WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain tumors treatment

  1. Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Karajannis, Matthias; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades considerable advances have been made in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulting in improved survival and cure rates for children with brain tumors. Here we review four of the most common subtypes of pediatric brain tumors, low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas, highlighting their molecular features regarding their tumor biology and promising potential therapeutic targets that may hold promise for finding new “molecularly ta...

  2. Radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima

    2003-12-01

    Around 12,000 deaths from glioblastoma occurs within the European Community annually. At present, the best available treatment for malignant brain tumors results in a median survival of patients of 15 months despite surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to review our results of radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  3. Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors The brain is made of different kinds of cells . Childhood ... following: What You Need To Know About™ Brain Tumors Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) For more childhood cancer information ...

  4. Bleomycin treatment of brain tumors: an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Bleomycin has been used in the treatment of brain tumors for over 30 years. Currently, we are evaluating electrochemotherapy (the use of electric pulses to enhance uptake of bleomycin) for patients with secondary brain tumors. We, therefore, reviewed the literature with specific reference...... to the tolerability and toxicity of bleomycin. Using the keywords 'brain' and 'bleomycin', a database search without date restriction was performed and over 500 articles were found. Twenty-five articles were used for this study based on relevance determined by: (i) clinical studies, (ii) use of bleomycin, and (iii...

  5. Brain tumor and Gliadel wafer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Panigrahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a rapidly progressive and extremely fatal form of brain tumor with poor prognosis. It is the most common type of primary brain tumor. Even with the most aggressive conventional treatment that comprises surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, most patients die within a year of diagnosis. Developments in molecular and cell biology have led to better understanding of tumor development, leading to novel treatment strategies including biological therapy and immunotherapy to combat the deadly disease. Targeted drug delivery strategies to circumvent the blood-brain barrier have shown efficiency in clinical trials. Gliadel wafer is a new approach to the treatment of glioblastoma, which involves controlled release delivery of carmustine from biodegradable polymer wafers. It has shown promising results and provides a silver lining for glioblastoma patients.

  6. Malignant brain tumor treatments and hyperbaric oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohshi, Kiyotaka [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Malignant brain tumor treatment and hyperbaric oxygenation: Combined hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy and radiation therapy of malignant gliomas is reviewed. Malignant glioma tissue is hypoxic, and the efficacy of radiation therapy is increased by raising the oxygen density in glioma tissue. Residual tumor was reduced by a radiation dose of approximately 40 Gy in many cases when radiation therapy was begun within 15 minutes after HBO. In the experiment in animal models with different hypoxic fractions (HFs) of cells (SCCVII and 9L gliosarcoma), the tumor reduction effect was more significant in the SCCVII model, which has a higher HF. When the SCCVII model was irradiated within 30 minutes after HBO, the improvement effect was more significant (1.60-1.78 times) than by irradiation alone. HBO was effective in the treatment of radionecrosis of the brain. However, there were some cases in which radionecrosis progressed when the HBO treatments were discontinued, and the optimal duration of HBO treatment should be determined. It is difficult to differentiate between radionecrosis and tumor recurrence after radiosurgery of a malignant intracranial tumor. When no lesion reduction is observed in response to HBO treatment and steroid administration for about one month, the lesion is concluded to be a recurrence of the tumor, and additional irradiation should be performed. HBO treatment in combination with chemotherapy is also discussed. (K.H.)

  7. Malignant brain tumor treatments and hyperbaric oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant brain tumor treatment and hyperbaric oxygenation: Combined hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy and radiation therapy of malignant gliomas is reviewed. Malignant glioma tissue is hypoxic, and the efficacy of radiation therapy is increased by raising the oxygen density in glioma tissue. Residual tumor was reduced by a radiation dose of approximately 40 Gy in many cases when radiation therapy was begun within 15 minutes after HBO. In the experiment in animal models with different hypoxic fractions (HFs) of cells (SCCVII and 9L gliosarcoma), the tumor reduction effect was more significant in the SCCVII model, which has a higher HF. When the SCCVII model was irradiated within 30 minutes after HBO, the improvement effect was more significant (1.60-1.78 times) than by irradiation alone. HBO was effective in the treatment of radionecrosis of the brain. However, there were some cases in which radionecrosis progressed when the HBO treatments were discontinued, and the optimal duration of HBO treatment should be determined. It is difficult to differentiate between radionecrosis and tumor recurrence after radiosurgery of a malignant intracranial tumor. When no lesion reduction is observed in response to HBO treatment and steroid administration for about one month, the lesion is concluded to be a recurrence of the tumor, and additional irradiation should be performed. HBO treatment in combination with chemotherapy is also discussed. (K.H.)

  8. Application of nanoparticles in brain tumor treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Despite progress in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, an effective treatment of gliomas does not yet exist. This new monograph in the ASME-Momentum Press series on Biomedical & Nanomedical Technologies book shows how nanotechnology could be used both to improve the treatment efficacy and to reduce the adverse side effects. It will explain how nanotechnology-based approaches to targeted delivery of drugs across the brain-blood barrier may potentially be engineered to carry out specific functions as needed.

  9. Brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT in the past was not widely accepted because of poor usability of a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. Recently, technical advancements in the accelerator field have made accelerator-based BNCT feasible. Consequently, clinical trials of intractable brain tumors have started using it since 2012. In this review, our clinical results obtained from conventional reactor-based BNCT for treatment of brain tumors are introduced. It is strong hope that accelerator-based BNCT becomes a standard therapy for current intractable brain tumors. (author)

  10. Stereotaxic interstitial implantation for the treatment of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brain Tumor Study Group (BTSG) demonstrated that patients with malignant gliomas who were treated with radiation therapy to a dose of 50 Gray (Gy) or more to the whole brain survived significantly longer than patients treated with surgery alone. A dose-response analysis of the BTSG data for 621 patients, 90% of whom had glioblastoma multiforme, showed a stepwise improvement in survival in patient groups receiving 50, 55, or 60 Gy. The median survival times were 28, 36, and 42 weeks, respectively (difference between 50 and 60 Gy significant at rho = .004). However, all tumors recurred and all patients died of their disease. If higher doses of radiation therapy could be delivered, improved local tumor control might be achieved. However, the delivery of doses of external irradiation in excess of 60 Gy is accompanied by radiation-induced brain necrosis. Experimental therapeutic strategies in the treatment of malignant brain tumors have involved the use of systemic chemotherapy. However, because of the localized nature of malignant glial tumors, it would seem logical to consider additional local treatment modalities. As radiation therapy has proven to be the most effective adjunct to surgery in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, there has been considerable recent interest in interstitial radiation therapy. Using interstitial radiation sources, high-dose radiation therapy can be delivered to the primary tumor with relative sparing of surrounding normal tissues. Interstitial implantation could be employed alone or to augment the dose delivered by external beam irradiation for the treatment of primary brain tumors, and would allow radical re-irradiation of recurrent malignant gliomas

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Brain Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unknown Primary Treatment Colon Cancer Treatment Leukemia Home Page Melanoma Treatment Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Renal Cell Cancer Treatment Small Cell ...

  12. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen; Calvin; Li; Mustafa; H; Kabeer; Long; T; Vu; Vic; Keschrumrus; Hong; Zhen; Yin; Brent; A; Dethlefs; Jiang; F; Zhong; John; H; Weiss; William; G; Loudon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for pa-tients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution(i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  13. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...

  14. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  15. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using 125iodine seeds (125I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with 125I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.)

  16. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Michigan event celebrates 25 years Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  17. Radiation treatment of brain tumors: Concepts and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.E. (Loyola Univ. of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has demonstrated clinical value for a multitude of CNS tumors. Application of the different physical modalities available has made it possible for the radiotherapist to concentrate the radiation in the region of the tumor with relative sparing of the surrounding normal tissues. Correlation of radiation dose with effect on cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor has shown increasing effect with increasing dose. By using different physical modalities to alter the distribution of radiation dose, it is possible to increase the dose to the tumor and reduce the dose to the normal tissues. Alteration of the volume irradiated and the dose delivered to cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor are strategies that have been effective in improving survival and decreasing complications. The quest for therapeutic gain using hyperbaric oxygen, neutrons, radiation sensitizers, chemotherapeutic agents, and BNCT has met with limited success. Both neoplastic and normal cells are affected simultaneously by all modalities of treatment, including ionizing radiation. Consequently, one is unable to totally depopulate a tumor without irreversibly damaging the normal tissues. In the case of radiation, it is the brain that limits delivery of curative doses, and in the case of chemical additives, it is other organ systems, such as bone marrow, liver, lung, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. Thus, the major obstacle in the treatment of malignant gliomas is our inability to preferentially affect the tumor with the modalities available. Until it is possible to directly target the neoplastic cell without affecting so many of the adjacent normal cells, the quest for therapeutic gain will go unrealized.72 references.

  18. Brain tumor stem cells as research and treatment targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant forms of human cancer. Despite intensive treatment, the mean survival of GBM patients remains about 1 year. Recent cancer studies revealed that cancer tissues are pathologically heterogeneous and only a small population of cells has the specific ability to reinitiate cancer. This small cell population is called cancer stem cells (CSCs); in brain tumors these are known as brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). The identification of BTSCs yielded new insights into chemo- and radioresistance, by which BTSCs can survive selectively and initiate recurrence. Research focused on BTSCs as treatment targets may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Clinical and basic research studies gradually led to improved outcomes in patients with brain tumors. Stupp et al. reported a mean survival of 14.6 months in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months in those subjected to radiotherapy alone. Earlier cancer therapies primarily targeted rapidly dividing cells but not minor populations of slowly dividing cells that contain BTSCs. Accumulating evidence suggests that BTSCs may represent an excellent tool for discovering new strategies to treat GBM patients. In this review, we present evidence supporting the CSC model of tumor progression, and discuss difficulties encountered in CSC research and experimental and therapeutic implications. (author)

  19. Pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  1. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Neudorfer, Clemens; Maarouf, Mohammad [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Center of Neurosurgery, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Cologne (Germany); Blau, Tobias; Deckert, Martina [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Neuropathology, Cologne (Germany); Hellmich, Martin [University Hospital of Cologne, Institute of Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, Cologne (Germany); Buehrle, Christian [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, Volker [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University Hospital of Wurzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using {sup 125}iodine seeds ({sup 125}I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with {sup 125}I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung oligodendroglialer Hirntumoren durch die interstitielle Brachytherapie

  2. Crossing the barrier: treatment of brain tumors using nanochain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Ghaghada, Ketan B

    2016-09-01

    Despite advancements in surgery and radiotherapy, the aggressive forms of brain tumors, such as gliomas, are still uniformly lethal with current therapies offering only palliation complicated by significant toxicities. Gliomas are characteristically diffuse with infiltrating edges, resistant to drugs and nearly inaccessible to systemic therapies due to the brain-tumor barrier. Currently, aggressive efforts are underway to further understand brain-tumor's microenvironment and identify brain tumor cell-specific regulators amenable to pharmacologic interventions. While new potent agents are continuously becoming available, efficient drug delivery to brain tumors remains a limiting factor. To tackle the drug delivery issues, a multicomponent chain-like nanoparticle has been developed. These nanochains are comprised of iron oxide nanospheres and a drug-loaded liposome chemically linked into a 100-nm linear, chain-like assembly with high precision. The nanochain possesses a unique ability to scavenge the tumor endothelium. By utilizing effective vascular targeting, the nanochains achieve rapid deposition on the vascular bed of glioma sites establishing well-distributed drug reservoirs on the endothelium of brain tumors. After reaching the target sites, an on-command, external low-power radiofrequency field can remotely trigger rapid drug release, due to mechanical disruption of the liposome, facilitating widespread and effective drug delivery into regions harboring brain tumor cells. Integration of the nanochain delivery system with the appropriate combination of complementary drugs has the potential to unfold the field and allow significant expansion of therapies for the disease where success is currently very limited. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:678-695. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26749497

  3. Combined local blood–brain barrier opening and systemic methotrexate for the treatment of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Itzik; Last, David; Guez, David; Sharabi, Shirley; Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Lubitz, Irit; Daniels, Dianne; Salomon,Sharona; Tamar, Gregory; Tamir, Tzur; Mardor, Ronni; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram; Mardor, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, existing treatments offer poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients, in part due to poor penetration of most drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We propose a minimal-invasive combined treatment approach consisting of local BBB disruption in the tumor in parallel to systemic drug administration. Local BBB disruption is obtained by convection-enhanced delivery of a novel BBB disruption agent, enabling efficient/targeted delivery of the systemically ...

  4. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  5. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience symptoms associated with their tumor(s) and/or treatment(s). People with brain tumors often suffer from: Headaches Seizures Sensory (touch) and motor (movement control) loss Deep venous thrombosis (DVT, or blood clot) Hearing loss Vision loss ...

  6. Thyroid function after treatment of brain tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Shalet, S M; Gattamaneni, H R

    1991-11-01

    In 134 children who had been treated for a brain tumor not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function was assessed up to 24 years after treatment with cranial or craniospinal irradiation. In addition, 78 children received up to 2 years of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 85 children who received craniospinal irradiation, 30 (35%) had abnormalities of thyroid function, and 10 (20%) of 49 who received cranial irradiation had such abnormalities. Frank hypothyroidism developed in three children and thyrotoxicosis in one. Thirty-six children had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the presence of a normal thyroxine level; in 16 of them the thyroid-stimulating hormone level subsequently returned to normal. Twenty-eight children who were treated between 1960 and 1970 were excluded from the analysis. Of 34 children who received cranial irradiation, five had thyroid dysfunction and 24 of 72 who received craniospinal irradiation had such dysfunction (p = 0.013). Thyroid dysfunction was present in 4 of 35 children who received no chemotherapy and in 25 of 71 who received chemotherapy (p = 0.014). Direct irradiation plus chemotherapy was more damaging than irradiation alone. These data confirm the high incidence of thyroid dysfunction when the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. However, in a high proportion, the thyroid abnormalities are minor and revert to normal with time; life-long replacement therapy with thyroxine may be unnecessary. PMID:1941379

  7. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  8. American Brain Tumor Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Health Care Professionals About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  9. Brain Tumor Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatric Caregiver Resource Center About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  10. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  11. Brain tumor (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  12. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) Becenum ( ...

  13. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  14. Biphasic modeling of brain tumor biomechanics and response to radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Stelios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2016-06-14

    Biomechanical forces are central in tumor progression and response to treatment. This becomes more important in brain cancers where tumors are surrounded by tissues with different mechanical properties. Existing mathematical models ignore direct mechanical interactions of the tumor with the normal brain. Here, we developed a clinically relevant model, which predicts tumor growth accounting directly for mechanical interactions. A three-dimensional model of the gray and white matter and the cerebrospinal fluid was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a normal brain. Subsequently, a biphasic tissue growth theory for an initial tumor seed was employed, incorporating the effects of radiotherapy. Additionally, three different sets of brain tissue properties taken from the literature were used to investigate their effect on tumor growth. Results show the evolution of solid stress and interstitial fluid pressure within the tumor and the normal brain. Heterogeneous distribution of the solid stress exerted on the tumor resulted in a 35% spatial variation in cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, the model predicted that distant from the tumor, normal tissues still undergo significant deformations while it was found that intratumoral fluid pressure is elevated. Our predictions relate to clinical symptoms of brain cancers and present useful tools for therapy planning. PMID:27086116

  15. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Tumor Grading and Staging Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain ...

  16. Treatment Options by Type of Adult Brain Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unknown Primary Treatment Colon Cancer Treatment Leukemia Home Page Melanoma Treatment Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Renal Cell Cancer Treatment Small Cell ...

  17. Brain tumor delineation based on CT and MR imaging. Implications for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Wijrdeman, H K; Struikmans, H; Witkamp, T; Moerland, M A

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact MRI may have on radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumors. The authors analyzed differences in size and position of treatment fields as indicated by three observers (two radiotherapists and one neuroradiologist) using CT or MR based radiotherapy planning proced

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of treatment response of gamma knife for brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiao; ZHANG Xue-ning; ZHANG Yun-ting; YU Chun-shui; XU De-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in assessing treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors.Data sources Published articles about assessing treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors were selected using PubMed. The search terms were "MRI", "gamma knife" and "brain tumors".Study selection Articles regarding the MRI techniques using for early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife were selected.Results MRI techniques, especially diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are useful for early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife by detecting the hemodynamic, metabolic, and cellular alterations. Moreover, they can also provide important information on prognosis.Conclusions Diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife for brain tumors, and also information of tumor progression or recurrence earlier than conventional MRI. But there are still many questions to be answered which should be based on the development and advancement of MRI and related disciplines.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membranes are surrounded by the vertebrae (back bones). Spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest ... of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, ...

  20. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a wide variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects survival. In each case the intent of radiation therapy is to destroy the neoplasm without affecting normal tissues. However, for many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Successful outcome after radiation therapy of brain tumors usually requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance doses are not exceeded. For some tumors it may be impossible to satisfy all three criteria. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full dose of radiation to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs and are usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, sizes, and anatomic location will be given. For some tumors, protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. Several concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors will be discussed, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation and biologically effective dose (BED)

  1. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  2. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  3. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given

  4. Brain tumors in children: long-term survival after radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the cause of death in children who survive more than 5 years after radiation treatment of a brain tumor. Methods and Material: Nine hundred and twelve consecutive children with a primary brain tumor irradiated at the Princess Margaret Hospital or Toronto-Bayview Regional Cancer Center from 1958 to 1991, were evaluated for long-term outcome. Results: Overall 10- and 20-year survival rates were 44% and 37%. Subsequent survival of 377 5-year survivors was, at an additional 10 and 20 years, 78% and 67%. Most (83%) deaths that occurred more than 5 years from diagnosis were a result of relapse of the original tumor. The 10-year survival rate subsequent to relapse was 9% when the first relapse occurred less than one year from diagnosis, 17% for 1-2 years, and 31% when the time to relapse was 3 years or greater. The cumulative actuarial incidence of, and death from, second malignant tumors at 30 years from diagnosis was 18% and 13%, respectively. Conclusions: Death later than 5 years from diagnosis of a brain tumor in children is common and is usually due to progressive disease in slowly evolving low grade tumors. Death from a second malignant tumor becomes more frequent than death from the original tumor after 15 years from diagnosis

  5. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  6. Prognosis of efficacy of post-operation treatment of metastatic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatikop V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metastatic affection of brain by its prevalence, medical and social importance, economical burden represents a topical medical problem in neurosurgery and adjacent medical specialties. Objective – optimization of prognosis for post-operation metastatic brain tumors treatment efficacy. Methods. An active cohort randomized research with retro- and prospective, cross-sectional and longitude components has been conducted in 176 patients, including 96 males and 80 females aged 56 years with adenocarcinoma (152, melanoblastoma (21 and sarcoma (3, derived from lungs (39, breast (34, skin (25 kidneys (9, digestive tract (11, ovary and uterus (by 4 each, thymus (2, nasopharynx, pronaus (by 1 each. Standard basic diagnostic and treatment procedures have been performed. P-level critical value was 0.05. Results. Discriminant models of post-operation tactics choice, prognostic algorithm of unfavorable outcome evaluation after treatment have been developed. The approbation of the algorithm allowed to state its sensitivity (69.2 %, specificity (95.2 %, positive predicting value (75.0 %, negative predicting value (93.7 %. Conclusion. For the purpose of widening of arsenal of available decision-making means for further treatment tactics in metastatic brain tumors after conducted neurosurgical treatment the use of developed discriminant models is recommended. The risk of unfavorable outcome and efficacy of combined treatment prognosis for patients with metastatic brain tumors are recommended to assess using the developed prognostic algorithm. Citation: Pyatikop VA, Al-Trawneh MA, Buryan AV, Gavryushkin AYu, Marchenko AE, Posokhov NF, Starenkiy VP. [Prognosis of efficacy of post-operation treatment of metastatic brain tumors]. Morphologia. 2016;10(2:69-76. Russian.

  7. Brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is the method of choice for the diagnostics of cerebral gliomas, but the differentiation of tumour tissue from unspecific tissue changes is limited. Positron emission tomography (PET) and Single-Photon-Emission-Computed Tomography (SPECT) may offer relevant additional information which allows for a more accurate diagnostics in unclear situations. Especially, radiolabeled amino acids offer a better delineation of cerebral gliomas which allows an improved guidance of biopsy, planning of surgery and radiation therapy. Furthermore, amino acid imaging appears to be useful to differentiate tumor recurrence from unspecific posttherapeutic tissue, to predict the prognosis especially in low grade gliomas and to monitor the metabolic response during tumor therapy. (orig.)

  8. CADrx for GBM Brain Tumors: Predicting Treatment Response from Changes in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Brown

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a computer-aided therapeutic response (CADrx system for early prediction of drug treatment response for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM brain tumors with diffusion weighted (DW MR images. In conventional Macdonald assessment, tumor response is assessed nine weeks or more post-treatment. However, we will investigate the ability of DW-MRI to assess response earlier, at five weeks post treatment. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor’s microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. ADC values in treated brain tumors could theoretically both increase due to the cell kill (and thus reduced cell density and decrease due to inhibition of edema. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that quantify changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. There are three parts to this study: first, tumor regions were segmented on T1w contrast enhanced images by Otsu’s thresholding method, and mapped from T1w images onto ADC images by a 3D region of interest (ROI mapping tool using DICOM header information; second, ADC histograms of the tumor region were extracted from both pre- and five weeks post-treatment scans, and fitted by a two-component Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The GMM features as well as standard histogram-based features were extracted. Finally, supervised machine learning techniques were applied for classification of responders or non-responders. The approach was evaluated with a dataset of 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 39 responded and 46 did not, based on tumor volume reduction. We compared adaBoost, random forest and support vector machine classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in the best accuracy of 69.41% and the corresponding area under the curve (Az of 0.70.

  9. Brain tumor stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. PMID:20370314

  10. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context

  11. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorger, Mihaela [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St. James’s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-22

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context.

