry: Some Findings and Some Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Mahaffy, Peter; Mukherjee, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Scientific visualisations such as computer-based animations and simulations are increasingly a feature of high school Science instruction. Visualisations are adopted enthusiastically by teachers and embraced by students, and there is good evidence that they are popular and well received. There is limited evidence, however, of how effective they…

  4. Evidence for Effective Uses of Dynamic Visualisations in Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Kevin W.; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic visualisations capture aspects of scientific phenomena that are difficult to communicate in static materials and benefit from well-designed scaffolds to succeed in classrooms. We review research to clarify the impacts of dynamic visualisations and to identify instructional scaffolds that mediate their success. We use meta-analysis to…

  5. Generation of a Tph2 Conditional Knockout Mouse Line for Time- and Tissue-Specific Depletion of Brain Serotonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pelosi

    Full Text Available Serotonin has been gaining increasing attention during the last two decades due to the dual function of this monoamine as key regulator during critical developmental events and as neurotransmitter. Importantly, unbalanced serotonergic levels during critical temporal phases might contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite increasing evidences from both animal models and human genetic studies have underpinned the importance of serotonin homeostasis maintenance during central nervous system development and adulthood, the precise role of this molecule in time-specific activities is only beginning to be elucidated. Serotonin synthesis is a 2-step process, the first step of which is mediated by the rate-limiting activity of Tph enzymes, belonging to the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and existing in two isoforms, Tph1 and Tph2, responsible for the production of peripheral and brain serotonin, respectively. In the present study, we generated and validated a conditional knockout mouse line, Tph2flox/flox, in which brain serotonin can be effectively ablated with time specificity. We demonstrated that the Cre-mediated excision of the third exon of Tph2 gene results in the production of a Tph2null allele in which we observed the near-complete loss of brain serotonin, as well as the growth defects and perinatal lethality observed in serotonin conventional knockouts. We also revealed that in mice harbouring the Tph2null allele, but not in wild-types, two distinct Tph2 mRNA isoforms are present, namely Tph2Δ3 and Tph2Δ3Δ4, with the latter showing an in-frame deletion of amino acids 84-178 and coding a protein that could potentially retain non-negligible enzymatic activity. As we could not detect Tph1 expression in the raphe, we made the hypothesis that the Tph2Δ3Δ4 isoform can be at the origin of the residual, sub-threshold amount of serotonin detected in the brain of Tph2null/null mice

  6. Generation of a Tph2 Conditional Knockout Mouse Line for Time- and Tissue-Specific Depletion of Brain Serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliarini, Sara; Pacini, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin has been gaining increasing attention during the last two decades due to the dual function of this monoamine as key regulator during critical developmental events and as neurotransmitter. Importantly, unbalanced serotonergic levels during critical temporal phases might contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite increasing evidences from both animal models and human genetic studies have underpinned the importance of serotonin homeostasis maintenance during central nervous system development and adulthood, the precise role of this molecule in time-specific activities is only beginning to be elucidated. Serotonin synthesis is a 2-step process, the first step of which is mediated by the rate-limiting activity of Tph enzymes, belonging to the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and existing in two isoforms, Tph1 and Tph2, responsible for the production of peripheral and brain serotonin, respectively. In the present study, we generated and validated a conditional knockout mouse line, Tph2flox/flox, in which brain serotonin can be effectively ablated with time specificity. We demonstrated that the Cre-mediated excision of the third exon of Tph2 gene results in the production of a Tph2null allele in which we observed the near-complete loss of brain serotonin, as well as the growth defects and perinatal lethality observed in serotonin conventional knockouts. We also revealed that in mice harbouring the Tph2null allele, but not in wild-types, two distinct Tph2 mRNA isoforms are present, namely Tph2Δ3 and Tph2Δ3Δ4, with the latter showing an in-frame deletion of amino acids 84–178 and coding a protein that could potentially retain non-negligible enzymatic activity. As we could not detect Tph1 expression in the raphe, we made the hypothesis that the Tph2Δ3Δ4 isoform can be at the origin of the residual, sub-threshold amount of serotonin detected in the brain of Tph2null/null mice. Finally, we set up

  7. Identification and validation of housekeeping genes in brains of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria under different developmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hiel Matthias B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain reliable quantitative RT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. However, in practice, expression levels of 'typical' housekeeping genes have been found to vary between tissues and under different experimental conditions. To date, validation studies of reference genes in insects are extremely rare and have never been performed in locusts. In this study, putative housekeeping genes were identified in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria and two different software programs (geNorm and Normfinder were applied to assess the stability of thesegenes. Results We have identified seven orthologs of commonly used housekeeping genes in the desert locust. The selected genes were the orthologs of actin, EF1a, GAPDH, RP49, TubA1, Ubi, and CG13220. By employing real time RT-PCR we have analysed the expression of these housekeeping genes in brain tissue of fifth instar nymphs and adults. In the brain of fifth instar nymphs geNorm indicated Sg-EF1a, Sg-GAPDH and Sg-RP49 as most stable genes, while Normfinder ranked Sg-RP49, Sg-EF1a and Sg-ACT as most suitable candidates for normalization. The best normalization candidates for gene expression studies in the brains of adult locusts were Sg-EF1a, Sg-GAPDH and Sg-Ubi according to geNorm, while Normfinder determined Sg-GAPDH, Sg-Ubi and Sg-ACT as the most stable housekeeping genes. Conclusion To perform transcript profiling studies on brains of the desert locust, the use of Sg-RP49, Sg-EF1a and Sg-ACT as reference genes is proposed for studies of fifth instar nymphs. In experiments with adult brains, however, the most preferred reference genes were Sg-GAPDH, Sg-Ubi and Sg-EF1a. These data will facilitate transcript profiling studies in desert locusts and provide a good starting point for the initial selection of genes for validation studies in other insects.

  8. Visualisation during ablation of atrial fibrillation - stimulating the patient's own resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Marianne W.; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Going through ablation of atrial fibrillation can be accompanied by pain and discomfort when a light, conscious sedation is used. Visualisation has been shown to reduce the patients' perception of pain and anxiety during invasive procedures, when it is used together with the usual pain...... management. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate patients' experiences with visualisation in relation to pain and anxiety during an intervention consisting of visualisation, when undergoing ablation of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 14 patients from...... of managing anxiety' and 'benefits of visualisation'. The transversal analyses revealed two overall themes which highlight the experiences of being guided in visualisation during ablation of atrial fibrillation: 'stimulation of the patients' own resources' and 'being satisfied without complete analgesia...

  9. Information visualisation for science and policy: engaging users and avoiding bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerny, Greg J; Chen, Min; Freeman, Robin; Gavaghan, David; Meyer, Miriah; Rowland, Francis; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stefaner, Moritz; Tessarolo, Geizi; Hortal, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicated, uncertain data requires expertise and knowledge from science, policy, computing, and design. However, visualisation is rarely found in our scientific training, organisations, or collaborations. As new policy programmes develop [e.g., the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)], we need information visualisation to permeate increasingly both the work of scientists and science policy. The alternative is increased potential for missed discoveries, miscommunications, and, at worst, creating a bias towards the research that is easiest to display. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetically targeted 3D visualisation of Drosophila neurons under Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microscopy using miniSOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Julian; Browning, Alyssa; Lechner, Lorenz; Terada, Masako; Howard, Gillian; Jefferis, Gregory S X E

    2016-12-13

    Large dimension, high-resolution imaging is important for neural circuit visualisation as neurons have both long- and short-range patterns: from axons and dendrites to the numerous synapses at terminal endings. Electron Microscopy (EM) is the favoured approach for synaptic resolution imaging but how such structures can be segmented from high-density images within large volume datasets remains challenging. Fluorescent probes are widely used to localise synapses, identify cell-types and in tracing studies. The equivalent EM approach would benefit visualising such labelled structures from within sub-cellular, cellular, tissue and neuroanatomical contexts. Here we developed genetically-encoded, electron-dense markers using miniSOG. We demonstrate their ability in 1) labelling cellular sub-compartments of genetically-targeted neurons, 2) generating contrast under different EM modalities, and 3) segmenting labelled structures from EM volumes using computer-assisted strategies. We also tested non-destructive X-ray imaging on whole Drosophila brains to evaluate contrast staining. This enabled us to target specific regions for EM volume acquisition.

  11. Omission of expected reward sensitizes the brain dopaminergic system of classically conditioned Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, M.A.; Höglund, Erik; Folkedal, O.

    in fishes. Here we show that the omission of expected reward (OER) leads to increased aggression towards conspecifics in classically conditioned Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Furthermore, in response to an acute stressor, OER fish displayed increased dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission compared to controls....... There was also a general downregulation of dopamine receptor D1 gene expression in the telencephalon of OER groups, which suggests a coping mechanism in response to unbalanced DA metabolism. These results indicate that animals subjected to unpredictable reward conditions develop a senzitation of the DA...

  12. Classification of Error Related Brain Activity in an Auditory Identification Task with Conditions of Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkos, I.; Gkiatis, K.; Bromis, K.; Asvestas, P. A.; Karanasiou, I. S.; Ventouras, E. M.; Matsopoulos, G. K.

    2017-11-01

    The detection of an error is the cognitive evaluation of an action outcome that is considered undesired or mismatches an expected response. Brain activity during monitoring of correct and incorrect responses elicits Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealing complex cerebral responses to deviant sensory stimuli. Development of accurate error detection systems is of great importance both concerning practical applications and in investigating the complex neural mechanisms of decision making. In this study, data are used from an audio identification experiment that was implemented with two levels of complexity in order to investigate neurophysiological error processing mechanisms in actors and observers. To examine and analyse the variations of the processing of erroneous sensory information for each level of complexity we employ Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers with various learning methods and kernels using characteristic ERP time-windowed features. For dimensionality reduction and to remove redundant features we implement a feature selection framework based on Sequential Forward Selection (SFS). The proposed method provided high accuracy in identifying correct and incorrect responses both for actors and for observers with mean accuracy of 93% and 91% respectively. Additionally, computational time was reduced and the effects of the nesting problem usually occurring in SFS of large feature sets were alleviated.

  13. Prenatal and Postnatal Medical Conditions and the Risk of Brain Tumors in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tettamanti, Giorgio; Shu, Xiaochen; Adel Fahmideh, Maral

    2017-01-01

    conditions, including medical diagnostic radiation, were not associated with CABTs. On the basis of small numbers of exposed children, we observed a nonsignificant increased risk for CT scans of the head. IMPACT: We have presented additional evidence, suggesting that exposure to head CT scan may...

  14. Clinical utility of visualisation of nigrosome-1 in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stezin, Albert; Naduthota, Rajini M; Botta, Ragasudha; Varadharajan, Shriram; Lenka, Abhishek; Saini, Jitender; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-08-04

    To determine the diagnostic characteristics of poor visualisation of nigrosome-1 as a neuroimaging biomarker in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to explore the relationship of poor visualisation of nigrosome-1 and clinical asymmetry. High-resolution gradient-echo sequences of 67 patients with PD and 63 healthy controls were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the clinical details. A three-tier classification system was used to categorise the scans based on the visualisation of nigrosome-1, and inter-rater reliability was calculated at each level of classification. Other diagnostic properties such as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated. The relationship between poor visualisation of nigrosome-1 and clinical asymmetry was also assessed. Poor visualisation of nigrosome-1 had high sensitivity (98.5%), specificity (93.6%), positive-predictive value (94.3%), negative-predictive value (98.3%), accuracy (96%) and inter-rater reliability (k = 0.75-0.92). Poorly visualised nigrosome-1 was significantly associated with higher motor asymmetry in the contralateral side in 64.8% of subjects (p = 0.004). Poor visualisation of nigrosome-1 in PD had good diagnostic properties as a neuroimaging biomarker in PD. There was also a significant agreement on clinical asymmetry and poor visualisation of nigrosome-1. • Nigrosome-1 represents the largest collection of dopaminergic neurons in dorso-lateral substantia nigra. • Loss of nigrosome-1 is being studied as a biomarker in Parkinson's disease. • Visualisation of nigrosome-1 had good diagnostic properties as a biomarker. • There was a contralateral relationship between nigrosome-1 lateralisation and clinical asymmetry. • We also highlight the potential limitations of nigrosome-1 visualisation as a biomarker.

  15. Visualisation and identification of the interaction between STIM1s in resting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca(2+ channels are a major Ca(2+ entry pathway in nonexcitable cells, which drive various essential cellular functions. Recently, STIM1 and Orai proteins have been identified as the major molecular components of the Ca(2+ release-activated Ca(2+ (CRAC channel. As the key subunit of the CRAC channel, STIM1 is the ER Ca(2+ sensor and is essential for the recruitment and activation of Orai1. However, the mechanisms in transmission of information of STIM1 to Orai1 still need further investigation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC is one of the most advanced and powerful tools for studying and visualising protein-protein interactions in living cells. We utilised BiFC and acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments to visualise and determine the state of STIM1 in the living cells in resting state. Our results demonstrate that STIM1 exists in an oligomeric form in resting cells and that rather than the SAM motif, it is the C-terminus (residues 233-474 of STIM1 that is the key domain for the interaction between STIM1s. The STIM1 oligomers (BiFC-STIM1 and wild-type STIM1 colocalised and had a fibrillar distribution in resting conditions. Depletion of ER Ca(2+ stores induced BiFC-STIM1 distribution to become punctate, an effect that could be prevented or reversed by 2-APB. After depletion of the Ca(2+ stores, BiFC-STIM1 has the ability to form puncta that colocalise with wild-type STIM1 or Orai1 near the plasma membrane. Our data also indicate that the function of BiFC-STIM1 was not altered compared with that of wild-type STIM1.

  16. Project Ukko - Design of a climate service visualisation interface for seasonal wind forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemment, Drew; Stefaner, Moritz; Makri, Stephann; Buontempo, Carlo; Christel, Isadora; Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; de Matos, Paula; Dykes, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Project Ukko is a prototype climate service to visually communicate probabilistic seasonal wind forecasts for the energy sector. In Project Ukko, an interactive visualisation enhances the accessibility and readability to the latests advances in seasonal wind speed predictions developed as part of the RESILIENCE prototype of the EUPORIAS (EC FP7) project. Climate services provide made-to-measure climate information, tailored to the specific requirements of different users and industries. In the wind energy sector, understanding of wind conditions in the next few months has high economic value, for instance, for the energy traders. Current energy practices use retrospective climatology, but access to reliable seasonal predictions based in the recent advances in global climate models has potential to improve their resilience to climate variability and change. Despite their potential benefits, a barrier to the development of commercially viable services is the complexity of the probabilistic forecast information, and the challenge of communicating complex and uncertain information to decision makers in industry. Project Ukko consists of an interactive climate service interface for wind energy users to explore probabilistic wind speed predictions for the coming season. This interface enables fast visual detection and exploration of interesting features and regions likely to experience unusual changes in wind speed in the coming months.The aim is not only to support users to better understand the future variability in wind power resources, but also to bridge the gap between practitioners' traditional approach and the advanced prediction systems developed by the climate science community. Project Ukko is presented as a case study of cross-disciplinary collaboration between climate science and design, for the development of climate services that are useful, usable and effective for industry users. The presentation will reflect on the challenge of developing a climate

  17. Brain Oxytocin in Social Fear Conditioning and Its Extinction: Involvement of the Lateral Septum

    OpenAIRE

    Zoicas, Iulia; Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    Central oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and pro-social properties both in humans and rodents, and has been proposed as a therapeutic option for anxiety and social dysfunctions. Here, we utilized a mouse model of social fear conditioning (SFC) to study the effects of OXT on social fear, and to determine whether SFC causes alterations in central OXT receptor (OXTR) binding and local OXT release. Central infusion of OXT, but not arginine vasopressin, prior to social fear extinction training comple...

  18. StagLab: Post-Processing and Visualisation in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Despite being simplifications of nature, today's Geodynamic numerical models can, often do, and sometimes have to become very complex. Additionally, a steadily-increasing amount of raw model data results from more elaborate numerical codes and the still continuously-increasing computational power available for their execution. The current need for efficient post-processing and sensible visualisation is thus apparent. StagLab (www.fabiocrameri.ch/software) provides such much-needed strongly-automated post-processing in combination with state-of-the-art visualisation. Written in MatLab, StagLab is simple, flexible, efficient and reliable. It produces figures and movies that are both fully-reproducible and publication-ready. StagLab's post-processing capabilities include numerous diagnostics for plate tectonics and mantle dynamics. Featured are accurate plate-boundary identification, slab-polarity recognition, plate-bending derivation, mantle-plume detection, and surface-topography component splitting. These and many other diagnostics are derived conveniently from only a few parameter fields thanks to powerful image processing tools and other capable algorithms. Additionally, StagLab aims to prevent scientific visualisation pitfalls that are, unfortunately, still too common in the Geodynamics community. Misinterpretation of raw data and exclusion of colourblind people introduced with the continuous use of the rainbow (a.k.a. jet) colour scheme is just one, but a dramatic example (e.g., Rogowitz and Treinish, 1998; Light and Bartlein, 2004; Borland and Ii, 2007). StagLab is currently optimised for binary StagYY output (e.g., Tackley 2008), but is adjustable for the potential use with other Geodynamic codes. Additionally, StagLab's post-processing routines are open-source. REFERENCES Borland, D., and R. M. T. Ii (2007), Rainbow color map (still) considered harmful, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27(2), 14-17. Light, A., and P. J. Bartlein (2004), The end of

  19. Spatiotemporal data visualisation for homecare monitoring of elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Jose M; Ochotorena, Jose M; Campos, Manuel; Combi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Elderly people who live alone can be assisted by home monitoring systems that identify risk scenarios such as falls, fatigue symptoms or burglary. Given that these systems have to manage spatiotemporal data, human intervention is required to validate automatic alarms due to the high number of false positives and the need for context interpretation. The goal of this work was to provide tools to support human action, to identify such potential risk scenarios based on spatiotemporal data visualisation. We propose the MTA (multiple temporal axes) model, a visual representation of temporal information of the activity of a single person at different locations. The main goal of this model is to visualize the behaviour of a person in their home, facilitating the identification of health-risk scenarios and repetitive patterns. We evaluate the model's insight capacity compared with other models using a standard evaluation protocol. We also test its practical suitability of the MTA graphical model in a commercial home monitoring system. In particular, we implemented 8VISU, a visualization tool based on MTA. MTA proved to be more than 90% accurate in identify non-risk scenarios, independently of the length of the record visualised. When the spatial complexity was increased (e.g. number of rooms) the model provided good accuracy form up to 5 rooms. Therefore, user preferences and user performance seem to be balanced. Moreover, it also gave high sensitivity levels (over 90%) for 5-8 rooms. Fall is the most recurrent incident for elderly people. The MTA model outperformed the other models considered in identifying fall scenarios (66% of correctness) and was the second best for burglary and fatigue scenarios (36% of correctness). Our experiments also confirm the hypothesis that cyclic models are the most suitable for fatigue scenarios, the Spiral and MTA models obtaining most positive identifications. In home monitoring systems, spatiotemporal visualization is a useful tool for

  20. Modulation of sensorimotor gating in prepulse inhibition by conditional brain glycine transporter 1 deletion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Philipp; Boison, Detlev; Möhler, Hanns; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) augments N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission and represents a potential antipsychotic drug target according to the NMDAR hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. Preclinical evaluation of GlyT1 inhibiting drugs using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test, however, has yielded mixed outcomes. Here, we tested for the first time the impact of two conditional knockouts of GlyT1 on PPI expression. Complete deletion of GlyT1 in the cerebral cortices confers resistance to PPI disruption induced by the NMDAR blocker MK-801 (0.2mg/kg, i.p.) without affecting PPI expression in unchallenged conditions. In contrast, restricting GlyT1 deletion to neurons in forebrain including the striatum significantly attenuated PPI, and the animals remained sensitive to the PPI-disruptive effect of MK-801 at the same dose. These results demonstrate in mice that depending on the regional and/or cell-type specificity, deletion of the GlyT1 gene could yield divergent effects on PPI. PMID:20647165

  1. Art museum - the place of visualisation of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Popczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Art museum is a space of visualisation of myths and narration of modernity, combines in itself rationality with emotionality, thus provides ambivalent experiences to the audience. Critics of museums such as D. Preziosi present the negative side of the Enlightenment rationality: objectification of artworks and of the subject, building of scientific constructions acting for authorities. In turn, theoreticians who are favorably disposed towards museums such as O. Marquard or A. Huyssen convince that the museum in modern times performs a compensatory role, and its postmodern form allows a magnitude of histories and aesthetics. However, it was ultimately J.-F. Lyotard who becomes its patron, since artist choosing museum for their activities resist the established thought, realising Lyotard's idea of justice as a dispute.

  2. Weekly Hospital Workforce Data: A Data Visualisation Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Khanna, Sankalp; Good, Norm; Boyle, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the health workforce in terms of overall staff numbers and their ratio to patients under their care can strengthen analytical studies designed to inform policy regarding how hospital services are delivered. Information about staffing is traditionally obtained via location-specific audits or self-reported information gleaned from surveys which hold potential biases around time-dependence and recall. In contrast, work presented in this paper describes the derivation of useful workforce metrics from routine hospital financial and clinical information systems that overcome these biases. Staffing data is aggregated, visualised and linked to patient demand to gain insight into spatial and temporal variations in hospital staffing and workload. Overall, hospital staff resourcing varies noticeably across a week, with staff numbers and staff-to-patient ratios dropping to low levels at night and across a weekend. Exploration of staff-to-staff ratios allows further insight into staff dynamics across a week and the variation of supervision level.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disorder and to tailor the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ...

  5. Association of Traumatic Brain Injury With Chronic Pain in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans: Effect of Comorbid Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Karen H; Bertenthal, Daniel; Barnes, Deborah E; Byers, Amy L; Strigo, Irina; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-08-01

    To characterize the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain and pain disability in the context of comorbid conditions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression to better inform care of combat veterans. Retrospective cohort study. Medical centers and community clinics. Combat veterans (N=116,913) who received Veterans Affairs care between October 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015, completed a Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation, and received a criterion standard diagnosis of TBI (none, mild, or moderate to severe). Not applicable. Chronic pain defined as ≥2 of the same pain diagnoses ≥90 days apart and pain disability defined as self-reported pain causing moderate to very severe interference with daily functioning. Fifty-seven percent received ≥1 chronic pain diagnosis. Compared to those with no TBI, PTSD, or depression, there was an independent risk for chronic pain in veterans with mild TBI, which was higher in veterans with moderate to severe TBI. The risk of chronic pain was additive and highest when all 3 conditions-TBI, depression, and PTSD-were copresent (adjusted relative risk, 1.53 and 1.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.50-1.66] for mild and moderate or severe TBI, respectively, plus other diagnoses). The relation of pain disability to TBI, PTSD, and depression followed a similar additive pattern. In combat veterans, chronic pain and pain disability are most commonly associated with TBI in conjunction with PTSD, depression, or both. Integrated models of care that simultaneously address pain in conjunction with TBI, PTSD, and depression will likely be the most clinically effective. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The importance of the context in the hippocampus and brain related areas throughout the performance of a fear conditioning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Natalia; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-11-01

    The importance context has been broadly studied in the management of phobias and in the drug addiction literature. The way in which changes to a context influence behavior after the simple acquisition of a passive avoidance task remains unclear. The hippocampus has long been implicated in the contextual and spatial processing required for contextual fear, but its role in encoding the aversive component of a contextual fear memory is still inconclusive. Our work tries to elucidate whether a change in context, represented as differences in the load of the stimuli, is critical for learning about the context-shock association and whether this manipulation of the context could be linked to any change in metabolic brain activity requirements. For this purpose, we used an avoidance conditioning task. Animals were divided into three different experimental conditions. In one group, acquisition was performed in an enriched stimuli environment and retention was performed in a typically lit chamber (the PA-ACQ-CONTX group). In another group, acquisition was performed in the typically lit chamber and retention was undertaken in the highly enriched chamber (the PA-RET-CONTX group). Finally, for the control group, PA-CN-CONTX, acquisition, and retention were performed in the enriched stimuli environment. Our results showed that the PA-ACQ-CONTX group had longer escape latencies and poorer retention than the PA-RET-CONTX and PA-CN-CONTX groups after 24 h of acquisition under contextual changes. To study metabolic brain activity, histochemical labelling of cytochrome c-oxidase (CO) was performed. CO results suggested a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, parahippocampal cortices, and mammillary nuclei that is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behavior. These results highlight how dysfunction in this network may be involved in the contextualization of fear associations that underlie several forms of psychopathology

  7. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  8. Developing visualisation software for rehabilitation: investigating the requirements of patients, therapists and the rehabilitation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, David; Macdonald, Alastair S.; Carse, Bruce; Thikey, Heather; Jones, Lucy; Rowe, Philip J.; Uzor, Stephen; Ayoade, Mobolaji; Baillie, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing process of the development and evaluation of prototype visualisation software, designed to assist in the understanding and the improvement of appropriate movements during rehabilitation. The process of engaging users throughout the research project is detailed in the paper, including how the design of the visualisation software is being adapted to meet the emerging understanding of the needs of patients and professionals, and of the rehabilitation process. The value of the process for the design of the visualisation software is illustrated with a discussion of the findings of pre-pilot focus groups with stroke survivors and therapists. PMID:23011812

  9. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptors in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passchier, J.; Waarde, A. van [PET Center, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT{sub 1A} subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the radioligands which are available for visualisation and quantification of this important neuroreceptor in the human brain, using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPET). More than 20 compounds have been labelled with carbon-11 (half-life 20 min), fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) or iodine-123 (half-life 13.2 h): structural analogues of the agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, structural analogues of the antagonist, WAY 100635, and apomorphines. The most successful radioligands thus far are [carbonyl-{sup 11}C] WAY-100635 (WAY), [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY), p-[{sup 18}F]MPPF and [{sup 11}C]robalzotan (NAD-299). The high-affinity ligands WAY and DWAY produce excellent images of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor distribution in the brain (even the raphe nuclei are visualised), but they cannot be distributed to remote facilities and they probably cannot be used to measure changes in endogenous serotonin. Binding of the moderate-affinity ligands MPPF and NAD-299 may be more sensitive to serotonin competition and MPPF can be distributed to PET centres within a flying distance of a few hours. Future research should be directed towards: (a) improvement of the metabolic stability in primates; (b) development of a fluorinated radioligand which can be produced in large quantities and (c) production of a radioiodinated or technetium-labelled ligand for SPET. (orig.)

  10. Using a brain-machine interface to control a hybrid upper limb exoskeleton during rehabilitation of patients with neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, Enrique; Planelles, Daniel; Resquin, Francisco; Climent, José M; Azorín, José M; Pons, José L

    2015-10-17

    As a consequence of the increase of cerebro-vascular accidents, the number of people suffering from motor disabilities is raising. Exoskeletons, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) devices and Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) could be combined for rehabilitation purposes in order to improve therapy outcomes. In this work, a system based on a hybrid upper limb exoskeleton is used for neurological rehabilitation. Reaching movements are supported by the passive exoskeleton ArmeoSpring and FES. The movement execution is triggered by an EEG-based BMI. The BMI uses two different methods to interact with the exoskeleton from the user's brain activity. The first method relies on motor imagery tasks classification, whilst the second one is based on movement intention detection. Three healthy users and five patients with neurological conditions participated in the experiments to verify the usability of the system. Using the BMI based on motor imagery, healthy volunteers obtained an average accuracy of 82.9 ± 14.5 %, and patients obtained an accuracy of 65.3 ± 9.0 %, with a low False Positives rate (FP) (19.2 ± 10.4 % and 15.0 ± 8.4 %, respectively). On the other hand, by using the BMI based on detecting the arm movement intention, the average accuracy was 76.7 ± 13.2 % for healthy users and 71.6 ± 15.8 % for patients, with 28.7 ± 19.9 % and 21.2 ± 13.3 % of FP rate (healthy users and patients, respectively). The accuracy of the results shows that the combined use of a hybrid upper limb exoskeleton and a BMI could be used for rehabilitation therapies. The advantage of this system is that the user is an active part of the rehabilitation procedure. The next step will be to verify what are the clinical benefits for the patients using this new rehabilitation procedure.

  11. Directionality of large-scale resting-state brain networks during eyes open and eyes closed conditions

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    Delong eZhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined directional connections in the brain among resting-state networks (RSNs when the participant had their eyes open (EO or had their eyes closed (EC. The resting-state fMRI data were collected from 20 healthy participants (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify the separated RSNs (i.e., the primary/high-level visual, primary sensory-motor, ventral motor, salience/dorsal attention, and anterior/posterior default-mode networks, and the Gaussian Bayesian network (BN learning approach was then used to explore the conditional dependencies among these RSNs. The network-to-network directional connections related to EO and EC were depicted, and a support vector machine (SVM was further employed to identify the directional connection patterns that could effectively discriminate between the two states. The results indicated that the connections among RSNs are directionally connected within a BN during the EO and EC states. The directional connections from the salient attention network to the anterior/posterior default-mode networks and the high-level to primary-level visual network were the obvious characteristics of both the EO and EC resting-state BNs. Of the directional connections in BN, the attention (salient and dorsal-related directional connections were observed to be discriminative between the EO and EC states. In particular, we noted that the properties of the salient and dorsal attention networks were in opposite directions. Overall, the present study described the directional connections of RSNs using a BN learning approach during the EO and EC states, and the results suggested that the attention system (the salient and the dorsal attention network might have important roles in resting-state brain networks and the neural substrate underpinning of switching between the EO and EC states.

  12. Comparative study of the two types of limb remote ischemic per-conditioning on the brain protection

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    ZENG Xian-wei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning (LRPC has been recognized as an applicable strategy in protecting against cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury. However, widely used invasive limb remote ischemic per-conditioning (LRPC-I is traumatic, limiting the possibility of long-term application and making it more difficult to achieve the conversion from basic research to clinical practice. Because of this, if non-invasive limb remote ischemic per-conditioning (LRPC-N has the same effect of brain protection as LRPC-I, it may be more beneficial to clinical practice. Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established by the suture method in mice. In the beginning of the ischemia, the LRPC-I and LRPC-N were respectively carried out by three cycles of 10 min distal airbag pressurization or clamping the distant limb artery (ischemia /10min reperfusion. Neurological functional deficits after procedure were evaluated, and the cerebral infarct volumes and the degree of cerebral edema were quantified by TTC staining. Results Compared with the control group, the neurological functional outcomes of LRPC-N group and LRPC-I group were improved significantly ( P = 0.041, 0.035; the edema volumes were much smaller ( P = 0.040, 0.028; the infarct volumes reduced significantly ( P = 0.001, 0.019. However, there were no significant differences between LRPC-N group and LRPC-I group on the functional neurological outcomes, edema volumes and the infarct volumes (P = 0.754, 0.946, 0.667. Conclusion Both the LRPC-N and LRPC-I have protective effects on animal models of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and there is no obvious difference between each other.