  12. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  13. Preclinical validation of electrochemotherapy as an effective treatment for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Per;

    2011-01-01

    eliminated by electrochemotherapy with a novel electrode device developed for use in the brain. By using this method, the cytotoxicity of bleomycin can be augmented more than 300-fold because of increased permeabilization and more direct passage of drug to the cytosol, enabling highly efficient local tumor...... treatment. Bleomycin was injected intracranially into male rats inoculated with rat glia-derived tumor cells 2 weeks before the application of the electrical field (32 pulses, 100 V, 0.1 ms, and 1 Hz). In this model, where presence of tumor was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment...... treated area, which MRI and histology showed to contain a fluid-filled cavity. In a long-range survival study, treatment side effects seemed to be minimal, with normal rat behavior observed after electrochemotherapy. Our findings suggest that electrochemotherapy may offer a safe and effective new tool to...

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  15. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given. Note: I will incorporate examples of interesting, difficult and unusual cases from other practices as time permits, provided slides and descriptive materials are sent to me in advance of the course

  16. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical implementation. A potential chemotherapy

  17. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamm Reinhard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical

  18. Treatment results of stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, G.L.; Luxton, G.; Cohen, D.; Petrovich, Z.; Langholz, B.; Apuzzo, M.L.; Sapozink, M.D. (USC School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1991-08-01

    A total of 41 stereotactic interstitial brain implants in 39 patients were performed for recurrence after teletherapy (recurrence implant), or as part of initial treatment in conjunction with teletherapy (primary implant). Implanted tumors consisted of malignant gliomas (33), other primary brain tumors (3), and single metastatic lesions (3). All patients were temporarily implanted with Ir-192 using a coaxial catheter afterloading system; two patients were implanted twice. Survival post-implant for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 13 patients, was 10 months whether implanted primarily or for recurrence. Mean time to recurrence, measured from initiation of teletherapy to implantation, was 10 months. Twenty patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) had a median survival post-implant of 23 months for primary implants (7 patients) and 11 months for recurrence implants (13 patients). Mean time to recurrence, measured from initiation of teletherapy to implantation, was 19 months. Three patients (9%) of the evaluable group required reoperation for symptomatic mass effect, all with initial diagnosis of AA. Survival for this subgroup was 14, 22, and 32 months post-implantation. Using stereotactic techniques, interstitial brachytherapy of brain tumors was technically feasible with negligible acute morbidity and mortality, and appeared to offer limited prolongation of control for a subset of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. The role of this modality in primary treatment for malignant gliomas needs to be further defined by prospectively randomized trials.

  19. The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control ...

  20. Potential of Neural Stem Cells for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Taupin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. As such they hold the promise to treat a broad range of neurological diseases and injuries. Neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated and characterized in vitro, from adult, fetal and post-mortem tissues, providing sources of material for cellular therapy. However, NSCs are still elusive cells and remain to be unequivocally identified and characterized, limiting their potential use for therapy. Neural progenitor and stem cells, isolated and cultured in vitro, can be genetically modified and when transplanted migrate to tumor sites in the brain. These intrinsic properties of neural progenitor and stem cells provide tremendous potential to bolster the translation of NSC research to therapy. It is proposed to combine gene therapy and cellular therapy to treat brain cancers. Hence, neural progenitor and stem cells provide new opportunities for the treatment of brain cancers.

  1. The role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Treatment of Seizures in Brain Tumor Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ekokobe eFonkem; Paul eBricker; Diana eMungall; Jose eAceves; Eromata eEbwe; Wei eTang; Batool F. Kirmani

    2013-01-01

    Levetiracetam, tradename Keppra, is a new second generation antiepileptic drug that is being used increasingly in brain tumor patients. In patients suffering with brain tumors, seizures are one of the leading neurologic complications seen in more than 30% of patients. Levetiracetam is a pyrollidine-derivative drug, which has a unique mechanism of action. Unlike other antiepileptic drugs, Levetiracetam is proposed to bind to a synaptic vesicle protein inhibiting calcium release. Brain tumor...

  2. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  3. Brain Tumor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain ...

  4. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  5. P03.09PHARMACOLOGICAL MODULATION OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER: FUTURE STRATEGY FOR TREATMENT OF BRAIN TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, I.; Cardellicchio, S.; Iorio, A.L.; da Ros, M.; la Marca, G.; Giunti, L.; Massimino, M.; L. Genitori

    2014-01-01

    A prerequisite for the efficacy of chemotherapy is that it reaches the tumor mass at a therapeutic concentration. In brain tumors this phenomenon is hampered by the presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits the spread of chemotherapeutic agents within the brain. It is lately emerged as this Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenomenon is explained through the cooperation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2), two “gatekeeper" transporters th...

  6. Study of Inter- and Intra-fraction Motion in Brain Tumor Patients Undergoing VMAT Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conforming dose to the tumor and sparing normal tissue can be challenging for brain tumors with complex shapes in close proximity to critical structures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-fraction motion in brain tumor patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The image matching software was found to be very sensitive to the choice of the region of matching. It is recommended to use the same region of interest for comparing the image sets and perform the automatic matching based on bony landmarks in brain tumor cases. (Author)

  7. Towards the use of HIFU, in Conjunction with Surgery, in the Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Lisa T.; Sparks, Rachel E.; Brayman, Andy A.; Olios, Ryan J.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Vaezy, Sarah; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2006-05-01

    The first medical response to the presence of a brain tumor is often its resection, both to alleviate mass effect, and to obtain tissue for diagnosis, itself necessary for guiding adjunctive therapy. Malignant brain tumors typically recur at the tumor resection margin. Most current chemotherapy and radiotherapy strategies target local recurrence with limited success. Here we review a new strategy for delivering chemotherapeutics for brain tumor recurrence. It uses intra-operative high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to transiently open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) over a significantly large volume of brain at and near the resection margin to enhance the subsequent delivery of systemically delivered chemotherapeutic agents into the region of tumor recurrence.

  8. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2–1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3–1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51 Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07 Gy. - Highlights: • For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51 Sv. • The average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07 Gy. • The effective doses for both male and female voxel phantoms were calculated. • The effective doses were compared between voxel and mathematical phantoms

  9. MRI Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress of the radiology methods, namely introducing mostly MRI into clinical practice, have been useful in pre surgery assessment of brain tumors. Advanced MRI (such as DWI, MRS, PMR) lead to more precise preoperative assessment of brain tumor. MRI is also most suitable method for assessment of brian tumors after neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as for distinguishing the progression, pseudo progression and postterapeutic injuries. (author)

  10. Increased Nanoparticle Delivery to Brain Tumors by Autocatalytic Priming for Improved Treatment and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Kong, Derek K; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Murikinati, Sasidhar; Ma, Chao; Yuan, Peng; Li, Liyuan; Tian, Daofeng; Cai, Qiang; Ye, Chunlin; Holden, Daniel; Park, June-Hee; Gao, Xiaobin; Thomas, Jean-Leon; Grutzendler, Jaime; Carson, Richard E; Huang, Yiyun; Piepmeier, Joseph M; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2016-04-26

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is partially disrupted in brain tumors. Despite the gaps in the BBB, there is an inadequate amount of pharmacological agents delivered into the brain. Thus, the low delivery efficiency renders many of these agents ineffective in treating brain cancer. In this report, we proposed an "autocatalytic" approach for increasing the transport of nanoparticles into the brain. In this strategy, a small number of nanoparticles enter into the brain via transcytosis or through the BBB gaps. After penetrating the BBB, the nanoparticles release BBB modulators, which enables more nanoparticles to be transported, creating a positive feedback loop for increased delivery. Specifically, we demonstrated that these autocatalytic brain tumor-targeting poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymer nanoparticles (ABTT NPs) can readily cross the BBB and preferentially accumulate in brain tumors at a concentration of 4.3- and 94.0-fold greater than that in the liver and in brain regions without tumors, respectively. We further demonstrated that ABTT NPs were capable of mediating brain cancer gene therapy and chemotherapy. Our results suggest ABTT NPs can prime the brain to increase the systemic delivery of therapeutics for treating brain malignancies. PMID:26967254

  11. Advancements in the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia and brain tumor - continuous efforts for 100% cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hee Young; Hong, Che Ry; Shin, Hee Young

    2014-10-01

    Treatment outcomes of pediatric cancers have improved greatly with the development of improved treatment protocols, new drugs, and better supportive measures, resulting in overall survival rates greater than 70%. Survival rates are highest in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, reaching more than 90%, owing to risk-based treatment through multicenter clinical trials and protocols developed to prevent central nervous system relapse and testicular relapse in boys. New drugs including clofarabine and nelarabine are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, and other targeted agents are continuously being developed. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells are now attracting interest for the treatment of recurrent or refractory disease. Stem cell transplantation is still the most effective treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, in order to reduce treatment-related death after stem cell transplantation, there is need for improved treatments. New drugs and targeted agents are also needed for improved outcome of AML. Surgery and radiation therapy have been the mainstay for brain tumor treatment. However, chemotherapy is becoming more important for patients who are not eligible for radiotherapy owing to age. Stem cell transplant as a means of high dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue is a new treatment modality and is often repeated for improved survival. Drugs such as temozolomide are new chemotherapeutic options. In order to achieve 100% cure in children with pediatric cancer, every possible treatment modality and effort should be considered. PMID:25379043

  12. Factors affecting 18 F FDOPA standardized uptake value in patients with primary brain tumors after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the factors affecting 18 F FDOPA uptake in patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) after treatment. Materials and methods: 97 patients with PBT (6 were grade I, 40 were grade II, 29 were grade III and 22 were grade IV) underwent 18 F FDOPA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after treatment. Intervals from surgery, chemotherapy (CHT) and radiotherapy (RT) were 41.48 (± 42.27), 16.04 (± 29.08) and 28.62 (± 34.49) months respectively. Results: 18 F FDOPA uptake in the site of recurrence was not related to the interval from surgery and CHT while a significant relationship has been found with the interval from RT and tumor grade. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the interval from RT and the grade of PBT should be considered carefully when evaluating brain PET/CT scans since these factors could directly affect 18 F FDOPA uptake

  13. Intranasal Delivery of Camptothecin-Loaded Tat-Modified Nanomicells for Treatment of Intracranial Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Takashima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG/poly(e-caprolactone (PCL amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG-PCL-Tat didn’t show any cytotoxicity, even at high concentrations (2 mmol/mL. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles significantly prolonged the median survival of rats. These results indicate that intranasal delivery of anti-cancer drugs with cell penetrating peptide-modified nanomicelles might be an effective therapy for brain tumors.

  14. The role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Treatment of Seizures in Brain Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekokobe eFonkem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam, tradename Keppra, is a new second generation antiepileptic drug that is being used increasingly in brain tumor patients. In patients suffering with brain tumors, seizures are one of the leading neurologic complications seen in more than 30% of patients. Levetiracetam is a pyrollidine-derivative drug, which has a unique mechanism of action. Unlike other antiepileptic drugs, Levetiracetam is proposed to bind to a synaptic vesicle protein inhibiting calcium release. Brain tumor patients are frequently on chemotherapy or other drugs that induce cytochrome P450, causing significant drug interactions. However, levetiracetam does not induce the P450 system and does not exhibit any relevant drug interactions. Intravenous delivery is as bioavailable as the oral medication allowing it to be used in emergency situations. Levetiracetam is an attractive option for brain tumor patients suffering from seizures, but also can be used prophylactically in patients with brain tumors or patients undergoing neurological surgery. Emerging studies have also demonstrated that levetiracetam can increase the sensitivity of Glioblastoma tumors to the chemotherapy drug Temozolomide. Levetiracetam is a safe alternative to conventional Antiepileptic drugs and an emerging tool for brain tumor patients combating seizures.

  15. What's New in Research and Treatment for Brain Tumors in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the body, where they settle in the bone marrow and start making new blood cells. Although some children with certain brain or spinal cord tumors (such as medulloblastomas) have responded well ...

  16. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Mission Advance Research Clinical Trial Endpoints Defeat GBM Oligo Research Fund Pediatric Initiatives Funded Research & Accomplishments ... no symptoms when their brain tumor is discovered Recurrent headaches Issues with vision Seizures Changes in personality ...

  17. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example), unusual symptoms such as headaches or short-term memory loss can be investigated with your family history in mind. Click here to view our webinars on Causes and Risk Factors of Brain Tumors. Additional information ...

  18. Olanzapine and Betamethasone Are Effective for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting due to Metastatic Brain Tumors of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions originating from metastasis of colorectal cancer represent 3-5% of all brain metastases and are relatively rare. Of all distant metastases of colorectal cancer, those to the liver are detected in 22-29% of cases, while those to the lungs are detected in 8-18% of cases. In contrast, brain metastasis is quite rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.4 to 1.8%. Treatments for metastatic brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and supportive care with steroids, etc. Untreated patients exhibit a median survival of only approximately 1 month. The choice of treatment for brain metastasis depends on the number of lesions, the patient's general condition, nerve findings and presence of other metastatic lesions. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old male who presented with brain metastases originating from rectal carcinoma. He suffered from nausea, vomiting, anorexia and vertigo during body movement. He received antiemetics, glycerol and whole brain radiation therapy; however, these treatments proved ineffective. Olanzapine therapy was started at a dose of 1.25 mg every night. The persistent nausea disappeared the next day, and the frequency of vomiting subsequently decreased. The patient was able to consume solid food. Olanzapine is an antipsychotic that has recently been used as palliative therapy for refractory nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy. We consider that olanzapine was helpful as a means of supportive care for the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to brain metastasis.

  19. Adding chemo after radiation treatment improves survival for adults with a type of brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with low-grade gliomas, a form of brain tumor, who received chemotherapy following completion of radiation therapy lived longer than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to long-term follow-up results from a NIH-supported random

  20. Treatment with the NK1 antagonist emend reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction and edema formation in an experimental model of brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harford-Wright

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide substance P (SP has been implicated in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and development of cerebral edema in acute brain injury. Cerebral edema accumulates rapidly around brain tumors and has been linked to several tumor-associated deficits. Currently, the standard treatment for peritumoral edema is the corticosteroid dexamethasone, prolonged use of which is associated with a number of deleterious side effects. As SP is reported to increase in many cancer types, this study examined whether SP plays a role in the genesis of brain peritumoral edema. A-375 human melanoma cells were injected into the right striatum of male Balb/c nude mice to induce brain tumor growth, with culture medium injected in animals serving as controls. At 2, 3 or 4 weeks following tumor cell inoculation, non-treated animals were perfusion fixed for immunohistochemical detection of Albumin, SP and NK1 receptor. A further subgroup of animals was treated with a daily injection of the NK1 antagonist Emend (3 mg/kg, dexamethasone (8 mg/kg or saline vehicle at 3 weeks post-inoculation. Animals were sacrificed a week later to determine BBB permeability using Evan's Blue and brain water content. Non-treated animals demonstrated a significant increase in albumin, SP and NK1 receptor immunoreactivity in the peritumoral area as well as increased perivascular staining in the surrounding brain tissue. Brain water content and BBB permeability was significantly increased in tumor-inoculated animals when compared to controls (p<0.05. Treatment with Emend and dexamethasone reduced BBB permeability and brain water content when compared to vehicle-treated tumor-inoculated mice. The increase in peritumoral staining for both SP and the NK1 receptor, coupled with the reduction in brain water content and BBB permeability seen following treatment with the NK1 antagonist Emend, suggests that SP plays a role in the genesis of peritumoral edema, and thus warrants

  1. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 families will mourn the loss of their child to a brain or spinal cord tumor. Friends, family and community will try to make sense of an untimely death and the unfulfilled promise of a life. 6 families will transition to survivorship. A mother may be too exhausted from providing constant care ...

  2. Brain metastases from solid tumors: disease outcome according to type of treatment and therapeutic resources of the treating center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the therapeutic strategies commonly employed in the clinic for the management of brain metastases (BMs and to correlate disease outcome with type of treatment and therapeutic resources available at the treating center. Methods Four Cancer centres participated to the survey. Data were collected through a questionnaire filled in by one physician for each centre. Results Clinical data regarding 290 cancer patients with BMs from solid tumors were collected. Median age was 59 and 59% of patients had ≤ 3 brain metastases. A local approach (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery was adopted in 31% of patients. The local approach demonstrated to be superior in terms of survival compared to the regional/systemic approach (whole brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy, p = Conclusions In clinical practice, local strategies should be integrated in the management of brain metastases. Proper selection of patients who are candidate to local treatments is of crucial importance.

  3. Molecular properties of CD133+ glioblastoma stem cells derived from treatment-refractory recurrent brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qinghai; Nguyen, David H.; DONG, QINGHUA; Shitaku, Peter; Chung, Kenneth; Liu, On Ying; Jonathan L Tso; Liu, Jason Y; Konkankit, Veerauo; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Mischel, Paul S; Lane, Timothy F.; Liau, Linda M.; Stanley F Nelson; Tso, Cho-Lea

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains refractory to conventional therapy. CD133+ GBM cells have been recently isolated and characterized as chemo-/radio-resistant tumor-initiating cells and are hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence. In order to explore the molecular properties of tumorigenic CD133+ GBM cells that resist treatment, we isolated CD133+ GBM cells from tumors that are recurrent and have previously received chemo-/radio-therapy. We found that the purified CD1...

  4. Pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Patients with Malignant Brain Tumors: A Single Institutional Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system tumors account for 2%-5% of all malignancies in humans. These tumors account for 2% of all pediatric cancers. The worldwide incidence of primary central nervous system tumors is estimated at 3.9 (males and 3.2 (females per 100000 person-years. The incidence of brain tumor cases has been reported as 3.67% of all malignancies and 4% of all cancer mortalities in Iran. The five most common histological types of brain tumor in Iran according to different case studies are; meningioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma and ependymoma. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological pattern and characteristics of patients with brain tumors who have referred to the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study was performed at the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, between 2005 and 2012. We included 220 patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Department with diagnoses of primary brain tumor in this study. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 220 new cases of primary brain tumor at Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.95±15.48 years with a median age of 39 years. Patients' ages ranged from 4 to 75 years. Among the 220 patients, 138 were male and 82 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.68. For most tumors there was a male predominance, with the exception of meningioma (M/F: 0.23, ependymoma (M/F: 1 and pituitary adenoma (M/F: 0.6. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, high grade meningiomas and oligodendrogliomas were the four most common pathologies treated in this department. The best treatment results were achieved in patients with astrocytomas. Conclusion: The present study is a retrospective radiotherapy centre-based study designed in a pioneer radiotherapy centre in Western Iran, not a prospective population study. These data have provided a baseline for further epidemiological studies. Our encouraging results

  5. Intraaxial brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of primary intracranial tumors in the United States is approximately 15,0000 new cases per year. It has been estimated that 80--85% of all intracranial tumors occur in adults; the majority are situated in the supratentorial compartment. In the pediatric population, intracranial tumors are extraordinarily common---the CNS is the second most common site of pediatric neoplasia. Excluding the first year of life and adolescence, the location of intracranial tumors in the pediatric age group is infratentorial in 60--70% of cases, of which 75% involve the cerebellum and 25% reside in the brainstem. The limitations of neuroimaging are often revealed by understanding the microscopic pathology of these lesions, just as the neuropathologist would find if he or she relied solely on gross pathology. The general correlation between pathology and imaging will be stressed in this paper. Innumerable schemes for tumor classification have been devised; unfortunately, no classification is perfect. For the purposes of this discussion, the author has modified the proposed classifications of tumors in an attempt to combine typical neuroanatomic sites with the complex divisions traditionally formed on the basis of histopathology, since it is well recognized that the clinical behavior of brain tumors can depend largely on their sites of origin

  6. Comparitive Study Between Cnventional and Hyperfractionaltion Radiation Therapy for The Treatment of Brain Stem Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Fares * (MD, Mamdouh Salama** (MD Manal Moawad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain stem tumors are special challenge because primarily of their location and the neurologic effect caused by these groups of tumors (Paul 1997. Radiation therapy improves survival for brain stem tumors and stabilizes or reverses neurologic dysfunction in 75-90% of patients. The main domain of applicability of hyperfractionation would be in tumor sites where the dose limiting tissue is late reacting and whose effective control requires the delivery of doses beyond tolerance (Awwad, 1990, hence the rationale for the use of hyperfractionation in brain stem lesions. The purpose of this work is to find out the best radiation protocol in this group of patients comparing conventional fractionation and hyperafractionation. This study included 46 patients which brainstem tumors treated in Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery Departments Ain Shams University between February 1998 and May 2000. These patients had been randomly distributed in 2 groups A and B. The first group treated by conventional radiotherapy protocol and the second group treated by hyperfractionation radiation protocol. By the end of the study, the median over all survival and median time for disease progression were calculated for each group. Age, neurologic status at presentation and anatomical location were significant prognostic factors. By the end of this study clicinal evalualion had no significant difference between both groups but the median over all survival for the two groups was 10.5 months, the median survival for group A was 9.4 months and that for group B was 11.5 months which was statistically significant P < 0.02. On the other hand the percentage of patient with one year survival for group A & B (22%, 32% respectively. The rate of acute (early reaction of radiation is slightly higher in hyperfracticmaticm than conventional fractionation but the late reactions occur with same frequency with both regimens.

  7. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors. III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six children with primary brain tumors were studied prospectively with regard to their sensorimotor, intellectual, academic, and emotional status. Serial evaluations were conducted after surgery (pre-irradiation) and six months after the completion of radiation therapy. The timing of the second evaluation was chosen so as to antedate the late effects of irradiation. Children over 6 years old displayed significant improvement of intellectual function over time, with only 11% exhibiting deterioration on one or more cognitive parameters. In contrast, 68% of younger children clinically deteriorated in one or more areas of intellectual functioning, with prominent difficulties in memory and selective attention for age. Children under 6 years old with supratentorial tumors were less likely than those with posterior fossa tumors to improve their cognitive performance. At the second evaluation, 23% of the patients were functioning below normal (IQ less than 80) intellectually, with 50% of the younger children and 11% of the older children receiving special educational assistance. Approximately 40-50% of the patients manifested emotional adjustment problems at each evaluation. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical need to follow similar patient populations with formal psychological assessments over time, and in terms of the difficulties involved in defining factors that determine the functional status of children surviving brain tumors

  8. BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BSH-based intra-operative BNCT as an initial treatment underwent in 4 children with malignant brain tumors since 1998. There were 2 glioblastomas, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and one anaplastic ependymoma patient. They included two children under 3-year-old. All GBM patients were died of CSF dissemination without tumor regrowth in the primary site. Another PNET and anaplastic ependymoma patients are still alive without tumor recurrence. We can consider BNCT is optimal treatment modality for malignant brain tumor in children. (author)

  9. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel.green@stjude.org [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Billups, Catherine A. [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Stokes, Dennis C. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee School of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Broniscer, Alberto [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Bartels, Ute [Department of Haematology and Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Hassall, Timothy E. [Department of Haematology and Oncology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Gururangan, Sridharan [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); McCowage, Geoffrey B. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Heath, John A. [Children' s Cancer Center, Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Cohn, Richard J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Sydney Children' s Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Fisher, Michael J. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation & Cellular Therapy, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV{sub 1}] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCO{sub corr}]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m{sup 2} (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m{sup 2}). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCO{sub corr} was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV{sub 1} was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCO{sub corr} was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCO{sub corr} were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI

  10. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCOcorr]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m2 (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m2). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCOcorr was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV1 was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCOcorr was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCOcorr were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI. Continued monitoring of this cohort is planned

  11. A support system in virtual reality for effective hyperthermia treatments. Heating properties of needle applicator for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the effectiveness of the developed simulator system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment with a needle applicator in virtual reality (VR). The human brain is protected by the skull, which makes it difficult to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy. Generally, needle applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. However, some problems exist. One is that this heating method has a small heating area around the needle. In order to expand the heating area of a needle applicator, we developed a new type of needle applicator made from a shape memory alloy (SMA). The thermal properties of the SMA were checked experimentally using the developed heating system. As a result, the proposed needle applicator made of SMA is useful to create a wider heating area inside a tumor. Another problem is that medical doctors find it difficult to put a needle applicator into a target point inside of tumors. Therefore, a support system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment is required in the clinic. In this paper, first, we constructed an anatomical 3-D model from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) images by using 3-D computer aided design (CAD) software. Second, we presented the finite element method (FEM) model which is divided into non-linear elements on 3-D computer graphics (CG). Finally, we calculated temperature distributions using the 3-D FEM model with blood perfusion during hyperthermia treatments. From these results, it was found that the proposed VR system is effective for performing hyperthermia treatments. (author)

  12. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  13. Brain tumors imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the illness, we should use an anatomical technique for brain exploration (CT scan or MRI) to see the boundaries of the lesion before the diagnostic biopsy. After treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and/or surgery), the evolution of the lesion can be observed with functional techniques (SPECT Thallium or MIBI or PET scan). (author)

  14. Associations among treatment-related neurological risk factors and neuropsychological functioning in survivors of childhood brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Mark D; Rane, Shruti; Daly, Brian P; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Adverse neurological side effects associated with childhood brain tumors and their treatments contribute to long-term neurocognitive morbidity. Measures designed to quantify tumor-related risk factors are lacking. The neurological predictor scale (NPS) is designed to assess treatment-related neurological risks. Preliminary validation established associations between the NPS and global cognitive functioning in this population, though its associations with specific neurobehavioral domains has yet to be addressed. Participants referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment completed performance-based measures of intellectual, attentional, working memory, motor speed, and executive abilities. Caregivers completed ratings of adaptive functioning. Neuropsychological and adaptive data were available for 100 brain tumor survivors (51 % female), ages 6 to 22 years (M = 12.83, SD = 4.37). Total NPS scores were generated via retrospective medical record review. Total NPS scores were significantly associated with several neurocognitive composite scores including verbal reasoning and working memory, after controlling for years post-diagnosis (ps  .05). Results indicate that the NPS is associated with performance-based neurocognitive functioning and executive skills but not with functioning in specific caregiver-reported adaptive behavior domains. The NPS offers some value as a resource for understanding associations between treatment-related neurological risks and select aspects of neurocognitive morbidity. Future studies should examine whether the NPS can aid in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention as survivors progress into early adulthood. PMID:26725098

  15. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  16. Treatment of primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain: report of three cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) of the central nervous system is an extremely aggressive tumor predominantly related to early childhood, with characteristic histopathological findings but unclear histogenesis. Owing to its low incidence, little knowledge exists concerning the best therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Three children of our hospital with MRT of the brain underwent a maximum tumor resection followed by multidrug chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the craniospinal axis. Results: Relapse was disseminated along the spinal subarachnoid spaces in one child and occurred at the primary tumor site in the other two patients. Maximum survival was 15 months from diagnosis. Conclusion: A review of patients reported in the literature and a comparison to our patients reveals a high propensity to early local relapse and meningeal dissemination. In the absence of more effective therapeutic options, we recommend multidisciplinary treatment of patients in good general condition and with resectable disease. In particular, following radiation therapy, tumor remissions and delay of tumor regrowth have been observed

  17. NANOROBOTS IN BRAIN TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Tarannum, Garje Dattatray H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. In the relatively near term, nanomedicine can address many important medical problems by using nanoscale-structured materials and simple nanodevices that can be manufactured today, including the interaction of nanostructured materials with biological systems. The authors predict that technology-assisted medicine and robotics in particular, will have a significant impact over the next few decades. Robots will augment the surgeon’s motor performance, diagnosis capability, and senses with haptics (feel, augmented reality (sight, and ultrasound (sound. Robotic devices have been used in cardiac surgery, urology, fetal surgery, pediatrics, neurosurgery, orthopedics, and many other medical disciplines. In this article, we present the Nanorobot drug delivery to brain tumor, paying special attention to the transformation trends of organizations, and the integration of robots in brain tumor and underscoring potential repercussions which may deserve more attention and further research.

  18. Cognitive deficits in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chao; BAO Wei-min; YANG Bo-jie; XIE Rong; CAO Xiao-yun; LUAN Shi-hai; MAO Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the present status and progress of clinical research on the cognitive effects caused by different types of brain tumors and common treatments.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to Febuary 2012.Research terms were "cognitive deficits" or "cognitive dysfunction".Study selection Articals including any information about brain tumor related cognitive deficits were selected.Results It is widely accepted that brain tumors and related treatments can impair cognitive function across manydomains,and can impact on patients' quality of life.Tumor localization,lateralization,surgery,drugs,radiotherapy and chemotherapy are all thought to be important factors in this process.However,some conflicting findings regarding brain tumor-related cognitive deficits have been reported.It can be difficult to determine the mechanism of these treatments,such as chemotherapy,antibiotics,antiepileptics,and steroids.Future research is needed to clarify these potential treatment effects.Conclusions Cognitive function is important for patients with brain tumor.Much more focus has been paid on this field.It should be regarded as an important prognostic index for the patients with brain tumor,and neuropsychological tests should be used in regular examinations.

  19. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs

  20. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  1. Radiosurgical treatment of previously irradiated primary brain tumors and brain metastasis: final report of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) protocol 90-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the maximum single radiosurgical dose that can be given to patients (pts) with recurrent primary brain tumors (1 deg. BT) or brain metastasis (BM) who had received prior fractionated external beam radiation therapy (FEBRT). Materials/Methods: The treated tumor had to be ≤40 mm in maximum diameter. Dose was prescribed to the periphery of the tumor (without margin) based on diameter, to the 50% to 90% isodose line. Initial doses were: Arm 1--≤20 mm, 18 Gy; Arm 2--21 to 30 mm, 15 Gy; and Arm 3--31 to 40 mm, 12 Gy. Dose was then escalated in 3 Gy increments, providing that unacceptable neurologic toxicity (grade 3,4, or 5 using the RTOG Central Nervous System (CNS) Toxicity Criteria) occurred in 3, 5977 mm3, and 18,202 mm3 for tumors ≤20 mm, 21-30 mm, and 31-40 mm in maximum diameter, respectively. Thirty-one pts were treated on a Gamma Knife and 125 on a linear accelerator. The table below summarizes the toxicity results of the study: Analysis of variables contributing to toxicity demonstrated that tumors with a maximum diameter of 21-40 mm had a 1.2 times greater chance of developing unacceptable neurologic toxicity than tumors ≤20 mm in diameter. Local failure (in the radiosurgical treatment volume) occurred in 37 pts (24%). The most significant variable contributing to local failure was tumor type. 1 deg. BT were twice as likely to develop local failure than BM. Twenty-one pts (14%) underwent reoperation. Pathologic findings were as follows: tumor only--38%, tumor + necrosis--33%, necrosis only--19%, and non-diagnostic--10%. Conclusions: In previously irradiated patients with recurrent 1 deg. BT and BM, the maximum safe dose of single fraction radiosurgery was 24 Gy for tumors ≤20 mm in maximum diameter, 21 Gy for 21-30 mm tumors, and 15 Gy for tumors 31-40 mm

  2. Living with a Brain Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you have been diagnosed with a brain tumor diagnosis. Dealing with changes to your appearance – such as losing your hair or losing weight is difficult for most of us. Keep in mind that your life is not so much ... with a brain tumor may mean rethinking your work and professional goals, ...

  3. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  4. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya [Sankoukai Miyazaki Hospital, Isahaya, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  5. Radiation therapy combined with intracerebral administration of carboplatin for the treatment of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we determined if treatment combining radiation therapy (RT) with intracerebral (i.c.) administration of carboplatin to F98 glioma bearing rats could improve survival over that previously reported by us with a 15 Gy dose (5 Gy × 3) of 6 MV photons. First, in order to reduce tumor interstitial pressure, a biodistribution study was carried out to determine if pretreatment with dexamethasone alone or in combination with mannitol and furosemide (DMF) would increase carboplatin uptake following convection enhanced delivery (CED). Next, therapy studies were carried out in rats that had received carboplatin either by CED over 30 min (20 μg) or by Alzet pumps over 7 d (84 μg), followed by RT using a LINAC to deliver either 20 Gy (5 Gy × 4) or 15 Gy (7.5 Gy × 2) dose at 6 or 24 hrs after drug administration. Finally, a study was carried out to determine if efficacy could be improved by decreasing the time interval between drug administration and RT. Tumor carboplatin values for D and DMF-treated rats were 9.4 ±4.4 and 12.4 ±3.2 μg/g, respectively, which were not significantly different (P = 0.14). The best survival data were obtained by combining pump delivery with 5 Gy × 4 of X-irradiation with a mean survival time (MST) of 107.7 d and a 43% cure rate vs. 83.6 d with CED vs. 30-35 d for RT alone and 24.6 d for untreated controls. Treatment-related mortality was observed when RT was initiated 6 h after CED of carboplatin and RT was started 7 d after tumor implantation. Dividing carboplatin into two 10 μg doses and RT into two 7.5 Gy fractions, administered 24 hrs later, yielded survival data (MST 82.1 d with a 25% cure rate) equivalent to that previously reported with 5 Gy × 3 and 20 μg of carboplatin. Although the best survival data were obtained by pump delivery, CED was highly effective in combination with 20 Gy, or as previously reported, 15 Gy, and the latter would be preferable since it would produce less late tissue effects

  6. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  7. Pathological advances in pediatric brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li-Feng; Wang, Rui-Fen; Guan, Wen-bin; Yan, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Compared with brain tumors in adults, pediatric brain tumors have characteristic clinicopathological features and molecular mechanisms. The accurate diagnosis and classification of brain tumors in children is important for patients to have an individualized therapy and to improve the survival rate. With the further study of pediatric brain tumors, there are some new viewpoints on pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), ependymoma,...

  8. Negative brain scintigrams in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were made simultaneously were taken into consideration with respect to their propositional capability and were compared with the scintigram findings. For the formation of the negative brain scintigrams there could be found no unique cause or causal constellation. The scintigraphic tumor representation is likely based on a complex process. Therefore the reasons for the negativity of the brain scintigrams can be a manifold of causes. An important role plays the vascularisation of the tumor, but not in a sole way. As well the tumor localisation gains some importance; especially in the temporal lobe or in the deeper structures situated tumors can be negative in the scintigram. To hold down the rate of wrong-negative quote in the case of intracranial tumor search, one is advised to continue with an further exposure after 2 to 4 hours besides the usual exposures, unless a sequential scintigraphy was made from the beginning. (orig./MG)

  9. Pilot study of intratumoral injection of recombinant heat shock protein 70 in the treatment of malignant brain tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsov MA

    2014-06-01

    of recombinant Hsp70 in patients with cancer. Further randomized clinical trials are recommended to assess the optimum dose of the chaperone, the treatment schedule, and clinical efficacy. Keywords: heat shock protein 70, malignant brain tumors, immunotherapy, glioblastoma

  10. Proton MRS imaging in pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Maria; Tzika, A Aria

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques offer a noninvasive, non-irradiating yet sensitive approach to diagnosing and monitoring pediatric brain tumors. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), as an adjunct to MRI, is being more widely applied to monitor the metabolic aspects of brain cancer. In vivo MRS biomarkers represent a promising advance and may influence treatment choice at both initial diagnosis and follow-up, given the inherent difficulties of sequential biopsies to monitor therapeutic response. When combined with anatomical or other types of imaging, MRS provides unique information regarding biochemistry in inoperable brain tumors and can complement neuropathological data, guide biopsies and enhance insight into therapeutic options. The combination of noninvasively acquired prognostic information and the high-resolution anatomical imaging provided by conventional MRI is expected to surpass molecular analysis and DNA microarray gene profiling, both of which, although promising, depend on invasive biopsy. This review focuses on recent data in the field of MRS in children with brain tumors. PMID:27233788

  11. Centralized databases available for describing primary brain tumor incidence, survival, and treatment: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results; and National Cancer Data Base.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, F. G.; McCarthy, B J; Berger, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of three databases--the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database; and the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB)--containing information on primary brain tumors are discussed. The recently developed population-based CBTRUS database comprises incidence data on all primary brain tumors from 11 collaborating state registries; however, follow-up data are not available. SEER, the population-based g...

  12. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  13. Students with brain tumors: their post-treatment perceptions of teachers, peers, and academics and retrospective views on school during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lori A; Wodrich, David L; Levy, Roy; Etzl, Michael M; Gieseking, Annie T

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was: (1) to determine how students surviving brain tumors (BTs) perceive their teachers' responses to them, their own academic performance, and their interactions with peers at school using a new measure; and (2) to describe students' retrospective perceptions of schooling while undergoing treatment. Using a sample of 22 students treated for a BT (ages 9-18) and 22 comparison (ages 8-19), no significant BT-control group differences regarding perceptions of teacher response, academic performance, and interactions with peers at school were found. Generally, students with BTs reported positive school experiences during treatment including favorable perceptions of their teachers' effectiveness, enjoyment of schoolwork, and the quality of their schooling. Additionally, they felt that completing schoolwork during treatment was important. The results of this study may provide insight into the perceived psychosocial adjustment and academic performance of students with BTs during and after treatment. PMID:20147566

  14. Gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) alone for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer. Two hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer filling the following 4 criteria were analyzed for this study; no prior brain tumor treatment, 25 or fewer lesions, a maximum 5 tumors with diameter of 2 cm or more, no surgically inaccessible tumor 3 cm or greater in diameter. According to the same treatment protocol, large tumors (≥ 3 cm) were surgically removed and all the other small lesions (10 brain lesions. This study suggests the results of GKS for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer are quite satisfactory considering prevention of neurological death and maintenance of QOL. But cases with carcinomatous meningitis and/or >10 brain lesions are not good candidates for GKS alone. (author)

  15. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  16. Extra-axial brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalino, Otto; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    Extra-axial brain tumors are the most common adult intracranial neoplasms and encompass a broad spectrum of pathologic subtypes. Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumor (approximately one-third of all intracranial neoplasms) and typically present as slowly growing dural-based masses. Benign meningiomas are very common, and may occasionally be difficult to differentiate from more aggressive subtypes (i.e., atypical or malignant varieties) or other dural-based masses with more aggressive biologic behavior (e.g., hemangiopericytoma or dural-based metastases). Many neoplasms that typically affect the brain parenchyma (intra-axial), such as gliomas, may also present with primary or secondary extra-axial involvement. This chapter provides a general and concise overview of the common types of extra-axial tumors and their typical imaging features. PMID:27432671

  17. Brain tumors; Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langen, K.J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Biophysik; Stoffels, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). C. und O. Vogt Inst. fuer Hirnforschung

    2007-09-15

    Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is the method of choice for the diagnostics of cerebral gliomas, but the differentiation of tumour tissue from unspecific tissue changes is limited. Positron emission tomography (PET) and Single-Photon-Emission-Computed Tomography (SPECT) may offer relevant additional information which allows for a more accurate diagnostics in unclear situations. Especially, radiolabeled amino acids offer a better delineation of cerebral gliomas which allows an improved guidance of biopsy, planning of surgery and radiation therapy. Furthermore, amino acid imaging appears to be useful to differentiate tumor recurrence from unspecific posttherapeutic tissue, to predict the prognosis especially in low grade gliomas and to monitor the metabolic response during tumor therapy. (orig.)

  18. WE-G-BRE-01: A High Power Nanotube X-Ray Microbeam Irradiator for Preclinical Brain Tumor Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chtcheprov, P; Inscoe, C; Zhang, L; Lu, J; Zhou, O [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chang, S [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sprenger, F; Laganis, P [Xinray Systems, Cedar Fork, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new type of cancer treatment undergoing studies at various synchrotron facilities. The principle of MRT is using arrays of microscopically small, low-energy X-radiation for the treatment of various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. Our motivation is to develop a compact and inexpensive image guided MRT irradiator to use in the research lab setting. After a successful initial demonstration, here we report a second generation carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based MRT tube, capable of producing multiple microbeam lines with an anticipated dose rate of 11 Gy/min per line. Methods: The system uses multiple line CNT source arrays to generate multiple focal lines on the anode. The increase in dose-rate, compared to our first generation system, is achieved by increasing the operating voltage from 160 kVp to 225kVp, adding multiple simultaneous focal lines on the anode, and a more efficient cooling mechanism using a 6kW oil-cooled anode. Results: This work will present the design and development process, challenges and solutions to meeting operating specifications, and the final design of the tube and collimator, along with optimization and stabilization of its use. A detailed characterization of its capabilities will be included with a comprehensive measurement of its X-ray focal line dimensions, an evaluation of its collimator alignment and microbeam dimensions, and phantom-based quantification of its dosimetric output. Conclusion: The development of a second generation, compact, multiple line MRT device using carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based X-ray technology and a novel oil cooled anode design is presented here. With this new source, we are capable of delivering a total microbeam radiation dose comparable to the low end of the synchrotron based MRT systems for small animal brain tumor models.

  19. WE-G-BRE-01: A High Power Nanotube X-Ray Microbeam Irradiator for Preclinical Brain Tumor Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new type of cancer treatment undergoing studies at various synchrotron facilities. The principle of MRT is using arrays of microscopically small, low-energy X-radiation for the treatment of various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. Our motivation is to develop a compact and inexpensive image guided MRT irradiator to use in the research lab setting. After a successful initial demonstration, here we report a second generation carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based MRT tube, capable of producing multiple microbeam lines with an anticipated dose rate of 11 Gy/min per line. Methods: The system uses multiple line CNT source arrays to generate multiple focal lines on the anode. The increase in dose-rate, compared to our first generation system, is achieved by increasing the operating voltage from 160 kVp to 225kVp, adding multiple simultaneous focal lines on the anode, and a more efficient cooling mechanism using a 6kW oil-cooled anode. Results: This work will present the design and development process, challenges and solutions to meeting operating specifications, and the final design of the tube and collimator, along with optimization and stabilization of its use. A detailed characterization of its capabilities will be included with a comprehensive measurement of its X-ray focal line dimensions, an evaluation of its collimator alignment and microbeam dimensions, and phantom-based quantification of its dosimetric output. Conclusion: The development of a second generation, compact, multiple line MRT device using carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based X-ray technology and a novel oil cooled anode design is presented here. With this new source, we are capable of delivering a total microbeam radiation dose comparable to the low end of the synchrotron based MRT systems for small animal brain tumor models

  20. Treatment of malignant brain tumors using nuclear reactor. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles, history, clinical trial experiences and future view of the neutron capture therapy are described. The therapy using 10B (boron neutron capture therapy, BNCT) involves the intravenous injection of 10B-containing compound to be accumulated in the tumor and following irradiation of thermal (10B-containing compound, of multi-gated and boost irradiation, of accelerator exclusively for the therapy and of systemic facility for the therapy are waited. (K.H.)

  1. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  2. An integrative view on sex differences in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Plutynski, Anya; Ward, Stacey; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in human health and disease can range from undetectable to profound. Differences in brain tumor rates and outcome are evident in males and females throughout the world and regardless of age. These observations indicate that fundamental aspects of sex determination can impact the biology of brain tumors. It is likely that optimal personalized approaches to the treatment of male and female brain tumor patients will require recognizing and understanding the ways in which the biol...