  13. Conditional associative learning examined in a paralyzed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using brain-computer interface technology

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    Birbaumer N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-computer interface methodology based on self-regulation of slow-cortical potentials (SCPs of the EEG (electroencephalogram was used to assess conditional associative learning in one severely paralyzed, late-stage ALS patient. After having been taught arbitrary stimulus relations, he was evaluated for formation of equivalence classes among the trained stimuli. Methods A monitor presented visual information in two targets. The method of teaching was matching to sample. Three types of stimuli were presented: signs (A, colored disks (B, and geometrical shapes (C. The sample was one type, and the choice was between two stimuli from another type. The patient used his SCP to steer a cursor to one of the targets. A smiley was presented as a reward when he hit the correct target. The patient was taught A-B and B-C (sample – comparison matching with three stimuli of each type. Tests for stimulus equivalence involved the untaught B-A, C-B, A-C, and C-A relations. An additional test was discrimination between all three stimuli of one equivalence class presented together versus three unrelated stimuli. The patient also had sessions with identity matching using the same stimuli. Results The patient showed high accuracy, close to 100%, on identity matching and could therefore discriminate the stimuli and control the cursor correctly. Acquisition of A-B matching took 11 sessions (of 70 trials each and had to be broken into simpler units before he could learn it. Acquisition of B-C matching took two sessions. The patient passed all equivalence class tests at 90% or higher. Conclusion The patient may have had a deficit in acquisition of the first conditional association of signs and colored disks. In contrast, the patient showed clear evidence that A-B and B-C training had resulted in formation of equivalence classes. The brain-computer interface technology combined with the matching to sample method is a useful way to assess various

  14. Rotation is visualisation, 3D is 2D: using a novel measure to investigate the genetics of spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rimfeld, Kaili; Schofield, Kerry L; Selzam, Saskia; Malanchini, Margherita; Rodic, Maja; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Spatial abilities-defined broadly as the capacity to manipulate mental representations of objects and the relations between them-have been studied widely, but with little agreement reached concerning their nature or structure. Two major putative spatial abilities are "mental rotation" (rotating mental models) and "visualisation" (complex manipulations, such as identifying objects from incomplete information), but inconsistent findings have been presented regarding their relationship to one another. Similarly inconsistent findings have been reported for the relationship between two- and three-dimensional stimuli. Behavioural genetic methods offer a largely untapped means to investigate such relationships. 1,265 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study completed the novel "Bricks" test battery, designed to tap these abilities in isolation. The results suggest substantial genetic influence unique to spatial ability as a whole, but indicate that dissociations between the more specific constructs (rotation and visualisation, in 2D and 3D) disappear when tested under identical conditions: they are highly correlated phenotypically, perfectly correlated genetically (indicating that the same genetic influences underpin performance), and are related similarly to other abilities. This has important implications for the structure of spatial ability, suggesting that the proliferation of apparent sub-domains may sometimes reflect idiosyncratic tasks rather than meaningful dissociations.

  15. Effects of resting state condition on reliability, trait specificity, and network connectivity of brain function measured with arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Vidorreta, Marta; Katchmar, Natalie; Alsop, David C; Wolf, Daniel H; Detre, John A

    2018-02-16

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Resting-state studies are typically carried out using just one of several prescribed state conditions such as eyes closed (EC), eyes open (EO), or visual fixation on a cross-hair (FIX), which may affect the reliability and specificity of rs-fMRI. In this study, we collected test-retest ASL MRI data during 4 resting-state task conditions: EC, EO, FIX and PVT (low-frequency psychomotor vigilance task), and examined the effects of these task conditions on reliability and reproducibility as well as trait specificity of regional brain function. We also acquired resting-state BOLD fMRI under FIX and compared the network connectivity reliabilities between the four ASL conditions and the BOLD FIX condition. For resting-state ASL data, EC provided the highest CBF reliability, reproducibility, trait specificity, and network connectivity reliability, followed by EO, while FIX was lowest on all of these measures. PVT demonstrated lower CBF reliability, reproducibility and trait specificity than EO and EC. Overall network connectivity reliability was comparable between ASL and BOLD. Our findings confirm ASL CBF as a reliable, stable, and consistent measure of resting-state regional brain function and support the use of EC or EO over FIX and PVT as the resting-state condition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell cycle analysis of brain cells as a growth index in larval cod at different feeding conditions and temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González-Quirós

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of cells dividing in a specific tissue of individual larvae can be estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. An experimental test was carried out with cod (Gadus morhua larvae, with brain as the target tissue, to validate this technique as an appropriate growth index for larval fish. Standard length (SL, myotome height, and %S-phase (% of cells in the S-phase of the cell-division cycle variability were analyzed, with temperature (6 and 10°C, food level (high- and no-food and larval developmental stage (first feeding, pre-metamorphosis and post-metamorphosis as independent factors. Cod larvae grew faster (in SL and presented a higher %S-phase under high-food conditions. Larval SL increased with temperature in rearing and experimental tanks. However, there was a significant interaction between temperature and food in the %S-phase. There were no significant differences in the %S-phase between 6 and 10°C at high-food levels. We suggest that this result is a consequence of temperature-dependency of the duration of the cell cycle. In the absence of food, larvae at 10ºC had a lower %S-phase than larvae at 6°C, which may be related to increased metabolic costs with increasing temperature. Considering the effect of temperature, the mean % S-phase explained 74% of the variability in the estimated standard growth rate.

  17. Differential involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in reconsolidation and consolidation of conditioned taste aversion memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    Full Text Available Consolidated memory can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, which is referred to as reconsolidation, and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unexplored. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. We have recently observed that BDNF signaling in the central nuclei of the amygdala (CeA and insular cortex (IC was involved in the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA memory. However, whether BDNF in the CeA or IC is required for memory reconsolidation is still unclear. In the present study, using a CTA memory paradigm, we observed increased BDNF expression in the IC but not in the CeA during CTA reconsolidation. We further determined that BDNF synthesis and signaling in the IC but not in the CeA was required for memory reconsolidation. The differential, spatial-specific roles of BDNF in memory consolidation and reconsolidation suggest that dissociative molecular mechanisms underlie reconsolidation and consolidation, which might provide novel targets for manipulating newly encoded and reactivated memories without causing universal amnesia.

  18. Flow visualisation of downhill skiers using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takeshi; Hong, Sungchan; Ijuin, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    In downhill alpine skiing, skiers often exceed speeds of 120 km h-1, with air resistance substantially affecting the overall race times. To date, studies on air resistance in alpine skiing have used wind tunnels and actual skiers to examine the relationship between the gliding posture and magnitude of drag and for the design of skiing equipment. However, these studies have not revealed the flow velocity distribution and vortex structure around the skier. In the present study, computational fluid dynamics are employed with the lattice Boltzmann method to derive the relationship between total drag and the flow velocity around a downhill skier in the full-tuck position. Furthermore, the flow around the downhill skier is visualised, and its vortex structure is examined. The results show that the total drag force in the downhill skier model is 27.0 N at a flow velocity of 15 m s-1, increasing to 185.8 N at 40 m s-1. From analysis of the drag distribution and the flow profile, the head, upper arms, lower legs, and thighs (including buttocks) are identified as the major sources of drag on a downhill skier. Based on these results, the design of suits and equipment for reducing the drag from each location should be the focus of research and development in ski equipment. This paper describes a pilot study that introduces undergraduate students of physics or engineering into this research field. The results of this study are easy to understand for undergraduate students.

  19. Microscopic transport model animation visualisation on KML base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, I.; Savrasovs, M.

    2012-10-01

    By reading classical literature devoted to the simulation theory it could be found that one of the greatest possibilities of simulation is the ability to present processes inside the system by animation. This gives to the simulation model additional value during presentation of simulation results for the public and authorities who are not familiar enough with simulation. That is why most of universal and specialised simulation tools have the ability to construct 2D and 3D representation of the model. Usually the development of such representation could take much time and there must be put a lot forces into creating an adequate 3D representation of the model. For long years such well-known microscopic traffic flow simulation software tools as VISSIM, AIMSUN and PARAMICS have had a possibility to produce 2D and 3D animation. But creation of realistic 3D model of the place where traffic flows are simulated, even in these professional software tools it is a hard and time consuming action. The goal of this paper is to describe the concepts of use the existing on-line geographical information systems for visualisation of animation produced by simulation software. For demonstration purposes the following technologies and tools have been used: PTV VISION VISSIM, KML and Google Earth.

  20. Evaluation of solar thermal storages with quantitative flow visualisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logie, W.; Frank, E.; Luzzi, A.

    2008-07-15

    The non-intrusive Quantitative Flow Visualisation (QFV) Techniques of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been evaluated in the context of experimental investigations on solar Thermal Energy Storages (TES). Much competence and experience has been gained in the integration of these powerful yet complex and time consuming flow analysis methods into the realm of laboratory experimentation. In addition to gathering experience in the application of QFV techniques, a number of charging and discharging variations were considered in light of exergetic evaluation for the influence they have on the ability of a TES to stratify. The contemporary awareness that poorly chosen pitch to diameter ratios by the design of immersed coil heat exchangers leads to a reduction in heat exchange and an increase in mixing phenomenon has been confirmed. The observation of two combitank (combined domestic hot water and space heating) configurations has shown that free convective heat transfer forces in the form of mixing energy play a significant role in the stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages. (author)

  1. Improving student success using predictive models and data visualisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ayad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50–60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from 2-year colleges in 3 years or less and approximately 50% graduate from 4-year colleges in 5 years or less. A basic challenge in delivering global education, therefore, is improving student success. By student success we mean improving retention, completion and graduation rates. In this paper we describe a Student Success System (S3 that provides a holistic, analytical view of student academic progress.1 The core of S3 is a flexible predictive modelling engine that uses machine intelligence and statistical techniques to identify at-risk students pre-emptively. S3 also provides a set of advanced data visualisations for reaching diagnostic insights and a case management tool for managing interventions. S3's open modular architecture will also allow integration and plug-ins with both open and proprietary software. Powered by learning analytics, S3 is intended as an end-to-end solution for identifying at-risk students, understanding why they are at risk, designing interventions to mitigate that risk and finally closing the feedback look by tracking the efficacy of the applied intervention.

  2. VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases

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    Smith Timothy D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. Results Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.

  3. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  4. VISPA. New applications for intuitive data visualisation and analysis creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Benjamin; Fischer, Robert; Glaser, Christian; Heidemann, Fabian; Mueller, Gero; Quast, Thorben; Rieger, Marcel; Urban, Martin; Asseldonk, Daniel van; Cube, Ralf Florian von; Welling, Christoph [Physics Institute IIIa, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Visual Physics Analysis software is a framework developed at RWTH Aachen providing intuitive access and usage of experiment-specific resources via common web browsers. Through its extension mechanism, VISPA allows for interfacing a wide range of applications to meet the demands for diverse use cases. After a quick review of the internal architecture and basic functionalities, most recent updates to the system are highlighted and various newly released extensions are presented: Our data browsers facilitate the inspection of information in Pierre Auger Observatory and HEP data samples. The JSROOT project has been embedded and enables the visualisation of ROOT files. Modular analysis chains based on our HEP software library (PXL) can be interactively created and modified using the Analysis Designer. VISPA is tested both through its integration in undergraduate and elementary particle physics courses at RWTH and through its use in analysis work for CMS and Auger. Finally, instructions on how to access our cluster or to set up an own server are given.

  5. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  6. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from...

  7. High brain ammonia tolerance and down-regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl(- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and protein expression in the brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to environmental ammonia or terrestrial conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K Ip

    Full Text Available Na(+:K(+:2Cl(- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1 has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g(-1 and 2.7 µmol g(-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance.

  8. miR-Let7A Controls the Cell Death and Tight Junction Density of Brain Endothelial Cells under High Glucose Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced stress in the brain of patients with diabetes triggers the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to diverse neurological diseases including stroke and dementia. Recently, the role of microRNA becomes an interest in the research for deciphering the mechanism of brain endothelial cell damage under hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated whether mircoRNA Let7A (miR-Let7A) controls the damage of brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells against high glucose condition. Cell viability, cell death marker expressions (p-53, Bax, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase), the loss of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-5), proinflammatory response (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrite production were confirmed using MTT, reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Griess reagent assay. miR-Let7A overexpression significantly prevented cell death and loss of tight junction proteins and attenuated proinflammatory response and nitrite production in the bEnd.3 cells under high glucose condition. Taken together, we suggest that miR-Let7A may attenuate brain endothelial cell damage by controlling cell death signaling, loss of tight junction proteins, and proinflammatory response against high glucose stress. In the future, the manipulation of miR-Let7A may be a novel solution in controlling BBB disruption which leads to the central nervous system diseases.

  9. Evidence for a lactate pool in the rat brain that is not used as an energy supply under normoglycemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Korf, J

    Lactate derived from glucose can serve as an energy source in the brain. However, it is not certain how much lactate, directly taken from the blood circulation, may replace glucose as an energy source. This study aimed to estimate the uptake, release, and utilization of lactate entering the brain

  10. Evaluation of the impact of a system for real-time visualisation of occupational radiation dose rate during fluoroscopically guided procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, V; Mai, T; Almén, A; Rystedt, H; Cederblad, Å; Båth, M; Lundh, C

    2013-09-01

    Optimisation of radiological protection for operators working with fluoroscopically guided procedures has to be performed during the procedure, under varying and difficult conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a system for real-time visualisation of radiation dose rate on optimisation of occupational radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided procedures. Individual radiation dose measurements, using a system for real-time visualisation, were performed in a cardiology laboratory for three cardiologists and ten assisting nurses. Radiation doses collected when the radiation dose rates were not displayed to the staff were compared to radiation doses collected when the radiation dose rates were displayed. When the radiation dose rates were displayed to the staff, one cardiologist and the assisting nurses (as a group) significantly reduced their personal radiation doses. The median radiation dose (Hp(10)) per procedure decreased from 68 to 28 μSv (p = 0.003) for this cardiologist and from 4.3 to 2.5 μSv (p = 0.001) for the assisting nurses. The results of the present study indicate that a system for real-time visualisation of radiation dose rate may have a positive impact on optimisation of occupational radiological protection. In particular, this may affect the behaviour of staff members practising inadequate personal radiological protection.

  11. Integration of biotechnology, robot technoplogy and visualisation technology for development of methods for autamated mass production of elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens; Krogstrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    for purpose' and guarantee a consumer oriented and tailor made wood supply. However, commercial application of the technology has until now been hampered by two essential problems: 1) the production costs per plant must be reduced, 2) improved methods must be developed for transfer and acclimatisation...... of plants from sterile in vitro conditions to non sterile (ex vitro/in vivo) conditions in the nursery. To solve these problems, a Danish based project has been established to combine clonal propagation by somatic embryogenesis (SE) with biotechnological breeding tools, and with robot - and visualisation...... technologies. The present project takes advantage of effective methods developed at the University of Copenhagen for SE in nordmanns fir and sitka spruce. These methods are used as a model system for development of biotechnological breeding tools in combination with automated plant production of plants...

  12. Expression of different extracellular matrix components in human brain tumor and melanoma cells in respect to variant culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterfa, H; Darlapp, A R; Klein, E; Pietsch, T; Roosen, K; Tonn, J C

    1999-08-01

    Local tumor invasion into the surrounding brain tissue is a major characteristic of malignant gliomas. These processes critically depend on the interaction of tumor cells with various extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Because only little quantitative information about expression of ECM gene products in general and expression in response to alterations of the surrounding environment is available, the present study was designed. Four human glioblastoma cell lines (U373MG, U138MG, U251MG, GaMG) as well as four human melanoma cell lines (MV3, BLM, 530, IF6) were tested with semiquantitative RT-PCR for their ability to express mRNA of different human ECM components (fibronectin, decorin, tenascin, collagen I, collagen IV, versican). In addition, two human medulloblastoma (MHH-Med 1, MHH-Med 4) and two fibrosarcoma (HT1080, U2OS) cell lines were analyzed. Cells which were grown in DMEM medium containing 10% FCS expressed most of the analyzed protein components. When the same medium, but depleted of ECM proteins by filtrating through a membrane with cut-off at > 100 kD was used, basal mRNA expression of the ECM proteins was changed in most of the examined cell lines. Using serum free conditions, most of the cell lines again showed a variation in the expression pattern of mRNA encoding for the different ECM proteins compared to the other medium conditions. Comparing different cell lines from one tumor entity or different tumor groups, ECM expression was heterogeneous with regard to the different tumor entities as well as within the entities themselves. Migration assays revealed heterogeneous responses between the different cell lines, ECM components and culture conditions, making it difficult to correlate ECM expression patterns and migratory behavior. Our results revealed that all examined cell lines are able to produce ECM proteins in vitro. This suggests that tumor cells can modulate their microenvironment in vitro which has to be taken into consideration for

  13. Visualisation study on Pseudomonas migulae AN-1 transport in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dan; Ren, Hejun; Zhou, Rui; Zhao, Yongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Influence of granular size and groundwater flow rate on transport of Pseudomonas migulae AN-1 in saturated porous media was non-invasively and visually investigated with a novel imaging technique based on our previously established green fluorescent protein-tagging approach. AN-1 was transported faster than water was. The finer the media were, the greater the enhancement of bacterial velocity was. Mass recovery (MR) increased, while deposition rate coefficient (Kc) decreased, with increasing granular size. Similar and linear trends of MR and Kc, respectively, were quantitatively observed with increasing water flow rate. The images revealed that the initial shape of bacterial plume after injection was a narrow strip along the injection well and an ellipsoid in the lower part of the injection well in medium and coarse sand, respectively. Bacterial plume migrated horizontally in medium sand, but shifted slightly downward in coarse sand. Under similar conditions, the fluorescent area carrying AN-1 in medium sand was larger than that carrying AN-1 in coarse sand during the same period. The visualisation method of this study captured both the movement of free-state and retained bacteria that adhered to sediments. A continuous biological zone composed of planktonic and retained AN-1 was observed. These findings are significant for actual bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In situ visualisation of electromigration in Pt nanobridges at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Zandbergen, Henny W., E-mail: h.w.zandbergen@tudelft.nl

    2015-11-15

    We used a combination of in situ TEM, a MEMS-based heater as a substrate and a dedicated biasing sample holder to study the temperature dependence of electromigration in Pt nanobridges (500 nm wide, 15 nm high and 1000 nm long). We visualised changes in the nanobridges under both dynamic conditions, i.e. heating (substrate temperatures up to 660 K) and current passage. Our electromigration experiments at various substrate temperatures (100, 300, 420 and 660 K) show the same tendency: material transport occurs from the cathode to the anode side, which can be explained by the electron-wind force. In all cases the bridge breaks due to the formation of a neck closer to the cathode side. At 300, 420 and 660 K, voids and the neck form at the cathode contact pad simultaneously. The higher the temperature, the bigger the voids size. As expected, at higher temperatures a lower power is needed to break the nanobridge. - Highlights: • Using in situ TEM we show changes in Pt bridges during heating and current passage. • Material transport occurs along the direction of the electron transport. • Material removes from the cathode contact pad and accumulates at the bridge centre. • Voids formation is observed to be highly dependant on the local temperature.

  15. Developing and Testing the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Astoul, Anthony; Filliter, Christopher; Mason,Eric; Rau-Chaplin, Andrew; Shridhar, Kunal; Varghese, Blesson; Varshney, Naman

    2013-01-01

    An automated, real-time, multiple sensor data source relying and globally applicable earthquake loss model and visualiser is desirable for post-event earthquake analysis. To achieve this there is a need to support rapid data ingestion, loss estimation and integration of data from multiple data sources and rapid visualisation at multiple geographic levels. In this paper, the design and development of the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) system for re...

  16. PJ-34 inhibits PARP-1 expression and ERK phosphorylation in glioma-conditioned brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Carla; D'Angeli, Floriana; Scalia, Marina; Satriano, Cristina; Barbagallo, Davide; Naletova, Irina; Anfuso, Carmelina Daniela; Lupo, Gabriella; Spina-Purrello, Vittoria

    2015-08-15

    Inhibitors of PARP-1(Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1) act by competing with NAD(+), the enzyme physiological substrate, which play a protective role in many pathological conditions characterized by PARP-1 overactivation. It has been shown that PARP-1 also promotes tumor growth and progression through its DNA repair activity. Since angiogenesis is an essential requirement for these activities, we sought to determine whether PARP inhibition might affect rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (GP8.3) migration, stimulated by C6-glioma conditioned medium (CM). Through wound-healing experiments and MTT analysis, we demonstrated that PARP-1 inhibitor PJ-34 [N-(6-Oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide] abolishes the migratory response of GP8.3 cells and reduces their viability. PARP-1 also acts in a DNA independent way within the Extracellular-Regulated-Kinase (ERK) signaling cascade, which regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. By western analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM), we analyzed the effects of PJ-34 on PARP-1 expression, phospho-ERK and phospho-Elk-1 activation. The effect of MEK (mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase) inhibitor PD98059 (2-(2-Amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4 H-1-benzopyran-4-one) on PARP-1 expression in unstimulated and in CM-stimulated GP8.3 cells was analyzed by RT-PCR. PARP-1 expression and phospho-ERK activation were significantly reduced by treatment of GP8.3 cells with PJ-34 or PD98059. By LSM, we further demonstrated that PARP-1 and phospho-ERK are coexpressed and share the same subcellular localization in GP8.3 cells, in the cytoplasm as well as in nucleoplasm. Based on these data, we propose that PARP-1 and phospho-ERK interact in the cytosol and then translocate to the nucleus, where they trigger a proliferative response. We also propose that PARP-1 inhibition blocks CM-induced endothelial migration by interfering with ERK signal-transduction pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. The visualisation of vitreous using surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, David Y S; Tint, Naing L; Collighan, Russell J; Griffin, Martin; Dua, Harminder S; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2010-01-01

    Aims To demonstrate the potential use of in vitro poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles in comparison with triamcinolone suspension to aid visualisation of vitreous during anterior and posterior vitrectomy. Methods PLGA microparticles (diameter 10–60 μm) were fabricated using single and/or double emulsion technique(s) and used untreated or following the surface adsorption of a protein (transglutaminase). Particle size, shape, morphology and surface topography were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compared with a standard triamcinolone suspension. The efficacy of these microparticles to enhance visualisation of vitreous against the triamcinolone suspension was assessed using an in vitro set-up exploiting porcine vitreous. Results Unmodified PLGA microparticles failed to adequately adhere to porcine vitreous and were readily washed out by irrigation. In contrast, modified transglutaminase-coated PLGA microparticles demonstrated a significant improvement in adhesiveness and were comparable to a triamcinolone suspension in their ability to enhance the visualisation of vitreous. This adhesive behaviour also demonstrated selectivity by not binding to the corneal endothelium. Conclusion The use of transglutaminase-modified biodegradable PLGA microparticles represents a novel method of visualising vitreous and aiding vitrectomy. This method may provide a distinct alternative for the visualisation of vitreous whilst eliminating the pharmacological effects of triamcinolone acetonide suspension. PMID:20447968

  18. Video endoscopic oro-nasal visualisation of the anterior wall of maxillary sinus: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, M; Tomazic, P V; Bertazzoni, G; Rathburn, A; Bussi, M; Stammberger, H

    2014-08-01

    The anterior wall of the maxillary sinus represents a blind spot in maxillary sinus endoscopic surgery because of the absence of proper visualisation and instrumentation to reach it. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach through the oral cavity into the nose with a flexible video endoscope (oro-nasal endoscopic approach; ONEA) to visualise the entire anterior maxillary wall including the anteromedial angle. We started from a dried bone cadaver model, and then dissected fresh-frozen cadavers. The maxillary sinus was explored with a rigid and a flexible endoscope entering from the nose. Next, a flexible endoscope was introduced through the mouth and back up through the choana, it accessed the maxillary middle antrostomy, entering inside the sinus and looking at the anterior wall. A small ruler inserted inside the sinus demonstrated all the angles visualised. The new ONEA technique allows complete visualisation of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus with inspection of all blind spots. It is therefore possible to detect lesions that would normally not be visible with a normal rigid endoscope. We demonstrate the validity of a novel technique that allows visualisation of the infero-medial angle of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus.

  19. A framework for mapping, visualisation and automatic model creation of signal-transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Carl-Fredrik; Krause, Falko; Cedersund, Gunnar; Palmér, Robert; Klipp, Edda; Hohmann, Stefan; Kitano, Hiroaki; Krantz, Marcus

    2012-04-24

    Intracellular signalling systems are highly complex. This complexity makes handling, analysis and visualisation of available knowledge a major challenge in current signalling research. Here, we present a novel framework for mapping signal-transduction networks that avoids the combinatorial explosion by breaking down the network in reaction and contingency information. It provides two new visualisation methods and automatic export to mathematical models. We use this framework to compile the presently most comprehensive map of the yeast MAP kinase network. Our method improves previous strategies by combining (I) more concise mapping adapted to empirical data, (II) individual referencing for each piece of information, (III) visualisation without simplifications or added uncertainty, (IV) automatic visualisation in multiple formats, (V) automatic export to mathematical models and (VI) compatibility with established formats. The framework is supported by an open source software tool that facilitates integration of the three levels of network analysis: definition, visualisation and mathematical modelling. The framework is species independent and we expect that it will have wider impact in signalling research on any system.

  20. Progesterone promotes neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in culture conditions that mimic the brain microenvironment★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianying; Wu, Honghai; Xue, Gai; Hou, Yanning

    2012-01-01

    In this study, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells from full-term neonates born by vaginal delivery were cultured in medium containing 150 mg/mL of brain tissue extracts from Sprague-Dawley rats (to mimic the brain microenvironment). Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the cells differentiated into neuron-like cells. To evaluate the effects of progesterone as a neurosteroid on the neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, we cultured the cells in medium containing progesterone (0.1, 1, 10 μM) in addition to brain tissue extracts. Reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometric analysis of neuron specific enolase-positive cells revealed that the percentages of these cells increased significantly following progesterone treatment, with the optimal progesterone concentration for neuron-like differentiation being 1 μM. These results suggest that progesterone can enhance the neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in culture medium containing brain tissue extracts to mimic the brain microenvironment. PMID:25624820

  1. Is visualising ureter before pyeloplasty necessary in adult patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, M; Yalçinkaya, F; Demirel, F; Satir, A

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to detect whether or not visualising ureter and ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) preoperatively is necessary in adult patients who have primer UPJ obstruction. Between January 1995 to June 1999, 46 renal units in 45 patients with primer UPJ obstruction were evaluated. The patients were separated into 2 groups. In group 1, intravenous pyelography (IVP) and renal scintigraphy were performed to 17 renal units preoperatively. In group 2, in addition to these methods, either retrograde pyelography (RGP) or antegrade pyelography (AGP) were performed to 29 renal units. Renal/bladder sonogram was used in patients with poor renal function in IVP or in renal scintigraphy. All the operations were performed through a flank incision. In group 2, additional information was gained for 8 (27.5%) of the renal units preoperatively. No additional information for this group found intraoperatively. In group 1, we found additional information in 4 (23.53%) of the units intraoperatively. All the pathologies in both groups were corrected intraoperatively. Double-J (D-J) stent was used in 6 (35.29%) of the units in group 1 and 8 (27.58%) of the units in group 2 intraoperatively (p > 0.05). In group 2, 4 (13.79%) preoperative complications were seen due to RGP and they were treated either medically or conservatively. In the early postoperative period, a complication observed in 1 (5.88%) of the patients in group 1 and 1 of the patients in group 2 (3.44%) (p > 0.05). The first patient was treated with inserting D-J and the latter one was treated conservatively. In the 3rd postoperative month, success rate was found to be 94.11% in group 1 and 96.55% in group 2 (p > 0.05). Additional pathologies in adult patients with primer UPJ obstruction can be corrected intraoperatively through a flank incision. Therefore, imaging of ureter and UPJ may not be necessary in these patients.

  2. A toolbox to visualise benefits resulting from flood hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha

    2017-04-01

    In order to visualize the benefits resulting from technical mitigation, a toolbox was developed within an open-source environment that allows for an assessment of gains and losses for buildings exposed to flood hazards. Starting with different scenarios showing the changes in flood magnitude with respect to the considered management options, the computation was based on the amount and value of buildings exposed as well as their vulnerability, following the general concept of risk assessment. As a result, beneficiaries of risk reduction may be identified and - more general - also different mitigation options may be strategically evaluated with respect to the height of risk reduction for different elements exposed. As such, multiple management options can be ranked according to their costs and benefits, and in order of priority. A relational database composed from different modules was created in order to mirror the requirements of an open source application and to allow for future dynamics in the data availability as well as the spatiotemporal dynamics of this data (Fuchs et al. 2013). An economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings exposed using (a) the building footprint, (b) the information of the building cadaster such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (c) regionally averaged construction costs. An exposition module was applied to connect the spatial GIS information (X and Y coordinates) of elements at risk to the hazard information in order to achieve information on exposure. An impact module linked this information to vulnerability functions (Totschnig and Fuchs 2013; Papathoma-Köhle et al. 2015) in order to achieve the monetary level of risk for every building exposed. These values were finally computed before and after the implementation of mitigation measure in order to show gains and losses, and visualised. The results can be exported in terms of spread sheets for further computation. References Fuchs S

  3. Topological Visualisation techniques for the understanding of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Dean P; Hands, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The use of topology for visualisation applications has become increasingly popular due to its ability to summarise data at a high level. Criticalities in scalar field data are used by visualisation methods such as the Reeb graph and contour trees to present topological structure in simple graph based formats. These techniques can be used to segment the input field, recognising the boundaries between multiple objects, allowing whole contour meshes to be seeded as separate objects. In this paper we demonstrate the use of topology based techniques when applied to theoretical physics data generated from Quantum Chromodynamics simulations, which due to its structure complicates their use. We also discuss how the output of algorithms involved in topological visualisation can be used by physicists to further their understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics.

  4. Visual privacy by context: proposal and evaluation of a level-based visualisation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-López, José Ramón; Chaaraoui, Alexandros Andre; Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2015-06-04

    Privacy in image and video data has become an important subject since cameras are being installed in an increasing number of public and private spaces. Specifically, in assisted living, intelligent monitoring based on computer vision can allow one to provide risk detection and support services that increase people's autonomy at home. In the present work, a level-based visualisation scheme is proposed to provide visual privacy when human intervention is necessary, such as at telerehabilitation and safety assessment applications. Visualisation levels are dynamically selected based on the previously modelled context. In this way, different levels of protection can be provided, maintaining the necessary intelligibility required for the applications. Furthermore, a case study of a living room, where a top-view camera is installed, is presented. Finally, the performed survey-based evaluation indicates the degree of protection provided by the different visualisation models, as well as the personal privacy preferences and valuations of the users.

  5. 3D++ Visualisation of MEBN Graphs and Screen Representations of Patient Models (PIXIE II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Heinz U; Cypko, Mario; Warner, Dave; Berliner, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modelling- and visualisation methods and tools for transparent, reproducible and comprehensible information management of patient probabilistic graphical models such as Multi-Entity Bayesian Networks (MEBN). In therapy planning environments, models provide the knowledge base to assist physicians in their decision making process and are typically at the heart of a networked information system. The topic of user interface design (UID) and specifically GUIs needs to be addressed in this context in a very creative manner, if the aim is to make complex models easier for the user to understand and to manage. As a basis for preparing a demonstration to show a proof of concept for the visualisation of MEBNs, the visualization tool called "ANTz" is being proposed here and used as the preferred visualisation tool.

  6. The role of visualisation in data handling in Grade 9 within a problem-centred context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Makina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, data handling has been neglected at secondary school level, perhaps partially due to the strong emphasis on developing arithmetic, algebra and geometry. For the first time, the South African curriculum includes substantial amounts of data handling at all grade levels. The introduction of more data handling in the secondary school curriculum in South Africa and the prevalence of many problems in the teaching of probability and statistics argues for a serious reconsideration of the way it is taught to the pupils. Currently this concern has been the focus of a call for reform in mathematics education by a body like the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM at all levels of schooling (NCTM, 1989; 2000. The importance of visualisation in mathematics, at all levels of mathematical problem solving is well documented in the literature (Bishop, 1989; Maher & Alston, 1989; Moses, 1982; Wheatley, 1991 but almost nothing was done to appreciate visualisation in the learning of data handling. The paper therefore provides a qualitative examination from a Masters dissertation (Makina, 2005 of the role of visualisation in the learning of data handling. This is done through examining the thought processes involved by Grade 9 learners during visualisation while solving data handling tasks. Several roles of visualisation were identified and most were found to improve the critical and creative thinking of pupils during their learning of data handling. The results show that learners are likely to improve their performance in data handling if the awareness of the need to use visualisation creatively as a tool for understanding are highlighted.

  7. Mapping patient safety: a large-scale literature review using bibliometric visualisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S P; van Eck, N J; Waltman, L; Jansen, F W

    2014-03-13

    The amount of scientific literature available is often overwhelming, making it difficult for researchers to have a good overview of the literature and to see relations between different developments. Visualisation techniques based on bibliometric data are helpful in obtaining an overview of the literature on complex research topics, and have been applied here to the topic of patient safety (PS). On the basis of title words and citation relations, publications in the period 2000-2010 related to PS were identified in the Scopus bibliographic database. A visualisation of the most frequently cited PS publications was produced based on direct and indirect citation relations between publications. Terms were extracted from titles and abstracts of the publications, and a visualisation of the most important terms was created. The main PS-related topics studied in the literature were identified using a technique for clustering publications and terms. A total of 8480 publications were identified, of which the 1462 most frequently cited ones were included in the visualisation. The publications were clustered into 19 clusters, which were grouped into three categories: (1) magnitude of PS problems (42% of all included publications); (2) PS risk factors (31%) and (3) implementation of solutions (19%). In the visualisation of PS-related terms, five clusters were identified: (1) medication; (2) measuring harm; (3) PS culture; (4) physician; (5) training, education and communication. Both analysis at publication and term level indicate an increasing focus on risk factors. A bibliometric visualisation approach makes it possible to analyse large amounts of literature. This approach is very useful for improving one's understanding of a complex research topic such as PS and for suggesting new research directions or alternative research priorities. For PS research, the approach suggests that more research on implementing PS improvement initiatives might be needed.

  8. Multimodal investigations of trans-endothelial cell trafficking under condition of disrupted blood-brain barrier integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaryk Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells or immune cells targeting the central nervous system (CNS bear significant promises for patients affected by CNS disorders. Brain or spinal cord delivery of therapeutic cells is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB which remains one of the recognized rate-limiting steps. Osmotic BBB disruption (BBBD has been shown to improve small molecule chemotherapy for brain tumors, but successful delivery of cells in conjunction with BBBD has never been reported. We have used a clinically relevant model (pig of BBBD to attempt brain delivery of TALL-104, a human leukemic T cell line. TALL-104 cells are potent tumor killers and have demonstrated potential for systemic tumor therapy. The pig model used is analogous to the clinical BBBD procedure. Cells were injected in the carotid artery after labeling with the MRI T1 contrast agent GdHPDO3A. Contrast CT scans were used to quantify BBBD and MRI was used to detect Gd++-loaded cells in the brain. Transcranial Doppler was used to monitor cerebral blood flow. EEG recordings were used to detect seizures. Immunocytochemical detection (Cresyl Violet, anti-human CD8 for TALL-104, Evans Blue for BBB damage, GFAP and NEUN was performed. Results At the concentration used TALL-104 cells were tolerated. Incomplete BBBD did not allow cell entry into the brain. MRI scans at 24 and 48 hours post-injection allowed visualization of topographically segregated cells in the hemisphere that underwent successful BBBD. Perivascular location of TALL-104 was confirmed in the BBBD hemisphere by Cresyl violet and CD8 immunocytochemistry. No significant alteration in CBF or EEG activity was recorded during cell injections. Conclusions Our data show that targeted CNS cell therapy requires blood-brain barrier disruption. MRI-detectable cytotoxic anti-neoplastic cells can be forced to transverse the BBB and accumulate in the perivascular space. The virtual absence of toxicity, the high anti-tumor activity

  9. The Role and Potential Dangers of Visualisation When Learning about Sub-Microscopic Explanations in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo; Witteck, Torsten; Pietzner, Verena

    2012-01-01

    The core of theory-driven chemistry education consists of the constant shift between the different representational domains of chemical thinking: the macroscopic, the sub-microscopic, and the symbolic domains. Because the sub-microscopic domain can neither be seen nor directly visualised, it requires specific forms of visualisation, i.e. pictures…

  10. Visualisation for increasing health intentions: enhanced effects following a health message and when using a first-person perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura; Uskul, Ayse K; Adams, Catherine; Appleton, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The present research explored whether visualising engaging in a health behaviour resulted in increased intentions to engage in that behaviour, when combined with an informational health message. Further, the effects of the visual perspective (first-person vs. third-person) used to visualise the health behaviour were explored. In an online questionnaire study employing a 2 × 3 between-participants experimental design, participants (N = 532) read vs. did not read an informational health message about the benefits of increasing fruit consumption, then visualised (from first-person vs. third-person perspective) vs. did not visualise themselves increasing their fruit consumption. Intentions to increase fruit consumption were assessed, as were potential mediating variables. The results indicated that visualisation (irrespective of perspective) did not result in increased intentions when it was not combined with the health message. However, when participants had read the health message, visualisation resulted in significantly stronger intentions, and the first-person perspective was significantly more effective than the third-person perspective. The beneficial effect of visualisation, and the first-person perspective, on intentions was mediated by increased self-efficacy and action planning. Findings are discussed in relation to existing research on visualisation and perspective, and in terms of practical applications for health promotion efforts.

  11. The Healthy Brain Network Serial Scanning Initiative: a resource for evaluating inter-individual differences and their reliabilities across scan conditions and sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, David; Potler, Natan Vega; Kovacs, Meagan; Xu, Ting; Ai, Lei; Pellman, John; Vanderwal, Tamara; Parra, Lucas C; Cohen, Samantha; Ghosh, Satrajit; Escalera, Jasmine; Grant-Villegas, Natalie; Osman, Yael; Bui, Anastasia; Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established. This resource provides data for evaluating test-retest reliability for full-brain connectivity patterns detected during each of four scan conditions that differ with respect to level of engagement (rest, abstract animations, movie clips, flanker task). Data are provided for 13 participants, each scanned in 12 sessions with 10 minutes for each scan of the four conditions. Diffusion kurtosis imaging data was also obtained at each session. Technical validation and demonstrative reliability analyses were carried out at the connection-level using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and at network-level representations of the data using the Image Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Variation in intrinsic functional connectivity across sessions was generally found to be greater than that attributable to scan condition. Between-condition reliability was generally high, particularly for the frontoparietal and default networks. Between-session reliabilities obtained separately for the different scan conditions were comparable, though notably lower than between-condition reliabilities. This resource provides a test-bed for quantifying the reliability of connectivity indices across subjects, conditions and time. The resource can be used to compare and optimize different frameworks for measuring connectivity and data collection parameters such as scan length. Additionally, investigators can explore the unique perspectives of the brain's functional

  12. Directionality of large-scale resting-state brain networks during eyes open and eyes closed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Delong; Liang, Bishan; Wu, Xia; Wang, Zengjian; Xu, Pengfei; Chang, Song; Liu, Bo; Liu, Ming; Huang, Ruiwang

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined directional connections in the brain among resting-state networks (RSNs) when the participant had their eyes open (E0) or had their eyes closed (EC). The resting state fMRI data were collected from 20 healthy participants (9 males, 20.17 +/- 2.74 years) under the EO and EC

  13. The Role and Potential Dangers of Visualisation when Learning about Sub-Microscopic Explanations in Chemistry Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Eilks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The core of theory-driven chemistry education consists of the constantshift between the different representational domains of chemical thinking: the macroscopic, the sub-microscopic, and the symbolic domains. Because the sub-microscopic domain can neither be seen nor directly visualised, it requires specific forms of visualisation, i.e. pictures and animations illustrating the model-based level of discrete particles, atoms, or molecular structures. This paper considers the central role visualisations play when learning about the model-based, sub-microscopic level, but it also reflects the dangers inherent in employing isufficiently examined, poorly considered, or even misleading visualisations. This is outlined using different examples taken from both textbooks for lower secondary chemistry education (for students aged 10 to 15 and from the internet. Implications for structuring and using sub-micro visualisations in chemistry education are also given.

  14. Visualising the cross-level relationships between pathological and physiological processes and gene expression: analyses of haematological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ono

    Full Text Available The understanding of pathological processes is based on the comparison between physiological and pathological conditions, and transcriptomic analysis has been extensively applied to various diseases for this purpose. However, the way in which the transcriptomic data of pathological cells relate to the transcriptomes of normal cellular counterparts has not been fully explored, and may provide new and unbiased insights into the mechanisms of these diseases. To achieve this, it is necessary to develop a method to simultaneously analyse components across different levels, namely genes, normal cells, and diseases. Here we propose a multidimensional method that visualises the cross-level relationships between these components at three different levels based on transcriptomic data of physiological and pathological processes, by adapting Canonical Correspondence Analysis, which was developed in ecology and sociology, to microarray data (CCA on Microarray data, CCAM. Using CCAM, we have analysed transcriptomes of haematological disorders and those of normal haematopoietic cell differentiation. First, by analysing leukaemia data, CCAM successfully visualised known relationships between leukaemia subtypes and cellular differentiation, and their characteristic genes, which confirmed the relevance of CCAM. Next, by analysing transcriptomes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, we have shown that CCAM was effective in both generating and testing hypotheses. CCAM showed that among MDS patients, high-risk patients had transcriptomes that were more similar to those of both haematopoietic stem cells (HSC and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEP than low-risk patients, and provided a prognostic model. Collectively, CCAM reveals hidden relationships between pathological and physiological processes and gene expression, providing meaningful clinical insights into haematological diseases, and these could not be revealed by other univariate and multivariate methods

  15. Visualising the cross-level relationships between pathological and physiological processes and gene expression: analyses of haematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko J; Kano, Manabu; Sugiman, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of pathological processes is based on the comparison between physiological and pathological conditions, and transcriptomic analysis has been extensively applied to various diseases for this purpose. However, the way in which the transcriptomic data of pathological cells relate to the transcriptomes of normal cellular counterparts has not been fully explored, and may provide new and unbiased insights into the mechanisms of these diseases. To achieve this, it is necessary to develop a method to simultaneously analyse components across different levels, namely genes, normal cells, and diseases. Here we propose a multidimensional method that visualises the cross-level relationships between these components at three different levels based on transcriptomic data of physiological and pathological processes, by adapting Canonical Correspondence Analysis, which was developed in ecology and sociology, to microarray data (CCA on Microarray data, CCAM). Using CCAM, we have analysed transcriptomes of haematological disorders and those of normal haematopoietic cell differentiation. First, by analysing leukaemia data, CCAM successfully visualised known relationships between leukaemia subtypes and cellular differentiation, and their characteristic genes, which confirmed the relevance of CCAM. Next, by analysing transcriptomes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we have shown that CCAM was effective in both generating and testing hypotheses. CCAM showed that among MDS patients, high-risk patients had transcriptomes that were more similar to those of both haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEP) than low-risk patients, and provided a prognostic model. Collectively, CCAM reveals hidden relationships between pathological and physiological processes and gene expression, providing meaningful clinical insights into haematological diseases, and these could not be revealed by other univariate and multivariate methods. Furthermore, CCAM

  16. Relations between blood supply of brain of students and condition of autonomic nervous system and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Korovina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to estimate the brain blood supply level by rheoencephalography method in junior students of the Medical academy and to determine the blood supply links with the autonomic regulation state, behavioural and alimentary factors. Rheo-encephalographic study, research of the autonomic nervous system state, heart rate regulation and questioning of 17–29 year-old students have been conducted. Basic hemodynamic indices were normal in all surveyed students. Increase in body weight index enhanced the probability of the brain blood supply deterioration. Adaptation mechanisms tension was accompanied by reduction of the rheographic index. Higher blood filling of the brain vessels corersponded to higher ratio “blood minute volume / due blood minute volume” defined taking into account the system arterial pressure. The quantity of links with indicators of the autonomic nervous system state was limited. Nonlinear dependence of the rheographic index on the Kerdo vegetative index was observed: the rheographic index value was the lowest in students with the autonomic balance by the Kerdo vegetative index; it was the highest in the group with the sympathetic prevalence. Risk factor of blood filling decrease was the reduction in the diet variety when foodstuffs of different groups were included into the diet less than twice a week, or they were excluded from the diet completely. Positive correlation of blood supply was observed more often with frequent consumption of fish, vegetables, and fresh fruits. Increase in the regular alcohol intake experience promoted decrease in brain blood supply and increase in asymmetries of blood supply indicators. The effect of alcohol was essential, despite young age of surveyed students and low level of alcohol consumption. Increase in the experience and intensity of smoking was accompanied by deterioration of brain blood supply indicators. Students with the best blood supply had the better

  17. Real-Time Ultrasound Segmentation, Analysis and Visualisation of Deep Cervical Muscle Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ryan J; Harding, Peter J; Loram, Ian D

    2017-02-01

    Despite widespread availability of ultrasound and a need for personalised muscle diagnosis (neck/back pain-injury, work related disorder, myopathies, neuropathies), robust, online segmentation of muscles within complex groups remains unsolved by existing methods. For example, Cervical Dystonia (CD) is a prevalent neurological condition causing painful spasticity in one or multiple muscles in the cervical muscle system. Clinicians currently have no method for targeting/monitoring treatment of deep muscles. Automated methods of muscle segmentation would enable clinicians to study, target, and monitor the deep cervical muscles via ultrasound. We have developed a method for segmenting five bilateral cervical muscles and the spine via ultrasound alone, in real-time. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultrasound data were collected from 22 participants (age: 29.0±6.6, male: 12). To acquire ultrasound muscle segment labels, a novel multimodal registration method was developed, involving MRI image annotation, and shape registration to MRI-matched ultrasound images, via approximation of the tissue deformation. We then applied polynomial regression to transform our annotations and textures into a mean space, before using shape statistics to generate a texture-to-shape dictionary. For segmentation, test images were compared to dictionary textures giving an initial segmentation, and then we used a customized Active Shape Model to refine the fit. Using ultrasound alone, on unseen participants, our technique currently segments a single image in [Formula: see text] to over 86% accuracy (Jaccard index). We propose this approach is applicable generally to segment, extrapolate and visualise deep muscle structure, and analyse statistical features online.

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, or similar conditions, Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental ... of serotonin in the brain and help reduce symptoms of depression. Sarah also ...

  19. A Visualisation-Based Semiotic Analysis of Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Graphical Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2014-01-01

    Within the South African school curriculum, the section on graphical functional relationships consists of signs which include symbols, notation and imagery. In a previous article we explored the role visualisation played in the way learners understood mathematical concepts. That paper reported on the learners' fixation with the physical features…

  20. Scintigraphy of the heart using noradrenaline has a prognostic value when visualising heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A number of cardiac diseases are associated with dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which causes an increased risk of heart failure progression. Visualisation of the heart's sympathetic nervous system, using dedicated radiolabelled tracers (which is so far mostly done with iod-123-metai...

  1. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  2. Image processing and form recognition applied to the quantitative visualisation of coherent flow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P. E.; Marquis, G.; Roy, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Flow visualisation methods such as dye tracers have long been a core methodology for the analysis of turbulent flows. These methods are ideally suited to qualitative observations of coherent structures and their past usage has yielded important insights into turbulent flows. However, the analysis of flow visualisation data need not be limited to qualitative observations. Digital image processing and basic form recognition methods largely developed in the context of remote sensing and earth observation can be applied to flow visualisation experiments in order to extract quantitative information. This paper will demonstrate how such methods can be used on digital films of dye tracer experiments. Specifically, we will examine naturally occurring flow structures observed during a dye tracer experiment conducted in a gravel bed river in Quebec, Canada. The image analysis will be applied in order to automatically identify individual coherent flow structures, measure their size, their orientation in the flow and finally their mean downstream velocity. This novel application of image processing methods to dye tracer experiments allows for quantitative flow visualisations which in turn yield a much more detailed description of coherent flow structures.

  3. Developing Students' Functional Thinking in Algebra through Different Visualisations of a Growing Pattern's Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Clarke, Doug M.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial visualisation of geometric patterns and their generalisation have become a recognised pathway to developing students' functional thinking and understanding of variables in algebra. This design-based research project investigated upper primary students' development of explicit generalisation of functional relationships and their…

  4. Cinema Parisien 3D: 3D Visualisation as a Tool for the History of Cinemagoing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, J.; Opgenhaffen, L.; Bakker, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the relevance of 3D visualisation as a research tool for the history of cinemagoing. How does the process of building a 3D model of cinema theatres relate to what we already know about this history? In which ways does the modelling process allow for the synthesis of

  5. From Sensor Data to Audience Feedback: A Web-based Visualisation Tool for Performing Artists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Röggla (Tom)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis work reports the implementation and evaluation of a platform for visualising GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) sensor data from audiences. This platform is especially tar- geted at performing artists to provide them with a way to gain deeper insight into how audiences perceive their

  6. Visualisation Ability of Senior High School Students with Using GeoGebra and Transparent Mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thohirudin, M.; Maryati, TK; Dwirahayu, G.

    2017-04-01

    Visualisation ability is an ability to process, inform, and transform object which suitable for geometry topic in math. This research aims to describe the influence of using software GeoGebra and transparent mica for student’s visualisation ability. GeoGebra is shortness of geometry and algebra. GeoGebra is an open source program that is created for math. Transparent mica is a tool that is created by the author to transform a geometry object. This research is a quantitative experiment model. The subject of this research were students in grade XII of science program in Annajah Senior High School Rumpin with two classes which one as an experiment class (science one) and another one as a control class (science two). Experiment class use GeoGebra and transparent mica in the study, and control class use powerpoint in the study. Data of student’s visualisation ability is collected from posttest with visual questions which are gifted at the end of the research to both classes with topic “transformation geometry”. This research resulted that studying with GeoGebra and transparent mica had a better influence than studying with powerpoint to student’s visualisation ability. The time of study in class and the habit of the students to use software and tool affected the result of research. Although, GeoGebra and transparent mica can give help to students in transformation geometry topic.

  7. Using 3D and information visualisation to improve perception and facilitate situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CSIR engineers are developing a 3D viewer library called Sentience3D. The goal is to aid users and developers of simulations in building the visualisation tools they need to achieve the required level of situation awareness in their virtual...

  8. Overcoming Problems in Doctoral Writing through the Use of Visualisations: Telling Our Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry; Hussey, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students experience many challenges on the long journey towards completion. Common problems include: synthesising data, working at a conceptual level, clarifying the relationship of the parts of the thesis to the whole, finding a voice and completing a viva successfully. Few authors have addressed the use of visualisations to meet these…

  9. UFORIA : a flexible visualisation platform for digital forensics and e-discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhoudt, Arnim; Vos, Sijmen; Stander, Adrie; Rudolph, Carsten; Kuntze, Nicolai; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Maña, Antonio

    With the current growth of data in digital investigations, one solution for forensic investigators is to visualise the data for the detection of suspicious activity. However, this process can be complex and difficult to achieve, as there few tools available that are simple and can handle a wide

  10. Event visualisation in ALICE - current status and strategy for Run 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, Jeremi; von Haller, Barthélémy

    2017-10-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is one of the four big experiments running at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which focuses on the study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) being produced in heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE Event Visualisation Environment (AliEve) is a tool providing an interactive 3D model of the detector’s geometry and a graphical representation of the data. Together with the online reconstruction module, it provides important quality monitoring of the recorded data. As a consequence it has been used in the ALICE Run Control Centre during all stages of Run 2. Static screenshots from the online visualisation are published on the public website - ALICE LIVE. Dedicated converters have been developed to provide geometry and data for external projects. An example of such project is the Total Event Display (TEV) - a visualisation tool recently developed by the CERN Media Lab based on the Unity game engine. It can be easily deployed on any platform, including web and mobile platforms. Another external project is More Than ALICE - an augmented reality application for visitors, overlaying detector descriptions and event visualisations on the camera’s picture. For the future Run 3 both AliEve and TEV will be adapted to fit the ALICE O2 project. Several changes are required due to the new data formats, especially so-called Compressed Time Frames.

  11. Open source libraries and frameworks for biological data visualisation: a guide for developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput experimental techniques have led to an exponential increase in both the size and the complexity of the data sets commonly studied in biology. Data visualisation is increasingly used as the key to unlock this data, going from hypothesis generation to model evaluation and tool implementation. It is becoming more and more the heart of bioinformatics workflows, enabling scientists to reason and communicate more effectively. In parallel, there has been a corresponding trend towards the development of related software, which has triggered the maturation of different visualisation libraries and frameworks. For bioinformaticians, scientific programmers and software developers, the main challenge is to pick out the most fitting one(s) to create clear, meaningful and integrated data visualisation for their particular use cases. In this review, we introduce a collection of open source or free to use libraries and frameworks for creating data visualisation, covering the generation of a wide variety of charts and graphs. We will focus on software written in Java, JavaScript or Python. We truly believe this software offers the potential to turn tedious data into exciting visual stories. © 2014 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Better Visualisation of Air-borne Laser Scanning for geomorphological and archaeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Thomas; Scott, D; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    , improve, manipulate) the visual appearance of the elevation model, so that the features of interest are more clearly shown. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of several advanced visualisation techniques for locating and interpreting a.o. fossil beach ridges, paleo-lake shorelines, sub...

  13. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Eulisse, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Muzaffar, S. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osborne, I. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, L. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: lucas.taylor@cern.ch; Tuura, L.A. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  14. SQuAVisiT : A Software Quality Assessment and Visualisation Toolset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubtsov, Serguei; Telea, Alexandru; Holten, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Software quality assessment of large COBOL industrial legacy systems, both for maintenance or migration purposes, mounts a serious challenge. We present the Software Quality Assessment and Visualisation Toolset (SQuAVisiT), which assists users in performing the above task. First, it allows a fully

  15. CT virtual endoscopy and 3D stereoscopic visualisation in the evaluation of coronary stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Lawrence-Brown

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present the additional value provided by CT virtual endoscopy and 3D stereoscopic visualisation when compared with 2D visualisations in the assessment of coronary stenting. A 64-year old patient was treated with left coronary stenting 8 years ago and recently followed up with multidetector row CT angiography. An in-stent restenosis of the left coronary artery was suspected based on 2D axial and multiplanar reformatted images. 3D virtual endoscopy was generated to demonstrate the smooth intraluminal surface of coronary artery wall, and there was no evidence of restenosis or intraluminal irregularity. Virtual fly-through of the coronary artery was produced to examine the entire length of the coronary artery with the aim of demonstrating the intraluminal changes following placement of the coronary stent. In addition, stereoscopic views were generated to show the relationship between coronary artery branches and the coronary stent. In comparison with traditional 2D visualisations, virtual endoscopy was useful for assessment of the intraluminal appearance of the coronary artery wall following coronary stent implantation, while stereoscopic visualisation improved observers’ understanding of the complex cardiac structures. Thus, both methods could be used as a complementary tool in cardiac imaging. PMID:21610990

  16. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the visualisation of intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, N K; Dunham, R; Wolstenhulme, S; Wilson, J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate whether three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (3D TV US) is superior to two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (2D TV US) at visualising intrauterine devices and determining their position. This prospective study included 52 participants with an intrauterine device fitted, who underwent 2D TV US and 3D TV US. 2D TV US and 3D-reconstructed coronal images were reviewed by two gynaecological radiologists to assess ease of visualisation and position of the intrauterine devices. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank, McNemar and Chi-squared tests. The inter-observer agreement was measured using Cohen's Kappa. Intrauterine device visualisation scores were significantly higher with 2D TV US compared with 3D TV US (Radiologist 1 p = visualise an intrauterine device better than 2D TV US. The 3D-reconstructed coronal image of the uterus can reliably display cases of T-arm perforation into the adjacent myometrium, which could be missed on 2D TV US images. The 3D TV US should be used in addition to 2D TV US in all cases where an intrauterine device is under evaluation.

  17. DYVIPAC: an integrated analysis and visualisation framework to probe multi-dimensional biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan K; Degasperi, Andrea; Cotter, Philip; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2015-07-29

    Biochemical networks are dynamic and multi-dimensional systems, consisting of tens or hundreds of molecular components. Diseases such as cancer commonly arise due to changes in the dynamics of signalling and gene regulatory networks caused by genetic alternations. Elucidating the network dynamics in health and disease is crucial to better understand the disease mechanisms and derive effective therapeutic strategies. However, current approaches to analyse and visualise systems dynamics can often provide only low-dimensional projections of the network dynamics, which often does not present the multi-dimensional picture of the system behaviour. More efficient and reliable methods for multi-dimensional systems analysis and visualisation are thus required. To address this issue, we here present an integrated analysis and visualisation framework for high-dimensional network behaviour which exploits the advantages provided by parallel coordinates graphs. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework, named "Dynamics Visualisation based on Parallel Coordinates" (DYVIPAC), to a variety of signalling networks ranging in topological wirings and dynamic properties. The framework was proved useful in acquiring an integrated understanding of systems behaviour.

  18. Three-dimensional visualisation of soft biological structures by X-ray computed micro-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Tom; Bradley, Robert S; Hidalgo-Bastida, L Araida; Sherratt, Michael J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2016-07-01

    Whereas the two-dimensional (2D) visualisation of biological samples is routine, three-dimensional (3D) imaging remains a time-consuming and relatively specialised pursuit. Current commonly adopted techniques for characterising the 3D structure of non-calcified tissues and biomaterials include optical and electron microscopy of serial sections and sectioned block faces, and the visualisation of intact samples by confocal microscopy or electron tomography. As an alternative to these approaches, X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) can both rapidly image the internal 3D structure of macroscopic volumes at sub-micron resolutions and visualise dynamic changes in living tissues at a microsecond scale. In this Commentary, we discuss the history and current capabilities of microCT. To that end, we present four case studies to illustrate the ability of microCT to visualise and quantify: (1) pressure-induced changes in the internal structure of unstained rat arteries, (2) the differential morphology of stained collagen fascicles in tendon and ligament, (3) the development of Vanessa cardui chrysalises, and (4) the distribution of cells within a tissue-engineering construct. Future developments in detector design and the use of synchrotron X-ray sources might enable real-time 3D imaging of dynamically remodelling biological samples. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Designerly Ways to Theoretical Insight: Visualisation as a Means to Explore, Discuss and Understand Design Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Gelting, Anne Katrine Gøtzsche

    2015-01-01

    This paper set out to investigate "how design students learn from visualising theory in design education." The exploration rests on the assumption that the application of tools and techniques from design practice supports design students with an entrance to the theoretical part of the field. The paper is based on teaching experiences…

  20. Categorisation of visualisation methods to support the design of Human-Computer Interaction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Katie; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    During the design of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, the creation of visual artefacts forms an important part of design. On one hand producing a visual artefact has a number of advantages: it helps designers to externalise their thought and acts as a common language between different stakeholders. On the other hand, if an inappropriate visualisation method is employed it could hinder the design process. To support the design of HCI systems, this paper reviews the categorisation of visualisation methods used in HCI. A keyword search is conducted to identify a) current HCI design methods, b) approaches of selecting these methods. The resulting design methods are filtered to create a list of just visualisation methods. These are then categorised using the approaches identified in (b). As a result 23 HCI visualisation methods are identified and categorised in 5 selection approaches (The Recipient, Primary Purpose, Visual Archetype, Interaction Type, and The Design Process). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Change the Way Your Pupils Learn by Practising Creative Thinking and Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Mick

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article (2014), this author outlined the practical use of visualisation as a way of starting lessons. The purpose of this is to create interest, hold attention, and provide some mental experience of the conceptual learning to follow. In this way, links can be created between the teaching activity in the first few minutes of the…

  2. Visualisation of interaction footprints for engagement and motivation in online communities – results of first interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C. (2008). Visualisation of interaction footprints for engagement and motivation in online communities – results of first interviews. Presented at the 1st Workshop on Technology Support for Self-Organized Learners (TSSOL08) at the EduMedia Conference. June, 2, 2008, Salzburg, Austria.

  3. Competence Visualisation: Making Sense of Data from 21st-Century Technologies in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Susan; Wasson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an open learner model approach to learning analytics to combine the variety of data available from the range of applications and technologies in language learning, for visualisation of language learning competences to learners and teachers in the European language context. Specific examples are provided as illustrations…

  4. Method of visualisation influences accuracy of measurements in cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Angst, Christine; Kellenberger, Christian J; Schätzle, Marc A; Ullrich, Oliver; Markic, Goran

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the potential impact of different visualisation methods of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on the accuracy of linear measurements of calcified structures, and assessed their interchangeability. High resolution (0.125 mm voxel) CBCT scans were obtained from eight cadaveric heads. The distance between the alveolar bone ridge and the incisal edge was determined for all mandibular incisors and canines, both anatomically and with measurements based on the following five CBCT visualisation methods: isosurface, direct volume rendering, multiplanar reformatting (MPR), maximum intensity projection of the volume of interest (VOIMIP), and average intensity projection of the volume of interest (VOIAvIP). All radiological methods were tested for repeatability and compared with anatomical results for accuracy, and limits of agreement were established. Interchangeability was evaluated by reviewing disparities between the methods and disclosing deterministic differences. Fine intra- and inter-observer repeatability was asserted for all visualisation methods (intraclass correlation coefficient ≤0.81). Measurements were most accurate when performed on MPR images and performed most disappointingly on isosurface-based images. Direct volume rendering, VOIMIP and VOIAvIP achieved acceptable results. It can be concluded that visualisation methods influence the accuracy of CBCT measurements. The isosurface viewing method is not recommended, and multiplanar reformatted images should be favoured for linear measurements of calcified structures. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Streaming visualisation of quantitative mass spectrometry data based on a novel raw signal decomposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Bhamber, Ranjeet; Riba-Garcia, Isabel; Liao, Hanqing; Unwin, Richard D; Dowsey, Andrew W

    2015-04-01

    As data rates rise, there is a danger that informatics for high-throughput LC-MS becomes more opaque and inaccessible to practitioners. It is therefore critical that efficient visualisation tools are available to facilitate quality control, verification, validation, interpretation, and sharing of raw MS data and the results of MS analyses. Currently, MS data is stored as contiguous spectra. Recall of individual spectra is quick but panoramas, zooming and panning across whole datasets necessitates processing/memory overheads impractical for interactive use. Moreover, visualisation is challenging if significant quantification data is missing due to data-dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra. In order to tackle these issues, we leverage our seaMass technique for novel signal decomposition. LC-MS data is modelled as a 2D surface through selection of a sparse set of weighted B-spline basis functions from an over-complete dictionary. By ordering and spatially partitioning the weights with an R-tree data model, efficient streaming visualisations are achieved. In this paper, we describe the core MS1 visualisation engine and overlay of MS/MS annotations. This enables the mass spectrometrist to quickly inspect whole runs for ionisation/chromatographic issues, MS/MS precursors for coverage problems, or putative biomarkers for interferences, for example. The open-source software is available from http://seamass.net/viz/. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Factors of importance for scintigraphic non-visualisation of sentinel nodes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, A H; Friis, E; Hesse, U; Al-Suliman, N; Zerahn, B; Hesse, B

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse different factors of possible significance for non-visualisation of sentinel nodes (SNs) by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, in order to enable improvement of the success rate of SN visualisation through modification or alteration of some of the factors. Between March 1998 and January 2003 we analysed a series of 442 women with unilateral stage T1 and clinical N0 breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after periareolar or peritumoural injection of 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid, with image acquisition after 2-6 h or 18-24 h. Until January 2001, all patients received around 20 MBq tracer, irrespective of time to operation. From January 2001, patients injected on the day before surgery received at least 100 MBq while patients injected on the day of surgery received around 50 MBq. An SN was visualised in 87% of the patients, and at surgery the SN was detected with the hand-held gamma probe in 42% of the remaining patients. By multiple logistic regression analysis, statistically significant independent variables that increased the risk for non-visualisation were increasing age (p=0.0007), increasing body weight (p=0.0189) and peritumoural injection (psuccess rate may be improved by periareolar (rather than peritumoural) injection. Early and late imaging procedures are equally efficient, but if a late imaging procedure is used, activity (adjusted for physical decay) in the patient on day 2 should be more than 10 MBq.