  3. Usefulness of double dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clear delineation of gross tumor volume in stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning of metastatic brain tumors. A dose comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the size and clearness of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of metastatic brain tumors on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images between a single dose contrast administration protocol and a double dose contrast administration protocol to determine the optimum dose of contrast-enhancement for clear delineation of GTV in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). A total of 28 small metastatic brain tumors were evaluated in 13 patients by intra-individual comparison of GTV measurements using single dose and double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice (1-mm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had confirmed histological types of primary tumors and had undergone hypo-fractionated SRT for metastatic brain tumors. The mean tumor diameter with single dose and double dose contrast-enhancement was 12.0 ± 1.1 mm and 13.2 ± 1.1 mm respectively (P 1ml volume was 41.8 ± 0.05% and 12.4 ± 0.03% respectively (P < 0.001). We conclude that double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI is a more useful technique than single dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI, especially for clear delineation of GTVs of small metastatic brain tumors in treatment planning of highly precise SRT. (author)

  4. Usefulness of double dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clear delineation of gross tumor volume in stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning of metastatic brain tumors: a dose comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Kalloo Sharma; Takahashi, Takeo; Yamano, Takafumi; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the size and clearness of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of metastatic brain tumors on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images between a single dose contrast administration protocol and a double dose contrast administration protocol to determine the optimum dose of contrast-enhancement for clear delineation of GTV in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). A total of 28 small metastatic brain tumors were evaluated in 13 patients by intra-individual comparison of GTV measurements using single dose and double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice (1-mm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had confirmed histological types of primary tumors and had undergone hypo-fractionated SRT for metastatic brain tumors. The mean tumor diameter with single dose and double dose contrast-enhancement was 12.0 ± 1.1 mm and 13.2 ± 1.1 mm respectively (P 1ml volume was 41.8 ± 0.05 % and 12.4 ± 0.03 % respectively (P < 0.001). We conclude that double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI is a more useful technique than single dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI, especially for clear delineation of GTVs of small metastatic brain tumors in treatment planning of highly precise SRT. PMID:22843378

  5. Linac radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic brain tumors are usually the final stage in cancer progression. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine optimal treatment strategies for linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and to investigate possible prognostic factors. Of 156 patients treated from 1990 to 2001, 124 patients with 312 lesions were treated with SRS alone, and followed-up for periods ranging from 15 days to 24 months (median 8.2 months). There were 86 males and 38 females, with a median age of 62.8 years. Tumor volume ranged from 0.04 to 50.5 ccm (median 7.9 ccm), and radiation doses ranged from 18 to 50 Gy (median 26.6 Gy in one fraction). Univariate and multivariate analyses of survival and tumor volume reduction rate were performed using Kaplan-Meier Curves, analysis of variance and log-rank test techniques. Median survival time was 8.2 months after SRS. The overall tumor control rate was 97.2%, with a complete or partial remission rate of 84.4%. The median follow-up time was 8.2 months following SRS. During follow-up, there was one case of fetal intracerebral hemorrhage (1.0%) and 6 cases of cerebral herniation (6.3%). Tumor reduction rate was related to tumor histology (p<0.01). Survival rate correlated with pre-SRS Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) (p<0.01), a number of brain lesions (p=0.0075) and primary disease status (p<0.05), but was not related to progression of extracranial disease, age, lesion volume or lesion site. SRS is indicated for brain metastases under the following circumstances: lesions ≤40 mm in diameter, irradiation after reduction of tumor by paracentesis and suction of cystic lesion, a maximum of three tumors irradiated in one SRS, no concomitant whole brain irradiation, in general. (author)

  6. Critical appraisal of temozolomide formulations in the treatment of primary brain tumors: patient considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy is assuming an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant gliomas, of which temozolomide (TMZ) is a key part. TMZ belongs to a class of second-generation imidazotetrazinone prodrugs that exhibit linear pharmacokinetics and do not require hepatic metabolism for activation to the active metabolite. New intravenous (iv) TMZ formulations have recently been approved based on studies of bioequivalence between iv and oral TMZ. The efficacy of TMZ was initially evaluated in patients with recurrent disease but phase II and III trials in newly diagnosed gliomas are available. The results of a large phase III trial that compared RT alone vs RT concomitant with oral TMZ created a new standard of adjuvant treatment. Efficacy data for iv TMZ on which its approval was based are those extrapolated from clinical trials with oral TMZ. No comparative data are available on the differences in tolerability and patient satisfaction between oral and iv formulations of TMZ, or for quality of life. New oral formulations could encourage the adherence of patients to treatment. Although patients presumably would prefer oral treatment, iv formulations may be an alternative in noncompliant patients or patients for whom good adherence could not be expected

  7. Brain Tumors and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Fatigue SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Side Effects and ... One of the most common side effects is fatigue. Fatigue may accompany surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or biologic ...

  8. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  9. More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

  10. Brain angiogenesis: Mechanism and Therapeutic Intervention in Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woo-Young; Lee, Ho-Young

    2009-01-01

    Formation of new blood vessels is required for growth and metastasis of all solid tumors. New blood vessels are established in tumors mainly through angiogenesis. Brain tumors in particular are highly angiogenic. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent angiogenesis may be effective at controlling brain tumors. Indeed, many recent findings from preclinical and clinical studies of antiangiogenic therapy for brain tumors showed that it is a promising approach to managing this deadly disease...

  11. Evaluating brain tumors with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism using functional imaging in combination with morphological imaging by CT and MRI has recently been attracting attention in neuroradiological diagnosis of brain tumor. This report assesses the clinical usefulness of SPECT for brain tumor. Because 201TlCl SPECT is useful in determining the degree of brain tumor malignancy and clearly reflects tumor metabolism after radiochemotherapy, it is capable of determining therapeutic outcomes earlier than MRI. To increase the diagnostic performance of 201TlCl SPECT, time-course accumulation dynamics were investigated using early and delayed imaging. Three-dimensional SPECT imaging using N-isopropyl-p[123I]-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) is a new diagnostic method that not only visually evaluates the lesion but also quantifies the expansion volume of the hypoperfusion area associated with the lesion. Development of functional imaging may lead to a new therapeutic method by providing clinical images that more faithfully reproduce the pathological state. (author)

  12. Fiber tracking for brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to validate an innovative scanning method for patients diagnosed with brain tumors. Using a 1.5 Tesla whole body magnetic resonance (MR) imager, 23 patients with brain tumors were scanned. The recorded data points of the diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) sequences were 128 x 37 with the parallel imaging technique. The parallel imaging technique was equivalent to a true resolution of 128 x 74. The scan parameters were repetition time (TR)=6000, echo time (TE)=88, 6 averaging with a b-value of 800 s/mm2. The total scan time for DTI was 4 minutes and 24 seconds. DTI scans and subsequent fiber tracking were successfully applied in all cases. All fiber tracts on the contralesional side were visualized in the expected locations. Fiber tracts on the lesional side had varying degrees of displacement, disruption, or a combination of displacement and disruption due to the tumor. Tract disruption resulted from direct tumor involvement, compression upon the tract, and vasogenic edema surrounding the tumor. This DTI method using a parallel imaging technique allows for clinically feasible fiber tracking that can be incorporated into a routine MR examination. (author)

  13. Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and worsen as the tumor grows. The most obvious sign of a brain tumor in infants is ... blood flow, antidepressants to treat anxiety or ease depression that might occur following a tumor diagnosis, and ...

  14. Anticonvulsant therapy in brain-tumor related epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröscher Walter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10-100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established.

  15. Pathological advances in pediatric brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-feng WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Compared with brain tumors in adults, pediatric brain tumors have characteristic clinicopathological features and molecular mechanisms. The accurate diagnosis and classification of brain tumors in children is important for patients to have an individualized therapy and to improve the survival rate. With the further study of pediatric brain tumors, there are some new viewpoints on pilocytic astrocytoma (PA, ependymoma, medulloblastoma (MB, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT, etc. In this article, an overview about pathological advances in the common pediatric brain tumors will be shown. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.002

  16. A New Treatment Paradigm: Neoadjuvant Radiosurgery Before Surgical Resection of Brain Metastases With Analysis of Local Tumor Recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Resected brain metastases (BM) require radiation therapy to reduce local recurrence. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) reduces recurrence, but with potential toxicity. Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a strategy without prospective data and problematic target delineation. SRS delivered in the preoperative setting (neoadjuvant, or NaSRS) allows clear target definition and reduction of intraoperative dissemination of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Our treatment of resectable BM with NaSRS was begun in 2005. Subsequently, a prospective trial of NaSRS was undertaken. A total of 47 consecutively treated patients (23 database and 24 prospective trial) with a total of 51 lesions were reviewed. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 cohorts, and they were combined for analysis. The median follow-up time was 12 months (range, 1-58 months), and the median age was 57. A median of 1 day elapsed between NaSRS and resection. The median diameter of lesions was 3.04 cm (range, 1.34-5.21 cm), and the median volume was 8.49 cc (range, 0.89-46.7 cc). A dose reduction strategy was used, with a median dose of 14 Gy (range, 11.6-18 Gy) prescribed to 80% isodose. Results: Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 77.8% and 60.0% at 6 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier local control was 97.8%, 85.6%, and 71.8% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Five of 8 failures were proved pathologically without radiation necrosis. There were no perioperative adverse events. Ultimately, 14.8% of the patients were treated with WBRT. Local failure was more likely with lesions >10 cc (P=.01), >3.4 cm (P=.014), with a trend in surface lesions (P=.066) and eloquent areas (P=.052). Six of the 8 failures had an obvious dural attachment or proximity to draining veins. Conclusions: NaSRS can be performed safely and effectively with excellent results without documented radiation necrosis. Local control was excellent even in the setting of large (>3 cm) lesions. The strong

  17. A New Treatment Paradigm: Neoadjuvant Radiosurgery Before Surgical Resection of Brain Metastases With Analysis of Local Tumor Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asher, Anthony L., E-mail: asher@cnsa.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Levine Cancer Institute and Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Neurosurgery and Spine Associates, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Burri, Stuart H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute and Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Wiggins, Walter F. [Wake Forest School of Medicine MD/PhD Program, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (United States); Kelly, Renee P. [Brain Tumor Fund for the Carolinas, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Boltes, Margaret O.; Mehrlich, Melissa [Carolina Neurosurgery and Spine Associates, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Norton, H. James [Department of Biostatistics, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Fraser, Robert W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute and Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Resected brain metastases (BM) require radiation therapy to reduce local recurrence. Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) reduces recurrence, but with potential toxicity. Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a strategy without prospective data and problematic target delineation. SRS delivered in the preoperative setting (neoadjuvant, or NaSRS) allows clear target definition and reduction of intraoperative dissemination of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Our treatment of resectable BM with NaSRS was begun in 2005. Subsequently, a prospective trial of NaSRS was undertaken. A total of 47 consecutively treated patients (23 database and 24 prospective trial) with a total of 51 lesions were reviewed. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 cohorts, and they were combined for analysis. The median follow-up time was 12 months (range, 1-58 months), and the median age was 57. A median of 1 day elapsed between NaSRS and resection. The median diameter of lesions was 3.04 cm (range, 1.34-5.21 cm), and the median volume was 8.49 cc (range, 0.89-46.7 cc). A dose reduction strategy was used, with a median dose of 14 Gy (range, 11.6-18 Gy) prescribed to 80% isodose. Results: Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 77.8% and 60.0% at 6 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier local control was 97.8%, 85.6%, and 71.8% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Five of 8 failures were proved pathologically without radiation necrosis. There were no perioperative adverse events. Ultimately, 14.8% of the patients were treated with WBRT. Local failure was more likely with lesions >10 cc (P=.01), >3.4 cm (P=.014), with a trend in surface lesions (P=.066) and eloquent areas (P=.052). Six of the 8 failures had an obvious dural attachment or proximity to draining veins. Conclusions: NaSRS can be performed safely and effectively with excellent results without documented radiation necrosis. Local control was excellent even in the setting of large (>3 cm) lesions. The strong

  18. Treatment planning using CT/MRI fusion in patients with low-grade gliomas and benign brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The use of the CT image without and with contrast in MRI in treatment planning of the clinical target volumes, and critical organs, lead to increased accuracy in radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From September 2007 to December 2009 in the Department of Radiotherapy CT with and without contrast was applied in 53 patients. After that two dosimetric plans have been developed, which showed minimal advantage in low-grade gliomas because their poor blood supply. This gave us a reason to move to the use of images from MRI without contrast. Next step in the treatment planning was merging images from MRI without contrast with the basic imaging technique in radiotherapy - CT. From January 2010 to March 2013 were prepared individual dosimetric plan 51 ± MRI and the data from the dose- volume histograms and investigated advantages of the method are compared. Results: There was a notable advantage at the confluence of MRI and CT images in the determination of the large tumor volume (LTV) due to better visualization of residual formation compared with CT images. There is an advantage in tumors located in the cerebellum, celery, suprasellar area and the base of the skull, which are an essential part of the studied patients. Depending on the type of the histology the method shows an advantage in low-grade glial tumor excision by R1 and benign tumor. The process has the significant advantage in the medical treatment plan to determine and outline of the tumor volume to that with application of contrast in CT. Conclusion: As a result form the performed studies on the problem, a protocol was developed for treatment planning of patients through simultaneous use of CT and MRI images in low-grade glial and benign tumors as well as tumors located in the rear cranial fossa

  19. Blood Brain Barrier: A Challenge for Effectual Therapy of Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Bhowmik; Rajni Khan; Mrinal Kanti Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most formidable diseases of mankind. They have only a fair to poor prognosis and high relapse rate. One of the major causes of extreme difficulty in brain tumor treatment is the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB). BBB comprises different molecular components and transport systems, which in turn create efflux machinery or hindrance for the entry of several drugs in brain. Thus, along with the conventional techniques, successful modification of drug delivery and n...

  20. MR-guided interstitial thermal therapy for the treatment of brain tumors with a multi-element ultrasound probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, Michael; Carpentier, Alexandre; Beccaria, Kevin; Souchon, Rémi; Chavrier, Françoise; Lafon, Cyril; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a new therapeutic ultrasound device is presented that is designed for performing minimally invasive thermal ablation of brain tumors under guidance with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The device consists of an array of ultrasound transducers, oriented on multiple faces of a flexible sheath with an integrated cooling system that can be directly inserted into the brain through a small burr hole in the skull. Heating can be monitored using real-time MRI and conformed to the tumor volume by varying the power to the individual elements on the probe. In this work, preliminary testing of the device was performed and included acoustic characterization, numerical simulations, and experiments in a clinical MRI system. Numerical simulations of the acoustic field and temperature rise during heating were compared with results of in vitro testing using bovine brain samples. The results demonstrate that the device has good MRI compatibility and is capable of generating output surface intensities of greater than 20 W/cm2, which is sufficient to ablate tissue at depths of more than 10 mm from the probe in less than four minutes of heating.

  1. A study of ICAM expression in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of using sICAM-1 as a marker for follow-up of treatment. The micro-ELISA method was adopted. The brain stem gliomas showed positive results in 67%. Overall, 23% of brain tumors showed positive results. It is possible that we can use sICAM-1 as a marker for metastatic brain tumors, and measurement after radiation therapy is not reliable. 6 refs. (Author) (Author).

  2. Comparative dosimetric study of three-dimensional conformal, dynamic conformal arc, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for brain tumor treatment using Novalis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric differences among three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for brain tumor treatment. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients treated with Novalis were selected. We performed 3D-CRT, DCAT, and IMRT plans for all patients. The margin for the planning target volume (PTV) was 1 mm, and the specific prescription dose was 90% for all plans. The target coverage at the prescription dose, conformity index (CI), and heterogeneity index were analyzed for all plans. Results: For small tumors (PTV ≤2 cm3), the three dosimetric parameters had approximate values for both 3D-CRT and DCAT plans. The CI for the IMRT plans was high. For medium tumors (PTV >2 to ≤100 cm3), the three plans were competitive with each other. The IMRT plans had a greater CI, better target coverage at the prescription dose, and a better heterogeneity index. For large tumors (PTV >100 cm3), the IMRT plan had good target coverage at the prescription dose and heterogeneity index and approximate CI values as those in the 3D-CRT and DCAT plans. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that DCAT is suitable for most cases in the treatment of brain tumors. For a small target, 3D-CRT is useful, and IMRT is not recommended. For larger tumors, IMRT is superior to 3D-CRT and very competitive in sparing critical structures, especially for big tumors

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  4. Targeted Toxins in Brain Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Hall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted toxins, also known as immunotoxins or cytotoxins, are recombinant molecules that specifically bind to cell surface receptors that are overexpressed in cancer and the toxin component kills the cell. These recombinant proteins consist of a specific antibody or ligand coupled to a protein toxin. The targeted toxins bind to a surface antigen or receptor overexpressed in tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor or interleukin-13 receptor. The toxin part of the molecule in all clinically used toxins is modified from bacterial or plant toxins, fused to an antibody or carrier ligand. Targeted toxins are very effective against cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. They are far more potent than any known chemotherapy drug. Targeted toxins have shown an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical studies and have demonstrated evidence of a tumor response. Currently, clinical trials with some targeted toxins are complete and the final results are pending. This review summarizes the characteristics of targeted toxins and the key findings of the important clinical studies with targeted toxins in malignant brain tumor patients. Obstacles to successful treatment of malignant brain tumors include poor penetration into tumor masses, the immune response to the toxin component and cancer heterogeneity. Strategies to overcome these limitations are being pursued in the current generation of targeted toxins.

  5. Nuclear microprobe determination of platinum quantitative distribution in rat brain tumors after cisplatin or carboplatin injection for PAT treatment of glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R.; Biston, M.-C.; Devès, G.; Bohic, S.; Carmona, A.

    2005-04-01

    Conventional radiotherapy of high-grade glioma is unsuccessful since less than 50% of patients survive at 6 months, therefore glioma treatment is still challenging. A new radiotherapy procedure has been recently proposed, the photoactivation therapy (PAT), associating synchrotron radiation with a chemotherapy agent, such as cisplatin. PAT aims at using the monochromaticity and the very high brilliance of the synchrotron radiation for selective excitation of a high-Z compound introduced in tumor cell DNA to maximize the photoelectric effect probability, thus increasing local toxicity. Synchrotron irradiation of cisplatin at the platinum absorption K-edge resulted in a dramatic increase in life span relative to median survival time in the F98 glioma model in Fisher rat. In the purpose to optimize the platinum concentration into the tumor, the platinum content of irradiated target needs to be quantified. These results will enable to correlate injected dose to cellular platinum content in the tumor at the time of irradiation, and to study the spatial diffusion and distribution of the platinum into the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissues from the point of injection. Male Fisher 344 rats were inoculated with 103 F98 glioma cells. Thirteen days after stereotactic inoculation, intracerebral injection at the tumor site of 40 μg of carboplatin and 3 or 5 μg of cisplatin was performed. Platinum quantitative distribution in tumors and adjacent brain tissues was determined using μ-PIXE and μ-RBS analysis.

  6. Nuclear microprobe determination of platinum quantitative distribution in rat brain tumors after cisplatin or carboplatin injection for PAT treatment of glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, R. [Chimie Nucleaire Analytique Bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084 CNRS/Universite de Bordeaux 1, Gradignan 33175 (France)]. E-mail: ortega@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Biston, M.-C. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale ' Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Medicale' and ID17 Medical Beamline, ESRF, Grenoble (France); Deves, G. [Chimie Nucleaire Analytique Bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084 CNRS/Universite de Bordeaux 1, Gradignan 33175 (France); Bohic, S. [ID22 Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Carmona, A. [Chimie Nucleaire Analytique Bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084 CNRS/Universite de Bordeaux 1, Gradignan 33175 (France); Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    Conventional radiotherapy of high-grade glioma is unsuccessful since less than 50% of patients survive at 6 months, therefore glioma treatment is still challenging. A new radiotherapy procedure has been recently proposed, the photoactivation therapy (PAT), associating synchrotron radiation with a chemotherapy agent, such as cisplatin. PAT aims at using the monochromaticity and the very high brilliance of the synchrotron radiation for selective excitation of a high-Z compound introduced in tumor cell DNA to maximize the photoelectric effect probability, thus increasing local toxicity. Synchrotron irradiation of cisplatin at the platinum absorption K-edge resulted in a dramatic increase in life span relative to median survival time in the F98 glioma model in Fisher rat. In the purpose to optimize the platinum concentration into the tumor, the platinum content of irradiated target needs to be quantified. These results will enable to correlate injected dose to cellular platinum content in the tumor at the time of irradiation, and to study the spatial diffusion and distribution of the platinum into the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissues from the point of injection. Male Fisher 344 rats were inoculated with 10{sup 3} F98 glioma cells. Thirteen days after stereotactic inoculation, intracerebral injection at the tumor site of 40 {mu}g of carboplatin and 3 or 5 {mu}g of cisplatin was performed. Platinum quantitative distribution in tumors and adjacent brain tissues was determined using {mu}-PIXE and {mu}-RBS analysis.

  7. Histamine in brain development and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, P; Lintunen, M; Karlstedt, K

    2000-02-01

    Histamine is found in developing mammalian brain in both neurons and mast cells. Under normal conditions, histamine H1 and H2 receptors are found in neural, glial and endothelial cells, and H3 receptors at least on neurons. Experimental brain tumors display both H1 and H2 receptors, and histamine increases permeability in the tumors and in the neighboring areas. Many studies have addressed histaminergic signalling mechanisms in cell lines originating from brain tumors. However, the role of histamine in normal development of brain structures, proliferation and differentiation of neurons and glial cells, and growth of malignant tumors in situ is still poorly understood. PMID:10888266

  8. Validation of the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer brain cancer module (EORTC QLQ-BN20) in patients with brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Jeong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Brain Cancer Module has been translated into Korean, but to date, its reliability and validity have been evaluated in a pilot study alone. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire is, overall, a valid instrument to assess the health-related quality of life in Korean cancer patients, although its reliability and validity have not yet been evaluated ...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF BRAIN TUMOR IDENTIFICATION USING SVM AND CLASSIFICATION USING BAYESIAN CLASSIFIER IN MRI IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Sree Sankar.J*, R.A. Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the deadly diseases. Identifying the type of the brain tumor is very essential for the planning of treatment and surgery. Early detection and classification of the tumors will increase the chances of survival. In this paper we propose a methodology for the detection and classification of brain tumors from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. Here for the tumor detection Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used and for classification of tumor Bayesian classifier is used....

  10. Differentiation between treatment-related changes and progressive disease in patients with high grade brain tumors using support vector machine classification based on DCE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzi, Moran; Liberman, Gilad; Nadav, Guy; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Bokstein, Felix; Aizenstein, Orna; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2016-05-01

    Differentiation between treatment-related changes and progressive disease (PD) remains a major clinical challenge in the follow-up of patients with high grade brain tumors. The aim of this study was to differentiate between treatment-related changes and PD using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. Twenty patients were scanned using conventional, DCE-MRI and MR spectroscopy (total of 44 MR scans). The enhanced lesion area was extracted using independent components analysis of the DCE data. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from the DCE data based on the Extended-Tofts-Model. Voxel based classification for treatment-related changes versus PD was performed in a patient-wise leave-one-out manner, using a support vector machine classifier. DCE parameters, K (trans), v e, k ep and v p, significantly differentiated between the tissue types. Classification results were validated using spectroscopy data showing significantly higher choline/creatine values in the extracted PD component compared to areas with treatment-related changes and normal appearing white matter, and high correlation between choline/creatine values and the percentage of the identified PD component within the lesion area (r = 0.77, p importance for pre-operative planning, guidance for targeting biopsy, and early prediction of radiological outcomes in patients with high grade brain tumors. PMID:26754857

  11. The Role of Surgery, Radiosurgery and Whole Brain Radiation Therapy in the Management of Patients with Metastatic Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    CHAN, MICHAEL D.; Neal, Matthew T.; Ellis, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumors constitute the most common intracranial tumor. Management of brain metastases has become increasingly complex as patients with brain metastases are living longer and more treatment options develop. The goal of this paper is to review the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), and surgery, in isolation and in combination, in the contemporary treatment of brain metastases. Surgery and SRS both offer management options that may help to optimiz...