  7. Evaluation of a portable image overlay projector for the visualisation of surgical navigation data: phantom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, K; Oliveira-Santos, T; Peterhans, M; Reyes, M; Kim, H; Anderegg, S; Weber, S

    2012-07-01

    Presenting visual feedback for image-guided surgery on a monitor requires the surgeon to perform time-consuming comparisons and diversion of sight and attention away from the patient. Deficiencies in previously developed augmented reality systems for image-guided surgery have, however, prevented the general acceptance of any one technique as a viable alternative to monitor displays. This work presents an evaluation of the feasibility and versatility of a novel augmented reality approach for the visualisation of surgical planning and navigation data. The approach, which utilises a portable image overlay device, was evaluated during integration into existing surgical navigation systems and during application within simulated navigated surgery scenarios. A range of anatomical models, surgical planning data and guidance information taken from liver surgery, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, orthopaedic surgery and biopsy were displayed on patient-specific phantoms, directly on to the patient's skin and on to cadaver tissue. The feasibility of employing the proposed augmented reality visualisation approach in each of the four tested clinical applications was qualitatively assessed for usability, visibility, workspace, line of sight and obtrusiveness. The visualisation approach was found to assist in spatial understanding and reduced the need for sight diversion throughout the simulated surgical procedures. The approach enabled structures to be identified and targeted quickly and intuitively. All validated augmented reality scenes were easily visible and were implemented with minimal overhead. The device showed sufficient workspace for each of the presented applications, and the approach was minimally intrusiveness to the surgical scene. The presented visualisation approach proved to be versatile and applicable to a range of image-guided surgery applications, overcoming many of the deficiencies of previously described AR approaches. The approach presents an initial step

  8. The influence of wire localisation for non-palpable breast lesions on visualisation of the sentinel node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.E.; Bekker, J.; Verberne, G.H.M. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Haas, M.J. de; Weel, F.A. van der; Quekel, L.G.B.A. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Budel, L.M. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klerk, J.M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    In our clinic, patients with occult breast lesions are treated with a sentinel node biopsy combined with wire-guided tumour excision. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the influence of the sequence of wire localisation and sentinel node procedure on visualisation of the sentinel node. A total of 136 patients had a wire-guided tumour excision combined with a sentinel node procedure. Sixty-six patients had guide wire localisation prior to the sentinel node procedure. Seventy patients had sentinel node visualisation before insertion of the guide wire. The sentinel node was visualised in 41 (62%) of the patients who first underwent guide wire localisation. In the group of patients who underwent visualisation of the sentinel node before placement of the guide wire, the sentinel node was visualised in 62 (89%). This is a significant difference in visualisation (p<0.001). This study shows that guide wire localisation prior to the sentinel node procedure negatively influences visualisation of the sentinel node. (orig.)

  9. Social hierarchies, growth and brain serotonin metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept under commercial rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, K Fiona; Winberg, Svante; Huntingford, Felicity A; Kadri, Sunil; Crampton, Vivian O; Overli, Oyvind

    2008-07-05

    Monitoring social interactions between individuals in large, high-density groups poses several challenges. Here we demonstrate that relative concentrations of serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its principal catabolite 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain tissue of individual fish reflect social organisation in large groups of farmed Atlantic salmon. In the central nervous system of vertebrates, the monoamine neurotransmitter/neuromodulator 5-HT is critical for maintaining adaptive physiological, cognitive and emotional processes. In both teleost fish and mammals it has previously been shown that social interactions in small groups lead to elevated 5-HT release and/or metabolism in subordinate individuals, as indicated by the 5-HIAA/5-HT concentration ratio. In the current study, evidence is presented of non-linear dominance hierarchies in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept at high rearing densities. The physiological effect of these hierarchies was decreased when food resources were abundant, although some subordinate fish still showed altered brain serotonergic activity and failed to grow even feed was available in excess. The largest effect of decreased feed rations was seen in fish of intermediate size, where competition appeared to increase with reduced access to feed. The largest individuals in each rearing unit showed low 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios independent of feeding regime. A novel observation, with respect to previous studies, was that elevated brain 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios resulted from decreased 5-HT concentrations rather than elevated 5-HIAA in small fish. Thus, in light of the serotonin deficit hypothesis of depression, it cannot be excluded that social stress is important for animal welfare even in large, relatively homogenous groups of animals reared in captivity.

  10. Standard loading controls are not reliable for Western blot quantification across brain development or in pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goasdoue, Kate; Awabdy, Doreen; Bjorkman, Stella Tracey; Miller, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    A frequently utilized method of data quantification in Western blot analysis is comparison of the protein of interest with a house keeping gene or control protein. Commonly used proteins include β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and α-tubulin. Various reliability issues have been raised when using this technique for data analysis-particularly when investigating protein expression changes during development and in disease states. In this study, we have demonstrated that β-actin, GAPDH, and α-tubulin are not appropriate controls in the study of development and hypoxic-ischemic induced damage in the piglet brain. We have also shown that using an in-house pooled standard, loaded on all blots is a reliable method for controlling interassay variability and data normalization in protein expression analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Low extracellular Ca2+ conditions induce an increase in brain endothelial permeability that involves intercellular Ca2+ waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Marijke; Culot, Maxime; Wang, Nan; da Costa, Anaelle; Decrock, Elke; Bol, Mélissa; Bultynck, Geert; Cecchelli, Romeo; Leybaert, Luc

    2012-12-03

    The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is an important factor determining the permeability of endothelial barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, nothing is known concerning the effect of spatially propagated intercellular Ca(2+) waves (ICWs). The propagation of ICWs relies in large part on channels formed by connexins that are present in endothelia. We hypothesized that ICWs may result in a strong disturbance of endothelial function, because the [Ca(2+)](i) changes are coordinated and involve multiple cells. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of ICWs on endothelial permeability. ICW activity was triggered in immortalized and primary brain endothelial cells by lowering the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Low extracellular Ca(2+) increased the endothelial permeability and this was significantly suppressed by buffering [Ca(2+)](i) with BAPTA-AM, indicating a central role of [Ca(2+)](i) changes. The endothelial permeability increase was furthermore inhibited by the connexin channel blocking peptide Gap27, which also blocked the ICWs, and by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and actomyosin contraction. We compared these observations with the [Ca(2+)](i) changes and permeability alterations provoked by the inflammatory agent bradykinin (BK), which triggers oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) changes without wave activity. BK-associated [Ca(2+)](i) changes and the endothelial permeability increase were significantly smaller than those associated with ICWs, and the permeability increase was not influenced by inhibition of PKC, CaMKII or actomyosin contraction. We conclude that ICWs significantly increase endothelial permeability and therefore, the connexins that underlie wave propagation form an interesting target to limit BBB alterations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Electrical Synapses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Visualisation of axolotl blastema cells and pig endothelial progenitor cells using very small super paramagnetic iron oxide particles in MRI: A technique with applications for non invasive visualisation of regenerative processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Kjær, N.B.; Bek, Maria

    Objectives: Regenerative studies on model animals often require invasive techniques such as tissue sampling and histology for visualisation of regenerative processes. These interactions are avoided using non invasive imaging techniques. The internalisation of very small super paramagnetic iron...

  13. Deep brain stimulation of the amygdala alleviates fear conditioning-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity in the cortical-amygdala pathway and fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Li; Huang, SiJia; Peng, BinBin; Ren, Jie; Tian, FuYing; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the amygdala has been demonstrated to modulate hyperactivity of the amygdala, which is responsible for the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and thus might be used for the treatment of PTSD. However, the underlying mechanism of DBS of the amygdala in the modulation of the amygdala is unclear. The present study investigated the effects of DBS of the amygdala on synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity at cortical inputs to the amygdala, which is critical for the formation and storage of auditory fear memories, and fear memories. The results demonstrated that auditory fear conditioning increased single-pulse-evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the cortical-amygdala pathway. Furthermore, auditory fear conditioning decreased the induction of paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, two neurophysiological models for studying short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity, respectively, in the cortical-amygdala pathway. In addition, all these auditory fear conditioning-induced changes could be reversed by DBS of the amygdala. DBS of the amygdala also rescued auditory fear conditioning-induced enhancement of long-term retention of fear memory. These findings suggested that DBS of the amygdala alleviating fear conditioning-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity in the cortical-amygdala pathway and fear memory may underlie the neuromodulatory role of DBS of the amygdala in activities of the amygdala.

  14. EEG characteristics in "eyes-open" versus "eyes-closed" conditions: Small-world network architecture in healthy aging and age-related brain degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Francesca; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2016-02-01

    Applying graph theory, we investigated how cortical sources small worldness (SW) of resting EEG in eyes-closed/open (EC/EO) differs in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects with respect to normal elderly (Nold). EEG was recorded in 30 Nold, 30 aMCI, and 30 AD during EC and EO. Undirected and weighted cortical brain network was built to evaluate graph core measures. eLORETA lagged linear connectivity was used to weight the network. In Nold, in EO condition, the brain network is characterized by more SW (higher SW) in alpha bands and less SW (lower SW) in beta2 and gamma bands. In aMCI, SW has the same trend, except for delta and theta bands where the network shows less small worldness. AD shows a similar trend of Nold, but with less fluctuations between EO/EC conditions. Furthermore, in both conditions, aMCI SW architecture presents midway properties between AD and Nold. At low frequencies (delta e theta bands) in EC, aMCI group presents network's architecture similar to Nold, while in EO aMCI, SW is superimposable to AD ones. In resting state condition, aMCI small-world architecture presents midway topological properties between AD subjects and healthy controls, confirming the hypothesis that aMCI is an intermediate step along the disease progression. We proposed the application of graph theory to EEG in reactivity to EO in order to find a marker of diagnosis that - in association with other techniques of neuroimaging - could be sensitive to the progression of MCI or conversion into AD. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain stem slice conditioned medium contains endogenous BDNF and GDNF that affect neural crest boundary cap cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Kale, Ajay; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Siratirakun, Piyaporn; Aquino, Jorge B; Thonabulsombat, Charoensri; Ernfors, Patrik; Olivius, Petri

    2014-05-30

    Conditioned medium (CM), made by collecting medium after a few days in cell culture and then re-using it to further stimulate other cells, is a known experimental concept since the 1950s. Our group has explored this technique to stimulate the performance of cells in culture in general, and to evaluate stem- and progenitor cell aptitude for auditory nerve repair enhancement in particular. As compared to other mediums, all primary endpoints in our published experimental settings have weighed in favor of conditioned culture medium, where we have shown that conditioned culture medium has a stimulatory effect on cell survival. In order to explore the reasons for this improved survival we set out to analyze the conditioned culture medium. We utilized ELISA kits to investigate whether brain stem (BS) slice CM contains any significant amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We further looked for a donor cell with progenitor characteristics that would be receptive to BDNF and GDNF. We chose the well-documented boundary cap (BC) progenitor cells to be tested in our in vitro co-culture setting together with cochlear nucleus (CN) of the BS. The results show that BS CM contains BDNF and GDNF and that survival of BC cells, as well as BC cell differentiation into neurons, were enhanced when BS CM were used. Altogether, we conclude that BC cells transplanted into a BDNF and GDNF rich environment could be suitable for treatment of a traumatized or degenerated auditory nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the molecular level visualisation approach for teaching and learning chemistry in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenglengdi, Butsari

    This research evaluates the use of a molecular level visualisation approach in Thai secondary schools. The goal is to obtain insights about the usefulness of this approach, and to examine possible improvements in how the approach might be applied in the future. The methodology used for this research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data were collected in the form of pre- and post-intervention multiple choice questions, open-ended-questions, drawing exercises, one-to-one interviews and video recordings of class activity. The research was conducted in two phases, involving a total of 261 students from the 11th Grade in Thailand. The use of VisChem animations in three studies was evaluated in Phase I. Study 1 was a pilot study exploring the benefits of incorporating VisChem animations to portray the molecular level. Study 2 compared test results between students exposed to these animations of molecular level events, and those not. Finally, in Study 3, test results were gathered from different types of schools (a rural school, a city school, and a university school). The results showed that students (and teachers) had misconceptions at the molecular level, and VisChem animations could help students understand chemistry concepts at the molecular level across all three types of schools. While the animation treatment group had a better score on the topic of states of water, the non-animation treatment group had a better score on the topic of dissolving sodium chloride in water than the animation group. The molecular level visualisation approach as a learning design was evaluated in Phase II. This approach involved a combination of VisChem animations, pictures, and diagrams together with the seven-step VisChem learning design. The study involved three classes of students, each with a different treatment, described as Class A - Traditional approach; Class B - VisChem animations with traditional approach; and Class C - Molecular level visualisation approach

  17. Colouring in the "black-box": Alternative renderings of scientific visualisations in two comic book cosmologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Two somewhat contrasting views of public uses of scientific visualisations argue that they are "black-boxed" with meaning given by the scientific community or they are "polysemic" with meaning given by the context of presentation. This paper argues that whether they are treated as black-boxed or not and in what manner this is done is itself part of the meaning given by context. Thus, "black-boxing" is done not only by scientists but also by members of the public. The argument is illustrated by reference to two recent comic books, Dave Sim's Cerebus and Alan Moore's Promethea, in which the authors present cosmological visions of the universe using scientific visualisations to create a sense of realism. From analysis of their use of images of planet Earth and the human foetus it is argued that, although the images are black-boxed, the authors re-work them aesthetically to suit their specific moral and cosmological views.

  18. 3D visualisation in craniofacial surgery. 3D-Darstellungen fuer die Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, R.; Hoehne, K.H. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung in der Medizin); Hoeltje, W.J. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Norddeutsches Zentrum fuer Kranio-Faciale Anomalien); Tiede, U.

    1991-10-01

    3D visualisation from tomographic image sequences has turned out to be a useful addition to diagnosis and surgical planning in craniofacial surgery. However, its clinical use still suffers from the very large variety of different methods and parameters from which the surgeon may choose. This is true not only of the data acquisition but also for of documentation of the results. Furthermore, there is no standardisation of procedures according to classes of malformations. This papier presents a systematic investigation of these problems. It proposes a standardisation of craniofacial malformations and describes an optimisation of the procedure of 3D visualisation. The procedure described has become a standard tool for craniofacial surgery in our hospital. (orig.).

  19. TASKRADAR: TASK VISUALISATION AND MONITORING WITHIN AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE USING SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver Softic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Project management within the automotive production in specific departments is still done separately and does not interact with engineering process. Our work aims on providing flexible data insights on collaboration tasks within such environments. We apply semantic technologies RDF, OWL and SPARQL with a specific domain related ontology PROTARES (PROject TAsks RESources to interlink, describe and query domain knowledge. As proof of concept we are introducing an experimental visualisation interface called TaskRadar. Our application resides on domain ontology and allows knowledge based browsing and visualisation of tasks in development process. With this example we want to show, how semantically driven customized views can support monitoring and reflection as well as decision-making within the early phases of the automotive product lifecycle.

  20. Beyond marks: new tools to visualise student engagement via social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Badge

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that engaged students perform better academically than disinterested students. Measurement of engagement with education is difficult and imprecise, especially in large student cohorts. Traditional measurements such as summary statistics derived from assessment are crude secondary measures of engagement at best and do not provide much support for educators to work with students and curate engagement during teaching periods. We have used academic-related student contributions to a public social network as a proxy for engagement. Statistical summaries and novel data visualisation tools provide subtle and powerful insights into online student peer networks. Analysis of data collected shows that network visualisation can be an important curation tool for educators interested in cultivating student engagement.

  1. Visualisation of contrast-enhanced intraoperative optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Justis P; McNutt, Stephen; Dar, Suhail; Tao, Yuankai K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2014-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based visualisation of ophthalmic anatomy has transformed the clinical practice of ophthalmology. The translation of OCT into the surgical theatre is currently being actively researched and may provide a paradigm shift in surgical practice. Enhanced visualisation of tissues and tissue planes may provide further iterative improvement in surgeon feedback. Contrast-enhanced intraoperative OCT (iOCT) has been previously described with triamcinolone. In this report, we describe the OCT features and contrast enhancement noted with indocyanine green using iOCT in human subjects as well as an ex vivo analysis in porcine eyes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Many-to-Many Geographically-Embedded Flow Visualisation: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yalong; Dwyer, Tim; Goodwin, Sarah; Marriott, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Showing flows of people and resources between multiple geographic locations is a challenging visualisation problem. We conducted two quantitative user studies to evaluate different visual representations for such dense many-to-many flows. In our first study we compared a bundled node-link flow map representation and OD Maps [37] with a new visualisation we call MapTrix. Like OD Maps, MapTrix overcomes the clutter associated with a traditional flow map while providing geographic embedding that is missing in standard OD matrix representations. We found that OD Maps and MapTrix had similar performance while bundled node-link flow map representations did not scale at all well. Our second study compared participant performance with OD Maps and MapTrix on larger data sets. Again performance was remarkably similar.

  3. Multi-criterion water quality analysis of the Danube River in Serbia: A visualisation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Jakovljević, Dejana; Savić, Dragan; Radovanović, Milan

    2015-08-01

    River quality analysis is an important activity which, in Serbia, has been performed using the Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI). This is a measure based on a weighted aggregation of 10 water quality parameters. In this work, alternative methods drawing on visualisation approaches used in multi-criterion decision analysis are applied to the problem of evaluating river quality in the Danube. Two methods are considered: one which constructs a graph using the dominance relation combined with a further multi-criterion ranking method, average rank, and the other in which the dimensionality of the data is reduced using PCA for visualisation. Results for data collected in 2010 are analysed and compared with the corresponding SWQI values for the river in that year, and we find that by employing these methods it is possible to reveal more information within the data than is possible by using SWQI alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BioLayout(Java): versatile network visualisation of structural and functional relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldovsky, Leon; Cases, Ildefonso; Enright, Anton J; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2005-01-01

    Visualisation of biological networks is becoming a common task for the analysis of high-throughput data. These networks correspond to a wide variety of biological relationships, such as sequence similarity, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory cascades and protein interactions. We present a general approach for the representation and analysis of networks of variable type, size and complexity. The application is based on the original BioLayout program (C-language implementation of the Fruchterman-Rheingold layout algorithm), entirely re-written in Java to guarantee portability across platforms. BioLayout(Java) provides broader functionality, various analysis techniques, extensions for better visualisation and a new user interface. Examples of analysis of biological networks using BioLayout(Java) are presented.

  5. Exploring Visualisation of Channel Activity, Levels and EQ for User Interfaces Implementing the Stage Metaphor for Music Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Uhrenholt, Anders Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This short précis outlines a collection of different strategies for visualising simple audio features for a GUI- based audio mixing interface that uses the stage metaphor control scheme. Audio features such as activity, loudness and spectral centroid are extracted in real-time and mapped to diffe...... implementing these kinds of dynamic graphical visualisations it is thus important to consider how intrusive they are compared to their usefulness in a real mixing context....

  6. Topological Analysis and Visualisation of Network Monitoring Data: Darknet case study

    OpenAIRE

    Coudriau, Marc; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Francois, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Network monitoring is a primordial source of data in cyber-security since it may reveal abnormal behaviors of users or applications. Indeed, security analysts and tools like IDS (Intrusion Detection system) or SIEM (security information and event management) rely on them as a single source of information or combined with others. In this paper, we propose a visualisation method derived from the Mapper algorithm that has been developed in the field of Topological Data An...

  7. Visualisation of high temperature magnetisation states in magnetite grains using off-axis electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, T. P.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Kovács, A.; Williams, W.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    The production of a synthetic basalt comprising Fe3O4 grains (∼ 50 nm to ∼ 500 nm), via a glass ceramic method, has been confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Off-axis electron holography combined with in situ heating allowed for the visualisation of non-uniform vortex states present in saturation remanent structures, and their variation approaching the Curie temperature; determined separately by bulk thermomagnetic measurements.

  8. Non-visualisation of strings after postplacental insertion of Copper-T 380A intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Rupali; Dewan, Abhinav; Singal, Sunita; Bharti, Rekha; Kaim, Mansi

    2017-07-01

    To assess the incidence of visible strings of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) after postplacental insertion following vaginal or caesarean delivery and to establish a management protocol of follow-up visits when strings are not visualised. This was a prospective study of a cohort of 348 women who underwent postplacental insertion of Copper-T 380A IUDs following vaginal or caesarean delivery, conducted at a hospital in New Delhi, India. Women were followed up at 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after IUD insertion and were questioned about IUD expulsion or removal at each visit. The cervix was inspected to visualise the IUD strings. All women whose IUD strings could not be visualised at the cervical os at any given follow-up were identified. We analysed the cumulative incidence of visible strings and of procedures performed to locate the IUD when strings were not visible. At 1 year follow-up, the IUD was in situ in 313/348 (89.9%) women. There were eight (2.3%) expulsions and 15 (4.3%) IUD removals. Among women with IUDs in situ, the strings were not visible in 73 (21%) cases. Pelvic ultrasound confirmed intrauterine position of the IUDs in these cases. At 1 year, string visibility was significantly lower after intra-caesarean insertions as compared to vaginal insertions (72.4% vs 98.1%; pVisualisation of strings after postplacental vaginal insertion is more common than after intra-caesarean insertion. Pelvic ultrasonography can be used to verify the presence of the device in cases of missing strings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Czech Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies - Technical Solution, Data Collection and Visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozova, L; Schwarz, D; Snabl, I; Kalina, J; Pavlickova, B; Komenda, M; Jarkovský, J; Němec, P; Horinek, D; Stefanikova, Z; Pour, L; Hájek, R; Maisnar, V

    2017-01-01

    The Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies (RMG) was established by the Czech Myeloma Group in 2007. RMG is a registry designed for the collection of clinical data concerning diagnosis, treatment, treatment results and survival of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. Data on patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM), multiple myeloma (MM) or primary AL ("amyloid light-chain") amyloidosis are collected in the registry. Nineteen Czech centres and four Slovak centres currently contribute to the registry. The registry currently contains records on more than 5,000 patients with MM, almost 3,000 patients with MGUS, 170 patients with WM and 26 patients with primary AL amyloidosis, i.e. more than 8,000 records on patients with monoclonal gammopathies altogether. This paper describes technology employed for the collection, storage and subsequent online visualisation of data. The CLADE-IS platform is introduced as a new system for the collection and storage of data from the registry. The form structure and functions of the new system are described for all diagnoses in general; these functions facilitate data entry to the registry and minimise the error rate in data. Publicly available online visualisations of data on patients with MGUS, WM, MM or primary AL amyloidosis from all Czech or Slovak centres are introduced, together with authenticated visualisations of data on patients with MM from selected centres. The RMG represents a data basis that makes it possible to monitor the disease course in patients with monoclonal gammopathies on the population level.Key words: Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies - RMG - registries - monoclonal gammopathies - CLADE-IS - data visualisation - database.

  10. Picture grammars in classification and semantic interpretation of 3D coronary vessels visualisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, M. R.; Tadeusiewicz, R.; Trzupek, M.

    2009-09-01

    The work presents the new opportunity for making semantic descriptions and analysis of medical structures, especially coronary vessels CT spatial reconstructions, with the use of AI graph-based linguistic formalisms. In the paper there will be discussed the manners of applying methods of computational intelligence to the development of a syntactic semantic description of spatial visualisations of the heart's coronary vessels. Such descriptions may be used for both smart ordering of images while archiving them and for their semantic searches in medical multimedia databases. Presented methodology of analysis can furthermore be used for attaining other goals related performance of computer-assisted semantic interpretation of selected elements and/or the entire 3D structure of the coronary vascular tree. These goals are achieved through the use of graph-based image formalisms based on IE graphs generating grammars that allow discovering and automatic semantic interpretation of irregularities visualised on the images obtained during diagnostic examinations of the heart muscle. The basis for the construction of 3D reconstructions of biological objects used in this work are visualisations obtained from helical CT scans, yet the method itself may be applied also for other methods of medical 3D images acquisition. The obtained semantic information makes it possible to make a description of the structure focused on the semantics of various morphological forms of the visualised vessels from the point of view of the operation of coronary circulation and the blood supply of the heart muscle. Thanks to these, the analysis conducted allows fast and — to a great degree — automated interpretation of the semantics of various morphological changes in the coronary vascular tree, and especially makes it possible to detect these stenoses in the lumen of the vessels that can cause critical decrease in blood supply to extensive or especially important fragments of the heart muscle.

  11. GridVis: Visualisation of Island-based parallel genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lutton, Evelyne; Gilbert, Hugo; Cancino, Waldo; Bach, Benjamin; Parrend, Pierre; Pierre, Collet

    2014-01-01

    Island Model parallel genetic algorithms rely on various mi- gration models and their associated parameter settings. A fine under- standing of how the islands interact and exchange informations is an im- portant issue for the design of efficient algorithms. This article presents GridVis, an interactive tool for visualising the exchange of individuals and the propagation of fitness values between islands. We performed sev- eral experiments on a grid and on a cluster to evaluate GridVis' abilit...

  12. Visualisation of flow patterns in straight and C-shape thermosyphons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, K. S.; Tshai, K. H.; Firwana, A.

    2017-04-01

    A heat pipe is a passive heat transfer device capable of transferring a large quantity of heat effectively and efficiently over a long distance and with a small temperature difference between the heat source and heat sink. A heat pipe consists of a metal pipe initially vacuumed and then filled with a small quantity of fluid inside. The pipe is separated into a heating (evaporator) section and a cooling (condenser) section by an adiabatic section. In a run-around-coil heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, a wrap-around heat pipe heat exchanger could be employed to increase dehumidification and to reduce cooling costs. The thermal performance of a thermosyphon is dependent upon type of fill liquid, fill ratio, power input, pipe inclination and pipe dimensions. The boiling and condensation processes that occur inside a thermosyphon are quite complex. During operation, dry-out, burn-out or boiling limit, entrainment or flooding limit and geysering occur. These phenomena would lead to non-uniform axial wall temperature distribution in the pipe, or worse still, ineffective operation. In order to have a better understanding of the internal heat transfer phenomena, a visual study using transparent glass tubes and high speed camera recording of the internal flow patterns would be most helpful. This paper reports on an experimental investigation conducted to visualise the flow patterns in straight and C-shape thermosyphons. The pictures recorded enabled the internal flow boiling and condensation pattern occurring inside a straight and a C-shape thermosyphon to be observed. The thermosyphons were fabricated from 10 mm O/D × 8 mm I/D × 300 mm long glass tubes and filled with water with fill ratios from 0.5 - 1.5. The evaporator sections of the thermosyphons were immersed into a hot water tank that was electrically heated from cold at ambient temperature till boiling. Cooling of the condenser section was achieved using a fan. Preliminary results showed that dry

  13. Visualisation of uric acid renal calculi (UARC) using computed radiography (CR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dom, Sulaiman M. [Medical Imaging Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 46000 Petaling Jaya (Malaysia)], E-mail: smd_dom@hotmail.com; Yusoff, Nadzri M.; Amin, Zulkifli M. [Medical Imaging Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 46000 Petaling Jaya (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To investigate the capability of CR to visualise UARC through inverse image post-processing technique. Methods. A patient-equivalent phantom (PEP) consisting of six 2.5-cm thick Perspex layers and one 1-mm thick aluminium layer was used to represent human tissues and bones respectively. A total of eight exposures were made on PEP to radiograph 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm UARC located between three layers of 2-cm thick cattle muscle, positioned inside the PEP. After each exposure, a layer of Perspex was removed, and another exposure was made until only one Perspex layer and one layer of muscle (containing the three UARC) remained. For each exposure, two images (a positive and an inverse image) were produced for comparison using Fuji XG1 computed radiography system with IP0 type C-ST-VI Fuji imaging plate (equivalent to 400 speed radiographic screen-film systems). Results: In positive image, UARC of all three sizes (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm) located in the cattle muscle, cannot be visualised when the PEP consists of more than one layer of Perspex. In inverse image, the 3-mm UARC can be seen even when the PEP consists of five layers of Perspex. Conclusion: This study revealed the post-processing capability of CR to increase the visualisation of UARC which has been categorised as radiolucent. A further study of clinical image quality should be performed using blinded observers to test diagnostic accuracy, which was not included in this study.

  14. AnisoVis: a MATLAB™ toolbox for the visualisation of elastic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D.; Timms, N.; Pearce, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The elastic properties of rocks and minerals vary with direction, and this has significant consequences for their physical response to acoustic waves and natural or imposed stresses. This anisotropy of elasticity is well described mathematically by 4th rank tensors of stiffness or compliance. These tensors are not easy to visualise in a single diagram or graphic, and visualising Poisson's ratio and shear modulus presents a further challenge in that their anisotropy depends on two principal directions. Students and researchers can easily underestimate the importance of elastic anisotropy. This presentation describes an open source toolbox of MATLAB scripts that aims to visualise elastic anisotropy in rocks and minerals. The code produces linked 2-D and 3-D representations of the standard elastic constants, such as Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus, all from a simple GUI. The 3-D plots can be manipulated by the user (rotated, panned, zoomed), to encourage investigation and a deeper understanding of directional variations in the fundamental properties. Examples are presented of common rock forming minerals, including those with negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic behaviour). We hope that an open source code base will encourage further enhancements from the rock physics and wider geoscience communities. Eventually, we hope to generate 3-D prints of these complex and beautiful natural surfaces to provide a tactile link to the underlying physics of elastic anisotropy.

  15. Spatio-temporal Visualisation and Data Exploration of Traditional Ecological Knowledge/Indigenous Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kierin Mackenzie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK has been at the centre of mapping efforts for decades. Indigenous knowledge (IK is a critical subset of TEK, and Indigenous peoples utilise a wide variety of techniques for keeping track of time. Although techniques for mapping and visualising the temporal aspects of TEK/IK have been utilised, the spatio-temporal dimensions of TEK are not well explored visually outside of seasonal data and narrative approaches. Existing spatio-temporal models can add new visualisation approaches for TEK but are limited by ontological constraints regarding time, particularly the poor support for multi-cyclical data and localised timing. For TEK to be well represented, flexible systems are needed for modelling and mapping time that correspond well with traditional conceptions of time and space being supported. These approaches can take cues from previous spatio-temporal visualisation work in the Geographic(al Information System(s/Science(s GIS community, and from temporal depictions extant in existing cultural traditions.

  16. Visualising disease progression on multiple variables with vector plots and path plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Andrew W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often desirable to observe how a disease progresses over time in individual patients, rather than graphing group averages; and since multiple outcomes are typically recorded on each patient, it would be advantageous to visualise disease progression on multiple variables simultaneously. Methods A variety of vector plots and a path plot have been developed for this purpose, and data from a longitudinal Huntington's disease study are used to illustrate the utility of these graphical methods for exploratory data analysis. Results Initial and final values for three outcome variables can be easily visualised per patient, along with the change in these variables over time. In addition to the disease trajectory, the path individual patients take from initial to final observation can be traced. Categorical variables can be coded with different types of vectors or paths (e.g. different colours, line types, line thickness and separate panels can be used to include further categorical or continuous variables, allowing clear visualisation of further information for each individual. In addition, summary statistics such as mean vectors, bivariate interquartile ranges and convex polygons can be included to assist in interpreting trajectories, comparing groups, and detecting multivariate outliers. Conclusion Vector and path plots are useful graphical methods for exploratory data analysis when individual-level information on multiple variables over time is desired, and they have several advantages over plotting each variable separately.

  17. Comparison of glottic visualisation and ease of intubation with different laryngoscope blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Atul P; Tirmanwar, Amar S

    2013-03-01

    Literature suggests glottic view is better with straight blades while tracheal intubation is easier with curved blades. To compare glottic view and ease of intubation with Macintosh, Miller, McCoy blades and the Trueview(®) laryngoscope. This prospective randomised study was undertaken in operation theatres of a 550 bedded tertiary referral cancer centre after approval from the Institutional Review Board. We compared the Macintosh, Miller, McCoy blades and the Trueview(®) laryngoscope for glottic visualisation and ease of tracheal intubation; in 120 patients undergoing elective cancer surgery; randomly divided into four groups. After induction of anaesthesia laryngoscopy was performed and trachea intubated. We recorded: Visualisation of glottis (Cormack Lehane grade), ease of intubation, number of attempts; need to change the blade and need for external laryngeal manipulation. Demographic data, Mallampati classification were compared using the Chi-square test. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Grade 1 view was obtained most often (87% patients) with Trueview(®) laryngoscope. Intubation was easier (Grade 1) with Trueview(®) and McCoy blades (93% each). Seven patients needed two attempts; one patient in Miller group needed three attempts. No patient in McCoy and Trueview(®) Groups required external laryngeal manipulation. We found that in patients with normal airway glottis was best visualised with Miller blade and Trueview(®) laryngoscope however, the trachea was more easily intubated with McCoy and Macintosh blades and Trueview(®) laryngoscope.

  18. Visualisation and quantification of water in bulk and rhizosphere soils using X-ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Saoirse; Daly, Keith; Crout, Neil; Bennett, Malcolm; Pridmore, Tony; Foulkes, John; Roose, Tiina; Mooney, Sacha

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how water is distributed in soil and how it changes during the redistribution process or from root uptake is crucial for enhancing our understanding for managing soil and water resources. The application of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) to soil science research is now well established; however few studies have utilised the technique for visualising water in pore spaces due to several inherent difficulties. Here we present a new method to visualise the water content of a soil in situ and in three-dimensions at successive drying matric potentials. A water release curve was obtained for different soil types using measurements from their real pore geometries. The water, soil, air and root phases from the images were segmented using image analysis techniques and quantified. These measurements allowed us to characterise pore size, shape and connectivity for both air filled pores and water. The non-destructive technique enabled water to be visualised in situ and repeated scanning allowed wetting patterns to be analysed. The experimental results were validated against conventional laboratory derived water release curves and specifically developed mechanistic models of soil-water-root interactions. Micro-scale revelations of the water-soil-root interfaces enabled us to make macro-scale predictions on water movement in soil. The information and insights obtained on the hydraulic properties of rhizosphere and bulk soil will enhance our understanding of rhizosphere biophysics and improve current water uptake models.

  19. Quantitatively Plotting the Human Face for Multivariate Data Visualisation Illustrated by Health Assessments Using Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. Methods. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+ in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z>3 was still counted as 3. The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. Results. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. Conclusions. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  20. Visualisation of the T cell differentiation programme by Canonical Correspondence Analysis of transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko J; Kano, Manabu

    2014-11-27

    Currently, in the era of post-genomics, immunology is facing a challenging problem to translate mutant phenotypes into gene functions based on high-throughput data, while taking into account the classifications and functions of immune cells, which requires new methods. Here we propose a novel application of a multidimensional analysis, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), to reveal the molecular characteristics of undefined cells in terms of cellular differentiation programmes by analysing two transcriptomic datasets. Using two independent datasets, whether RNA-seq or microarray data, CCA successfully visualised the cross-level relationships between genes, cells, and differentiation programmes, and thereby identified the immunological features of mutant cells (Gata3-KO T cells and Stat3-KO T cells) in a data-oriented manner. With a new concept, differentiation variable, CCA provides an automatic classification of cell samples, which had a high sensitivity and a comparable performance to other classification methods. In addition, we elaborate how CCA results can be interpreted, and reveal the features of CCA in comparison with other visualisation techniques. CCA is a visualisation tool with a classification ability to reveal the cross-level relationships of genes, cells and differentiation programmes. This can be used for characterising the functional defect of cells of interest (e.g. mutant cells) in the context of cellular differentiation. The proposed approach fits with common hypothesis-oriented studies in immunology, and can be used for a wide range of molecular and genomic studies on cellular differentiation mechanisms.

  1. Quantitatively plotting the human face for multivariate data visualisation illustrated by health assessments using laboratory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwei, Wang; Hui, Liu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+) in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z > 3 was still counted as 3). The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  2. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Derek W.; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J.; Freeman, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express 3D is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an ‘Advanced’ query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools. PMID:25949802

  3. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express (3D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Derek W; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express (3D) is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an 'Advanced' query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools.

  4. Optical properties of rabbit brain in the red and near-infrared: changes observed under in vivo, postmortem, frozen, and formalin-fixated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andreas; Lovisa, Blaise; Seydoux, Olivier; Haenggi, Matthias; Oertel, Markus F.; Zellweger, Matthieu; Tardy, Yanik; Wagnières, Georges

    2015-02-01

    The outcome of light-based therapeutic approaches depends on light propagation in biological tissues, which is governed by their optical properties. The objective of this study was to quantify optical properties of brain tissue in vivo and postmortem and assess changes due to tissue handling postmortem. The study was carried out on eight female New Zealand white rabbits. The local fluence rate was measured in the VIS/NIR range in the brain in vivo, just postmortem, and after six weeks' storage of the head at -20°C or in 10% formaldehyde solution. Only minimal changes in the effective attenuation coefficient μeff were observed for two methods of sacrifice, exsanguination or injection of KCl. Under all tissue conditions, μeff decreased with increasing wavelengths. After long-term storage for six weeks at -20°C, μeff decreased, on average, by 15 to 25% at all wavelengths, while it increased by 5 to 15% at all wavelengths after storage in formaldehyde. We demonstrated that μeff was not very sensitive to the method of animal sacrifice, that tissue freezing significantly altered tissue optical properties, and that formalin fixation might affect the tissue's optical properties.

  5. A Numerical Handling of the Boundary Conditions Imposed by the Skull on an Inhomogeneous Diffusion-Reaction Model of Glioblastoma Invasion Into the Brain: Clinical Validation Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S Stamatakos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel explicit triscale reaction-diffusion numerical model of glioblastoma multiforme tumor growth is presented. The model incorporates the handling of Neumann boundary conditions imposed by the cranium and takes into account both the inhomogeneous nature of human brain and the complexity of the skull geometry. The finite-difference time-domain method is adopted. To demonstrate the workflow of a possible clinical validation procedure, a clinical case/scenario is addressed. A good agreement of the in silico calculated value of the doubling time (ie, the time for tumor volume to double with the value of the same quantity based on tomographic imaging data has been observed. A theoretical exploration suggests that a rough but still quite informative value of the doubling time may be calculated based on a homogeneous brain model. The model could serve as the main component of a continuous mathematics-based glioblastoma oncosimulator aiming at supporting the clinician in the optimal patient-individualized design of treatment using the patient’s multiscale data and experimenting in silico (ie, on the computer.

  6. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from.......2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value....... On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  7. In vivo functional brain mapping in a conditional mouse model of human tauopathy (tauP301L) reveals reduced neural activity in memory formation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo D; Hall, Gabrielle; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ren, Yan; Bailey, Rachel M; Lewis, Jada; Febo, Marcelo; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2013-02-04

    Tauopathies are characterized by intracellular deposition of the microtubule-associated protein tau as filamentous aggregates. The rTg4510 mouse conditionally expresses mutant human tau protein in various forebrain areas under the Tet-off expression system. Mice develop neurofibrillary tangles, with significant neuronal loss and cognitive deficits by 6 months of age. Previous behavioral and biochemical work has linked the expression and aggregates of mutant tau to functional impairments. The present work used manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to investigate basal levels of brain activity in the rTg4510 and control mice. Our results show an unmistakable curtailment of neural activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, two regions known for their role in memory formation, but not the cortex, cerebellum, striatum and hypothalamus in tau expressing mice. Behavioral impairments associated with changes in activity in these areas may correspond to age progressive mutant tau(P301L)-induced neurodegeneration.

  8. The condition of the metabolism of the brain and liver during the experimental application of a microwave field of nonthermal intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokrinitskii, V.S.; Tomashevskaia, L.A.

    1982-10-01

    The effects of small doses of a nonthermal microwave field (50 microwatts/sq cm for 6 hr), repeated 10 times, on histochemical and biochemical parameters of the brain and liver of white rats are investigated. Also studied are the resistance of the animals following irradiation to hypoxia and to a single larger dose of radiation. Results show that the radiation exposures change the structural-functional basis of the mechanisms of the regulation of oxidative processes, disconnects oxidative phosphorylation, and causes compensatory increases in glycolysis and in the synthesis of enzymes. In addition, it is found that exposures to small doses of radiation increase the resistance of the animals to conditions of hypoxia.

  9. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise AB...

  10. Evaluation of bowel distension and mural visualisation using neutral oral contrast agents for multidetector-row computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Kuan; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Rahmat, Kartini; Lam, Sze Yin; Liew, Yew Wai

    2012-11-01

    We compared the effectiveness of different types of non-commercial neutral oral contrast agents for bowel distension and mural visualisation in computed tomographic (CT) enterography. 90 consecutive patients from a group of 108 were randomly assigned to receive water (n = 30), 3.8% milk (n = 30) or 0.1% gastrografin (n = 30) as oral contrast agent. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists who were blinded to the contrast agents used. The degree of bowel distension was qualitatively scored on a four-point scale. The discrimination of bowel loops, mural visualisation and visualisation of mucosal folds were evaluated on a 'yes' or 'no' basis. Side effects of the various agents were also recorded. 3.8% milk was significantly superior to water for bowel distension (jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum), discrimination of bowel loops (jejunum and ileum), mural visualisation and visualisation of mucosal folds (ileum and terminal ileum). It was also significantly superior to 0.1% gastrografin for bowel distension, discrimination of bowel loops, mural visualisation and visualisation of mucosal folds (jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum). However, 10% of patients who received 3.8% milk reported immediate post-test diarrhoea. No side effects were documented for patients who received water and 0.1% gastrografin. 3.8% milk is an effective and superior neutral oral contrast agent for the assessment of the jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum in CT enterography. However, further studies are needed to explore other suitable oral contrast agents for CT enterography in lactose- or cow's milk-intolerant patients.

  11. Groundwater Visualisation System (GVS): A software framework for integrated display and interrogation of conceptual hydrogeological models, data and time-series animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Malcolm E.; James, Allan; Hawke, Amy; Raiber, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Valley, and the Surat Basin, a large sedimentary basin of confined artesian aquifers. This latter example required more detail in the hydrostratigraphy, correlation of formations with drillholes and visualisation of simulation piezometric surfaces. Both alluvial system GVS models were developed during drought conditions to support government strategies to implement groundwater management. The Surat Basin model was industry sponsored research, for coal seam gas groundwater management and community information and consultation. The "virtual" groundwater systems in these 3D GVS models can be interactively interrogated by standard functions, plus production of 2D cross-sections, data selection from the 3D scene, rear end database and plot displays. A unique feature is that GVS allows investigation of time-series data across different display modes, both 2D and 3D. GVS has been used successfully as a tool to enhance community/stakeholder understanding and knowledge of groundwater systems and is of value for training and educational purposes. Projects completed confirm that GVS provides a powerful support to management and decision making, and as a tool for interpretation of groundwater system hydrological processes. A highly effective visualisation output is the production of short videos (e.g. 2-5 min) based on sequences of camera 'fly-throughs' and screen images. Further work involves developing support for multi-screen displays and touch-screen technologies, distributed rendering, gestural interaction systems. To highlight the visualisation and animation capability of the GVS software, links to related multimedia hosted online sites are included in the references.

  12. [The influence of acute hypercapnia on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for gentamycin under conditions of general anesthesia in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulski, C

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the work was to demonstrate whether acute hypercapnia (paCO2 > 65 mm Hg) influenced the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB). Twelve Chinchilla rabbits which underwent general anaesthesia were randomly divided into 2 groups. The animals were sedated with intravenous administration of pentobarbital, then were subjected to endotracheal intubation and connected to volume-controlled respirator (Zimmermann pump). Artificial ventilation using air/oxygen mixture was applied. Auricular artery, inferior caval vein and aorta were catheterized with a catheter being also placed in the lateral ventricle of the brain. General anaesthesia was supported with continuous intravenous administration of pentobarbital. To maintain normal paCO2 values, the investigation was performed under normal ventilation in control group (5 rabbits). Controlled hypoventilation was applied to achieve an increase of paCO2 in the shortest possible time in the investigated group (7 rabbits). Heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously recorded. Gentamycin was applied as the marker of function of BBB, because it couldn't penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration under physiological conditions. BBB function in normal and significantly increased paCO2 was evaluated using gentamycin permeability indexes (QG), defined as gentamycin concentration ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid to serum gentamycin concentration in the same moment of trial. Comparative analysis of the QG index for both groups according to values achieved before the trial and after 1 and 3 hours of experiment indicates the degree of BBB damage. Non-parametric differences significance test according to Kolmogorow-Smirnow was applied for statistical verification of the results. Significance level for the trial was alpha = 0.05. None of the monitored parameters has changed in

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  14. Opacity-driven volume clipping for slice of interest (SOI) visualisation of multi-modality PET-CT volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2014-01-01

    Multi-modality positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging depicts biological and physiological functions (from PET) within a higher resolution anatomical reference frame (from CT). The need to efficiently assimilate the information from these co-aligned volumes simultaneously has resulted in 3D visualisation methods that depict e.g., slice of interest (SOI) from PET combined with direct volume rendering (DVR) of CT. However because DVR renders the whole volume, regions of interests (ROIs) such as tumours that are embedded within the volume may be occluded from view. Volume clipping is typically used to remove occluding structures by `cutting away' parts of the volume; this involves tedious trail-and-error tweaking of the clipping attempts until a satisfied visualisation is made, thus restricting its application. Hence, we propose a new automated opacity-driven volume clipping method for PET-CT using DVR-SOI visualisation. Our method dynamically calculates the volume clipping depth by considering the opacity information of the CT voxels in front of the PET SOI, thereby ensuring that only the relevant anatomical information from the CT is visualised while not impairing the visibility of the PET SOI. We outline the improvements of our method when compared to conventional 2D and traditional DVR-SOI visualisations.

  15. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  16. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  17. Comparison of glottic visualisation and ease of intubation with different laryngoscope blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul P Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Literature suggests glottic view is better with straight blades while tracheal intubation is easier with curved blades. Aims: To compare glottic view and ease of intubation with Macintosh, Miller, McCoy blades and the Trueview® laryngoscope. Settings and Design: This prospective randomised study was undertaken in operation theatres of a 550 bedded tertiary referral cancer centre after approval from the Institutional Review Board. Methods: We compared the Macintosh, Miller, McCoy blades and the Trueview® laryngoscope for glottic visualisation and ease of tracheal intubation; in 120 patients undergoing elective cancer surgery; randomly divided into four groups. After induction of anaesthesia laryngoscopy was performed and trachea intubated. We recorded: Visualisation of glottis (Cormack Lehane grade, ease of intubation, number of attempts; need to change the blade and need for external laryngeal manipulation. Statistical Analysis: Demographic data, Mallampati classification were compared using the Chi-square test. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Grade 1 view was obtained most often (87% patients with Trueview® laryngoscope. Intubation was easier (Grade 1 with Trueview® and McCoy blades (93% each. Seven patients needed two attempts; one patient in Miller group needed three attempts. No patient in McCoy and Trueview® Groups required external laryngeal manipulation. Conclusions: We found that in patients with normal airway glottis was best visualised with Miller blade and Trueview® laryngoscope however, the trachea was more easily intubated with McCoy and Macintosh blades and Trueview® laryngoscope.

  18. Visualisation of fingermarks and grab impressions on dark fabrics using silver vacuum metal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, Susan; Fraser, Joanna; Sturrock, Keith; Deacon, Paul; Bleay, Stephen; Bremner, David H

    2013-09-01

    Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) involves the thermal evaporation of metal (silver) in a vacuum, resulting in a uniform layer being deposited on the specimen being treated. This paper examines the use of silver on dark fabrics, thus offering a simpler operation and more obvious colouration to that of the traditional use of gold and zinc metals which must be evaporated separately. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fabric type, donor, mark age and method of fingermark deposition on the quality of marks visualised using silver VMD. This was achieved by collecting fingermark deposits from fifteen donors, of both sexes and various ages, by a grab or a press method. Four different fabrics: satin, polyester, polycotton and cotton were studied over a 10day timeline of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21 and 28+ days. It was found that satin and polyester gave the most positive results, with polyester often producing excellent ridge detail. Cotton and polycotton were less successful with no ridge detail being observed. The donors also had an observable effect on the results obtained probably due to variations in secretions produced or pressures applied during specimen collection. The age of the mark or the method of mark deposition had little influence on the results obtained. Silver VMD is a viable process for visualising marks on certain dark fabrics and has the advantage over gold/zinc VMD in that the marks visualised are light in colour which contrasts well against the dark background. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BRCA1 Circos: a visualisation resource for functional analysis of missense variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhuraney, Ankita; Velkova, Aneliya; Johnson, Randall C; Kessing, Bailey; Carvalho, Renato S; Whiley, Phillip; Spurdle, Amanda B; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Caputo, Sandrine M; Millot, Gael A; Vega, Ana; Coquelle, Nicolas; Galli, Alvaro; Eccles, Diana; Blok, Marinus J; Pal, Tuya; van der Luijt, Rob B; Santamariña Pena, Marta; Neuhausen, Susan L; Donenberg, Talia; Machackova, Eva; Thomas, Simon; Vallée, Maxime; Couch, Fergus J; Tavtigian, Sean V; Glover, J N Mark; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Brody, Lawrence C; Sharan, Shyam K; Monteiro, Alvaro N

    2015-04-01

    Inactivating germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 are associated with a significantly increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. A large number (>1500) of unique BRCA1 variants have been identified in the population and can be classified as pathogenic, non-pathogenic or as variants of unknown significance (VUS). Many VUS are rare missense variants leading to single amino acid changes. Their impact on protein function cannot be directly inferred from sequence information, precluding assessment of their pathogenicity. Thus, functional assays are critical to assess the impact of these VUS on protein activity. BRCA1 is a multifunctional protein and different assays have been used to assess the impact of variants on different biochemical activities and biological processes. To facilitate VUS analysis, we have developed a visualisation resource that compiles and displays functional data on all documented BRCA1 missense variants. BRCA1 Circos is a web-based visualisation tool based on the freely available Circos software package. The BRCA1 Circos web tool (http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/bic/circos/) aggregates data from all published BRCA1 missense variants for functional studies, harmonises their results and presents various functionalities to search and interpret individual-level functional information for each BRCA1 missense variant. This research visualisation tool will serve as a quick one-stop publically available reference for all the BRCA1 missense variants that have been functionally assessed. It will facilitate meta-analysis of functional data and improve assessment of pathogenicity of VUS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  1. BIG DATA VISUALISATION IN IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENTS: EMBODIED PHENOMENOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES TO INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Teras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing human-computer interactions with various tracking technologies are creating unprecedented amounts of data. The amount and complexity of this ‘big data’ creates various challenges for its storage, analysis and presentation, but at the same time, big data is suggested to open up opportunities for those who can leverage it. This paper will discuss using immersive virtual reality environments for visualising, interacting and making sense of big data. It reveals that many of the developed applications do not justify their approaches to presentation or interaction. A phenomenological perspective of embodied perception and interaction is discussed to ground future developments.

  2. Visualisation tool for peptide fractionation data in proteomics: application to OFFGEL isoelectric focussing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubert Hendrik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background OFFGEL isoelectric focussing (IEF has become a popular tool in proteomics to fractionate peptides or proteins. As a consequence there is a need for software solutions supporting data mining, interpretation and characterisation of experimental quality. Results We can assess performance characteristics of OFFGEL IEF peptide fractionation in proteomics by generating plots of the overall fractionation patterns and the pairwise comparisons of adjacent fractions. Conclusions A visualisation tool for peptide fractionation has been developed to support the evaluation of IEF data quality and can be implemented in proteomics research.

  3. Arthroscopic visualisation of the third metacarpal and metatarsal condyles in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, K; Martens, A; Haers, H; Duchateau, L; Saunders, J H

    2009-07-01

    Arthroscopy of the fetlock joints is a routine surgical procedure in the horse. It is unclear how much of the articular surface of the condyles of the metacarpal (MCIII)/metatarsal (MTIII) bone can be visualised using either the dorsal or palmar/plantar arthroscopic approach. To investigate which part of the articular surface of the MCIII/MTIII condyles of the fetlock joints can be evaluated arthroscopically using: 1) dorsal approach in combination with flexion; 2) standard palmar/plantar approach; or 3) additional portal at the base of the sesamoid bone with joint extension. All 3 arthroscopic approaches were performed on 20 fore- and 20 hindlimbs of 14 cadavers. For each approach, a curette was inserted ipsilaterally to create a lesion at the most distal part of the condyle that could be seen. After disarticulation and placement of a nail in each lesion, the maximally reachable angle was calculated on a perfect lateromedial radiograph. The 0 degrees angle was determined as the distal crossing of the best fitting circle around the condyle with a line parallel to the dorsal MCIII/MTIII bone running through the circle centre (positive angle dorsal to 0 degrees, negative palmar/plantar to 0 degrees). Using the dorsal approach with flexion, a significantly larger area of visualisation was present in the hind- (-23.4 degrees) compared to the forelimb (+2.7 degrees). Using the palmar/plantar approach (fore: -60.4 degrees; hind: -70.7 degrees) and the approach at the base of the sesamoid bone (fore: -36.3 degrees; hind: -47.6 degrees) more cartilage could be seen in the fore- compared to the hindlimb. When combining the 3 approaches, the remaining nonvisible part measured 38.9 degrees in the fore- and 24.2 degrees in the hindlimb, both located palmaro/plantarodistally. The use of dorsal and palmar/plantar arthroscopic approaches in combination with flexion and extension of the fetlock joint allows visualisation of the majority of the cartilage of the MCIII/MTIII condyles

  4. An open source browser-based software tool for graph drawing and visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Veit-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In this research work we searched for open source libraries which supports graph drawing and visualisation and can run in a browser. Subsequent these libraries were evaluated to find out which one is the best for this task. The result was the d3.js is that library which has the greatest functionality, flexibility and customisability. Afterwards we developed an open source software tool where d3.js was included and which was written in JavaScript so that it can run browser-based. En este tr...

  5. Marketing health education: advertising margarine and visualising health in Britain from 1964-c.2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Jane

    2017-01-01

    During the post-war period, margarine was re-conceptualised as a value-added product with distinct health benefits. This article contextualises the advertising of margarine as a healthy food, focusing on Unilever's Flora brand as an important case study in legitimising the emergent role of disease prevention as a marketing tool. It uses the methodology of visual culture to examine how advertising employed chronic disease prevention as a selling tool. This article assesses how the post-war environment gave rise to new ways of visually advertising food, and how these promoted innovative visualisations of food, the body and their interactions with health.

  6. Flow visualisation study of spiral flow in the aorta-renal bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, David; Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Li, Zuming; Barber, Tracie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the flow dynamics in an idealised model of the aorta-renal bifurcation using flow visualisation, with a particular focus on the effect of aorta-to-renal flow ratio and flow spirality. The recirculation length was longest when there was low flow in the renal artery and smaller in the presence of spiral flow. The results also indicate that patients without spiral flow or who have low flow in the renal artery due to the presence of stenosis may be susceptible to heightened development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... memories of fear and safety may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . ... possible to predict who will develop a mental disorder and to tailor the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, or similar conditions, Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental ... Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress ...

  9. I Can See Clearly Now: Using Active Visualisation to Improve Adherence to ART and PrEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Annie S K; Petrie, Keith J

    2017-02-01

    Non-adherence remains a perplexing issue in HIV treatment. After decades of research supporting the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, non-adherence to medication remains an important issue. For patients who are non-adherent to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), there appears to be a mismatch between their model of illness and the necessity for ART treatment. We propose that 'active visualisation' is a technique that could be utilised to improve understanding of treatment and subsequently adherence for both individuals living with HIV and those at-risk of infection. We discuss the theoretical background and highlight the initial evidence suggesting the utility of active visualisation. We then discuss how active visualisation could be utilised in a live demonstration to improve adherence to ART and pre-exposure prophylaxis medications.

  10. Comparison of MRI visualisation between linearly placed iron-containing and non-iron-containing fiducial markers for prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Komeda, Hisao; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Seike, Kensaku; Fujimoto, Shota; Yama, Eiichi; Hirose, Shigeki; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2017-11-09

    Visualising the gold marker (GM) in CT and MRI is critical, especially for registration in high-precision radiotherapy. GM sizes vary. Large markers are easily visualised in MRI. Small GMs show fewer artefacts in CT but are harder to detect in MRI because the signal is influenced by metal in MRI. Therefore, we compared MRI visualisation between linearly placed new iron-containing marker and non-iron containing marker. Twenty-seven patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The gold markers were placed by urologists. An iron-containing Gold Anchor™(GA) marker (diameter, 0.28 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed by using a 22G needle on one side of the prostate linearly. A non-iron-containing VISICOIL™ (VIS) marker (diameter, 0.35 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed by using a 19G needle on the opposite side linearly. T2*-weighted MRI was mostly performed. Two Radiation Oncologists and one Radiation Technologist evaluated and assigned visual quality scores (GA shape, CT artefacts, MRI signal voids). The mean visualisation scores of artefacts were similar between GA and VIS in planning CT. GM visualisation in MRI of the prostate was better for GA than for VIS. The visibility of the linear shape of the GA was 3.4-4.1 points when the VIS was 5 points (1 is worst - 5 is best). Visualisation quality was similar between GA (iron-containing marker) and VIS (non-iron-containing marker) in planning CT but was better for GA than for VIS in MRI. To achieve high-precision radiotherapy, an iron-containing gold marker was useful for CT and MRI registration. Advances in knowledge: An iron-containing fiducial marker was useful for CT and MRI registration, especially in high-precision radiotherapy, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

  11. Visualising Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, D.; Sinanan, J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the growth of social media, human communication has become much more visual. This book presents a scholarly analysis of the images people post on a regular basis to Facebook. By including hundreds of examples, readers can see for themselves the differences between postings from a village north of London, and those from a small town in Trinidad. Why do women respond so differently to becoming a mother in England from the way they do in Trinidad? How are values such as carnival and suburb...

  12. ALPIDE Visualiser

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2268073

    2017-01-01

    In 2020, the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) will be upgraded with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) particle detectors. The ALPIDE chip is a custom-made MAPS, made specifically for instrumenting the ALICE detector. This report details the process of creating a system for making the ALPIDE technology accessible to a broader audience by interfacing it to the Arduino hobbyist electronic platform along with a supporting GUI application. The system, along with a stack of ALPIDE sensors, can be used to introduce students to this technology and bridge the gap between the technical and visual world.

  13. bioWeb3D: an online webGL 3D data visualisation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jean-Baptiste; Marioni, John C

    2013-06-07

    Data visualization is critical for interpreting biological data. However, in practice it can prove to be a bottleneck for non trained researchers; this is especially true for three dimensional (3D) data representation. Whilst existing software can provide all necessary functionalities to represent and manipulate biological 3D datasets, very few are easily accessible (browser based), cross platform and accessible to non-expert users. An online HTML5/WebGL based 3D visualisation tool has been developed to allow biologists to quickly and easily view interactive and customizable three dimensional representations of their data along with multiple layers of information. Using the WebGL library Three.js written in Javascript, bioWeb3D allows the simultaneous visualisation of multiple large datasets inputted via a simple JSON, XML or CSV file, which can be read and analysed locally thanks to HTML5 capabilities. Using basic 3D representation techniques in a technologically innovative context, we provide a program that is not intended to compete with professional 3D representation software, but that instead enables a quick and intuitive representation of reasonably large 3D datasets.

  14. Cognitive Maps to Visualise Clinical Cases in Handovers. Design, Implementation, Usability, and Attractiveness Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, D; Przysucha, M; Hübner, U

    2015-01-01

    Clinical handovers at changes of shifts are typical scenarios of time restricted and information intensive communication, which are highly cognitively demanding. The currently available applications supporting handovers typically present complex information in a textual checklist-like manner. This presentation style has been criticised for not meeting the specific user requirements. We, therefore, aimed at developing a concept for visualising the overview of a clinical case that serves as an alternative way to checklist-like presentations in clinical handovers. We also aimed at implementing this concept in a handoverEHR in order to support the pre-handover phase, the actual handover, and the post-handover phase as well as at evaluating its usability and attractiveness. We developed and implemented a concept that draws on Tolman's pioneering work on cognitive maps that we designed in accordance with Gestalt principles. These maps provide a pictorial overview of a clinical case. The application to build, manipulate, and store the cognitive maps was integrated into an openEHR based handover record that extends conventional records with handover specific information. Usability (n = 28) and attractiveness (n = 26) testing with experienced clinicians resulted in good ratings for suitability for the task as well as for attractiveness and pragmatism. We propose cognitive maps to represent and visualise the clinical case in situations where there is limited time to present complex information.

  15. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Ernest D; Coll, Francesc; Furnham, Nick; McNerney, Ruth; Glynn, Judith R; Campino, Susana; Pain, Arnab; Mohareb, Fady R; Clark, Taane G

    2015-05-13

    Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights into the genomic variation underlying intra- and inter-strain diversity, thereby assisting with the classification and molecular barcoding of the bacteria. One roadblock to strain investigation is the lack of user-interactive solutions to interrogate and visualise variation within a phylogenetic tree setting. We have developed a web-based tool called PhyTB ( http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/phytblive/index.php ) to assist phylogenetic tree visualisation and identification of M. tuberculosis clade-informative polymorphism. Variant Call Format files can be uploaded to determine a sample position within the tree. A map view summarises the geographical distribution of alleles and strain-types. The utility of the PhyTB is demonstrated on sequence data from 1,601 M. tuberculosis isolates. PhyTB contextualises M. tuberculosis genomic variation within epidemiological, geographical and phylogenic settings. Further tool utility is possible by incorporating large variants and phenotypic data (e.g. drug-resistance profiles), and an assessment of genotype-phenotype associations. Source code is available to develop similar websites for other organisms ( http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotrack ).