  12. Pre-treatment effects of peripheral tumors on brain and behavior: neuroinflammatory mechanisms in humans and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrepf, Andrew; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Pyter, Leah M

    2015-10-01

    Cancer patients suffer high levels of affective and cognitive disturbances, which have been attributed to diagnosis-related distress, impairment of quality of life, and side effects of primary treatment. An inflammatory microenvironment is also a feature of the vast majority of solid tumors. However, the ability of tumor-associated biological processes to affect the central nervous system (CNS) has only recently been explored in the context of symptoms of depression and cognitive disturbances. In this review, we summarize the burgeoning evidence from rodent cancer models that solid tumors alter neurobiological pathways and subsequent behavioral processes with relevance to affective and cognitive disturbances reported in human cancer populations. We consider, in parallel, the evidence from human clinical cancer research demonstrating that affective and cognitive disturbances are common in some malignancies prior to diagnosis and treatment. We further consider the underlying neurobiological pathways, including altered neuroinflammation, tryptophan metabolism, prostaglandin synthesis and associated neuroanatomical changes, that are most strongly implicated in the rodent literature and supported by analogous evidence from human cancer populations. We focus on the implications of these findings for behavioral researchers and clinicians, with particular emphasis on methodological issues and areas of future research. PMID:25958011

  13. Cancer stem cells and brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Castillo, Ana; Aguilar Morante, Diana; Morales-García, José A.; Dorado, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Besides the role of normal stem cells in organogenesis, cancer stem cells are thought to be crucial for tumorigenesis. Most current research on human tumors is focused on molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, evidence in leukemia and, more recently, in solid tumors suggests that the tumor cell population is heterogeneous. In recent years, several groups have described the existence of a cancer stem cell population in different brain tumors. These neural cancer stem ...

  14. Outcome of surgical resection for brain metastases and radical treatment of the primary tumor in Chinese non–small-cell lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhenye; Zhang, Xiangheng; Jiang, Xiaobing; Guo, Chengcheng; Sai, Ke; Yang, Qunying; He, Zhenqiang; Wang, Yang; Chen, Zhongping; Li, Wei; Mou, Yonggao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastasis is the most common complication of brain cancer; nevertheless, primary lung cancer accounts for approximately 20%–40% of brain metastases cases. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for brain metastases. However, no studies have reported the outcome of surgical resection of brain metastases from non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the People’s Republic of China. Moreover, the optimal treatment for primary NSCLC in patients with synchronous brain metastases ...

  15. Specific features of epilepsy in children with brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Kalmykova; A. F. Neretina; Zh. Yu. Chefranova

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to study the specific features of epilepsy in children and adolescents with brain tumors and to define the optimal tactics of management and antiepileptic therapy after surgical treatment. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients aged 5 months to 15 years were examined. All the patients were diagnosed as having a brain tumor found in the presence of symptomatic epilepsy. They were all followed up for 5 years postsurgery or during their lifetime (in case of death). Comprehensive exa...

  16. Recent advances in imaging of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    D A Sanghvi

    2009-01-01

    The recent advances in brain tumor imaging offer unique anatomical as well as pathophysiological information that provides new insights on brain tumors, directed at facilitating therapeutic decisions and providing information regarding prognosis. This information is presently utilized in clinical practice for initial diagnosis and noninvasive, preoperative grading of tumors, biopsy planning, surgery, and radiation portal planning, as well as, prognostication. The newer advances described in t...

  17. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?

    OpenAIRE

    Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an...

  18. The impact of dietary isoflavonoids on malignant brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Weiss, Ruth; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Hore, Nirjhar; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Iiker Y; Savaskan, Nic E

    2014-08-01

    Poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options render malignant brain tumors one of the most devastating diseases in clinical medicine. Current treatment strategies attempt to expand the therapeutic repertoire through the use of multimodal treatment regimens. It is here that dietary fibers have been recently recognized as a supportive natural therapy in augmenting the body's response to tumor growth. Here, we investigated the impact of isoflavonoids on primary brain tumor cells. First, we treated glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes with various isoflavonoids and phytoestrogens. Cell viability in a dose-dependent manner was measured for biochanin A (BCA), genistein (GST), and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Dose-response action for the different isoflavonoids showed that BCA is highly effective on glioma cells and nontoxic for normal differentiated brain tissues. We further investigated BCA in ex vivo and in vivo experimentations. Organotypic brain slice cultures were performed and treated with BCA. For in vivo experiments, BCA was intraperitoneal injected in tumor-implanted Fisher rats. Tumor size and edema were measured and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In vascular organotypic glioma brain slice cultures (VOGIM) we found that BCA operates antiangiogenic and neuroprotective. In vivo MRI scans demonstrated that administered BCA as a monotherapy was effective in reducing significantly tumor-induced brain edema and showed a trend for prolonged survival. Our results revealed that dietary isoflavonoids, in particular BCA, execute toxicity toward glioma cells, antiangiogenic, and coevally neuroprotective properties, and therefore augment the range of state-of-the-art multimodal treatment approach. PMID:24898306

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging method based on the detecting signal from hydrogen nuclei of water molecules and fat. Performances of MRI are continuously increasing, and its domains of investigation of the human body are growing in both morphological and functional study. MRI also allows It also performing advanced management of tumours especially in the brain, by combining anatomical information (morphological MRI), functional (diffusion, perfusion and BOLD contrast) and metabolic (tissue composition in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). The MRI techniques have an important role in cancerology. These techniques allow essential information for the diagnosis and answering therapist's questions before, during or after the treatment. The MR allows clarifying the localization of expanding processes, the differential diagnosis between brain tumour and a lesion confined by another structural aspect, the diagnosis of the tumoral aspect of a lesion, the histological ranking in case of glial tumour and the extension of its localization as well as the therapeutic follow-up (pre-therapeutic and post-therapeutics assessments). A better combination between the morphological, functional and metabolic studies, as well as integrating new technical developments, especially while using a multichannel bird cage coils the 3T magnet and suitable computing software, would allow significant improvements of the exploration strategies and management of brain tumors.

  20. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Brain tumors: Special characters for research and banking

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Kheirollahi; Sepideh Dashti; Zahra Khalaj; Fatemeh Nazemroaia; Parvin Mahzouni

    2015-01-01

    A brain tumor is an intracranial neoplasm within the brain or in the central spinal canal. Primary malignant brain tumors affect about 200,000 people worldwide every year. Brain cells have special characters. Due to the specific properties of brain tumors, including epidemiology, growth, and division, investigation of brain tumors and the interpretation of results is not simple. Research to identify the genetic alterations of human tumors improves our knowledge of tumor biology, genetic inter...

  2. Differentiation of local tumor recurrence from radiation-induced changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases frequently displays local changes in the area of applied irradiation, which are often difficult to interpret (e.g., local tumor recurrence, radiation-induced changes). The use of stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of these changes has a high diagnostic accuracy and can be considered as method of choice. In order to solve this relevant clinical problem non-invasively, advanced MRI techniques and amino acid positron-emission-tomography (PET) are increasingly used. We report the long-term follow-up of a patient who had been treated with linear accelerator based SRS for cerebral metastases of a lung cancer. Fifty-eight months after SRS, the differentiation of local recurrent brain metastasis from radiation-induced changes using structural MRI was difficult. For further differentiation, perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and 11C-methyl-L-methionine (MET) PET was performed. Due to artifacts and technical limitations, PWI MRI and MRS findings were not conclusive. In contrast, MET PET findings were suggestive for radiation-induced changes. Finally, a stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of these changes demonstrated clearly a radiation-induced necrosis and the absence of vital tumor. The use of stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of indistinguishable lesions on structural MRI after SRS for treatment of brain metastasis represents a highly reliable method to differentiate local tumor recurrence from radiation-induced changes. In this field, results of studies with both advanced MRI techniques and amino acid PET suggest encouraging results. However, artifacts and technical limitations (e.g., lesion size) are still a problem and comparative studies are needed to investigate the relationship, diagnostic performance, and complementary character of advanced MRI techniques and amino acid PET

  3. A Case Report of Brain Stem Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nazari

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain and spinal cord tumors are the most frequent neoplasms after leukemia in children. Brain stem glioma is responsible for 10-20% of brain tumors in this group and often found in pons presenting with cerebellar signs, cranial nerve palsies, pyramidal signs and eventually increased intracranial pressure Case Report: In this article we reported an 11 year old girl affected with brain stem tumor with signs of headache, dizziness, vomiting and ataxia. Strabismus due to palsy of sixth cranial nerve, and dysarthria was observed. Conclusion: Children complaining of vomiting, headache and dizziness for a long time must be assessed for brain tumor in posterior fossa that sometimes may lead to increased intracranial pressure. An exact neurological examination can be worth guide to diagnosis.

  4. Cortical Plasticity in the Setting of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Ryan A; Jost, Ethan; Shaw, Katharina; Brennan, Nicole Petrovich; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-02-01

    Cortical reorganization of function due to the growth of an adjacent brain tumor has clearly been demonstrated in a number of surgically proven cases. Such cases demonstrate the unmistakable implications for the neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors, as the cortical function may not reside where one may initially suspect based solely on the anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, preoperative localization of eloquent areas adjacent to a brain tumor is necessary, as this may demonstrate unexpected organization, which may affect the neurosurgical approach to the lesion. However, in interpreting functional MRI studies, the interpreting physician must be cognizant of artifacts, which may limit the accuracy of functional MRI in the setting of brain tumors. PMID:26848558

  5. Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. (orig.)

  6. Primary brain lymphoma. Effectiveness and secondary effects of the onco specific treatment in patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been stated that the effectiveness of chemotherapy for the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has not been proved; however, the intravenous or intrathecal treatment with methotrexate dse has been used and satisfactory results have been obtained. The case of a patient with diagnosis of PCNSL and an intraparenchymatous infiltration on the left temporoparietal region at the onset of the disease, and later on the homo lateral pontocerebellar angle, is reported. Systemic and intrathecal onco specific polychemotherapy and holocranial radiotherapy were applied. All the reported lesions disappeared, and a satisfactory evolution was observed, although this patient had severe late alterations of his higher psychical functions with progressive cognoscitive and behavioral disorders. Lesions such as cortical atrophy, leukoatrophy, dilated ventricular system, and hyper intensive areas in the white matter of the brain without tumoral recurrence were evidenced in the imaging study. The positive impact of chemotherapy on the treatment of primary brain lymphoma was verified, as well as the neurotoxicity in the central nervous system caused by the onco specific treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy). It was considered that radiotherapy and combined therapy should be only used in relapses. It was recommended to conduct a comparative clinical study with periodical neuropsychological assessments to determine the possible neurotoxic effect caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. From the clinical and imaging point of view, the patient presented a neurotoxic atrophic leucoencephalopathy

  7. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-04-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. PMID:26888042

  8. Brain tumor stem cell dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Bozzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Issues regarding cancer stem cell (CSC movement are important in neurosphere biology as cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may have significant impacts on CSC differentiation and contribute to the heterogeneity of the neurosphere. Aims. Despite the growing body of literature data on the biology of brain tumor stem cells, floating CSC-derived neurospheres have been scarcely characterized from a morphological and ultrastructural point of view. Results. Here we report a morphological and ultrastructural characterization performed by live imaging and scanning electron microscopy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM CSC-derived neurospheres are heterogeneous and are constituted by cells, morphologically different, capable of forming highly dynamic structures. These dynamic structures are regulated by not serendipitous cell-cell interactions, and they synchronously pulsate following a cyclic course made of "fast" and "slow" alternate phases. Autocrine/paracrine non canonical Wnt signalling appears to be correlated with the association status of neurospheres. Conclusions. The results obtained suggest that GBM CSCs can behave both as independents cells and as "social" cells, highly interactive with other members of its species, giving rise to a sort of "multicellular organism".

  9. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Sulafa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  10. Stages of Adult Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unknown Primary Treatment Colon Cancer Treatment Leukemia Home Page Melanoma Treatment Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Renal Cell Cancer Treatment Small Cell ...

  11. A minimally invasive treatment option for large metastatic brain tumors: long-term results of two-session Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large brain metastases (BM) remain a significant cause of morbidity and death for cancer patients despite current advances in multimodality therapies. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and limitations of 2-session Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with large BM. This is a prospective, open-label and single arm study analyzing 58 consecutive patients who received 2-session SRS for large BM (≥ 10 mL). The median age was 66 years, and the median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was 70. SRS was the initial treatment in 51 large tumors (84%) and was used as salvage after failed prior treatments for 10 tumors (16%). The fraction protocol was 20-30 Gy given in 2 fractions with 3–4 weeks between fractions. Overall survival (OS) and neurological death (ND), local tumor control and KPS were analyzed. The median follow-up time was 9.0 months. One- and 2-year OS rates were 47% and 20%, respectively. The median OS time was 11.8 months (95% CI: 5.5-15.6). The causes of death were intracranial local progression in 5 cases, meningeal carcinomatosis in 3 and progression of the primary lesion in 39. One- and 2-year ND-free survival rates were 91% and 84%, respectively. In 52 of 61 large BM (85%) with sufficient radiological follow-up data, 6- and 12-month local tumor control rates were 85% and 64%, respectively. The mean KPS improved from 70 at the 1st SRS to 82 at the 2nd; the first follow-up mean KPS was 87 (P < 0.001). Symptomatic radiation injury developed and required conservative treatment in 3 patients (5%). Long-term follow-up showed that two-session Gamma Knife SRS achieved durable tumor control rates as well as acceptable treatment-related morbidity. This treatment method may potentially merit being offered to patients with large BM who are in poor condition or are otherwise ineligible for standard care

  12. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Membership Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    BTEC welcomes new members interested in the development of multi-center, inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes and prevention of all brain tumors.

  13. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain t...

  14. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Sune K.; Duun-Christensen, Anne Katrine; Kristensen, Brian H.;

    2010-01-01

    undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors received a weekly CBCT. In total 18 scans was matched with both CT and MRI as reference. The CBCT scans were acquired using a Clinac iX 2300 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) with an On-Board Imager (OBI). Results. For the phantom......Background. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often used in modern day radiotherapy (RT) due to superior soft tissue contrast. However, treatment planning based solely on MRI is restricted due to e. g. the limitations of conducting online patient setup verification using MRI as reference. In this...... study 3D/3D MRI-Cone Beam CT (CBCT) automatching for online patient setup verification was investigated. Material and methods. Initially, a multi-modality phantom was constructed and used for a quantitative comparison of CT-CBCT and MRI-CBCT automatching. Following the phantom experiment three patients...

  15. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giem, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I; Young, J; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases.

  16. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases

  17. Permeability imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Sandi; Lin, Yimo; Warnke, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    While traditional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging illustrate the structural morphology of brain pathology, newer, dynamic imaging techniques are able to show the movement of contrast throughout the brain parenchyma and across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These data, in combination with pharmacokinetic models, can be used to investigate BBB permeability, which has wide-ranging applications in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in ...

  18. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors delivered with active raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): early treatment results and study concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle irradiation was established at the University of Heidelberg 2 years ago. To date, more than 400 patients have been treated including patients with primary brain tumors. In malignant glioma (WHO IV) patients, two clinical trials have been set up-one investigating the benefit of a carbon ion (18 GyE) vs. a proton boost (10 GyE) in addition to photon radiotherapy (50 Gy), the other one investigating reirradiation with escalating total dose schedules starting at 30 GyE. In atypical meningioma patients (WHO °II), a carbon ion boost of 18 GyE is applied to macroscopic tumor residues following previous photon irradiation with 50 Gy. This study was set up in order to investigate toxicity and response after proton and carbon ion therapy for gliomas and meningiomas. 33 patients with gliomas (n = 26) and meningiomas (n = 7) were treated with carbon ion (n = 26) and proton (n = 7) radiotherapy. In 22 patients, particle irradiation was combined with photon therapy. Temozolomide-based chemotherapy was combined with particle therapy in 17 patients with gliomas. Particle therapy as reirradiation was conducted in 7 patients. Target volume definition was based upon CT, MRI and PET imaging. Response was assessed by MRI examinations, and progression was diagnosed according to the Macdonald criteria. Toxicity was classified according to CTCAE v4.0. Treatment was completed and tolerated well in all patients. Toxicity was moderate and included fatigue (24.2%), intermittent cranial nerve symptoms (6%) and single episodes of seizures (6%). At first and second follow-up examinations, mean maximum tumor diameters had slightly decreased from 29.7 mm to 27.1 mm and 24.9 mm respectively. Nine glioma patients suffered from tumor relapse, among these 5 with infield relapses, causing death in 8 patients. There was no progression in any meningioma patient. Particle radiotherapy is safe and feasible in patients with primary brain tumors. It is associated with little toxicity. A positive

  19. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors delivered with active raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT: early treatment results and study concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieken Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle irradiation was established at the University of Heidelberg 2 years ago. To date, more than 400 patients have been treated including patients with primary brain tumors. In malignant glioma (WHO IV patients, two clinical trials have been set up-one investigating the benefit of a carbon ion (18 GyE vs. a proton boost (10 GyE in addition to photon radiotherapy (50 Gy, the other one investigating reirradiation with escalating total dose schedules starting at 30 GyE. In atypical meningioma patients (WHO °II, a carbon ion boost of 18 GyE is applied to macroscopic tumor residues following previous photon irradiation with 50 Gy. This study was set up in order to investigate toxicity and response after proton and carbon ion therapy for gliomas and meningiomas. Methods 33 patients with gliomas (n = 26 and meningiomas (n = 7 were treated with carbon ion (n = 26 and proton (n = 7 radiotherapy. In 22 patients, particle irradiation was combined with photon therapy. Temozolomide-based chemotherapy was combined with particle therapy in 17 patients with gliomas. Particle therapy as reirradiation was conducted in 7 patients. Target volume definition was based upon CT, MRI and PET imaging. Response was assessed by MRI examinations, and progression was diagnosed according to the Macdonald criteria. Toxicity was classified according to CTCAE v4.0. Results Treatment was completed and tolerated well in all patients. Toxicity was moderate and included fatigue (24.2%, intermittent cranial nerve symptoms (6% and single episodes of seizures (6%. At first and second follow-up examinations, mean maximum tumor diameters had slightly decreased from 29.7 mm to 27.1 mm and 24.9 mm respectively. Nine glioma patients suffered from tumor relapse, among these 5 with infield relapses, causing death in 8 patients. There was no progression in any meningioma patient. Conclusions Particle radiotherapy is safe and feasible in patients with primary brain

  20. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanqun Qiao; Qingquan Li; Gang Peng; Jun Ma; Hongwei Fan; Yingbin Li

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are stil unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cel s and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cel s were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibril ary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibril ary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibril ary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cel s. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells.

  1. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  2. Performance Analysis of Unsupervised Clustering Methods for Brain Tumor Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar H Jaware

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical image processing is the most challenging and emerging field of neuroscience. The ultimate goal of medical image analysis in brain MRI is to extract important clinical features that would improve methods of diagnosis & treatment of disease. This paper focuses on methods to detect & extract brain tumour from brain MR images. MATLAB is used to design, software tool for locating brain tumor, based on unsupervised clustering methods. K-Means clustering algorithm is implemented & tested on data base of 30 images. Performance evolution of unsupervised clusteringmethods is presented.

  3. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  4. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva S, A. [General Electric Healthcare, Antonio Dovali Jaime 70, Torre A 3er. piso, Col. Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)

  5. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)

  6. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  7. Recent developments in brain tumor predisposing syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The etiologies of brain tumors are in the most cases unknown, but improvements in genetics and DNA screening have helped to identify a wide range of brain tumor predisposition disorders. In this review we are discussing some of the most common predisposition disorders, namely: neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, schwannomatosis, rhabdoid tumor predisposition disorder, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes. Recent findings from the GLIOGENE collaboration and the newly identified glioma causing gene POT1, will also be discussed. Genetics. We will describe these disorders from a genetic and clinical standpoint, focusing on the difference in clinical symptoms depending on the underlying gene or germline mutation. Central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most of these disorders predispose the carriers to a wide range of symptoms. Herein, we will focus particularly on tumors affecting the CNS and discuss improvements of targeted therapy for the particular disorders. PMID:26634384

  8. Delayed contrast extravasation MRI for depicting tumor and non-tumoral tissues in primary and metastatic brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Zach

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that

  9. Fate of foreign DNA in mammalian organisms. Project task: use of foreign DNA for treatment of malignant brain tumors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical synthesis of the guanosine analogon Ganciclovir (GCV) was first examined as a possibly suitable approach, as this pro-drug is a licensed drug for treatment of cytomegaly virus infections. As the labelling of GCV was found to be unsatisfactory, tests examining the labelling of another specific HSV-1-TK substrate, the uracil derivative 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1β-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil (FAU), with 124I were made and proved to be successful. In order to assess the tumor uptake of 124I-FIAU, the kinetics of 124I-FIAU was studied in healthy cats and in a patient with relapse of a glioblastoma. Results of the study: The radiochemical yields range from 41.5 to 64%, the chemical and radiochemical purity is > 96% or 98%, respectively, on the average. In the healthy organism, spreading of the 124I-FIAU took only a few minutes, depending on blood supply of the organ, and excretion via the kidneys was completed in a very short time. Whereas only a small fraction of the 124I could penetrate the intact blood-brain barrier, a significant uptake of 124I-FIAU in a glioblastoma with defective blood-brain barrier was observed (1 h after application), as well as subsequent exponential clearance. (orig./CB)

  10. Preliminary results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for benign brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ock [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Mun [Cellege of Medicine, Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the role of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of benign brain tumors, we reviewed the clinical, and radiographic responses of patients treated. Between March 1996 and March 2002, 36 patients with benign brain tumors were treated by FSRT. The pathological diagnoses consisted of pituitary adenomas (12 patients), craniopharyngiomas (5 patients), meningiomas (10 patients), and acoustic neurinomas (9 patients). Radiotherapy doses of 25 to 35 Gy (3-6 Gy/fraction, 5-10 fractions) were prescribed to the 85-90% isodose line, depending upon the location, size and volume of the tumors. The median clinical and radiographical followup periods were 31 [range, 2-74) and 21 (range, 4-56) months, respectively. In the 35 patients that could be evaluated for their clinical response, 13 (37.1%) were considered improved, 16 (45.7%) stable and 6 (17.2%) worse. Of the 33 patients who had radiographic studies, tumor shrinkage was noted in 17 (51.5%), tumor stabilization in 13 (39.4%), and tumor progression in 3 (9,1%). Of the 17 tumor shrinkage patients, 7 [21.2%) showed a complete response, Acute radiation-induced complications occurred in 11 (30.6%) patients. FSRT is considered a safe and effective treatment method for benign brain tumors but large numbers of patients, with relatively long follow-up periods are needed to assess the exact role or effect of FSRT.