  16. Understanding WCAG2.0 Colour Contrast Requirements Through 3D Colour Space Visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient contrast between text and background is needed to achieve sufficient readability. WCAG2.0 provides a specific definition of sufficient contrast on the web. However, the definition is hard to understand and most designers thus use contrast calculators to validate their colour choices. Often, such checks are performed after design and this may be too late. This paper proposes a colour selection approach based on three-dimensional visualisation of the colour space. The complex non-linear relationships between the colour components become comprehendible when viewed in 3D. The method visualises the available colours in an intuitive manner and allows designers to check a colour against the set of other valid colours. Unlike the contrast calculators, the proposed method is proactive and fun to use. A colour space builder was developed and the resulting models were viewed with a point cloud viewer. The technique can be used as both a design tool and a pedagogical aid to teach colour theory and design.

  17. Application of growing hierarchical SOM for visualisation of network forensics traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, E J; North, J; Elizondo, D; Luque, R M; Watson, T

    2012-08-01

    Digital investigation methods are becoming more and more important due to the proliferation of digital crimes and crimes involving digital evidence. Network forensics is a research area that gathers evidence by collecting and analysing network traffic data logs. This analysis can be a difficult process, especially because of the high variability of these attacks and large amount of data. Therefore, software tools that can help with these digital investigations are in great demand. In this paper, a novel approach to analysing and visualising network traffic data based on growing hierarchical self-organising maps (GHSOM) is presented. The self-organising map (SOM) has been shown to be successful for the analysis of highly-dimensional input data in data mining applications as well as for data visualisation in a more intuitive and understandable manner. However, the SOM has some problems related to its static topology and its inability to represent hierarchical relationships in the input data. The GHSOM tries to overcome these limitations by generating a hierarchical architecture that is automatically determined according to the input data and reflects the inherent hierarchical relationships among them. Moreover, the proposed GHSOM has been modified to correctly treat the qualitative features that are present in the traffic data in addition to the quantitative features. Experimental results show that this approach can be very useful for a better understanding of network traffic data, making it easier to search for evidence of attacks or anomalous behaviour in a network environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meteor Observational Data Visualisation in the Equatorial Coordinate System Using Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, V. A.; Kolomiyets, S. V.

    As a result of dynamic evolution of IT industry and astronomical research in the XXI century, which have resulted in obtaining large and complex data sets known as Big Data (e.g. data from the European Space Agency missions, such as GAIA mission, etc.), as well as due to rapid development of computer technologies, astronomy and computer science have become closely linked to each other. In the XXI century, Information technology has become an essential part of understanding the world around. This paper presents a solution to the problem of meteor data representation in the second equatorial coordinate (RA-Dec) system using Information Technology. Such a visualisation solution is needed to analyse the results of experiments based on the radar observations conducted in 1972-1978 (stage 1 - the data obtained in 1972 comprise 10,247 meteor orbits), which have been accumulated and stored in the Meteor Database of the Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics (KNURE). A sample set of data with their characteristics and details about their delivery has been presented by (Kashcheyev & Tkachuk, 1980). An electronic calculator application was developed by employing the model of data visualisation in the form of celestial hemispheres using the object-oriented programming language C#.

  19. The interaction of fingermark deposits on metal surfaces and potential ways for visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Emery, F; Austin, C; Andersson, I; Harcus, L; Arju, G; Steven, C

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of fingermark deposits on metals has been examined by a variety of techniques. Visualisation by film growth has been the main area of investigation through: thermal oxidation, anodising, peroxide solution, and the interaction with vapour of iodine and ammonium sulphide. Corrosion of the underlying metal has also been examined as an alternative means of visualisation. Confocal microscopy was used to look at the film thickness and corrosion products around the prints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM-EDX) examined a number of metal samples to investigate film growth and the elemental distribution. The observations suggest that differential oxidation was occurring as well as corrosion into the metal. Fingermark deposits on metals can corrode into the metal depending on the reactivity of the metal and leave a recoverable mark. However, fingermark deposits can also alter the rate of chemical reaction of the substrate metal by oxidation. In some cases organic matter can inhibit reaction, both when forming an oxide layer and when corroding the metal. However, signs of third level detail from pore contact may also be visible and the monovalent ions from salts could also influence film growth. Whilst further work would need to be carried out to decide whether any of these techniques may have application in fingermark recovery, this study does suggest that fingermarks on metals may be recoverable after incidents such as fires or immersion in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Target visualisation and microwave hyperthermia monitoring using nanoparticle-enhanced transmission ultrasound (NETUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Or; Weitz, Iris S; Azhari, Haim

    2017-10-24

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using nanoparticle-enhanced transmission ultrasound (NETUS) as an image-based monitoring modality for microwave hyperthermia treatment. A dedicated transmission ultrasound imaging system was used to obtain acoustic projections and ultrasound computed tomography images. Initially, speed-of-sound based images were used to non-invasively monitor temperature changes in in vitro and ex vivo specimens, induced by a microwave needle-type applicator. Next, the hyperthermia acceleration ability of two ultrasound nanoparticles based contrast agents (iron oxide and copper oxide) was examined and visualised. Finally, a two-step image guided microwave therapeutic procedure using NETUS was investigated in a realistic breast mimicking phantom. First, the pathology simulating region borders were detected. Then, a microwave-induced temperature elevation was non-invasively monitored. The transmission ultrasound scanning system was able to detect temperature changes with a resolution of less than 0.5 °C, both in vitro and ex vivo. In accordance with previous studies, it was visually demonstrated that iron oxide nanoparticles expedite the heating process (p visualisation with non-invasive thermometry and accelerated heating effect. Quantitative feedback, however, requires a tissue-specific calibration-curve. A proof of concept for microwave hyperthermia treatment monitoring using NETUS was established. The suggested methodology may potentially provide a non-invasive cost-effective means for monitoring thermal treatment of the breast.

  1. Does visualisation during urethrocystoscopy provide pain relief? Results of an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, J; Sevinc, S; Frohme, C; Heers, H; Hofmann, R; Hegele, A

    2015-07-01

    To measure the effects of real-time visualisation during urethrocystoscopy on pain in patients who underwent ambulatory urethrocystoscopy. An observational study was designed. From June 2012 to June 2013 patients who had ambulatory urethrocystoscopy participated in the study. In order to measure pain perception we used a numeric rating scale (NRS) 0 to 10. Additional data was collected including gender, reason for intervention, use of a rigid or a flexible instrument and whether the patient had had urethrocystoscopy before. 185 patients were evaluated. 125 patients preferred to watch their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen, 60 patients did not. There was no statistically relevant difference in pain perception between those patients who watched their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen and those who did not (p = 0.063). However, men who were allowed to watch their flexible urethrocystoscopy experienced significantly less pain, than those who did not (p = 0.007). No such effects could be measured for rigid urethrocystoscopy (p = 0.317). Furthermore, women experienced significantly higher levels of pain during the urethrocystoscopy than men (p = 0.032). Visualisation during urethrocystoscopy procedures in general does not significantly decrease pain in patients. Nevertheless, men who undergo flexible urethrocystoscopy should be offered to watch their procedure in real-time on a video screen. To make urethrocystoscopy less painful for both genders, especially for women, should be subject to further research.

  2. MetaLook: a 3D visualisation software for marine ecological genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addor Nans

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine ecological genomics can be defined as the application of genomic sciences to understand the structure and function of marine ecosystems. In this field of research, the analysis of genomes and metagenomes of environmental relevance must take into account the corresponding habitat (contextual data, e.g. water depth, physical and chemical parameters. The creation of specialised software tools and databases is requisite to allow this new kind of integrated analysis. Results We implemented the MetaLook software for visualisation and analysis of marine ecological genomic and metagenomic data with respect to habitat parameters. MetaLook offers a three-dimensional user interface to interactively visualise DNA sequences on a world map, based on a centralised georeferenced database. The user can define environmental containers to organise the sequences according to different habitat criteria. To find similar sequences, the containers can be queried with either genes from the georeferenced database or user-imported sequences, using the BLAST algorithm. This allows an interactive assessment of the distribution of gene functions in the environment. Conclusion MetaLook allows scientists to investigate sequence data in their environmental context and to explore correlations between genes and habitat parameters. This software is a step towards the creation of specialised tools to study constrained distributions and habitat specificity of genes correlated with specific processes. MetaLook is available at: http://www.megx.net/metalook

  3. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest D

    2015-05-13

    Background Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights into the genomic variation underlying intra- and inter-strain diversity, thereby assisting with the classification and molecular barcoding of the bacteria. One roadblock to strain investigation is the lack of user-interactive solutions to interrogate and visualise variation within a phylogenetic tree setting. Results We have developed a web-based tool called PhyTB (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/phytblive/index.php webcite) to assist phylogenetic tree visualisation and identification of M. tuberculosis clade-informative polymorphism. Variant Call Format files can be uploaded to determine a sample position within the tree. A map view summarises the geographical distribution of alleles and strain-types. The utility of the PhyTB is demonstrated on sequence data from 1,601 M. tuberculosis isolates. Conclusion PhyTB contextualises M. tuberculosis genomic variation within epidemiological, geographical and phylogenic settings. Further tool utility is possible by incorporating large variants and phenotypic data (e.g. drug-resistance profiles), and an assessment of genotype-phenotype associations. Source code is available to develop similar websites for other organisms (http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotrack webcite).

  4. The challenge of lots of data: different ways to synthesise and visualise high frequency catchment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Barber, Nicholas; Benskin, Claire; Snell, Maria; Deasy, Clare; Reaney, Sim; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; EdenDTC Team

    2015-04-01

    System understanding is vital for future catchment management and to inform mitigation of both flooding and DWPA. High resolution data sets collected at catchment outlets are becoming more common. They have the potential to provide new insights into how land units process water and how this influences nutrient and ecological dynamics. However, the monitoring equipment is costly to install and operate. Also, the volume of data, both temporally and spatially, presents new challenges to catchment scientists on how best to synthesise these data into a form where they can be visualised and utilised in decision making. The Eden DTC project is part of a national project funded by the UK government to provide robust evidence on how diffuse pollution can be cost-effectively managed to improve and maintain water quality in rural river catchments. The impact of multiple water quality parameters on ecosystems and sustainable food production are being studied at the catchment scale. Three focus catchments (c. 10 km2) have been selected to represent the different farming practices and geophysical characteristics across the Eden catchment, Northern England. A field experimental programme has been designed to monitor the dynamics of agricultural diffuse pollution at multiple scales using state of the art in situ sensors, which provide continuous real-time data. Data generated through this project will be used to explore these challenges and look at different ways to synthesise and visualise these data, ultimately providing a powerful communication mechanism that potentially can be used as a conduit for real holistic catchment management.

  5. In vivo functional brain mapping in a conditional mouse model of human tauopathy (taup301l reveals reduced neural activity in memory formation structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Pablo D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tauopathies are characterized by intracellular deposition of the microtubule-associated protein tau as filamentous aggregates. The rTg4510 mouse conditionally expresses mutant human tau protein in various forebrain areas under the Tet-off expression system. Mice develop neurofibrillary tangles, with significant neuronal loss and cognitive deficits by 6 months of age. Previous behavioral and biochemical work has linked the expression and aggregates of mutant tau to functional impairments. The present work used manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI to investigate basal levels of brain activity in the rTg4510 and control mice. Results Our results show an unmistakable curtailment of neural activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, two regions known for their role in memory formation, but not the cortex, cerebellum, striatum and hypothalamus in tau expressing mice. Conclusion Behavioral impairments associated with changes in activity in these areas may correspond to age progressive mutant tauP301L-induced neurodegeneration.

  6. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Surgery support system for brain tumors and other conditions; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Noshuyo nado shujutsu shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on element technologies for the surgery support system for brain tumors and other conditions. Discussions were given on principles of the function for sensing a distance from a tip of microscopic manipulator, and a prototype system was fabricated, and its principles were confirmed. In order to develop a multiple manipulator cooperative control technique, an algorithm for interference determination was structured as cooperative control function to be incorporated in the micro manipulator system. Its prototype control program was produced, and the functions thereof were confirmed. In order to develop image photographing and indication of three-dimensional high-definition surgical visions, manufacture was performed on a second prototype of a video-microscope for surgical vision photographing. A small camera was incorporated into the microscope, and given evaluation. In addition, a stereoscopic viewer was discussed for surgeons. For the purpose of developing an intraoperative positioning system for imaging instruments, discussions were given on the markers, the location pointer, and the light emitting reference for the consistency of the coordinate unification procedure. Preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative composite display technologies were developed. The prototype system was used in the operation aiding system to perform operation experiments on its operability and the function of forceps, where evaluations were given. (NEDO)

  8. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Using Dynamic Geometry Software and Physical Manipulatives on the Spatial Visualisation Skills of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Adnan; Kosa, Temel; Guven, Bulent

    2011-01-01

    The study compared the effects of dynamic geometry software and physical manipulatives on the spatial visualisation skills of first-year pre-service mathematics teachers. A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used. The Purdue Spatial Visualisation Test (PSVT) was used for the pre- and post-test. There were three treatment groups. The…

  9. 3D Digitisation and Visualisation of the Vače Situla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Vidmar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The project of 3D digitisation and visualisation of the Vače situla was implemented at the beginning of 2011 in cooperation with the National Museum of Slovenia where the situla is kept and the company MFC.2 which, among other services, develops and implements 3 D digitisation and visualisation projects. The purpose of the project was to digitise and visualise a famous and precious piece of cultural heritage and to  1. show what modern 3D shape and texture scanning technologies allow us to do,  2. show how to ensure safety and reach high quality in digitising cultural heritage objects.  3. measure the added value of the 3 D visualisation of cultural heritage as a powerful tool for preservation, conservation, research, education, knowledge sharing and promotion of cultural heritage objects. Furthermore, the aims of the project were:  1. 3D capture of the shape and texture of the situla using the 3D scanning method.  2. 3D image of the situla and its details with expert descriptions.  3. 3D stereoscopic projection of the situla viewed with 3D glasses and with the possibility of controlling it remotely.  4. 3D animation giving professional interpretation of certain facts about the situla.  5. Public presentation of the project results on Slovenian cultural holiday, 8th February 2011, at the National Museum of Slovenia. The 3D capture of the shape and texture of the situla was carried out using the white light 3D scanning method followed by 3D flesh animation to show the object and its details. A touch screen was used to provide user access to the content. Reality based model enabled vertical rotation of the situla as well as the interactive display of individual engravings. By clicking a situla detail a photo with an extensive professional explanation of the scene was displayed in a new browser window. For attractive public presentation of the exhibition a 3D stereoscopic animation of the situla rotating and seemingly

  10. Endothelial cells derived from the blood-brain barrier and islets of Langerhans differ in their response to the effects of bilirubin on oxidative stress under hyperglycemic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime eKapitulnik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB is a neurotoxic degradation product of heme. Its toxic effects include induction of apoptosis, and ultimately neuronal cell death. However, at low concentrations, UCB is a potent antioxidant that may protect cells and tissues against oxidative stress by neutralizing toxic metabolites such as reactive oxygen species (ROS. High glucose levels (hyperglycemia generate reactive metabolites. Endothelial cell dysfunction, an early vascular complication in diabetes, has been associated with hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Both glucose and UCB are substrates for transport proteins in microvascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In the current study we show that UCB (1-40 M induces apoptosis and reduces survival of bEnd3 cells, a mouse brain endothelial cell line which serves as an in vitro model of the BBB. These deleterious effects of UCB were enhanced in the presence of high glucose (25 mM levels. Interestingly, the bEnd3 cells exhibited an increased sensitivity to the apoptotic effects of UCB when compared to the MS1 microcapillary endothelial cell line. MS1 cells originate from murine pancreatic islets of Langherans, and are devoid of the barrier characteristics of BBB-derived endothelial cells. ROS production was increased in both bEnd3 and MS1 cells exposed to high glucose, as compared with cells exposed to normal (5.5 mM glucose levels. While UCB (0.1-40 M did not alter ROS production in cells exposed to normal glucose, relatively low ('physiological' UCB concentrations (0.1-5 M attenuated ROS generation in both cell lines exposed to high glucose levels. Most strikingly, higher UCB concentrations (20-40 M increased ROS generation in bEnd3 cells exposed to high glucose, but not in similarly treated MS1 cells. These results may be of critical importance for understanding the vulnerability of the BBB endothelium upon exposure to increasing UCB levels under hyperglycemic conditions.

  11. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development. Modest TH insufficiency in pregnant rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) results in formation of a structural abnormality, a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), in brains of offspring. PTU reduces TH by inhibiting the s...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  16. Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Expression in the Rat Brain Both in Basal Condition and following Learning Predominantly Derives from the Maternal Allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ye

    Full Text Available Insulin like growth factor 2 (Igf2 is known as a maternally imprinted gene involved in growth and development. Recently, Igf2 was found to also be regulated and required in the adult rat hippocampus for long-term memory formation, raising the question of its allelic regulation in adult brain regions following experience and in cognitive processes. We show that, in adult rats, Igf2 is abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in cognitive functions, like hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared to the peripheral tissues. In contrast to its maternal imprinting in peripheral tissues, Igf2 is mainly expressed from the maternal allele in these brain regions. The training-dependent increase in Igf2 expression derives proportionally from both parental alleles, and, hence, is mostly maternal. Thus, Igf2 parental expression in the adult rat brain does not follow the imprinting rules found in peripheral tissues, suggesting differential expression regulation and functions of imprinted genes in the brain.

  17. Physically-enhanced data visualisation: towards real time solution of Partial Differential Equations in 3D domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Information provided by visualisation environments can be largely increased if the data shown is combined with some relevant physical processes and the used is allowed to interact with those processes. This is particularly interesting in VR environments where the user has a deep interplay with the data. For example, a geological seismic line in a 3D "cave" shows information of the geological structure of the subsoil. The available information could be enhanced with the thermal state of the region under study, with water-flow patterns in porous rocks or with rock displacements under some stress conditions. The information added by the physical processes is usually the output of some numerical technique applied to solve a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) that describes the underlying physics. Many techniques are available to obtain numerical solutions of PDE (e.g. Finite Elements, Finite Volumes, Finite Differences, etc). Although, all these traditional techniques require very large computational resources (particularly in 3D), making them useless in a real time visualization environment -such as VR- because the time required to compute a solution is measured in minutes or even in hours. We present here a novel alternative for the resolution of PDE-based problems that is able to provide a 3D solutions for a very large family of problems in real time. That is, the solution is evaluated in a one thousands of a second, making the solver ideal to be embedded into VR environments. Based on Model Order Reduction ideas, the proposed technique divides the computational work in to a computationally intensive "offline" phase, that is run only once in a life time, and an "online" phase that allow the real time evaluation of any solution within a family of problems. Preliminary examples of real time solutions of complex PDE-based problems will be presented, including thermal problems, flow problems, wave problems and some simple coupled problems.

  18. Brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using interactive 3D visualisation to educate stakeholders in urban sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth; Isaacs, John; Blackwood, David

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable decision making in urban design is a complex and non-linear process, which requires the education and interaction of wide variety of stakeholders. A number of sustainable decision support tools have been developed but previous research by the authors has demonstrated that a major barrier to the implementation of tools is the complexity of the environment in which decision are made. In particular, engagement with the general public throughout the decision making process presents challenges in communicating the complex and interdependent facets of sustainability in decisions and also in providing an understanding to stakeholders of the short and long term implications of alternative courses of action. S-City VT, a prototype simulation and visualisation tool, demonstrates the underlying concepts that allow a wider range of stakeholders to understand, interact with and influence decisions regarding sustainability of urban design. Using the Dundee Waterfront Development Project as a case study, S-City VT takes the unique approach of combining computer game technology with computer modelling to present the stakeholder with an interactive virtual development. The virtual development is completely interactive allowing users to change the underlying models as well as the external appearance and location of buildings and other structures within the development. This provides a more interactive experience by allowing the user a one to one relationship with the environment they are interacting with, as opposed to existing off the shelf solutions, such as CAD or BIM, that lack in real time interactivity. S-City VT utilises existing games technology research to allow the rendering of virtual environment on consumer hardware opening up its use to a wider range of participants and venues by not relying on specialist hardware. The visualisation tool employs a number of different methods to display the multivariate sustainability data to the stakeholders. These methods

  20. Lenticulostriate arteries in chronic stroke patients visualised by 7 T magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Chan-A; Park, Cheol-Wan; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo

    2010-10-01

    Noninvasive magnetic resonance angiography using ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging has recently provided us with the potential to image cerebral microvascular structures such as the lenticulostriate arteries. However, most studies using ultra-high-field magnetic resonance angiography have been limited to the visualisation of microvessels in healthy subjects, and the direct comparison of patients with microvascular disease has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the lenticulostriate arteries of patients with lacunar strokes of the basal ganglia and surrounding areas using 7 T magnetic resonance angiography. Ten stroke patients who had infarctions in the basal ganglia and adjacent areas detected using T2(*)-weighted images obtained from a conventional 1·5 T magnetic resonance imaging and 10 age-matched healthy subjects were recruited for this study. The large main vessels in the patient group were inspected to identify abnormalities such as stenosis. The characteristics of the lenticulostriate arteries visualised by 7 T magnetic resonance angiography, such as the number of branches and stems, curvature and tortuosity were analysed and compared between the patient and the control groups. All patients had infarctions in the basal ganglia and adjacent regions, which were clearly determined by T2(*)-weighted images. However, there was no evidence of large-vessel abnormalities in the patient group. Analysis of 7 T magnetic resonance angiography data revealed that the overall number of lenticulostriate arteries branches in the patient group was significantly less than the control group (P=0·003). However, no statistical difference in the number of stems, curvature and tortuosity between the two groups was found (P=0·396, 0·258 and 0·888, respectively). This study demonstrates that noninvasive magnetic resonance angiography using 7 T magnetic resonance imaging can visualise abnormalities in the cerebral microvasculature of

  1. Predictive gene lists for breast cancer prognosis: A topographic visualisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraksa, Mingmanas; Lowe, David

    2008-01-01

    Background The controversy surrounding the non-uniqueness of predictive gene lists (PGL) of small selected subsets of genes from very large potential candidates as available in DNA microarray experiments is now widely acknowledged [1]. Many of these studies have focused on constructing discriminative semi-parametric models and as such are also subject to the issue of random correlations of sparse model selection in high dimensional spaces. In this work we outline a different approach based around an unsupervised patient-specific nonlinear topographic projection in predictive gene lists. Methods We construct nonlinear topographic projection maps based on inter-patient gene-list relative dissimilarities. The Neuroscale, the Stochastic Neighbor Embedding(SNE) and the Locally Linear Embedding(LLE) techniques have been used to construct two-dimensional projective visualisation plots of 70 dimensional PGLs per patient, classifiers are also constructed to identify the prognosis indicator of each patient using the resulting projections from those visualisation techniques and investigate whether a-posteriori two prognosis groups are separable on the evidence of the gene lists. A literature-proposed predictive gene list for breast cancer is benchmarked against a separate gene list using the above methods. Generalisation ability is investigated by using the mapping capability of Neuroscale to visualise the follow-up study, but based on the projections derived from the original dataset. Results The results indicate that small subsets of patient-specific PGLs have insufficient prognostic dissimilarity to permit a distinction between two prognosis patients. Uncertainty and diversity across multiple gene expressions prevents unambiguous or even confident patient grouping. Comparative projections across different PGLs provide similar results. Conclusion The random correlation effect to an arbitrary outcome induced by small subset selection from very high dimensional interrelated

  2. An Analysis of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Performance in Modelling Tasks in Terms of Spatial Visualisation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasova, Halil Ibrahim; Delice, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modelling involves mathematical constructions chosen to represent some real world situations and the relationships among them; it is the process of expressing a real world situation mathematically. Visualisation can play a significant role in the development of thinking or understanding mathematical concepts, and also makes abstract…

  3. Designing Spatial Visualisation Tasks for Middle School Students with a 3D Modelling Software: An Instrumental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Melih; Uygan, Candas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, certain task designs to enhance middle school students' spatial visualisation ability, in the context of an instrumental approach, have been developed. 3D modelling software, SketchUp®, was used. In the design process, software tools were focused on and, thereafter, the aim was to interpret the instrumental genesis and spatial…

  4. VMStools: Open-source software for the processing, analysis and visualisation of fisheries logbook and VMS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Bastardie, F.; Beare, D.J.; Piet, G.J.; Ulrich, C.; Deporte, N.; Egekvist, J.; Degel, H.

    2012-01-01

    VMStools is a package of open-source software, build using the freeware environment R, specifically developed for the processing, analysis and visualisation of landings (logbooks) and vessel location data (VMS) from commercial fisheries. Analyses start with standardized data formats for logbook

  5. Spatial versus Object Visualisation: The Case of Mathematical Understanding in Three-Dimensional Arrays of Cubes and Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relations of students' spatial and object visualisation with their analytic, creative and practical abilities in three-dimensional geometry. Fifty-three 11-year-olds were tested using a Greek modified version of the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (OSIQ) (Blajenkova, Kozhevnikov, & Motes, 2006) and two…

  6. Visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments in fixed BY-2 suspension cells using an optimised whole mount immunolabelling protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Wedzony, M.; Dubas, E.; Kieft, H.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Excellent visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments was obtained in fixed tobacco BY-2 suspension cells after optimising a protocol for whole mount immunolabelling. The procedure is based on modification of fixation, cell wall digestion, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, post fixation,

  7. MicroRNA-155 Regulates ROS Production, NO Generation, Apoptosis and Multiple Functions of Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Under Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Pan, Qunwen; Zhao, Yuhui; He, Caixia; Bi, Kexia; Chen, Yusen; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang; Ma, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    The microRNA-155 (miR155) regulates various functions of cells. Dysfunction or injury of endothelial cells (ECs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role and potential mechanisms of miR155 in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) under physiological and pathological conditions. We detected the effects of miR155 silencing on ROS production, NO generation, apoptosis and functions of HBMECs at basal and in response to oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Western blot and q-PCR were used for analyzing the gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase(Akt), activated caspase-3, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Results showed that under both basal and challenge situations: (1) Silencing of miR155 decreased apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of HBMECs, whereas, promoted nitric oxide (NO) generation. (2) Silencing of miR155 increased the proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability of HBMECs, while decreased cell adhesion ability. (3) Gene expression analyses showed that EGFR/ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt were increased and that activated caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mRNA were decreased after knockdown of miR155. In conclusion, knockdown of miR155 could modulate ROS production, NO generation, apoptosis and function of HBMECs via regulating diverse gene expression, such as caspase-3, ICAM-1 and EGFR/ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. STM visualisation of counterions and the effect of charges on self-assembled monolayers of macrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Kudernac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in self-assembly processes, the influence of charged counterions on the geometry of self-assembled organic monolayers and their direct localisation within the monolayers has been given little attention. Recently, various examples of self-assembled monolayers composed of charged molecules on surfaces have been reported, but no effort has been made to prove the presence of counterions within the monolayer. Here we show that visualisation and exact localisation of counterions within self-assembled monolayers can be achieved with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM. The presence of charges on the studied shape-persistent macrocycles is shown to have a profound effect on the self-assembly process at the liquid–solid interface. Furthermore, preferential adsorption was observed for the uncharged analogue of the macrocycle on a surface.

  9. Applying internet based 3D visualisation and priority games in public consultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Kristensen, Peter Nordskov

    2006-01-01

    The County of Northern Jutland had just finalised a public consultation concerning a new connection across Limfjorden, which separates the northernmost part of Jutland, called Vendsyssel, from the mainland of Jutland. The County administration was quite aware of the fact the decision concerning...... of the respondents had tried the 3D visualisation (flight simulator) of the various alternatives. One characteristic of interactive participatory planning is feedback and learning, and therefore the County decided to develop a priority game to support the learning process. However, according to the survey......, the Priority game had not so much appeal among the public, because only very few respondents had tried the Priority game, and only two of these found it useful in their own decision-making process....

  10. Visualised predictions of gap anisotropy to test new electron pairing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. H.; Walmsley, D. G.

    2017-03-01

    The rich and fertile but not yet adequately exploited ground of superconductor anisotropy is proposed as a test bed for a new empirical scheme of electron pairing. The scheme is directed to resolving a numerical and conceptual difficulty in the BCS theory. The original theoretical formulation of the anisotropy problem by Bennett is adopted and its outcomes extensively explored. Here the Bennett conclusion that in metallic superconductors phonon anisotropy is the principal source of gap anisotropy is accepted. Values of the energy gap are visualised globally in k-space with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Comparison is made between the anisotropy pattern from the new and the usual BCS pairing schemes. Differences are revealed for future experimental resolution.

  11. Visualisation of Radioactivity in Real-Time on a Tablet Measured by a Hybrid Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749233; Bantel, Michael; Grünhaupt, Ulrich

    This work explores a method to visualise and interact with radioactivity over time and space by means of augmented reality on a screen. A prototype, iPadPix, was built to demonstrate use as an intuitive new tool for educative and training purposes. Measured by a hybrid pixel detector, Timepix, traces of radioactive decays are displayed in real- time on a mobile device. Its detection principle and properties are detailed as well as the calibration of the sensor. An embedded board is used to process and forward the sensor data to a tablet over a wireless network connection. Software was developed to processes and overlay signatures of ionising radiation and particles on a live camera feed. It is described here and published as open source.

  12. Integration of biotechnology, visualisation technology and robot technology for automated mass propagation af elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    for the production of Christmas trees and Sitka spruce has gained renewed interest as a fast growing species for the production biofuels. These species are used as model systems for the development of automated plant production based on robot and visualisation technology. The commercial aspect of the project aims at...... effective and fast method for clonal propagation. The method is suitable for automatisation and robot technology. The method is, for several plant species, the preferred basis for development of additional biotechnological breeding technologies as e.g. genetic transformation. Elite clones can be stored over...... extended periods in liquid nitrogen at -196°C However, commercial application of the technology has until now been hampered by two essential problems: The production costs per plant must be reduced. Labour costs are low in the early steps of the process whereas they increase dramatically during the later...

  13. The starfish diagram: Visualising data within the context of survey samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.

    2015-04-01

    As astronomy becomes increasingly invested in large surveys the ample representation of an individual target becomes a significant challenge. Tabulations of basic properties can convey the message in an absolute sense but not within the context of the sample from which the individual is drawn. We present a novel but simple plot that simultaneously visualises the properties of the sample and the individual. Numbers and characters are kept at an absolute minimum to enable the stacking of such plots without introducing too much verbal information. Once the user becomes accustomed to their appearance, a set of starfish diagrams provides a direct representation of the individual within a sample, or between various samples. The utility and versatility of the plot is demonstrated through its application to astrophysical data (SAMI Galaxy Survey) and sports statistics. We provide a brief description of the concept and the source code, which is simple to adapt to any statistical dataset, be it descriptive of physics, demographics, finance, and more.