  11. Factors influencing the survival of rat brain tumor cells after in vitro treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, K.T.; Tel, N.; Williams, M.E.; Sheppard, S.; Levin, V.A.; Kara, P.M.

    1975-06-01

    The shape of dose-response curves obtained for asynchronous, exponential growing 9L rat brain tumor cells treated in vitro with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea changed as a function of the drug exposure time. For short treatment times (<1 hr), the dose-response curves had shoulders, indicating that the cells may accumulate sublethal damage; however, after longer treatments (>1 hr), little if any shoulder was apparent. The slope of the exponential portion of the dose-response curve increased progressively with treatment periods from 15 min to 2 hr. Longer exposure times (up to 24 hr) produced no further changes in the cell-kill kinetics. Cell survival was directly related to the BCNU exposure dose and to the amount of bound BCNU per cell. Extrapolation of the curves for these two variables indicated that some BCNU damage accumulates before death occurs. The amount of serum and cell products available in the medium to bind BCNU affected the level of survival; however, there was no evidence that extracellular spontaneous breakdown products or chemical transformation products were involved in the cell-killing mechanism. (auth)

  12. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hong-ying; Zhang Yong-qin; Wang Rui; Lin Wei; Zhang Yong-qiang; Zhang Xiang; Liu Bo-lin; Cheng Jin-xiang; Xie Li; Huo Jun-li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time...

  13. The impact of dietary isoflavonoids on malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options render malignant brain tumors one of the most devastating diseases in clinical medicine. Current treatment strategies attempt to expand the therapeutic repertoire through the use of multimodal treatment regimens. It is here that dietary fibers have been recently recognized as a supportive natural therapy in augmenting the body's response to tumor growth. Here, we investigated the impact of isoflavonoids on primary brain tumor cells. First, we treated glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes with various isoflavonoids and phytoestrogens. Cell viability in a dose-dependent manner was measured for biochanin A (BCA), genistein (GST), and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Dose–response action for the different isoflavonoids showed that BCA is highly effective on glioma cells and nontoxic for normal differentiated brain tissues. We further investigated BCA in ex vivo and in vivo experimentations. Organotypic brain slice cultures were performed and treated with BCA. For in vivo experiments, BCA was intraperitoneal injected in tumor-implanted Fisher rats. Tumor size and edema were measured and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In vascular organotypic glioma brain slice cultures (VOGIM) we found that BCA operates antiangiogenic and neuroprotective. In vivo MRI scans demonstrated that administered BCA as a monotherapy was effective in reducing significantly tumor-induced brain edema and showed a trend for prolonged survival. Our results revealed that dietary isoflavonoids, in particular BCA, execute toxicity toward glioma cells, antiangiogenic, and coevally neuroprotective properties, and therefore augment the range of state-of-the-art multimodal treatment approach

  14. Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  15. Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Glioblastoma Patients Undergoing Bevacizumab Treatment Are Seen in Both Tumor and Normal Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Jalal B; Nagpal, Seema; Hippe, Daniel S; Ravanpay, Ali C.; Schmiedeskamp, Heiko; Bammer, Roland; Palagallo, Gerald J; Recht, Lawrence; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV) is increasingly used to treat recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) with some reported improvement in neurocognitive function despite potential neurotoxicities. We examined the effects of BEV on cerebral blood flow (CBF) within recurrent GBM tumor and in the contralateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory.

  16. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Chi; Ritsuko Komaki

    2010-01-01

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will com...

  17. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30 in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong-ying

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0 in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0 was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery; T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms. Conclusions The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity.

  18. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery); T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms. Conclusions The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity. PMID:21513533

  19. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, S.K.; Duun-Christensen, Anne Katrine; Kristensen, B.H.;

    2010-01-01

    undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors received a weekly CBCT. In total 18 scans was matched with both CT and MRI as reference. The CBCT scans were acquired using a Clinac iX 2300 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) with an On-Board Imager (OBI). Results. For the phantom...

  20. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediated blood-brain tumor barrier opening in a rat metastatic brain tumor model

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) impedes the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumors. While adequate delivery of drugs occurs in systemic tumors, the BTB limits delivery of anti-tumor agents into brain metastases. Results In this study, we examined the function and regulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in a rat metastatic brain tumor model. We showed that intravenous infusion of NS1619, a KCa channel agonist, and bradykinin selectively enhanced BTB perm...

  1. Recent advances in imaging of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Sanghvi

    2009-01-01

    The next decade will witness further sophistication of these techniques, with data available from larger studies. It is expected that imaging will continue to provide new and unique insights in neuro-oncology, which should hopefully contribute to the better management of patients with brain tumors.

  2. MicroRNA and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were first described in 1993 by Lee and colleagues, and the term microRNA was only introduced in 2001 in a set of three articles in Science[1]. One of the biggest surprises in the past few years has been the emergence of miRNAs as a major new class of gene expression regulators. Recent studies suggest that miRNA alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer. The brain tumor,glioblastoma multiforme, is the most malignant and deadly form of gliomas.The prognosis is poor and the median survival with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy is only 14.6 months. With the discovery of miRNA, the miRNA profiles may become useful biomarkers for brain tumor diagnostics,and miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for brain tumor prevention and therapeutics. This review outlines the background of miRNA and its expression and therapeutic potential for brain tumors.

  3. Molecular Genetics Techniques to Develop New Treatments for Brain Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Jacob; Fathallan-Shaykh, Hassan

    2006-09-22

    The objectives of this report are: (1) to devise novel molecular gene therapies for malignant brain tumors, (2) advance our understanding of the immune system in the central nervous system; and (3) apply genomics to find molecular probes to diagnose brain tumors, predict prognosis, biological behavior and their response to treatment.

  4. The electroencephalogram in metastatic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pinto Pupo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty cases of intracranial metastatic tumors diagnosed either clinically or by neurosurgery (28 operative cases, 26 with radiological contrast examinations and 6 with clinical diagnosis only are reported. The EEG tests had been made previously to the diagnosis of metastasis. The EEG results are analysed according to the previous impression gained from this test and are presented in 5 tables, on which the cases are divided as per the brain topography of the metastasis. The positive EEG data are analysed and the possibility of topographic diagnosis discussed. The results agree with those presented in the literature. The AA. reach the following conclusions: 1 in patients with suspect brain metastasis the normal EEG allows with great probability to exclude the possibility; 2 in patients with malignant tumor the EEG signs of involvement of the nervous parenchyma are the most important elements for positive diagnosis of brain metastasis; 3 in the cases of metastasis developing at the posterior fossa, either there were indicative signs of the process at that level or the EEG was normal; 4 the EEG signs of an irritant process at the brain cortex were less frequent and, in the majority of cases, appeared in the temporal and parietal areas; 5 the signs of involvement of the mesodiencephalic structures in tumors of the brain hemispheres appeared only when the tumor was located in the median part of the hemisphere (temporal or parietal lobes; 6 signs of depression of the basal electric brain activity in the affected areas appeared rarely and in cases of parietal or occipital tumors; 7 the electric brain activity of other areas of the involved hemisphere or in the opposite hemisphere was normal in the majority of the cases observed. Considering the results of the literature and their own the AA. believe that the EEG could be a semiological method to be used at the preoperative examinations of patients with malignant tumors, with a view at establishing the

  5. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: new methods for mini-beams radiation therapy and treatment follow-up by functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative method of synchrotron radiation therapy, called mini-beams, was proposed by A. Dilmanian et al. in 2006. Mini-beams consists in tumor irradiation with monochromatic sub-millimetric x-ray beams spatially fractionated produced by a synchrotron source. To obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume, an interleaving is realized using two orthogonal incidences. Adjacent healthy tissue is only partially irradiated by mini-beams, the areas between the beams only receive scattered radiation and therefore the energy deposited is 10 to 15 times lower than on one mini-beam axis, leading to a sparing effect of healthy tissue even when a high dose is deposited in the target volume. The thesis project is the development of this experimental method of monochromatic mini-beams, which involves the control of the irradiation geometry, the control of dosimetry and its modeling by Monte Carlo simulations. To evaluate the method, preclinical experiments on models of brain tumors implanted in rats (F98) are performed. Follow-up by anatomical and functional imaging is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Functional imaging of cerebral perfusion (volume and cerebral blood flow, mean transit time of heavy elements) appears to be associated in the literature as a relevant method for monitoring prognostic. The key parameters of the cerebral vasculature are mainly studied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of the harmlessness of this imaging modality. The relation between MRI signal and contrast agent concentration is very complex and no quantitative relationship is well known. Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) is an imaging modality with performances to measure absolute contrast agent concentration very close to the theoretical limits and can be used as gold-standard. The used pharmacokinetic models need as input parameters a contrast agent concentration versus time. A comparison of perfusion measurements between MRI and SRCT

  6. Development of multifunctional nanoparticles for brain tumor diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Omid

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and drug delivery. MNPs have traditionally been developed for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery and multi-modal imaging using these nanoparticles. Opportunities now exist to engineer MNP with designated features (e.g., size, coatings, and molecular functionalizations) for specific biomedical applications. The goal of this interdisciplinary research project is to develop targeting multifunctional nanoparticles, serving as both contrast agents and drug carriers that can effectively pass biological barriers, for diagnosis, staging and treatment of brain tumors. The developed nanoparticle system consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core (NP) and a shell comprised of biodegradable polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan. Additionally, near-infrared fluorescing (NIRF) molecules were integrated onto the NP shell to enable optical detection. Tumor targeting was achieved by the addition of chlorotoxin, a peptide with that has high affinity to 74 out of the 79 classifications of primary brain tumors and ability to illicit a therapeutic effect. This novel NP system was tested both in vitro and in vivo and was shown to specifically target gliomas in tissue culture and medulloblastomas in transgenic mice with an intact blood brain barriers (BBB), and delineate tumor boundaries in both MR and optical imaging. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of this NP system was explored in vitro, which revealed a unique nanoparticle-enabled pathway that enhances the therapeutic potential of bound peptides by promoting the internalization of membrane bound cell surface receptors. This NP system was further modified with siRNA and evaluated as a carrier for brain tumor targeted gene therapy. Most significantly, the evaluation of

  7. Brain tumors in childhood; Hirntumoren im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinzig, M.; Gasser, J.; Hausegger, K.A. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Kinderradiologie RZI, Klagenfurt (Austria); Jauk, B. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Abt. fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in childhood and the second most common malignancies after leukemia in the pediatric age group. Supratentorial tumors are more common in children younger than 2 years old and in adolescents, whereas in patients between 2 and 12 years of age brain tumors originating in the posterior fossa dominate. This implies a relationship between the type of tumor, its location and the age of the patient, which has to be considered in differential diagnoses. Medulloblastoma represents the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. In the posterior fossa medulloblastomas are approximately as frequent as astrocytomas. Supratentorial astrocytomas are by far the main tumor type. In this report some typical CNS neoplasms in children are discussed and their neuroradiological features are demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Hirntumoren sind die haeufigsten soliden Tumoren des Kindesalters und repraesentieren nach den Leukaemien die zweithaeufigsten malignen Erkrankungen bei Kindern. Waehrend bei Kleinkindern und Adoleszenten supratentorielle Hirntumoren ueberwiegen, ist bei Patienten zwischen 2 und 12 Jahren haeufiger die hintere Schaedelgrube Ursprungsort dieser Malignome. Daraus geht hervor, dass gewisse Tumortypen eine gewisse Alterspraedilektion aufweisen, was neben der radiologischen Morphologie der Raumforderung fuer differenzialdiagnostische Ueberlegungen ueberaus hilfreich sein kann. Das Medulloblastom ist das haeufigste ZNS-Malignom des Kindesalters und repraesentiert zusammen mit zerebellaeren Astrozytomen auch den haeufigsten Tumortyp der hinteren Schaedelgrube. Supratentoriell stehen die Astrozytome ganz im Vordergrund. In dieser Arbeit werden einige typische kindliche infra- und supratentorielle Hirntumoren diskutiert und ihre neuroradiologischen Merkmale dargestellt. (orig.)

  8. Outcome of surgical resection for brain metastases and radical treatment of the primary tumor in Chinese non–small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhenye Li,1,3,* Xiangheng Zhang,1,* Xiaobing Jiang,1 Chengcheng Guo,1 Ke Sai,1 Qunying Yang,1 Zhenqiang He,1 Yang Wang,1 Zhongping Chen,1 Wei Li,2 Yonggao Mou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Purpose: Brain metastasis is the most common complication of brain cancer; nevertheless, primary lung cancer accounts for approximately 20%–40% of brain metastases cases. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for brain metastases. However, no studies have reported the outcome of surgical resection of brain metastases from non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in the People’s Republic of China. Moreover, the optimal treatment for primary NSCLC in patients with synchronous brain metastases is hitherto controversial. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of NSCLC patients with brain metastases who underwent neurosurgical resection at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, and assessed the efficacy of surgical resection and the necessity of aggressive treatment for primary NSCLC in synchronous brain metastases patients. Results: A total of 62 patients, including 47 men and 15 women, with brain metastases from NSCLC were enrolled in the study. The median age at the time of craniotomy was 54 years (range 29–76 years. At the final follow-up evaluation, 50 patients had died. The median OS time was 15.1 months, and the survival rates were 70% and 37% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The median OS

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer

  10. The Current and Future Treatment of Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Douglas A.; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common intracranial malignancy, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality in oncology patients. The current treatment paradigm for brain metastasis depends on the patient’s overall health status, the primary tumor pathology, and the number and location of brain lesions. Herein, we review the modern management options for these tumors, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Recent operative advances, such as fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and brachytherapy, are highlighted. With an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of brain metastasis come increased future therapeutic options. Therapy targeted to specific tumor molecular pathways, such as those involved in blood–brain barrier transgression, cell–cell adhesion, and angiogenesis, are also reviewed. A personalized plan for each patient, based on molecular characterizations of the tumor that are used to better target radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is undoubtedly the future of brain metastasis treatment. PMID:27252942

  11. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well

  12. Cyclosporin safety in a simplified rat brain tumor implantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Felix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer is the second neurological cause of death. A simplified animal brain tumor model using W256 (carcinoma 256, Walker cell line was developed to permit the testing of novel treatment modalities. Wistar rats had a cell tumor solution inoculated stereotactically in the basal ganglia (right subfrontal caudate. This model yielded tumor growth in 95% of the animals, and showed absence of extracranial metastasis and systemic infection. Survival median was 10 days. Estimated tumor volume was 17.08±6.7 mm³ on the 7th day and 67.25±19.8 mm³ on 9th day post-inoculation. Doubling time was 24.25 h. Tumor growth induced cachexia, but no hematological or biochemical alterations. This model behaved as an undifferentiated tumor and can be promising for studying tumor cell migration in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone 3.0 mg/kg/day diminished significantly survival in this model. Cyclosporine 10 mg/kg/day administration was safely tolerated.

  13. Brain tumor epilepsy: A reappraisal and six remaining issues to be debated.

    OpenAIRE

    Vercueil, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    International audience Epilepsy associated with brain tumors presents with specific features deserving medical attention. Although commonly reported in patients with brain tumor, either as revealing mode or as a remote complication, limited knowledge is available regarding their epidemiology, clinical evolution, surgical outcome, physiopathology and treatment, providing only clues for clinical management. Seizures appear even more threatening for patients and caregivers, providing seizures...

  14. Genetic and modifying factors that determine the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelli, Terezinha de Cresci Braga; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Serrão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina;

    2011-01-01

    of tumor escape, CNS tumor immunology, immune defects that impair anti-tumor systemic immunity in brain tumor patients and local immuno-suppressive factors within CNS are also reviewed. New hope to treatment perspectives, as dendritic-cell-based vaccines is summarized too. Concluding, it seems well...... established that there is association between brain tumor risk and mutagen sensitivity, which is highly heritable. Primary brain tumors cause depression in systemic host immunity; local immuno-suppressive factors and immunological characteristics of tumor cells may explain the poor prognosis and DNA damages...... responses can alert immune system. However, it is necessary to clarify if individuals with both constitutional defects in immune functions and genetic instability have higher risk of developing brain tumors. Cytogenetic prospective studies and gene copy number variations analysis also must be performed in...

  15. Differentiation of local tumor recurrence from radiation-induced changes after stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kickingereder, Philipp; Dorn, Franziska; Blau, Tobias; Schmidt, M.; Kocher, Martin; Galldiks, Norbert; Ruge, Maximilian I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Structural follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases frequently displays local changes in the area of applied irradiation, which are often difficult to interpret (e.g., local tumor recurrence, radiation-induced changes). The use of stereotactic biopsy for histological assessment of these changes has a high diagnostic accuracy and can be considered as method of choice. In order to solve this relevant clinical problem non-in...

  16. Treatment Options for Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors and Childhood Pineoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  17. Mapping of language brain areas in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Rasha; Kamel, Nidal; Boon, Tang Tong; Reza, Faruque

    2015-08-01

    Language cortex in the human brain shows high variability among normal individuals and may exhibit a considerable shift from its original position due to tumor growth. Mapping the precise location of language areas is important before surgery to avoid postoperative language deficits. In this paper, the Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording and the MRI scanning of six brain tumorous subjects are used to localize the language specific areas. MEG recordings were performed during two silent reading tasks; silent word reading and silent picture naming. MEG source imaging is performed using distributed source modeling technique called CLARA ("Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied"). Estimated MEG sources are overlaid on individual MRI of each patient to improve interpretation of MEG source imaging results. The results show successful identification of the essential language areas and clear definition of the time course of neural activation connecting them. PMID:26736340

  18. Brain tumors in man and animals: report of a workshop.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop on brain tumors in man and animals. Animals, especially rodents are often used as surrogates for man to detect chemicals that have the potential to induce brain tumors in man. Therefore, the workshop was focused mainly on brain tumors in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse because of the frequent use of these strains in long-term carcinogenesis studies. Over 100 brain tumors in F344 rats and more than 50 brain tumors in B6C3F1 mice were reviewed and ...

  19. Surgical Treatment in Uveal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment in uveal tumors can be done via iridectomy, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy (PLSU and endoresection. Iridectomy is done in iris tumors without angle and ciliary body involvement. PLSU is performed in tumors with ciliary body and choroidal involvement. For this operation, a partial thickness scleral flap is dissected, the intraocular tumor is excised, and the flap is sutured back in position. PLSU surgery is done in iridociliary and ciliary body tumors with less than 3 clock hours of iris and ciliary body involvement and in choroidal tumors with a base diameter less than 15 mm. However, it can be employed in any size tumor for biopsy purposes. Potential complications of PLSU surgery include vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. Endoresection is a technique whereby the intraocular tumor is excised using vitrectomy techniques. The rationale for performing endoresection is based on the fact that irradiated uveal melanomas may be associated with exudation and neovascular glaucoma and removing the dead tumor tissue may contribute to better visual outcome. There are some centers where endoresection is done without prior radiotherapy. Allegedly, avoidance of radiation retinopathy and papillopathy are the main advantages of using endoresection without prior radiotherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 29-34

  20. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    G., Narkhede Sachin; Khairnar, Vaishali

    2013-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data, biological patient data, data regarding access of web sites, financial data, and the like. This paper addresses some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR) image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity and anatomical meaning. With th...

  1. Metabolomics and proteomics studies of brain tumors : a chemometric bioinformatics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mörén, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The WHO classification of brain tumors is based on histological features and the aggressiveness of the tumor is classified from grade I to IV, where grade IV is the most aggressive. Today, the correlation between prognosis and tumor grade is the most important component in tumor classification. High grade gliomas, glioblastomas, are associated with poor prognosis and a median survival of 14 months including all available treatments. Low grade meningiomas, usually benign grade I tumors, are in...

  2. Pediatric brain stem tumors: analysis of 25 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charts of 25 pediatric patients with brain stem tumors have been reviewed. The use of computed tomography was found to have been valuable in diagnosis and follow-up, as well as in the design of radiation therapy portals. Radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy with VM-26 (4'-1 demethyl-epipodophyllo toxin B-D-thenylidene glucoside) and CCNU(1-2-chloroethyl-methyl-3-Cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea) were the treatment employed. (M.A.C.)

  3. Extracellular Vesicles in Brain Tumor Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asti, Esterina; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Brain tumors can be viewed as multicellular 'ecosystems' with increasingly recognized cellular complexity and systemic impact. While the emerging diversity of malignant disease entities affecting brain tissues is often described in reference to their signature alterations within the cellular genome and epigenome, arguably these cell-intrinsic changes can be regarded as hardwired adaptations to a variety of cell-extrinsic microenvironmental circumstances. Conversely, oncogenic events influence the microenvironment through their impact on the cellular secretome, including emission of membranous structures known as extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs serve as unique carriers of bioactive lipids, secretable and non-secretable proteins, mRNA, non-coding RNA, and DNA and constitute pathway(s) of extracellular exit of molecules into the intercellular space, biofluids, and blood. EVs are also highly heterogeneous as reflected in their nomenclature (exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles) attempting to capture their diverse origin, as well as structural, molecular, and functional properties. While EVs may act as a mechanism of molecular expulsion, their non-random uptake by heterologous cellular recipients defines their unique roles in the intercellular communication, horizontal molecular transfer, and biological activity. In the central nervous system, EVs have been implicated as mediators of homeostasis and repair, while in cancer they may act as regulators of cell growth, clonogenicity, angiogenesis, thrombosis, and reciprocal tumor-stromal interactions. EVs produced by specific brain tumor cell types may contain the corresponding oncogenic drivers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) in glioblastoma (and hence are often referred to as 'oncosomes'). Through this mechanism, mutant oncoproteins and nucleic acids may be transferred horizontally between cellular populations altering their individual and collective phenotypes. Oncogenic pathways

  4. Halofuginone Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth in Implanted Metastatic Rat Brain Tumor Model-an MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Abramovitch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF is a potent inhibitor of collagen type α1(I. In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001. Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001. In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05. Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03. Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  5. A Correlative Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy Approach to Locating Nanoparticles in Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, Paul J.; Kircher, Moritz F; DE LA ZERDA, ADAM; Zavaleta, Cristina L.; Jokerst, Jesse V.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sinclair, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using b...