  14. Visualisation of morphological interactionof diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria Monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Currently, medicine intensively searches for methods to transport drugs to a target (sick) point within the body. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of silver or diamond nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis (G-) or Listeria...... monocytogenes (G+), to reveal possibilities of constructing nanoparticle-bacteria vehicles. Diamond nanoparticles (nano-D) were produced by the detonation method. Hydrocolloids of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were produced by electric non-explosive patented method. Hydrocolloids of nanoparticles (200 microl......) were added to bacteria suspension (200 microl) in the following order: nano-D + Salmonella E.; nano-D + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Ag + Salmonella E; nano-Ag + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Visualisation of nanoparticles and bacteria interaction...

  15. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  16. Estimating Preferences for Wind Turbine Locations - A Critical Review of Visualisation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Ladenburg, Jacob

    As the amount of wind energy installed capacity keeps growing, in Europe and the world in general, the siting of wind projects near population or recreational centres becomes a frequent possibility. Therefore, it is of high interest for policy makers and developers to be able to quantify the effect...... of wind projects on public acceptance. Currently, one of the main drivers for acceptance of wind turbines by the public is their level of visual impacts. While recent studies have focused on estimating the welfare loss of visual impacts from wind turbines, a large share of the applied studies have used...... no or very simple visualisation of the actual visual impacts at stake. These studies thus rely on the cognitive skills of the respondents to imagine wind turbines of different sizes and locations; and on the prior experience people have had with wind turbines. By extending the economic model of perceived...

  17. Dissemination and visualisation of reference decay data from Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulieu, Christophe; Kellett, Mark A.; Mougeot, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    As a primary laboratory in the field of ionising radiation metrology, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA Saclay, is involved in measurements, evaluations and dissemination of radioactive decay data. Data measurements undertaken by various laboratories are evaluated by an international commission of experts (Decay Data Evaluation Project) coordinated by LNHB staff in order to establish a set of recommended decay scheme data. New nuclide evaluations are regularly added to our website, the Nucléide database, published in the BIPM-5 Monographie series and uploaded to our web application Laraweb, a dedicated tool for alpha and gamma spectrometry. The Mini Table of Radionuclides is produced from time-to-time with data extracted from our database. Various publications are described, along with new search criteria and decay scheme visualisation in Laraweb. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  18. Quantum wave mixing and visualisation of coherent and superposed photonic states in a waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A Yu; Shaikhaidarov, R; Antonov, V N; Hönigl-Decrinis, T; Astafiev, O V

    2017-11-07

    Superconducting quantum systems (artificial atoms) have been recently successfully used to demonstrate on-chip effects of quantum optics with single atoms in the microwave range. In particular, a well-known effect of four wave mixing could reveal a series of features beyond classical physics, when a non-linear medium is scaled down to a single quantum scatterer. Here we demonstrate the phenomenon of quantum wave mixing (QWM) on a single superconducting artificial atom. In the QWM, the spectrum of elastically scattered radiation is a direct map of the interacting superposed and coherent photonic states. Moreover, the artificial atom visualises photon-state statistics, distinguishing coherent, one- and two-photon superposed states with the finite (quantised) number of peaks in the quantum regime. Our results may give a new insight into nonlinear quantum effects in microwave optics with artificial atoms.

  19. SuperTranscripts: a data driven reference for analysis and visualisation of transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nadia M; Hawkins, Anthony D K; Oshlack, Alicia

    2017-08-04

    Numerous methods have been developed to analyse RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data, but most rely on the availability of a reference genome, making them unsuitable for non-model organisms. Here we present superTranscripts, a substitute for a reference genome, where each gene with multiple transcripts is represented by a single sequence. The Lace software is provided to construct superTranscripts from any set of transcripts, including de novo assemblies. We demonstrate how superTranscripts enable visualisation, variant detection and differential isoform detection in non-model organisms. We further use Lace to combine reference and assembled transcriptomes for chicken and recover hundreds of gaps in the reference genome.

  20. Engaging with the Canopy—Multi-Dimensional Vegetation Mark Visualisation Using Archived Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Verhoeven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using Montarice in central Adriatic Italy as a case study, this paper focuses on the extraction of the spectral (i.e., plant colour and geometrical (i.e., plant height components of a crop canopy from archived aerial photographs, treating both parameters as proxies for archaeological prospection. After the creation of orthophotographs and a canopy height model using image-based modelling, new archaeological information is extracted from this vegetation model by applying relief-enhancing visualisation techniques. Through interpretation of the resulting data, a combination of the co-registered spectral and geometrical vegetation dimensions clearly add new depth to interpretative mapping, which is typically based solely on colour differences in orthophotographs.

  1. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron (FeD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established - severe deficiency producing significant neurological dysfunction - there is a paucity of data on neurological impairments that accompany modest degrees of TH disruption. Quantitative m...

  2. Computer Supported Argument Visualisation: Modelling in Consultative Democracy Around Wicked Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Ricky

    In this case study, computer supported argument visualisation has been applied to the analysis and representation of the draft South East Queensland Regional Plan Consultation discourse, demonstrating how argument mapping can help deliver the transparency and accountability required in participatory democracy. Consultative democracy for regional planning falls into a category of problems known as “wicked problems”. Inherent in this environment is heterogeneous viewpoints, agendas and voices, built on disparate and often contradictory logic. An argument ontology and notation that was designed specifically to deal with consultative urban planning around wicked problems is the Issue Based Information System (IBIS) and IBIS notation (Rittel & Webber, 1984). The software used for argument visualisation in this case was Compendium, a derivative of IBIS. The high volume of stakeholders and discourse heterogeneity in this environment calls for a unique approach to argument mapping. The map design model developed from this research has been titled a “Consultation Map”. The design incorporates the IBIS ontology within a hybrid of mapping approaches, amalgamating elements from concept, dialogue, argument, debate, thematic and tree-mapping. The consultation maps developed from the draft South East Queensland Regional Plan Consultation provide a transparent visual record to give evidence of the themes of citizen issues within the consultation discourse. The consultation maps also link the elicited discourse themes to related policies from the SEQ Regional Plan providing explicit evidence of SEQ Regional Plan policy-decisions matching citizen concerns. The final consultation map in the series provides explicit links between SEQ Regional Plan policy items and monitoring activities reporting on the ongoing implementation of the SEQ Regional Plan. This map provides updatable evidence of and accountability for SEQ Regional Plan policy implementation and developments.

  3. Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    The first 3D visualisation of a heteromorph cephalopod species from the Southern Alps (Dolomites, northern Italy) is presented. Computed tomography, palaeontological data and 3D reconstructions were included in the production of a movie, which shows a life reconstruction of the extinct organism. This detailed reconstruction is according to the current knowledge of the shape and mode of life as well as habitat of this animal. The results are based on the most complete shell known thus far of the genus Dissimilites. Object-based combined analyses from computed tomography and various computed 3D facility programmes help to understand morphological details as well as their ontogentical changes in fossil material. In this study, an additional goal was to show changes in locomotion during different ontogenetic phases of such fossil, marine shell-bearing animals (ammonoids). Hence, the presented models and tools can serve as starting points for discussions on morphology and locomotion of extinct cephalopods in general, and of the genus Dissimilites in particular. The heteromorph ammonoid genus Dissimilites is interpreted here as an active swimmer of the Tethyan Ocean. This study portrays non-destructive methods of 3D visualisation applied on palaeontological material, starting with computed tomography resulting in animated, high-quality video clips. The here presented 3D geometrical models and animation, which are based on palaeontological material, demonstrate the wide range of applications, analytical techniques and also outline possible limitations of 3D models in earth sciences and palaeontology. The realistic 3D models and motion pictures can easily be shared amongst palaeontologists. Data, images and short clips can be discussed online and, if necessary, adapted in morphological details and motion-style to better represent the cephalopod animal.

  4. THE POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF VISUALISATION AS A METHOD IN LEARNING SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana T. Sidelnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the paper is concerned with potential and barriers of application of visualisation as a method in learning social sciences and humanities. Using and employing visual aids becomes the most important resource in modern pedagogical theory and learning process due to the improvement of traditional pedagogical tools and new interpretation of well-known methods. Materials and Methods: the methods of observation, analysis of test results, results of examination session, data of questionnaires were used during the elaboration of the paper. Results: a good visual aid in teaching political science is the smiley as a simplified graphical representation expressing the emotions of a speaker or a writer. Observation, survey and results of examinations indicate that the above visual solutions not only improve students’ knowledge of subjects, but also improve the intellectual activity, contribute to the formation of the methodical approach to learning, associative thinking and creativity. Discussion and Conclusion: visualisation is a sign presentation of the content, functions, structures, stages of a process, a phenomenon through schematisation and associative and illustrative arrays. At the same time it is a way of transforming knowledge into real visual product with the author’s personal touch. Initially, students learn to reflect by drawing the essence of rather abstract concepts such as “parity”, “power” “freedom” etc. Assignments of higher levels involve the use of associative arrays, free images. By doing this, students do not just paint, but on their own initiative work with colours, seek to schematise information, sometimes dressing comments in lyrics.

  5. Three-dimensional visualisation and articulating instrumentation: Impact on simulated laparoscopic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy requires the development of technical skills distinct from those used in open procedures. Several factors extending the learning curve of laparoscopy include ergonomic and technical difficulties, such as the fulcrum effect and limited degrees of freedom. This study aimed to establish the impact of four variables on performance of two simulated laparoscopic tasks. Methods: Six subjects including novice (n=2, intermediate (n=2 and expert surgeons completed two tasks: 1 four running sutures, 2 simple suture followed by surgeon′s knot plus four square knots. Task variables were suturing angle (left/right, needle holder type (standard/articulating and visualisation (2D/3D. Each task with a given set of variables was completed twice in random order. The endpoints included suturing task completion time, average and maximum distance from marks and knot tying task completion time. Results: Suturing task completion time was prolonged by 45-degree right angle suturing, articulating needle holder use and lower skill levels (all P < 0.0001. Accuracy also decreased with articulating needle holder use (both P < 0.0001. 3D vision affected only maximum distance ( P =0.0108. For the knot tying task, completion time was greater with 45-degree right angle suturing ( P =0.0015, articulating needle holder use ( P < 0.0001, 3D vision ( P =0.0014 and novice skill level ( P =0.0003. Participants felt that 3D visualisation offered subjective advantages during training. Conclusions: Results suggest construct validity. A 3D personal head display and articulating needle holder do not immediately improve task completion times or accuracy and may increase the training burden of laparoscopic suturing and knot tying.

  6. First human magnetic resonance visualisation of prosthetics for laparoscopic large hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, G; Pallwein-Prettner, L; Lechner, M; Spaun, G O; Koch, O O; Emmanuel, K

    2015-12-01

    Mesh repair of large hiatal hernias has increasingly gained popularity to reduce recurrence rates. Integration of iron particles into the polyvinylidene fluoride mesh-based material allows for magnetic resonance visualisation (MR). In a pilot prospective case series eight patients underwent surgical repair of hiatal hernias repair with pre-shaped meshes, which were fixated with fibrin glue. An MR investigation with a qualified protocol was performed on postoperative day four and 3 months postoperatively to evaluate the correct position of the mesh by assessing mesh appearance and demarcation. The total MR-visible mesh surface area of each implant was calculated and compared with the original physical mesh size to evaluate potential reduction of the functional mesh surfaces. We documented no mesh migrations or dislocations but we found a significant decrease of MR-visualised total mesh surface area after release of the pneumoperitoneum compared to the original mesh size (mean 78.9 vs 84 cm(2); mean reduction of mesh area = 5.1 cm(2), p < 0.001). At 3 months postoperatively, a further reduction of the mesh surface area could be observed (mean 78.5 vs 78.9 cm(2); mean reduction of mesh area = 0.4 cm(2), p < 0.037). Detailed mesh depiction and accurate assessment of the surrounding anatomy could be successfully achieved in all cases. Fibrin glue seems to provide effective mesh fixation. In addition to a significant early postoperative decrease in effective mesh surface area a further reduction in size occurred within 3 months after implantation.

  7. JHelioviewer. Time-dependent 3D visualisation of solar and heliospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D.; Nicula, B.; Felix, S.; Verstringe, F.; Bourgoignie, B.; Csillaghy, A.; Berghmans, D.; Jiggens, P.; García-Ortiz, J. P.; Ireland, J.; Zahniy, S.; Fleck, B.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Solar observatories are providing the world-wide community with a wealth of data, covering wide time ranges (e.g. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, SOHO), multiple viewpoints (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory, STEREO), and returning large amounts of data (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO). In particular, the large volume of SDO data presents challenges; the data are available only from a few repositories, and full-disk, full-cadence data for reasonable durations of scientific interest are difficult to download, due to their size and the download rates available to most users. From a scientist's perspective this poses three problems: accessing, browsing, and finding interesting data as efficiently as possible. Aims: To address these challenges, we have developed JHelioviewer, a visualisation tool for solar data based on the JPEG 2000 compression standard and part of the open source ESA/NASA Helioviewer Project. Since the first release of JHelioviewer in 2009, the scientific functionality of the software has been extended significantly, and the objective of this paper is to highlight these improvements. Methods: The JPEG 2000 standard offers useful new features that facilitate the dissemination and analysis of high-resolution image data and offers a solution to the challenge of efficiently browsing petabyte-scale image archives. The JHelioviewer software is open source, platform independent, and extendable via a plug-in architecture. Results: With JHelioviewer, users can visualise the Sun for any time period between September 1991 and today; they can perform basic image processing in real time, track features on the Sun, and interactively overlay magnetic field extrapolations. The software integrates solar event data and a timeline display. Once an interesting event has been identified, science quality data can be accessed for in-depth analysis. As a first step towards supporting science planning of the upcoming Solar Orbiter mission, JHelioviewer

  8. Visualising gold inside tumour cells following treatment with an antitumour gold(I) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, Louise E; Kilburn, Matt R; Cliff, John B; Filgueira, Luis; Saunders, Martin; Berners-Price, Susan J

    2011-09-01

    Gold(I) phosphine complexes, such as [Au(d2pype)(2)]Cl, (1, where d2pype is 1,2-bis(di-2-pyridyl phosphinoethane)), belong to a class of promising chemotherapeutic candidates that have been shown to be selectively toxic to tumourigenic cells, and may act via uptake into tumour cell mitochondria. For a more holistic understanding of their mechanism of action, a deeper knowledge of their subcellular distribution is required, but to date this has been limited by a lack of suitable imaging techniques. In this study the subcellular distribution of gold was visualised in situ in human breast cancer cells treated with 1, using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. NanoSIMS ion maps of (12)C(14)N(-), (31)P(-), (34)S(-) and (197)Au(-) allowed, for the first time, visualisation of cellular morphology simultaneously with subcellular distribution of gold. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) element maps for gold were also obtained, allowing for observation of nuclear and mitochondrial morphology with excellent spatial resolution, and gold element maps comparable to the data obtained with NanoSIMS. Following 2 h treatment with 1, the subcellular distribution of gold was associated with sulfur-rich regions in the nucleus and cytoplasm, supporting the growing evidence for the the mechanism of action of Au(I) compounds based on inhibition of thiol-containing protein families, such as the thioredoxin system. The combination of NanoSIMS and EFTEM has broader applicability for studying the subcellular distribution of other types of metal-based drugs.

  9. Meeting radiation therapy patients informational needs through educational videos augmented by 3D visualisation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katelyn; Blencowe, Jenna; Ind, Melissa; Willis, David

    2017-03-01

    Misconceptions and uncertainties about radiotherapy compound the anxiety patients experience at the commencement of treatment. This project investigated the utility of locally produced treatment process videos in meeting patients' informational needs. In-house video production was conducted on a voluntary basis by staff and patients at a regional Australian radiotherapy centre. Videos included real footage and animated sections created with PEARL(TM) 3D visualisation software (Vertual Ltd, UK) to meet specific key content objectives. Quantitative cross sectional analysis was conducted. Patients attending for simulation watched a relevant video. After their first fraction of radiotherapy they were asked to complete an ethics-reviewed questionnaire about how well the video addressed their information needs. The survey completion rate was 29% (n = 61/212). Surveys were collected over 9 months from August 2014 to April 2015. Statistical analysis found 98% of patients reported that the video was useful in meeting one or more of the learning objectives. Forty-nine percent of patients also reported a reduction in fear and anxiety as a result of watching the video. Patients reported subsequent review of videos at home (39%), primarily to explain treatment processes to loved ones (46%). The combination of real footage and 3D visualisation software assisted in meeting learning objectives regarding the treatment process. Standardised videos provided consistency of information provision to patients and facilitated multiple viewings of the video if desired. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  10. Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    The first 3D visualisation of a heteromorph cephalopod species from the Southern Alps (Dolomites, northern Italy) is presented. Computed tomography, palaeontological data and 3D reconstructions were included in the production of a movie, which shows a life reconstruction of the extinct organism. This detailed reconstruction is according to the current knowledge of the shape and mode of life as well as habitat of this animal. The results are based on the most complete shell known thus far of the genus Dissimilites. Object-based combined analyses from computed tomography and various computed 3D facility programmes help to understand morphological details as well as their ontogentical changes in fossil material. In this study, an additional goal was to show changes in locomotion during different ontogenetic phases of such fossil, marine shell-bearing animals (ammonoids). Hence, the presented models and tools can serve as starting points for discussions on morphology and locomotion of extinct cephalopods in general, and of the genus Dissimilites in particular. The heteromorph ammonoid genus Dissimilites is interpreted here as an active swimmer of the Tethyan Ocean. This study portrays non-destructive methods of 3D visualisation applied on palaeontological material, starting with computed tomography resulting in animated, high-quality video clips. The here presented 3D geometrical models and animation, which are based on palaeontological material, demonstrate the wide range of applications, analytical techniques and also outline possible limitations of 3D models in earth sciences and palaeontology. The realistic 3D models and motion pictures can easily be shared amongst palaeontologists. Data, images and short clips can be discussed online and, if necessary, adapted in morphological details and motion-style to better represent the cephalopod animal.

  11. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  12. A novel role for ecdysone in Drosophila conditioned behavior: linking GPCR-mediated non-canonical steroid action to cAMP signaling in the adult brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishimoto

    Full Text Available The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated primarily by their cognate nuclear receptors, which serve as steroid-dependent transcription factors. However, steroids can also execute their functions by modulating intracellular signaling cascades rapidly and independently of transcriptional regulation. Despite the potential significance of such "non-genomic" steroid actions, their biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood, particularly with regard to their effects on behavioral regulation. The major steroid hormone in the fruit fly Drosophila is 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E, which plays a variety of pivotal roles during development via the nuclear ecdysone receptors. Here we report that DopEcR, a G-protein coupled receptor for ecdysteroids, is involved in activity- and experience-dependent plasticity of the adult central nervous system. Remarkably, a courtship memory defect in rutabaga (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-responsive adenylate cyclase mutants was rescued by DopEcR overexpression or acute 20E feeding, whereas a memory defect in dunce (cAMP-specific phosphodiestrase mutants was counteracted when a loss-of-function DopEcR mutation was introduced. A memory defect caused by suppressing dopamine synthesis was also restored through enhanced DopEcR-mediated ecdysone signaling, and rescue and phenocopy experiments revealed that the mushroom body (MB--a brain region central to learning and memory in Drosophila--is critical for the DopEcR-dependent processing of courtship memory. Consistent with this finding, acute 20E feeding induced a rapid, DopEcR-dependent increase in cAMP levels in the MB. Our multidisciplinary approach demonstrates that DopEcR mediates the non-canonical actions of 20E and rapidly modulates adult conditioned behavior through cAMP signaling, which is universally important for neural plasticity. This study provides novel insights into non-genomic actions of steroids, and opens a new avenue for

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies ... medication. This information may someday make it possible to predict who ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ...

  16. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) ...

  19. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Protection of ischemic post conditioning against transient focal ischemia-induced brain damage is associated with inhibition of neuroinflammation via modulation of TLR2 and TLR4 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Ge, Pengfei; Yang, Li; Wu, Chunyun; Zha, Hao; Luo, Tianfei; Zhu, Yuhong

    2014-01-24

    Ischemic postconditioning has been demonstrated to be a protective procedure to brain damage caused by transient focal ischemia/reperfusion. However, it is elusive whether the protection of postconditioning against brain damage and neuroinflammation is via regulating TLR2 and TLR4 pathways. In the present study, we examined the protection of ischemic postconditioning performed immediately prior to the recovery of cerebral blood supply on brain damage caused by various duration of ischemia and tested the hypothesis that its protection is via inhibition of neuroinflammation by modulating TLR2/TLR4 pathways. Brain damage in rats was induced by using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Ischemic postconditioning consisting of fivecycles of ten seconds of ischemia and reperfusion was performed immediately following theischemic episode Theduration of administration of ischemic postconditioning was examined by comparing its effects on infarction volume, cerebral edema and neurological function in 2, 3, 4, 4.5and 6 hour ischemia groups. The protective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning was investigated by comparing its effects on apoptosis, production of the neurotoxic cytokine IL-1β and the transcription and expression of TLR2, TLR4 and IRAK4 in the 2 and 4.5 hour ischemia groups. Ischemic postconditioning significantly attenuated cerebral infarction, cerebral edema and neurological dysfunction in ischemia groups of up to 4 hours duration, but not in 4.5and 6 hour ischemia groups. It also inhibited apoptosis, production of IL-1β, abnormal transcription and expression of TLR2, TLR4 and IRAK4 in the 2 hour ischemia group, but not in the 4.5 hour ischemia group. Ischemic postconditioning protected brain damage caused by 2, 3 and 4 hours of ischemia, but not by 4.5 and 6 hours of ischemia. The protection of ischemic postconditioning is associated with its inhibition of neuroinflammation via inhibition of TLR2 and TLR4 pathways.

  1. Dynamic visualisation of municipal waste management performance in the EU using Ternary Diagram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomberger, R; Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2017-03-01

    This contribution describes the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The framework of current municipal waste management including recycling targets, etc. is given by the Waste Framework Directive - 2008/98/EC. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe's transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management. The Package also includes a revised legislative proposal on waste that sets ambitious recycling rates for municipal waste for 2025 (60%) and 2030 (65%). Additionally, the new calculation method for monitoring the attainment of the targets should be applied. In 2014, ca. 240 million tonnes of municipal waste were generated in the EU. While in 1995, 17% were recycled and composted, 14% incinerated and 64% landfilled, in 2014 ca. 71% were recovered but 28% landfilled only. Considering the treatment performance of the individual EU member states, the EU 28 can be divided into three groups, namely: "Recovery Countries", "Transition Countries" and "Landfilling Countries". Using Ternary Diagram Method, three types of visualization for the municipal waste management performance have been investigated and extensively described. Therefore, for better understanding of municipal waste management performance in the last 20years, dynamic visualisation of the Eurostat table-form data on all 28 member states of the EU has been carried out in three different ways: 1. "Performance Positioning" of waste management unit(s) at a specific date; 2. "Performance dynamics" over a certain time period and; 3. "Performance development" expressed as a track(s). Results obtained show that the Ternary Diagram Method is very well suited to be used for better understanding of past developments and coherences, for monitoring of

  2. GeoMapApp: A Cross-Platform app for Geophysical Data Exploration and Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Apps that provide convenient, integrated access to a range of geophysical data have wide applicability in both research and teaching. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory provides casual and specialist users alike with intuitive access to hundreds of built-in geoscience data sets covering geophysics, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and cryospherics. Users can also import their own data tables, spreadsheets, shapefiles, grids, and images. Simple manipulation and analysis tools combined with layering capabilities and engaging visualisations provide a powerful app with which to explore and interrogate geoscience data in its proper geospatial context thus helping users to more easily gain deeper insight and understanding from real-world data. The backbone of GeoMapApp is a regularly-updated multi-resolution elevation base map covering the oceans and continents and includes measurements ranging from Space Shuttle terrestrial data to ultra-high-resolution surveys of coral reefs and seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Examples of built-in geophysical data sets include interactive earthquake locations and focal mechanism (CMT) solutions; underway cruise track profiles; plate tectonic velocities, seafloor crustal age and heat flow; multi-channel seismic reflection profiles; gravity, magnetic, and geoid anomalies; sidescan; subduction zone interface depths; and, EarthScope station locations. Dynamic links point to data sources and additional information. There are dedicated menus for GeoPRISMS, MARGINS, and Ridge2000 data sets. A versatile profiling tool provides instant access to data cross-sections, and contouring and 3-D views are also offered. Tabular data - both imported and built-in - can be displayed in a variety of ways and users can quickly select data points directly from the map. Layer opacity and on/off toggles allow easy data set

  3. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structures provide a valuable resource for rational drug design. For a protein with no known ligand, computational tools can predict surface pockets that are of suitable size and shape to accommodate a complementary small-molecule drug. However, pocket prediction against single static structures may miss features of pockets that arise from proteins' dynamic behaviour. In particular, ligand-binding conformations can be observed as transiently populated states of the apo protein, so it is possible to gain insight into ligand-bound forms by considering conformational variation in apo proteins. This variation can be explored by considering sets of related structures: computationally generated conformers, solution NMR ensembles, multiple crystal structures, homologues or homology models. It is non-trivial to compare pockets, either from different programs or across sets of structures. For a single structure, difficulties arise in defining particular pocket's boundaries. For a set of conformationally distinct structures the challenge is how to make reasonable comparisons between them given that a perfect structural alignment is not possible. Results We have developed a computational method, Provar, that provides a consistent representation of predicted binding pockets across sets of related protein structures. The outputs are probabilities that each atom or residue of the protein borders a predicted pocket. These probabilities can be readily visualised on a protein using existing molecular graphics software. We show how Provar simplifies comparison of the outputs of different pocket prediction algorithms, of pockets across multiple simulated conformations and between homologous structures. We demonstrate the benefits of use of multiple structures for protein-ligand and protein-protein interface analysis on a set of complexes and consider three case studies in detail: i analysis of a kinase superfamily highlights the

  4. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  5. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  6. X-Ray Visualisation Of High Speed Phenomena: Application To The Behavior Of Materials Under High Explosives Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauducoeur, A.; Fischer, D.; Guix, R.

    1983-08-01

    Flash Radiography and Cineradiography allow the visualisation of high speed phenomena and the stop motion effect with recording on film of qualitative and quantitative data on the dynamic state of the matter under very intense shock waves. In this paper, we present a set of experimental devices and results obtained with a large range of flash X-ray generators : - small generators made with Marx discharge circuits coupled to void X-ray tubes, working up to 2.5 MV, - a big flash machine, GREC (presented at this conference (ref.1))used with very absor-bing materials. The presented applications illustrate a large field of experiments in the field of shock waves, interaction of 2 shock or detonation waves, flow visualisation of detonation, Taylor instabilities/metal jetting, spalling in iron...

  7. Visualisation of upper limb activity using spirals - a new approach to the 1 assessment of daily prosthesis usage

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwell, AE; Kenney, LPJ; Granat, MH; Thies, SBA; Head, JS; Galpin, AJ

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current outcome measures used in upper limb myoelectric prosthesis studies include clinical tests of function and self-report questionnaires on real world prosthesis use. Research in other cohorts has questioned both the validity of self-report as an activity assessment tool and the relationship between clinical functionality and real-world upper limb activity. Previously1 we reported the first results of monitoring upper-limb prosthesis use. \\ud However, the data visualisation te...

  8. coMET: visualisation of regional epigenome-wide association scan results and DNA co-methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tiphaine C; Yet, Idil; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Bell, Jordana T

    2015-04-28

    Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) are an increasingly powerful and widely-used approach to assess the role of epigenetic variation in human complex traits. However, this rapidly emerging field lacks dedicated visualisation tools that can display features specific to epigenetic datasets. We developed coMET, an R package and online tool for visualisation of EWAS results in a genomic region of interest. coMET generates a regional plot of epigenetic-phenotype association results and the estimated DNA methylation correlation between CpG sites (co-methylation), with further options to visualise genomic annotations based on ENCODE data, gene tracks, reference CpG-sites, and user-defined features. The tool can be used to display phenotype association signals and correlation patterns of microarray or sequencing-based DNA methylation data, such as Illumina Infinium 450k, WGBS, or MeDIP-seq, as well as other types of genomic data, such as gene expression profiles. The software is available as a user-friendly online tool from http://epigen.kcl.ac.uk/comet and as an R Bioconductor package. Source code, examples, and full documentation are also available from GitHub. Our new software allows visualisation of EWAS results with functional genomic annotations and with estimation of co-methylation patterns. coMET is available to a wide audience as an online tool and R package, and can be a valuable resource to interpret results in the fast growing field of epigenetics. The software is designed for epigenetic data, but can also be applied to genomic and functional genomic datasets in any species.

  9. Visualisation of upper limb activity using spirals: A new approach to the assessment of daily prosthesis usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Alix; Kenney, Laurence; Granat, Malcolm; Thies, Sibylle; Head, John S; Galpin, Adam

    2017-06-01

    Current outcome measures used in upper limb myoelectric prosthesis studies include clinical tests of function and self-report questionnaires on real-world prosthesis use. Research in other cohorts has questioned both the validity of self-report as an activity assessment tool and the relationship between clinical functionality and real-world upper limb activity. Previously,(1) we reported the first results of monitoring upper limb prosthesis use. However, the data visualisation technique used was limited in scope. Methodology development. To introduce two new methods for the analysis and display of upper limb activity monitoring data and to demonstrate the potential value of the approach with example real-world data. Upper limb activity monitors, worn on each wrist, recorded data on two anatomically intact participants and two prosthesis users over 1 week. Participants also filled in a diary to record upper limb activity. Data visualisation was carried out using histograms, and Archimedean spirals to illustrate temporal patterns of upper limb activity. Anatomically intact participants' activity was largely bilateral in nature, interspersed with frequent bursts of unilateral activity of each arm. At times when the prosthesis was worn prosthesis users showed very little unilateral use of the prosthesis (≈20-40 min/week compared to ≈350 min/week unilateral activity on each arm for anatomically intact participants), with consistent bias towards the intact arm throughout. The Archimedean spiral plots illustrated participant-specific patterns of non-use in prosthesis users. The data visualisation techniques allow detailed and objective assessment of temporal patterns in the upper limb activity of prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Activity monitoring offers an objective method for the assessment of upper limb prosthesis users' (PUs) activity outside of the clinic. By plotting data using Archimedean spirals, it is possible to visualise, in detail, the temporal

  10. Automation strategies in five domains - A comparison of levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology. Division Design and Human factors. Dept. of Product and Production Development, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This study was conducted as a field study where control room operators and engineers from the refinery, heat and power, aviation, shipping and nuclear domain were interviewed regarding use of automation and the visualisation of automatic functions. The purpose of the study was to collect experiences and best practices from the five studied domains on levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions. In total, nine different control room settings were visited. The studied settings were compared using a systemic approach based on a human-machine systems model. The results show that the 'left over principle' is still the most common applied approach for function allocation but in high risk settings the decision whether to automate or not is more carefully considered. Regarding the visualisation of automatic functions, it was found that as long as each display type (process based, functional oriented, situation oriented and task based) are applied so that they correspond to the same level of abstraction as the technical system the operator's mental model will be supported. No single display type can however readily match all levels of abstraction at the same time - all display types are still needed and serve different purposes. (Author)

  11. A collaborative approach for incorporating forensic case data into crime investigation using criminal intelligence analysis and visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, Quentin; Ribaux, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the articulation of forensic science and criminal investigation is critical to the resolution of crimes. However, models and methods to support an effective collaboration between the partners are still poorly expressed or even lacking. Three propositions are borrowed from crime intelligence methods in order to bridge this gap: (a) the general intelligence process, (b) the analyses of investigative problems along principal perspectives: entities and their relationships, time and space, quantitative aspects and (c) visualisation methods as a mode of expression of a problem in these dimensions. Indeed, in a collaborative framework, different kinds of visualisations integrating forensic case data can play a central role for supporting decisions. Among them, link-charts are scrutinised for their abilities to structure and ease the analysis of a case by describing how relevant entities are connected. However, designing an informative chart that does not bias the reasoning process is not straightforward. Using visualisation as a catalyser for a collaborative approach integrating forensic data thus calls for better specifications. © 2013.

  12. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  13. Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a fluorescent probe for the visualisation of membrane microdomains in living Arabidopsis thaliana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Li, Ruili; Lu, Cunfu; Baluška, František; Wan, Yinglang

    2015-02-01

    Cholesterol-enriched microdomains, also called lipid rafts, are nanoscale membrane structures with a high degree of structural order. Since these microdomains play important roles in dynamic cytological events, such as cell signalling and membrane trafficking, the detection and tracking of microdomain behaviours are crucial to studies on modern membrane physiology. Currently, observation of microdomains is mostly based on the detection of specific raft-resident constituents using artificial cross-link fluorescent probes. However, only a few microdomain-specific fluorescent dyes are available for plant cell biology studies. In this study, the photophysical properties of di-4-ANEPPDHQ were analysed. The use of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM)-based methods in the visualisation of microdomains in living cells of Arabidopsis thaliana was assessed. The results confirmed that the generalised polarisation (GP) method can be used to quantitatively visualise the membrane orders in live plant cells. This dye was found to have low cytotoxicity in plant root epidermal cells and root hairs. These findings suggest that di-4-ANEPPDHQ is an appropriate tool for the visualisation of microdomains in living plant cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence, prevalence, costs, and impact on disability of common conditions requiring rehabilitation in the United States: stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, limb loss, and back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Vincent Y; Chan, Leighton; Carruthers, Kadir J

    2014-05-01

    To determine the relative incidence, prevalence, costs, and impact on disability of 8 common conditions treated by rehabilitation professionals. Comprehensive bibliographic searches using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and UpToDate, (June, 2013). Two review authors independently screened the search results and performed data extraction. Eighty-two articles were identified that had relevant data on the following conditions: Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Limb Loss, and Back Pain. Back pain and arthritis (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) are the most common and costly conditions we analyzed, affecting more than 100 million individuals and costing greater than $200 billion per year. Traumatic brain injury, while less common than arthritis and back pain, carries enormous per capita direct and indirect costs, mostly because of the young age of those involved and the severe disability that it may cause. Finally, stroke, which is often listed as the most common cause of disability, is likely second to both arthritis and back pain in its impact on functional limitations. Of the common rehabilitation diagnoses we studied, musculoskeletal conditions such as back pain and arthritis likely have the most impact on the health care system because of their high prevalence and impact on disability. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visualisation and quantification of CV chondrite petrography using micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Elangovan, Premkumar; Viehmann, Sebastian; Howard, Lauren; Abel, Richard L.; Armstrong, Robin

    2013-09-01

    Micro-computed tomography is a non-destructive technique that allows the study of 3D meteorite petrography. The technique produces a unique and instructive visualisation of the meteorite for quantifying its components. We studied the overall petrography of the two CV chondrites Allende and Mokoia to constrain their formation histories. A set of movies and stereographic images detail the 3D petrography. Component modal abundances agree with previous reports and modal abundance differences between Allende and Mokoia support the chondrule-matrix complementarity and that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir. We identified two types of chondrules, a normal type and one where a normal type I or II chondrule is almost completely encapsulated by an opaque-rich layer. This layer was probably acquired during a late stage condensation process. The appearance of opaques in chondrules and matrix is different, not supporting a genetic relationships between these. Low abundances of compound chondrules (1.75 vol% in Allende and 2.50 vol% in Mokoia) indicate low chondrule densities and/or low relative component velocities in chondrule formation regions. Porosities on a scale <10-20 μm allowed for only local aqueous alteration processes on the meteorite parent bodies.

  16. Enhancing data visualisation to capture the simulator sickness phenomenon: On the usefulness of radar charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Chaumillon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “The use of transdermal scopolamine to solve methodological issues raised by gender differences in susceptibility to simulator sickness” (Chaumillon et al., 2017 [1]. In an outstanding first demonstration, Kennedy et al. [2] showed that the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ is an appropriate tool to suit the purposes of characterizing motion sickness experienced in virtual environments. This questionnaire has since been used in many scientific studies. Recently, Balk et al. [3] suggested that the proposed segregation of SSQ scores into three subclasses of symptoms might limit the accuracy of simulator sickness assessment. These authors performed a factor analysis based on SSQ scores obtained from nine studies on driving simulators. Although their factor analysis resulted in the same three orthogonal classes of symptoms as Kennedy et al. [2], unlike this pioneering study, no items were attributed to more than one factor and five items were not attributed to any class of symptoms. As a result, they claimed that an exploration of each item score should give additional cues on individual profiles. To gain a better characterization of such item-by-item exploration, data utilised in this research are shown using a radar chart visualisation.

  17. Intravenous flat detector CT angiography for non-invasive visualisation of intracranial flow diverter: technical feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, Tobias; Saake, Marc; Ott, Sabine; Engelhorn, Tobias; Goelitz, Philipp; Kloska, Stephan; Doelken, Marc; Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of intravenous Flat Detector CT Angiography (FD-CTA) for visualisation of intracranial Flow Diverting Devices. Flow Diverting Devices are used increasingly for treatment of intracranial aneurysms. A close follow up is necessary because it becomes obvious that a significant proportion of aneurysms treated with these devices remain patent. A minimally invasive method is highly desirable. In two patients treated with flow diverters a Flat Detector CT (FD-CT) with intravenous contrast medium application was performed. Post-processing was performed using commercially available software. In both patients the lumen of the device and the lumen of the aneurysm could be clearly evaluated. Some beam hardening artefacts due to the marker wires of the device were obvious. Flat Detector CT with intravenous contrast material application to evaluate flow-diverting devices seems to be feasible. Further studies are necessary to perform comparative evaluation of FD-CTA with angiography and other techniques like MRA or conventional CT angiography. (orig.)

  18. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  19. WebGL Visualisation of 3D Environmental Models Based on Finnish Open Geospatial Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krooks, A.; Kahkonen, J.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.; Karjalainen, M.; Honkavaara, E.

    2014-08-01

    Recent developments in spatial data infrastructures have enabled real time GIS analysis and visualization using open input data sources and service interfaces. In this study we present a new concept where metric point clouds derived from national open airborne laser scanning (ALS) and photogrammetric image data are processed, analyzed, finally visualised a through open service interfaces to produce user-driven analysis products from targeted areas. The concept is demonstrated in three environmental applications: assessment of forest storm damages, assessment of volumetric changes in open pit mine and 3D city model visualization. One of the main objectives was to study the usability and requirements of national level photogrammetric imagery in these applications. The results demonstrated that user driven 3D geospatial analyses were possible with the proposed approach and current technology, for instance, the landowner could assess the amount of fallen trees within his property borders after a storm easily using any web browser. On the other hand, our study indicated that there are still many uncertainties especially due to the insufficient standardization of photogrammetric products and processes and their quality indicators.

  20. Cartographic Visualisation and the Image of the Other in the Example of Multiple Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Gregurović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the communication possibilities of early modern maps as historical sources within the methodological frame of imagology and constructionist theory. A comparative analysis reveals numerous visualisations or images of the Other, which depend not only on the author’s cartographic skills, the selection of the offered information and applied cartographic code, but also on the Habsburg, the Venetian or the Ottoman imperial strategic and cartographic policies on the multiple borderlands of early modern Croatia. Due to their highly suggestive nature, maps were easily used for interpretation and even manipulation with geographic, ideological, confessional, cultural and even linguistic images and denotations. The Other was not always illuminated as being different on the other side of the border, but also as diversity “among us”. Through the whole panoply of complex images of the Other, some of them imposed by a certain imperial power, European as well as Croatian cartographers have created a structured and hierarchical approach to cartography and mapping of the Other. Contemporary rereading of these sources requires a good understanding of the circumstances in which an individual map was made, but also a critical approach not only to sources but to interpretative patterns as well. In the end, it is necessary to compare the map in question with a a complementary source from the “Other side” in order to bridge the gap and remake the existing mental maps, adding intercultural competence aimed at getting to know better the Other.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Visualisation of Coastal Flows in Tidal Channels Supporting Ocean Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Zangiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow characteristics in coastal regions are strongly influenced by the topography of the seabed and understanding the fluid dynamics is necessary before installation of tidal stream turbines (TST. In this paper, the bathymetry of a potential TST deployment site is used in the development of the a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model. The steady state k-ϵ and transient Large Eddy Simulation (LES turbulence methods are employed and compared. The simulations are conducted with a fixed representation of the ocean surface, i.e., a rigid lid representation. In the vicinity of Horse Rock a study of the pressure difference shows that the small change in height of the water column is negligible, providing confidence in the simulation results. The stream surface method employed to visualise the results has important inherent characteristics that can enhance the visual perception of complex flow structures. The results of all cases are compared with the flow data transect gathered by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. It has been understood that the k-ϵ method can predict the flow pattern relatively well near the main features of the domain and the LES model has the ability to simulate some important flow patterns caused by the bathymetry.

  2. Visualised predictions of gap anisotropy to test new electron pairing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, X.H.; Walmsley, D.G., E-mail: dg.walmsley@qub.ac.uk

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Proposed test of new electron pairing scheme. • Energy gap anisotropy maps. • Reinterpretation of experimental data on gap anisotropy. • Critical comparison of theoretical results with sparse experimental data in lead, aluminium, niobium and tantalum. • Identification of absence of significant (>1%) gap anisotropy in single crystal tunnelling data. - Abstract: The rich and fertile but not yet adequately exploited ground of superconductor anisotropy is proposed as a test bed for a new empirical scheme of electron pairing. The scheme is directed to resolving a numerical and conceptual difficulty in the BCS theory. The original theoretical formulation of the anisotropy problem by Bennett is adopted and its outcomes extensively explored. Here the Bennett conclusion that in metallic superconductors phonon anisotropy is the principal source of gap anisotropy is accepted. Values of the energy gap are visualised globally in k-space with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Comparison is made between the anisotropy pattern from the new and the usual BCS pairing schemes. Differences are revealed for future experimental resolution.

  3. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms.Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometricapproach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters.

  4. Rainwater Harvesting and Social Networks: Visualising Interactions for Niche Governance, Resilience and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Visualising interactions across urban water systems to explore transition and change processes requires the development of methods and models at different scales. This paper contributes a model representing the network interactions of rainwater harvesting (RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations in the UK RWH niche to identify how resilience and sustainability feature within niche governance in practice. The RWH network interaction model was constructed using a modified participatory social network analysis (SNA. The SNA was further analysed through the application of a two-part analytical framework based on niche management and the safe, resilient and sustainable (‘Safe and SuRe’ framework. Weak interactions between some RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations highlighted reliance on a limited number of persuaders to influence the regime and landscape, which were underrepresented. Features from niche creation and management were exhibited by the RWH network interaction model, though some observed characteristics were not represented. Additional Safe and SuRe features were identified covering diverse innovation, responsivity, no protection, unconverged expectations, primary influencers, polycentric or adaptive governance and multiple learning-types. These features enable RWH infrastructure innovators and other organisations to reflect on improving resilience and sustainability, though further research in other sectors would be useful to verify and validate observation of the seven features.

  5. Intracoronary imaging using attenuation-compensated optical coherence tomography allows better visualisation of coronary artery diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foin, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.foin@gmail.com [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Mari, Jean Martial [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Ghione, Matteo; Di Mario, Carlo [Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davies, Justin E. [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Girard, Michaël J.A. [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Eye Research Institute (Singapore)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To allow an accurate diagnosis of coronary artery diseases by enhancing optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of atheromatous plaques using a novel automated attenuation compensation technique. Background: One of the major drawbacks of coronary OCT imaging is the rapid attenuation of the OCT signal, limiting penetration in tissue to only few millimetres. Visualisation of deeper anatomy is however critical for accurate assessment of plaque burden in-vivo. Methods: A compensation algorithm, previously developed to correct for light attenuation in soft tissues and to enhance contrast in ophthalmic OCT images, was applied to intracoronary plaque imaging using spectral-domain OCT. Results: Application of the compensation algorithm significantly increased tissue contrast in the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaque boundaries. Contrast enhancement allows a better differentiation of plaque morphology, which is particularly important for the identification of lipid rich fibro atheromatous plaques and to guide decision on treatment strategy. Conclusion: The analysis of arterial vessel structure clinically captured with OCT is improved when used in conjunction with automated attenuation compensation. This approach may improve the OCT-based interpretation of coronary plaque morphology in clinical practice.

  6. Theorising 3D Visualisation Systems in Archaeology: Towards more effective design, evaluations and life cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Galeazzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D visualisation in archaeology has become a suitable solution and effective instrument for the analysis, interpretation and communication of archaeological information. However, so far only a few attempts have been made to understand and evaluate the real impact that 3D imaging has on the discipline under its different forms (off-line immersive and not immersive, and on-line platform. There is a need in archaeology and cultural heritage for a detailed analysis of the different infrastructural options that are available and a precise evaluation of the differing impact that they can have in reshaping the discipline. To achieve this, it is important to develop new methodologies that consider the evaluation process as a fundamental and central part for assessing digital infrastructures. These new methods should include flexible evaluation approaches that can be adapted to the infrastructure that needs to be assessed. This article aims to provide some examples of 3D applications in archaeology and cultural heritage and describe how the selection of the infrastructure is related to specific needs of the project. This work will describe the different applications and propose guidelines and protocols for evaluating their impact within academia and the general public.

  7. Real-time visualisation and analysis of internal examinations--seeing the unseen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Alejandro; Hald, Niels; Di Marco, Aimee; Ahmed, Shahla; Low-Beer, Naomi; Higham, Jenny; Kneebone, Roger; Bello, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Internal examinations such as Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and bimanual Vaginal Examination (BVE) are routinely performed for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. Although they are recognised as core skills to be taught on a medical curriculum, they are difficult to learn and teach due to their unsighted nature. We present a framework that combines a visualisation and analysis tool with position and pressure sensors to enable the study of internal examinations and provision of real-time feedback. This approach is novel as it allows for real-time continuous trajectory and pressure data to be obtained for the complete examination, which may be used for teaching and assessment. Experiments were conducted performing DRE and BVE on benchtop models, and BVE on Gynaecological Teaching Assistants (GTA). The results obtained suggest that the proposed methodology may provide an insight into what constitutes an adequate DRE or BVE, provide real-time feedback tools for learning and assessment, and inform haptics-based simulator design.

  8. Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An

    2013-09-30

    When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development.

  9. Microscopy visualisation confirms multi-species biofilms are ubiquitous in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johani, Khalid; Malone, Matthew; Jensen, Slade; Gosbell, Iain; Dickson, Hugh; Hu, Honhua; Vickery, Karen

    2017-12-01

    Increasing evidence within the literature has identified the presence of biofilms in chronic wounds and proposed that they contribute to delayed wound healing. This research aimed to investigate the presence of biofilm in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) using microscopy and molecular approaches and define if these are predominantly mono- or multi-species. Secondary objectives were to correlate wound observations against microscopy results in ascertaining if clinical cues are useful in detecting wound biofilm. DFU tissue specimens were obtained from 65 subjects. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridisation (PNA-FISH) techniques with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to visualise biofilm structures. Next-generation DNA sequencing was performed to explore the microbial diversity. Clinical cues that included the presence of slough, excessive exudate, a gel material on the wound bed that reforms quickly following debridement, poor granulation and pyocyanin were correlated to microscopy results. Of the 65 DFU specimens evaluated by microscopy, all were characterised as containing biofilm (100%, P ubiquitous in DFUs and form either mono- or multi-species biofilms. Clinical cues to aid clinicians in detecting wound biofilm are not accurate for use in DFUs. A paradigm shift of managing DFUs needs to consider anti-biofilm strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Advanced correlation grid: Analysis and visualisation of functional connectivity among multiple spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Borisyuk, Roman; Stuart, Liz

    2017-07-15

    This study analyses multiple spike trains (MST) data, defines its functional connectivity and subsequently visualises an accurate diagram of connections. This is a challenging problem. For example, it is difficult to distinguish the common input and the direct functional connection of two spike trains. The new method presented in this paper is based on the traditional pairwise cross-correlation function (CCF) and a new combination of statistical techniques. First, the CCF is used to create the Advanced Correlation Grid (ACG) correlation where both the significant peak of the CCF and the corresponding time delay are used for detailed analysis of connectivity. Second, these two features of functional connectivity are used to classify connections. Finally, the visualization technique is used to represent the topology of functional connections. Examples are presented in the paper to demonstrate the new Advanced Correlation Grid method and to show how it enables discrimination between (i) influence from one spike train to another through an intermediate spike train and (ii) influence from one common spike train to another pair of analysed spike trains. The ACG method enables scientists to automatically distinguish between direct connections from spurious connections such as common source connection and indirect connection whereas existing methods require in-depth analysis to identify such connections. The ACG is a new and effective method for studying functional connectivity of multiple spike trains. This method can identify accurately all the direct connections and can distinguish common source and indirect connections automatically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing data visualisation to capture the simulator sickness phenomenon: On the usefulness of radar charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Romeas, Thomas; Paillard, Charles; Bernardin, Delphine; Giraudet, Guillaume; Bouchard, Jean-François; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The use of transdermal scopolamine to solve methodological issues raised by gender differences in susceptibility to simulator sickness" (Chaumillon et al., 2017) [1]. In an outstanding first demonstration, Kennedy et al. [2] showed that the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is an appropriate tool to suit the purposes of characterizing motion sickness experienced in virtual environments. This questionnaire has since been used in many scientific studies. Recently, Balk et al. [3] suggested that the proposed segregation of SSQ scores into three subclasses of symptoms might limit the accuracy of simulator sickness assessment. These authors performed a factor analysis based on SSQ scores obtained from nine studies on driving simulators. Although their factor analysis resulted in the same three orthogonal classes of symptoms as Kennedy et al. [2], unlike this pioneering study, no items were attributed to more than one factor and five items were not attributed to any class of symptoms. As a result, they claimed that an exploration of each item score should give additional cues on individual profiles. To gain a better characterization of such item-by-item exploration, data utilised in this research are shown using a radar chart visualisation.

  12. DGW: an exploratory data analysis tool for clustering and visualisation of epigenomic marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukauskas, Saulius; Visintainer, Roberto; Sanguinetti, Guido; Schweikert, Gabriele B

    2016-12-13

    Functional genomic and epigenomic research relies fundamentally on sequencing based methods like ChIP-seq for the detection of DNA-protein interactions. These techniques return large, high dimensional data sets with visually complex structures, such as multi-modal peaks extended over large genomic regions. Current tools for visualisation and data exploration represent and leverage these complex features only to a limited extent. We present DGW, an open source software package for simultaneous alignment and clustering of multiple epigenomic marks. DGW uses Dynamic Time Warping to adaptively rescale and align genomic distances which allows to group regions of interest with similar shapes, thereby capturing the structure of epigenomic marks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in a simulation study and on a real epigenomic data set from the ENCODE project. Our results show that DGW automatically recognises and aligns important genomic features such as transcription start sites and splicing sites from histone marks. DGW is available as an open source Python package.

  13. Graphs, Tables, and Scientific Illustrations: Visualisation as the Science of Seeing Gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Linda T; Goggin, Claire; Best, Lisa A

    2017-09-26

    Visual inscriptions (e.g., graphs, illustrations) are a defining feature of scientific discovery to aid in data analysis, interpretation, and communication (e.g., Latour, 1990; Lynch, 1985). Our purpose was to examine how visual inscriptions are used to present data in gerontology journals. We compared 357 articles sampled from 24 peer-reviewed gerontology journals published between 1995 and 2009. Approximately 11 per cent of page space was dedicated to data presentation with more page space occupied by tables (9.13%) than graphs (2.32%). Graph use in gerontology was lower than in psychology (6.6% of page space) and higher than in criminology and criminal justice (1.7% of page space). Following Latour (1990), we argue that visualisations provide an understandable summary of complex data by effectively presenting multifaceted results. When inscriptions are used in dissemination, researchers become less reliant on complex statistical jargon and can communicate easily with a diverse audience (researchers, health care practitioners, clients).

  14. Three-Dimensional Visualisation as an Innovation Approach to Forecasting the City Budget Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markuts Yuliya I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting city budget income is a very important instrument of the budget management through which it is possible to assume the future financial influence of the current budget policy and economic tendencies for achievement of long-term plans and identify alternative ways of solution of existing problems. The goal of the article is development of a model for complex system analysis, economic assessment of execution and forecasting income of the budget of the city of Donetsk with the aim to make high quality, timely and efficient managerial decisions with respect to the budget on the basis of an innovation approach, which is a combination of methods of interpolation, imitation and three-dimensional visualisation. The result of the study is diagnostics of narrow places in execution of the city budget for the studied period of 2008 – 2012, detection of interconnected budget income items, identification of existing tendencies of execution of the budget income and forecasting the income part of the city budget for the period of 2013 – 2017.

  15. MIDAS: software for analysis and visualisation of interallelic disequilibrium between multiallelic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Ian NM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various software tools are available for the display of pairwise linkage disequilibrium across multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms. The HapMap project also presents these graphics within their website. However, these approaches are limited in their use of data from multiallelic markers and provide limited information in a graphical form. Results We have developed a software package (MIDAS – Multiallelic Interallelic Disequilibrium Analysis Software for the estimation and graphical display of interallelic linkage disequilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium is analysed for each allelic combination (of one allele from each of two loci, between all pairwise combinations of any type of multiallelic loci in a contig (or any set of many loci (including single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites, minisatellites and haplotypes. Data are presented graphically in a novel and informative way, and can also be exported in tabular form for other analyses. This approach facilitates visualisation of patterns of linkage disequilibrium across genomic regions, analysis of the relationships between different alleles of multiallelic markers and inferences about patterns of evolution and selection. Conclusion MIDAS is a linkage disequilibrium analysis program with a comprehensive graphical user interface providing novel views of patterns of linkage disequilibrium between all types of multiallelic and biallelic markers. Availability Available from http://www.genes.org.uk/software/midas and http://www.sgel.humgen.soton.ac.uk/midas

  16. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: ... of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  19. Visualisation of conductive pore space by {sup 14}C-PMMA impregnation - development work for in situ studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelokaski, M.; Laehdemaeki, T.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Moeri, A. [Geotechnisches Institut, Bern (Switzerland); Biggin, C.; Kickmaier, W. [Nagra - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Hellmuth, K.H. [Finnish centre for Radiation and Nuclear safety (STUK), P.O. Box 14, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    as well as the initial results of the in situ experiment are reported here. In situ conditions were simulated at the block scale experiments by intruding {sup 14}CMMA into the water saturated Kuru grey granite (permeability 10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, porosity of 0.4%). Tests were focused on drying the matrix, impregnation in vacuum and optimising heating polymerisation conditions. Visualisation of conductive pore space was performed by autoradiography giving 2D images of intra- and intergranular pores of granite sample. Intragranular porosity could be revealed in these experiments in unsaturated zones implying that water inhibits effectively intrusion of {sup 14}CPMMA. In addition intrusion of {sup 14}C-MMA into Grimsel granodiorite in situ was verified. [1] M. Kelokaski, M.Siitari-Kauppi, P.Sardini, A.Moeri and K-H.Hellmuth (2004) Characterisation of pore space geometry by {sup 14}C-PMMA impregnation-Development work for in situ studies, to be published in Journal of Geochemical Exploration. (authors)

  20. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  1. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain ... imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation —A change in ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ... chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  15. Towards a Decision Support Tool for 3d Visualisation: Application to Selectivity Purpose of Single Object in a 3d City Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, R.; Pouliot, J.; Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; De Rudder, L.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the establishment of a comprehensive methodological framework that defines 3D visualisation rules and its application in a decision support tool. Whilst the use of 3D models grows in many application fields, their visualisation remains challenging from the point of view of mapping and rendering aspects to be applied to suitability support the decision making process. Indeed, there exists a great number of 3D visualisation techniques but as far as we know, a decision support tool that facilitates the production of an efficient 3D visualisation is still missing. This is why a comprehensive methodological framework is proposed in order to build decision tables for specific data, tasks and contexts. Based on the second-order logic formalism, we define a set of functions and propositions among and between two collections of entities: on one hand static retinal variables (hue, size, shape…) and 3D environment parameters (directional lighting, shadow, haze…) and on the other hand their effect(s) regarding specific visual tasks. It enables to define 3D visualisation rules according to four categories: consequence, compatibility, potential incompatibility and incompatibility. In this paper, the application of the methodological framework is demonstrated for an urban visualisation at high density considering a specific set of entities. On the basis of our analysis and the results of many studies conducted in the 3D semiotics, which refers to the study of symbols and how they relay information, the truth values of propositions are determined. 3D visualisation rules are then extracted for the considered context and set of entities and are presented into a decision table with a colour coding. Finally, the decision table is implemented into a plugin developed with three.js, a cross-browser JavaScript library. The plugin consists of a sidebar and warning windows that help the designer in the use of a set of static retinal variables and 3D environment

  16. TOWARDS A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR 3D VISUALISATION: APPLICATION TO SELECTIVITY PURPOSE OF SINGLE OBJECT IN A 3D CITY SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Neuville

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the establishment of a comprehensive methodological framework that defines 3D visualisation rules and its application in a decision support tool. Whilst the use of 3D models grows in many application fields, their visualisation remains challenging from the point of view of mapping and rendering aspects to be applied to suitability support the decision making process. Indeed, there exists a great number of 3D visualisation techniques but as far as we know, a decision support tool that facilitates the production of an efficient 3D visualisation is still missing. This is why a comprehensive methodological framework is proposed in order to build decision tables for specific data, tasks and contexts. Based on the second-order logic formalism, we define a set of functions and propositions among and between two collections of entities: on one hand static retinal variables (hue, size, shape… and 3D environment parameters (directional lighting, shadow, haze… and on the other hand their effect(s regarding specific visual tasks. It enables to define 3D visualisation rules according to four categories: consequence, compatibility, potential incompatibility and incompatibility. In this paper, the application of the methodological framework is demonstrated for an urban visualisation at high density considering a specific set of entities. On the basis of our analysis and the results of many studies conducted in the 3D semiotics, which refers to the study of symbols and how they relay information, the truth values of propositions are determined. 3D visualisation rules are then extracted for the considered context and set of entities and are presented into a decision table with a colour coding. Finally, the decision table is implemented into a plugin developed with three.js, a cross-browser JavaScript library. The plugin consists of a sidebar and warning windows that help the designer in the use of a set of static retinal variables and 3

  17. Visualising the interaction of CD4 T cells and DCs in the evolution of inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Catriona T; Patakas, Agapitos; Al-Khabouri, Shaima; McIntyre, Claire L; McInnes, Iain B; Brewer, James M; Garside, Paul; Benson, Robert A

    2018-01-22

    Successful early intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the aim of resetting immunological tolerance requires a clearer understanding of how specificity, cellular kinetics and spatial behaviour shape the evolution of articular T cell responses. We aimed to define initial seeding of articular CD4+ T cell responses in early experimental arthritis, evaluating their dynamic behaviour and interactions with dendritic cells (DCs) in the inflamed articular environment. Antigen-induced arthritis was used to model articular inflammation. Flow cytometry and PCR of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity genes allowed phenotypic analysis of infiltrating T cells. The dynamic interactions of T cells with joint residing DCs were visualised using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Initial recruitment of antigen-specific T cells into the joint was paralleled by accumulation of CD4+ T cells with diverse antigen-receptor expression and ability to produce tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) on mitogenic restimulation. A proportion of this infiltrate demonstrated slower motility speeds and engaged for longer periods with articular DCs in vivo. Abatacept treatment did not disrupt these interactions but did reduce T cell expression of inducible costimulatory (ICOS) molecule. We also demonstrated that non-specific CD4+ T cells could be recruited during these early articular events. We demonstrate that CD4+ T cells engage with articular DCs supporting antigen specific T cell reactivation. This cellular dialogue can be targeted therapeutically to reduce local T cell activation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Visualising impregnated chitosan in Pinus radiata early wood cells using light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Adya P; Singh, Tripti; Rickard, Catherine L

    2010-04-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated product of an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, has been used in a range of applications, particularly in food and health areas, as an antimicrobial agent. In the work reported here Pinus radiata wood was impregnated with chitosan as an environmentally compatible organic biocide (Eikenes et al., 2005a,b) to protect wood against wood deteriorating microorganisms and to thus prolong the service life of wooden products. We developed sample preparation techniques targeted to visualise impregnated chitosan within wood tissues using light microscope and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Sections were viewed with the light microscope without staining with a dye as well as after staining with the dye toluidine blue. Light microscopy was also undertaken on sections that had been stained with 1% aqueous osmium tetroxide (OsO(4)). For SEM observations, the sections were treated with OsO(4) and then examined with the FE-SEM, first in the secondary electron imaging mode (SEI) and then in the backscattered electron imaging (BEI) mode, imaging the same areas of a section in both SEI and BEI modes. The preparation techniques employed and the combined use of light and scanning electron microscopy provided valuable complementary information, revealing that chitosan had penetrated into the cavities (cell lumens, intercellular spaces) of all sizes present within wood tissues and had also impregnated early wood cell walls. The information obtained is discussed in relation to its importance in further development of chitosan formulations and refinement of impregnation technologies to optimise chitosan impregnation into and distribution within wood tissues as well as in assessing chitosan efficacy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Web-GIS visualisation of permafrost-related Remote Sensing products for ESA GlobPermafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A.; Heim, B.; Schaefer-Neth, C.; Laboor, S.; Nitze, I.; Grosse, G.; Bartsch, A.; Kaab, A.; Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.; Seifert, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    The ESA GlobPermafrost (www.globpermafrost.info) provides a remote sensing service for permafrost research and applications. The service comprises of data product generation for various sites and regions as well as specific infrastructure allowing overview and access to datasets. Based on an online user survey conducted within the project, the user community extensively applies GIS software to handle remote sensing-derived datasets and requires preview functionalities before accessing them. In response, we develop the Permafrost Information System PerSys which is conceptualized as an open access geospatial data dissemination and visualization portal. PerSys will allow visualisation of GlobPermafrost raster and vector products such as land cover classifications, Landsat multispectral index trend datasets, lake and wetland extents, InSAR-based land surface deformation maps, rock glacier velocity fields, spatially distributed permafrost model outputs, and land surface temperature datasets. The datasets will be published as WebGIS services relying on OGC-standardized Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) technologies for data display and visualization. The WebGIS environment will be hosted at the AWI computing centre where a geodata infrastructure has been implemented comprising of ArcGIS for Server 10.4, PostgreSQL 9.2 and a browser-driven data viewer based on Leaflet (http://leafletjs.com). Independently, we will provide an `Access - Restricted Data Dissemination Service', which will be available to registered users for testing frequently updated versions of project datasets. PerSys will become a core project of the Arctic Permafrost Geospatial Centre (APGC) within the ERC-funded PETA-CARB project (www.awi.de/petacarb). The APGC Data Catalogue will contain all final products of GlobPermafrost, allow in-depth dataset search via keywords, spatial and temporal coverage, data type, etc., and will provide DOI-based links to the datasets archived in the

  20. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722