  6. Perfusion and Volume Response of Canine Brain Tumors to Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwingenberger, AL; Pollard, RE; Taylor, SL; Chen, RX; Nunley, J; Kent, MS

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are highly conformal, high-dose radiation treatment techniques used to treat people and dogs with brain tumors.To evaluate the response to SRS- and SRT-treated tumors using volume and perfusion variables and to measure the survival times of affected dogs.Prospective study of 34 dogs with evidence of brain tumors undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT).Computed tomography and MRI imaging w...

  7. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong

    2007-01-01

    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  8. Brain tumors induced by radiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two out of four pubescent rhesus monkeys, which received 1,500 rads of supervoltage X-irradiation, showed malignant brain tumors afer the survival of 52 and 102 weeks each. Since the incidence of spontaneous developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literatures was quite low, the tumors in the present series may have been radiation induced. (author)

  9. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  10. Integral treatment of Pancoast tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to describe the features and results of treatments intended to heal patients with diagnosis of pancoast tumor. Material and method: a prospective and descriptive study was made from 22 patients who have a diagnosis of pancoast tumor and that achieved inclusion criteria for treatment with healing purposes. Results: a combined treatment of radiotherapy before surgery and radical operation, with healing purposes were made in 22 patients with upper sulcus tumor of the lung. Nine patients had post surgical problems (3 wound sepsis; pleural effusion 2; permanent thoracic pain 2; pneumothorax 1; cardiac arrythmias 7). Three deaths occurred not related to surgical procedure. Survival at 3 to five years was 57% and 38% respectively. The combined achieved control of local regional disease but not distance disease in most of the cases. Conclusions: The combination of radiotherapy and surgery is the elective treatment to be chosen for patient with lung cancer when it appears to be pan coast tumor in stages II B and III A. (The author)

  11. Coloring brain tumor with multi-potent micellar nanoscale drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kyuha; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, EunSoo; Han, Eun Chun; Lee, Jungsul; Cha, Junghwa; Ku, Taeyun; Yoon, Jonghee; Park, Ji Ho; Choi, Chulhee

    2012-10-01

    Brain tumor, especially glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the most malignant tumors, which not only demands perplexing treatment approaches but also requires potent and effective treatment modality to deal with recurrence of the tumor. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment which has been recommended as a third-level treatment. We are trying to investigate possibility of the PDT as an efficient adjuvant therapeutic modality for the treatment of brain tumor. Inhibition of tumor progression with photosensitizer was verified, in vitro. With micellar nanoscale drug delivery system, localization of the tumor was identified, in vivo, which is able to be referred as photodynamic diagnosis. With consequent results, we are suggesting photodynamic diagnosis and therapy is able to be performed simultaneously with our nanoscale drug delivery system.

  12. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  13. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhri, Asim F; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-09-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. PMID:26346145

  14. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhri, Asim F. [Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Siddiqui, Adeel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  15. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  16. Thermal dosimetry studies of ultrasonically induced hyperthermia in normal dog brain and in experimental brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 16 acute experiments on pentobarbital anesthetized dogs, thermal distributions generated by ultrasonic heating using a 1 MHz PZT transducer were compared with intensity distributions mapped in a test tank. Relatively flat distributions from 1 to 3 cm have been mapped in normal dog brain using ''shaped'' intensity distributions generated from ultrasonic emission patterns which are formed by the interaction between compressional, transverse and flexural modes activated within the crystal. In contrast, these same intensity distributions generated marked temperature variations in 3 malignant brain tumors presumably due to variations in tumor blood flow. The results of this study suggest that a practical clinical system for uniform heating of large tumor volumes with varying volumes and geometries is not an achievable goal. The author's laboratory is developing a scanning ultrasonic rapid hyperthermia treatment system which will be able to sequentially heat small volume of tumor tissue either to temperatures which will sterilize tumor or to a more conventional thermal dose. Time-temperature studies of threshold for thermal damage in normal dog brain are currently in progress

  17. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standards of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the course are to evaluate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. Areas where the role is evolving will be identified, and the results of clinical trials which been mounted to clarify radiotherapy's role will be reviewed. Brain tumors are the second most common malignancy of childhood after leukemias and lymphomas. However, they remain the most common group of childhood tumors to require radiation therapy. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these tumors, and the appropriate role of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is critical. Issues surrounding the management of sequelae are no less important. The role of radiotherapy for the treatment of these tumors is far different from that for adults. These differences relate to the profound potential for sequelae from therapy, the higher overall cure rates, and the utility of multimodality therapies. In addition, the rarity of childhood brain tumors compared with adults' makes them more difficult to study. In this session, the following issues will be reviewed; 1. Incidence of pediatric brain tumors, 2. General issues regarding symptoms, diagnosis, diagnostic tests and evaluation, 3. Importance of a team approach, 4. General issues regarding treatment sequelae, 5. Specific tumor types/entities; a. Cerebellar Astrocytomas b. Benign and malignant Gliomas including brainstem and chiasmatic lesions c. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET) and Medulloblastoma d. Ependymomas e. Craniopharyngiomas f. Germ cell tumors g. Miscellaneous and rare pediatric brain tumors 6. Management of sequelae 7. New and future directions a. Treatment of infants b. The expanding role of chemotherapy c. Advances in radiotherapy. The attendees will complete the course with a better understanding of the role that radiation therapy plays in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. They will be knowledgeable in the foundation for that role, and the changes which are likely to take place in the

  18. The Role of Surgery, Radiosurgery and Whole Brain Radiation Therapy in the Management of Patients with Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors constitute the most common intracranial tumor. Management of brain metastases has become increasingly complex as patients with brain metastases are living longer and more treatment options develop. The goal of this paper is to review the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT, and surgery, in isolation and in combination, in the contemporary treatment of brain metastases. Surgery and SRS both offer management options that may help to optimize therapy in selected patients. WBRT is another option but can lead to late toxicity and suboptimal local control in longer term survivors. Improved prognostic indices will be critical for selecting the best therapies. Further prospective trials are necessary to continue to elucidate factors that will help triage patients to the proper brain-directed therapy for their cancer.

  19. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  20. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kessel, Kerstin; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jurgen [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)], e-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications.

  1. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications

  2. Combined therapy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects were 52 patients (5-78 years, average 51.4 years) with primary brain tumor treated in 4 institutes in Chugoku and Shikoku districts during 3 years from April 1991. Histopathologically, the subject diseases were glioblastoma in 16, well differentiated glioblastoma in 19, brain primary lymphoma in 9, and malignant meningioma in 5. In the glioblastoma group, 14 received surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy at the first admission. Three patients who survived more than 1 year and 6 patients who died within 1 year were compared. No significant difference was observed in terms of radiotherapy between the both groups. In the astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma groups, 16 patients received radiotherapy and chemotherapy as the initial treatment, and 14 underwent several course of maintenance therapy. In the comparison between 7 patients who died within 3 years from the first treatment and 9 patients surviving more than 3 years, no significant difference was observed in terms of radiation doses. (S.Y.)

  3. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  4. Specific features of epilepsy in children with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalmykova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of epilepsy in children and adolescents with brain tumors and to define the optimal tactics of management and antiepileptic therapy after surgical treatment. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients aged 5 months to 15 years were examined. All the patients were diagnosed as having a brain tumor found in the presence of symptomatic epilepsy. They were all followed up for 5 years postsurgery or during their lifetime (in case of death. Comprehensive examination encompassing the assessment of history data and concomitant complaints, brain magnetic resonance imaging, video-EEC monitoring, and the neurological status (the presence of cognitive impairments and eye ground changes was done in all the cases. The probability of epileptic seizures in the clinical presentation of the disease, their semiology, and frequency were studied. Results and discussion. Epileptic seizures were the major complaint in all the patients at the first visit to their doctor. The disease occurred with status epilepticus in 9% of the patients. Different types of generalized seizures were more common (53%; p≥0.05. The tumor was located above the tentorium of the cerebellum in most examinees (77% and beneath it in the others (23%; p≤0.05. The significant clinical sign of a brain tumor in the epileptic children is focal neurological symptoms (72% of the cases. MRI was performed in children who had no focal neurological symptoms in the late periods. There was cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in 51% of the patients (p≥0.05 and cognitive impairments in 33% (p<0.05. The maximum number (74% of children with psycho-speech disorders and cognitive impairments were registered in the age group of 7–15 years. Eye ground changes characteristic of intracranial hypertension were identified in 19 epileptic children; they occurred in 27 patients more than 1 year after the onset of seizures. The late (few months-to-14 years diagnosis of a brain

  5. Distribution of polymer nanoparticles by convection-enhanced delivery to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K; Seo, Young-Eun; Gaudin, Alice; Quijano, Elias; Song, Eric; Sawyer, Andrew J; Deng, Yang; Huttner, Anita; Saltzman, W Mark

    2016-06-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal brain tumor characterized by infiltration beyond the margins of the main tumor mass and local recurrence after surgery. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses the most significant hurdle to brain tumor treatment. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) allows for local administration of agents, overcoming the restrictions of the BBB. Recently, polymer nanoparticles have been demonstrated to penetrate readily through the healthy brain when delivered by CED, and size has been shown to be a critical factor for nanoparticle penetration. Because these brain-penetrating nanoparticles (BPNPs) have high potential for treatment of intracranial tumors since they offer the potential for cell targeting and controlled drug release after administration, here we investigated the intratumoral CED infusions of PLGA BPNPs in animals bearing either U87 or RG2 intracranial tumors. We demonstrate that the overall volume of distribution of these BPNPs was similar to that observed in healthy brains; however, the presence of tumors resulted in asymmetric and heterogeneous distribution patterns, with substantial leakage into the peritumoral tissue. Together, our results suggest that CED of BPNPs should be optimized by accounting for tumor geometry, in terms of location, size and presence of necrotic regions, to determine the ideal infusion site and parameters for individual tumors. PMID:27063424

  6. Use of in vivo proton MR spectroscopy to monitor the response of brain tumors to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the differences in proton MR spectra between normal brain and brain tumors as they respond to radiation therapy. The MESA three-dimensional technique was used to acquire proton MR spectra on five volunteers of five brain tumor patients undergoing radiation treatment. The brain tumor patients underwent MR spectroscopy before, twice during, and after treatment. All patients and volunteers underwent MR imaging to localize the spectroscopy voxels. The area of the brain imaged in each patient was matched by a similar area in a volunteer. The spectra were analyzed to determine the peak heights and peak height ratios of the metabolites choline, creatine, lactate, and NAA

  7. Brain tumor and psychiatric manifestations: a case report and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Danan, Deepa; Brenner, Ronald; Bogunovic, Olivera

    2004-01-01

    Brain tumors may present multiple psychiatric symptoms such as depression, personality change, abulia, auditory and visual hallucinations, mania, panic attacks, or amnesia. A case of a 79-year-old woman who presented with depressive symptoms but showed minimal neurological signs and symptoms is discussed. Neuroimaging revealed a brain tumor in the left parietal lobe, and patient underwent neurosurgical treatment and subsequently received chemotherapy and radiation. Some patients with neurologically silent brain tumors may present with psychiatric symptoms only. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with a change in mental status regardless of a lack of neurological symptoms. PMID:15328904

  8. Growth Patterns of Microscopic Brain Tumors

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, L M; Sander, Leonard M.; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Highly malignant brain tumors such as Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) form complex growth patterns in vitro in which invasive cells organize in tenuous branches. Here, we formulate a chemotaxis model for this sort of growth. A key element controlling the pattern is homotype attraction, i.e., the tendency for invasive cells to follow pathways previously explored. We investigate this in two ways: we show that there is an intrinsic instability in the model, which leads to branch formation. We also give a discrete description for the expansion of the invasive zone, and a continuum model for the nutrient supply. The results indicate that both, strong heterotype chemotaxis and strong homotype chemo-attraction are required for branch formation within the invasive zone. Our model thus can give a way to assess the importance of the various processes, and a way to explore and analyze transitions between different growth regimes.

  9. Interphone study - on mobile phones and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interphone study is the largest study on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumors that have been implemented. The study does not provide reliable answers to whether there is an increased risk of brain tumors using the mobile phone, but is an important contribution. (AG)

  10. Transcriptional signature of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loop Thomas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations and gene expression alterations in brain tumors have been extensively investigated, however the causes of brain tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Animal models are necessary to correlate altered transcriptional activity and tumor phenotype and to better understand how these alterations cause malignant growth. In order to gain insights into the in vivo transcriptional activity associated with a brain tumor, we carried out genome-wide microarray expression analyses of an adult brain tumor in Drosophila caused by homozygous mutation in the tumor suppressor gene brain tumor (brat. Results Two independent genome-wide gene expression studies using two different oligonucleotide microarray platforms were used to compare the transcriptome of adult wildtype flies with mutants displaying the adult bratk06028 mutant brain tumor. Cross-validation and stringent statistical criteria identified a core transcriptional signature of bratk06028 neoplastic tissue. We find significant expression level changes for 321 annotated genes associated with the adult neoplastic bratk06028 tissue indicating elevated and aberrant metabolic and cell cycle activity, upregulation of the basal transcriptional machinery, as well as elevated and aberrant activity of ribosome synthesis and translation control. One fifth of these genes show homology to known mammalian genes involved in cancer formation. Conclusion Our results identify for the first time the genome-wide transcriptional alterations associated with an adult brain tumor in Drosophila and reveal insights into the possible mechanisms of tumor formation caused by homozygous mutation of the translational repressor brat.

  11. Interstitial brachytherapy with 192-IR in treatment of recurrent malignant primary brain tumors. Braquiterapia intersticial con iridio-192 en el tratamiento de recidivas de tumores cerebrales tras cirugia y radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenes, R.; Martinez, R.; Victoria, C.; Nuez, L.; Clavo, B.; Sancedo, G. (Clinica Puerta de Hierro. Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Seven patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors after surgery and radiation therapy were treated at the Clinica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) by interstitial brachytherapy with 192-Ir sources. Implantations were performed using computerized tomography and dose prescription were determined following the Paris system rules for interstitial implants. The means dose deliberated was 50 to 65 Gy to the reference isodoses. At the last follow-up all patients except for one are alive and without evidence of progression of the disease. (Author) 35 refs.

  12. Factors affecting radiation injury after interstitial brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of brachytherapy on normal brain tissue are not easily delineated in the clinical setting because of the presence of concurrent radiation-induced changes in the coexistent brain tumor. Sequential morphologic studies performed after the implantation of radioactive sources into the brains of experimental animals have provided a better understanding of the character and magnitude of the structural changes produced by interstitial irradiation on normal brain tissue. Furthermore, the clinical experience accumulated thus far provides not only relevant information, but also some guidelines for future treatment policies. In this paper, the authors summarize the experimental findings and review the pathologic and clinical features of brain injury caused by interstitial brachytherapy. A number of studies in the older literature examined the effects of radioisotopes such as radium-226 (38--43), radon-22 (44--46), gold-198 (29,47--50), tantalum-182 (29,51,52) yttrium-9- (50,53,54), and cobalt-60 (29,50,55). This review is restricted to low- and high-activity encapsulated iodine-125 (125I) and iridium-192 (192Ir), the isotopes that are most commonly used in current clinical practice

  13. Criteria for the evaluation of brachytherapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty two patients with recurrent or unresectable malignant brain tumors were treated by interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 seeds. After-loading catheters were stereotactically implanted under local anesthesia using a Brown-Roberts-wells (BRW) CT guided stereotactic system. The response to the therapy was followed by serial CT and MRI scans and evaluated three months after implantation by the standard criteria for the evaluation of chemotherapy because there is no set of criteria available for radiation therapy. After interstitial brachytherapy, the most commonly observed CT and MRI finding was central low attenuation, that is, the central enhanced tumor replaced by the radiation necrosis. Three months after the treatment, these findings were observed in 23 patients out of 32 patients on the CT and MRI. We observed complete response (CR) in 6 of 32 patients, partial response (PR) in 9, no change (NC) in 7 and progressive disease (PD) in 9. In 6 CR patients, the tumor disappeared by three months after treatment. In 15 patients of 17 NC and PD patients, the central low attenuation was observed and their prognosis was better than those without central necrosis. The results suggested the standard criteria for the evaluation of chemotherapy, such as CR, PR etc, cannot be applicable to our series because the tumor mass replaced by necrotic tissue and remained as a mass lesion in most cases and new criteria in consideration of this low attenuation on CT and MRI will be needed for the evaluation of brachytherapy on neuroimagings. (author)

  14. Assessment of functional status in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty children treated for brain tumors between 1978 - 1985 at Kurume university hospital were evaluated for alternation in intellectual, emotional, and social function. They were 15 males and 15 females, aged 3 to 16 years, on the averaged 1.7 years after treatment. Twenty-eight children had no neurological deficits and 2 children had slight neurological deficits. It was possible for twenty-eight children to be evaluated for intelligence quotient by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised and Tanaka-Binet. The median score and standard deviation of intelligence quotient (IQ) test in children with brain tumors were as follows; verbal IQ: 84 ± 16, performance IQ: 77 ± 20, full scale IQ: 80 ± 20. There children with brain tumors obtained significant low IQ scores than children (t-test, P < 0.01). Twenty-one (72 %) children showed subnormal IQ scores (IQ < 90) and 7 children showed normal IQ scores (IQ ≥ 90). Concerning social and emotional function, twelve children (45.7 %) showed abnormal behaviour. The median scores and standard deviation of IQ scores in cranial irradiated patients were as follows; verbal IQ: 79 ± 13, performance IQ: 71 ± 15, full scale IQ: 71 ± 14. Especially, ten of twelve cranial irradiated patients showed subnormal IQ scores. Also, cranial irradiated patients obtained significant low IQ scores than non-cranial irradiated patients (t-test, P < 0.05). Serial evaluation of three cranial irradiated patients revealed further deterioration without recurrence of tumor and hydrocephalus. The results are discussed to: (1) the effects and mechanism of cranial irradiation on cognitive development: (2) the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and irradiation methods. The effects and mechanism of cranial irradiation on cognitive dysfunction is considered to be not only injury of cortex but also injury of fiber tracts. Also, cognitive dysfunction is apt to be related to age of irradiated patients. (J.P.N.)

  15. Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods: Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years) underwent brain MRE studies. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. A dedicated external force actuator for brain MRE study was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the patients' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and caused shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence used in the study was phase-contrast gradient-echo sequence. Phase images of the brain were obtained and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity image. Consistency of brain tumors was evaluated at surgery and was classified as soft, intermediate, or hard with comparison to the white matter of the brain. Correspondence of MRE evaluation with operative results was studied. Results: The elastic modulus of the tumor was lower than that of white matter in 1 patient, higher in 11 patients, and similar in 2 patients. At surgery, the tumor manifested a soft consistency in 1 patient, hard consistency in 11 patients, intermediate consistency in 2 patients. The elasticity of tumors in 14 patients evaluated by MRE was correlated with the tumor consistency on the operation. Conclusion: MRE can noninvasively display the elasticity of brain tumors in vivo, and evaluate the brain tumor consistency before operation. (authors)

  16. Longitudinal observational study of pediatric patients with primary brain tumors: establishment of a hospital-based registry.

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Although tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent 2 % of all malignancies in general, they cause a disproportionately large morbidity and mortality and are the second most common form of cancer in children and the major solid tumor in childhood in the U.S., occurring in 21.3% of all children with malignant disease. The treatment of brain tumors in children and adolescents has evolved significantly in recent decades. Nowadays, most children with a diagnosis of brain tumor are treat...

  17. Comparison of Swallowing Functions Between Brain Tumor and Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Dae Hwan; Chun, Min Ho; Lee, Sook Joung; Song, Yoon Bum

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the swallowing functions according to the lesion locations between brain tumor and stroke patients. Methods Forty brain tumor patients and the same number of age-, lesion-, and functional status-matching stroke patients were enrolled in this study. Before beginning the swallowing therapy, swallowing function was evaluated in all subjects by videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Brain lesions were classified as either supratentorial or in-fratentorial. We evaluated the follo...

  18. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    G., Narkhede Sachin; Khairnar, Vaishali; Kadu, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging intensity and anatomical meaning.With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation,an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed.This is motivated by potential performance improvement in the general automatic brain tu...

  19. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  20. Fetal dose estimates for radiotherapy of brain tumors during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine clinically the fetal dose from irradiation of brain tumors during pregnancy and to quantitate the components of fetal dose using phantom measurements. Methods and Materials: Two patients received radiotherapy during pregnancy for malignant brain tumors. Case 1 was treated with opposed lateral blocked 10 x 15 cm fields and case 2 with 6 x 6 cm bicoronal wedged arcs, using 6 MV photons. Fetal dose was measured clinically and confirmed with phantom measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Further phantom measurements quantitated the components of scattered dose. Results: For case 1, both clinical and phantom measurements estimated fetal dose to be 0.09% of the tumor dose, corresponding to a total fetal dose of 0.06 Gy for a tumor dose of 68.0 Gy. Phantom measurements estimated that internal scatter contributed 20% of the fetal dose, leakage 20%, collimator scatter 33%, and block scatter 27%. For case 2, clinical and phantom measurements estimated fetal dose to be 0.04% of the tumor dose, corresponding to a total fetal dose of 0.03 Gy for a tumor dose of 78.0 Gy. Leakage contributed 74% of the fetal dose, internal scatter 13%, collimator scatter 9%, and wedge scatter 4%. Conclusions: When indicated, brain tumors may be irradiated to high dose during pregnancy resulting in fetal exposure < 0.10 Gy, conferring an increased but acceptable risk of leukemia in the child, but no other deleterious effects to the fetus after the fourth week of gestation. For our particular field arrangements and linear accelerators, internal scatter contributed a small component of fetal dose compared to leakage and scatter from the collimators and blocks, and 18 MV photons resulted in a higher estimated fetal dose than 6 MV photons due to increased leakage and collimator scatter. These findings are not universal, but clinical and phantom TLD measurements estimate fetal dose accurately for energies < 10 MV and should be taken for each pregnant patient

  1. Complementary information from magnetic resonance imaging and {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography in the assessment of the response to an antiangiogenic treatment in a rat brain tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valable, Samuel, E-mail: valable@cyceron.fr [CERVOxy group, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS. CNRS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CEA. GIP CYCERON, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP5229, 14074 CAEN cedex (France); Petit, Edwige; Roussel, Simon; Marteau, Lena; Toutain, Jerome; Divoux, Didier [CERVOxy group, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS. CNRS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CEA. GIP CYCERON, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP5229, 14074 CAEN cedex (France); Sobrio, Franck; Delamare, Jerome; Barre, Louisa [GDM-TEP DSV/I2BM group, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS. CNRS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CEA. GIP CYCERON, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP5229, 14074 CAEN cedex (France); Bernaudin, Myriam [CERVOxy group, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS. CNRS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CEA. GIP CYCERON, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP5229, 14074 CAEN cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: No direct proof has been brought to light in a link between hypoxic changes in glioma models and the effects of antiangiogenic treatments. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of the detection of hypoxia through the use of {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]-FMISO PET) in response to the evolution of the tumor and its vasculature. Methods: Orthotopic glioma tumors were induced in rats after implantation of C6 or 9L cells. Sunitinib was administered from day (D) 17 to D24. At D17 and D24, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to characterize tumor growth and vasculature. Hypoxia was assessed by [{sup 18}F]-FMISO PET. Results: We showed that brain hypoxic volumes are related to glioma volume and its vasculature and that an antiangiogenic treatment, leading to an increase in cerebral blood volume and a decrease in vessel permeability, is accompanied by a decrease in the degree of hypoxia. Conclusions: We propose that [{sup 18}F]-FMISO PET and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging are pertinent complementary tools in the evaluation of the effects of an antiangiogenic treatment in glioma.

  2. Complementary information from magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography in the assessment of the response to an antiangiogenic treatment in a rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: No direct proof has been brought to light in a link between hypoxic changes in glioma models and the effects of antiangiogenic treatments. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of the detection of hypoxia through the use of 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography ([18F]-FMISO PET) in response to the evolution of the tumor and its vasculature. Methods: Orthotopic glioma tumors were induced in rats after implantation of C6 or 9L cells. Sunitinib was administered from day (D) 17 to D24. At D17 and D24, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to characterize tumor growth and vasculature. Hypoxia was assessed by [18F]-FMISO PET. Results: We showed that brain hypoxic volumes are related to glioma volume and its vasculature and that an antiangiogenic treatment, leading to an increase in cerebral blood volume and a decrease in vessel permeability, is accompanied by a decrease in the degree of hypoxia. Conclusions: We propose that [18F]-FMISO PET and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging are pertinent complementary tools in the evaluation of the effects of an antiangiogenic treatment in glioma.

  3. Identifying the needs of brain tumor patients and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvataneni, Rupa; Polley, Mei-Yin; Freeman, Teresa; Lamborn, Kathleen; Prados, Michael; Butowski, Nicholas; Liu, Raymond; Clarke, Jennifer; Page, Margaretta; Rabbitt, Jane; Fedoroff, Anne; Clow, Emelia; Hsieh, Emily; Kivett, Valerie; Deboer, Rebecca; Chang, Susan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of brain tumor patients and their caregivers to provide improved health services to these populations. Two different questionnaires were designed for patients and caregivers. Both questionnaires contained questions pertaining to three realms: disease symptoms/treatment, health care provider, daily living/finances. The caregivers' questionnaires contained an additional domain on emotional needs. Each question was evaluated for the degree of importance and satisfaction. Exploratory analyses determined whether baseline characteristics affect responder importance or satisfaction. Also, areas of high agreement/disagreement in satisfaction between the participating patient-caregiver pairs were identified. Questions for which >50% of the patients and caregivers thought were "very important" but >30% were dissatisfied include: understanding the cause of brain tumors, dealing with patients' lower energy, identifying healthful foods and activities for patients, telephone access to health care providers, information on medical insurance coverage, and support from their employer. In the emotional realm, caregivers identified 9 out of 10 items as important but need further improvement. Areas of high disagreement in satisfaction between participating patient-caregiver pairs include: getting help with household chores (P value = 0.006) and finding time for personal needs (P value < 0.001). This study provides insights into areas to improve services for brain tumor patients and their caregivers. The caregivers' highest amount of burden is placed on their emotional needs, emphasizing the importance of providing appropriate medical and psychosocial support for caregivers to cope with emotional difficulties they face during the patients' treatment process. PMID:21311950

  4. A hybrid neural network analysis of subtle brain volume differences in children surviving brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, W E; Mulhern, R K; Elkin, T D; Glass, J O; Merchant, T E; Langston, J W

    1998-05-01

    In the treatment of children with brain tumors, balancing the efficacy of treatment against commonly observed side effects is difficult because of a lack of quantitative measures of brain damage that can be correlated with the intensity of treatment. We quantitatively assessed volumes of brain parenchyma on magnetic resonance (MR) images using a hybrid combination of the Kohonen self-organizing map for segmentation and a multilayer backpropagation neural network for tissue classification. Initially, we analyzed the relationship between volumetric differences and radiologists' grading of atrophy in 80 subjects. This investigation revealed that brain parenchyma and white matter volumes significantly decreased as atrophy increased, whereas gray matter volumes had no relationship with atrophy. Next, we compared 37 medulloblastoma patients treated with surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy to 19 patients treated with surgery and irradiation alone. This study demonstrated that, in these patients, chemotherapy had no significant effect on brain parenchyma, white matter, or gray matter volumes. We then investigated volumetric differences due to cranial irradiation in 15 medulloblastoma patients treated with surgery and radiation therapy, and compared these with a group of 15 age-matched patients with low-grade astrocytoma treated with surgery alone. With a minimum follow-up of one year after irradiation, all radiation-treated patients demonstrated significantly reduced white matter volumes, whereas gray matter volumes were relatively unchanged compared with those of age-matched patients treated with surgery alone. These results indicate that reductions in cerebral white matter: 1) are correlated significantly with atrophy; 2) are not related to chemotherapy; and 3) are correlated significantly with irradiation. This hybrid neural network analysis of subtle brain volume differences with magnetic resonance may constitute a direct measure of treatment-induced brain damage

  5. CyberKnife stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CyberKnife provides a new technique for performing frameless stereotactic irradiation. So far, few reports have been published on clinical outcomes obtained with the CyberKnife. This report summarizes our clinical experience with CyberKnife irradiation for metastatic brain tumors. Seventy-seven lesions (48 patients) were evaluated and analyzed, and 66 lesions in 41 patients were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The prescribed dose was 9 to 30 Gy. Freedom from progression of the tumors was more likely with a prescribed dose of at least 24 Gy than with one of less than 20 Gy (p=0.0244; log-rank test). The CR (complete response) rate was significantly higher when D99 was at least 24 Gy (p=0.0045). There were no severe side effects. Stereotactic irradiation with the CyberKnife for metastatic brain tumors is effective and safe. D99 should be at least 24 Gy for CyberKnife SRS treatment. (author)

  6. Research on Perfusion CT in Rabbit Brain Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the vascular characteristics of tumors and normal tissue using perfusion CT in the rabbit brain tumor model. The VX2 carcinoma concentration of 1 x 107 cells/ml(0.1 ml) was implanted in the brain of nine New Zealand white rabbits (weight: 2.4 kg-3.0 kg, mean: 2.6 kg). The perfusion CT was scanned when the tumors were grown up to 5 mm. The tumor volume and perfusion value were quantitatively analyzed by using commercial workstation (advantage windows workstation, AW, version 4.2, GE, USA). The mean volume of implanted tumors was 316±181 mm3, and the biggest and smallest volumes of tumor were 497 mm3 and 195 mm3, respectively. All the implanted tumors in rabbits are single-nodular tumors, and intracranial metastasis was not observed. In the perfusion CT, cerebral blood volume (CBV) were 74.40±9.63, 16.8±0.64, 15.24±3.23 ml/100g in the tumor core, ipsilateral normal brain, and contralateral normal brain, respectively (p≤0.05). In the cerebral blood flow (CBF), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p≤0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (962.91±75.96 vs. 357.82±12.82 vs. 323.19±83.24 ml/100g/min). In the mean transit time (MTT), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p≤0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (4.37±0.19 vs. 3.02±0.41 vs. 2.86±0.22 sec). In the permeability surface (PS), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (47.23±25.44 vs. 14.54±1.60 vs. 6.81±4.20 ml/100g/min)(p≤0.05). In the time to peak (TTP) were no significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains. In the positive enhancement integral (PEI), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral brains (61.56±16.07 vs. 12.58±2.61 vs. 8.26±5

  7. Research on Perfusion CT in Rabbit Brain Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Bon Chul; Kwak, Byung Kook; Jung, Ji Sung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the vascular characteristics of tumors and normal tissue using perfusion CT in the rabbit brain tumor model. The VX2 carcinoma concentration of 1 x 10{sup 7} cells/ml(0.1 ml) was implanted in the brain of nine New Zealand white rabbits (weight: 2.4 kg-3.0 kg, mean: 2.6 kg). The perfusion CT was scanned when the tumors were grown up to 5 mm. The tumor volume and perfusion value were quantitatively analyzed by using commercial workstation (advantage windows workstation, AW, version 4.2, GE, USA). The mean volume of implanted tumors was 316{+-}181 mm{sup 3}, and the biggest and smallest volumes of tumor were 497 mm{sup 3} and 195 mm{sup 3}, respectively. All the implanted tumors in rabbits are single-nodular tumors, and intracranial metastasis was not observed. In the perfusion CT, cerebral blood volume (CBV) were 74.40{+-}9.63, 16.8{+-}0.64, 15.24{+-}3.23 ml/100g in the tumor core, ipsilateral normal brain, and contralateral normal brain, respectively (p{<=}0.05). In the cerebral blood flow (CBF), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p{<=}0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (962.91{+-}75.96 vs. 357.82{+-}12.82 vs. 323.19{+-}83.24 ml/100g/min). In the mean transit time (MTT), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p{<=}0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (4.37{+-}0.19 vs. 3.02{+-}0.41 vs. 2.86{+-}0.22 sec). In the permeability surface (PS), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (47.23{+-}25.44 vs. 14.54{+-}1.60 vs. 6.81{+-}4.20 ml/100g/min)(p{<=}0.05). In the time to peak (TTP) were no significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains. In the positive enhancement integral (PEI), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and

  8. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  9. Absence of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations in mouse brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome occur in numerous tumor types including brain tumors. These mutations are generally found in the hypervariable regions I and II of the displacement loop and unlikely alter mitochondrial function. Two hypervariable regions of mononucleotide repeats occur in the mouse mitochondrial genome, i.e., the origin of replication of the light strand (OL) and the Arg tRNA. In this study we examined the entire mitochondrial genome in a series of chemically induced brain tumors in the C57BL/6J strain and spontaneous brain tumors in the VM mouse strain. The tumor mtDNA was compared to that of mtDNA in brain mitochondrial populations from the corresponding syngeneic mouse host strain. Direct sequencing revealed a few homoplasmic base pair insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the tumor cells mainly in regions of mononucleotide repeats. A heteroplasmic mutation in the 16srRNA gene was detected in a spontaneous metastatic VM brain tumor. None of the mutations were considered pathogenic, indicating that mtDNA somatic mutations do not likely contribute to the initiation or progression of these diverse mouse brain tumors

  10. Absence of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations in mouse brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfried Thomas N

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome occur in numerous tumor types including brain tumors. These mutations are generally found in the hypervariable regions I and II of the displacement loop and unlikely alter mitochondrial function. Two hypervariable regions of mononucleotide repeats occur in the mouse mitochondrial genome, i.e., the origin of replication of the light strand (OL and the Arg tRNA. Methods In this study we examined the entire mitochondrial genome in a series of chemically induced brain tumors in the C57BL/6J strain and spontaneous brain tumors in the VM mouse strain. The tumor mtDNA was compared to that of mtDNA in brain mitochondrial populations from the corresponding syngeneic mouse host strain. Results Direct sequencing revealed a few homoplasmic base pair insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the tumor cells mainly in regions of mononucleotide repeats. A heteroplasmic mutation in the 16srRNA gene was detected in a spontaneous metastatic VM brain tumor. Conclusion None of the mutations were considered pathogenic, indicating that mtDNA somatic mutations do not likely contribute to the initiation or progression of these diverse mouse brain tumors.

  11. Biology and Treatment of Rhabdoid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James I; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy that primarily affects infants and young children. These tumors typically arise in the brain and kidney, although extrarenal, non-central nervous system tumors in almost all soft-tissue sites have been described. SMARCB1 is a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and functions as a tumor suppressor in the vast majority of rhabdoid tumors. Patients with germline mutations or deletions affecting SMARCB1 are predisposed to the development of rhabdoid tumors, as well as the genetic disorder schwannomatosis. The current hypothesis is that rhabdoid tumors are driven by epigenetic dysregulation, as opposed to the alteration of a specific biologic pathway. The strategies for novel therapeutic approaches based on what is currently known about rhabdoid tumor biology are presented. PMID:26349416

  12. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  13. Efficacy of whole brain radiotherapy combined with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in metastatic brain tumors, and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted to analyze the effectiveness of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) combined with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in brain metastases. Thirty-seven metastatic brain tumors in 29 patients without previous treatment were treated with WBRT plus FSRT, from October 1996 to February 2002. Four of the patients received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) prior to WBRT. Non-small cell lung cancer was the most common type of primary tumor (20/29). The total dose to the whole brain ranged from 30 Gy to 40 Gy, and the boost dose from FSRT ranged from 12 Gy to 40 Gy. End points were survival rate and local control rates. Factors influencing survival were evaluated. Median survival was 13 months, and actuarial survival rates at one and two years were 81% and 39%, respectively. Actuarial one and two year local control rates for all lesions were 78% and 71%, respectively. Survival was significantly associated with age, tumor size, presence of active extracranial tumors, and performance status. No acute or delayed complications were observed. We believe that WBRT plus FSRT should be included in the treatment options for metastatic brain tumors, and we consider the effect of this non-invasive method to be quite good in patients with good prognostic factors, although other invasive modalities could also be effective in them. (author)

  14. Semicontinuous Low-Dose-Rate Teletherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Glial Brain Tumors: Final Report of a Phase I/II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Semicontinuous low-dose-rate teletherapy (SLDR) is a novel irradiation strategy that exploits the increased radiosensitivity of glial cells in a narrow range of reduced dose rate. We present the final report of a prospective Phase I/II study testing the feasibility of SLDR for the treatment of recurrent gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with previously irradiated recurrent gliomas were enrolled from November 1993 to March 1998. Patients received SLDR, delivered 6 to 8 hours/day at a dose rate of 40 to 50 cGy/hour for a total dose of 30 to 35 Gy given over 12 days using a modified cobalt-60 treatment unit. Acute central nervous system toxicity after SLDR treatment was the primary endpoint. Overall survival was a secondary endpoint. Results: Twenty patients were enrolled (14 World Health Organization Grade 4 glioma, 5 Grade 2 glioma, 1 ependymoma). No patients developed ≥Grade 3 central nervous system toxicity at 3 months without radiographic evidence of tumor progression. Overall survival after SLDR was 56% at 6 months, 28% at 12 months, and 17% at 24 months. One patient survived >48 months, and 1 patient survived >60 months after SLDR treatment. Re-resection before SLDR treatment significantly improved 1-year overall survival for all patients and patients with Grade 4 glioma. Conclusion: The delivery of SLDR is feasible in patients with recurrent gliomas and resulted in improved outcomes for patients who underwent re-resection. There were 2 long-term survivors (>48 months). This pilot study supports the notion that reduced dose rate influences the efficacy and tolerance of reirradiation in the treatment of recurrent gliomas.

  15. Computational modeling of brain tumors: discrete, continuum or hybrid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    In spite of all efforts, patients diagnosed with highly malignant brain tumors (gliomas), continue to face a grim prognosis. Achieving significant therapeutic advances will also require a more detailed quantitative understanding of the dynamic interactions among tumor cells, and between these cells and their biological microenvironment. Data-driven computational brain tumor models have the potential to provide experimental tumor biologists with such quantitative and cost-efficient tools to generate and test hypotheses on tumor progression, and to infer fundamental operating principles governing bidirectional signal propagation in multicellular cancer systems. This review highlights the modeling objectives of and challenges with developing such in silico brain tumor models by outlining two distinct computational approaches: discrete and continuum, each with representative examples. Future directions of this integrative computational neuro-oncology field, such as hybrid multiscale multiresolution modeling are discussed.

  16. Association rule mining based study for identification of clinical parameters akin to occurrence of brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Sood, Meemansa; Vijayvargia, Poorvika; Hota, Sunil; Naik, Pradeep K

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare sector is generating a large amount of information corresponding to diagnosis, disease identification and treatment of an individual. Mining knowledge and providing scientific decision-making for the diagnosis & treatment of disease from the clinical dataset is therefore increasingly becoming necessary. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability of knowledge discovery in brain tumor data warehouse, applying data mining techniques for investigation of clinical parameters that can be associated with occurrence of brain tumor. In this study, a brain tumor warehouse was developed comprising of clinical data for 550 patients. Apriori association rule algorithm was applied to discover associative rules among the clinical parameters. The rules discovered in the study suggests - high values of Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), SGOT & SGPT to be directly associated with tumor occurrence for patients in the primary stage with atleast 85% confidence and more than 50% support. A normalized regression model is proposed based on these parameters along with Haemoglobin content, Alkaline Phosphatase and Serum Bilirubin for prediction of occurrence of STATE (brain tumor) as 0 (absent) or 1 (present). The results indicate that the methodology followed will be of good value for the diagnostic procedure of brain tumor, especially when large data volumes are involved and screening based on discovered parameters would allow clinicians to detect tumors at an early stage of development. PMID:23888095

  17. Development of brain tumor at six years after the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumazaki, Hisami; Hanada, Ryoji; Kikuti, Akira; Ichikawa, Masataka; Yamamoto, Keiko; Aihara, Toshinori; Ogawa, Yoshihiro [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    In October 1994, a 16-year-old boy was diagnosed as having a brain tumor in the left fronto-temporal region 5 years after completing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The patient had been treated for ALL starting in 1988 when he was 10-year-old. He had received systemic chemotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis, consisting of cranial irradiation (24 Gy) and intrathecal methotrexate. When the brain tumor was detected he was still in complete remission. The patient received only supportive therapy mainly for relief of increased intracranial pressure because the tumor was too large to resect in addition to being inappropriate for surgical treatment. He died in December 1994. On autopsy, pathological diagnosis of the brain tumor was anaplastic astrocytoma, which is a rare secondary malignancy though glioma is common. (author)

  18. Development of brain tumor at six years after the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1994, a 16-year-old boy was diagnosed as having a brain tumor in the left fronto-temporal region 5 years after completing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The patient had been treated for ALL starting in 1988 when he was 10-year-old. He had received systemic chemotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis, consisting of cranial irradiation (24 Gy) and intrathecal methotrexate. When the brain tumor was detected he was still in complete remission. The patient received only supportive therapy mainly for relief of increased intracranial pressure because the tumor was too large to resect in addition to being inappropriate for surgical treatment. He died in December 1994. On autopsy, pathological diagnosis of the brain tumor was anaplastic astrocytoma, which is a rare secondary malignancy though glioma is common. (author)

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following PDQ summaries: Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Testicular Cancer Treatment Age and gender can affect the risk ... summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and ...

  20. Monitoring of 57Co-bleomycin delivery to brain metastases and their tumors of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of cobalt-57 (57Co)-labeled bleomycin delivered to three brain metastases and to their tumors of origin in the lungs was measured using a single-photon emission computerized tomography technique. In two brain metastases the 57Co-bleomycin concentration measured at different times after the intravenous injection was significantly lower than that in the originating lung tumors (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001). In these two patients, the tumor cumulative concentration (TCC) of drug in the brain neoplasm compared to the lung carcinoma was 12.92 versus 15.12 and 10.30 versus 19.74 micrograms/cc/min. In the third patient there was no significant difference in drug concentration between the tumor in the brain and in the lung (TCC 16.02 vs. 15.09 micrograms/cc/min). There was a significant difference in the drug TCC between the three brain metastases: the difference between the lowest and highest concentrations was more than 50% (10.3 vs. 16.02 micrograms/cc/min). When the concentration in the tumor over time (CT(t)) of the 57Co-bleomycin was compared in the brain and lung tumors, a good correlation was found in each of the three cases (r = 0.93, 0.99, and 0.97). This suggests that the difference in drug uptake between brain metastases and their originating lung tumor is a quantitative rather than a qualitative phenomenon. The results show that the amount of drug to which brain metastases are exposed varies and may be very low in some tumors; therefore, effectiveness of drug delivery may play a role in the nonresponsiveness of brain metastases to treatment

  1. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. Application of 31P MR spectroscopy to the brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical feasibility and obtain useful parameters of 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study for making the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Twenty-eight patients with brain tumorous lesions (22 cases of brain tumor and 6 cases of abscess) and 11 normal volunteers were included. The patients were classified into the astrocytoma group, lymphoma group, metastasis group and the abscess group. We obtained the intracellular pH and the metabolite ratios of phosphomonoesters/phosophodiesters (PME/PDE), PME/inorganic phosphate (Pi), PDE/Pi, PME/adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PDE/ATP, PME/phosphocreatine (PCr), PDE/PCr, PCr/ATP, PCr/Pi, and ATP/Pi, and evaluated the statistical significances. The brain tumors had a tendency of alkalization (pH = 7.28 ± 0.27, p = 0.090), especially the pH of the lymphoma was significantly increased (pH = 7.45 ± 0.32, p = 0.013). The brain tumor group showed increased PME/PDE ratio compared with that in the normal control group (p 0.012). The ratios of PME/PDE, PDE/Pi, PME/PCr and PDE/PCr showed statistically significant differences between each brain lesion groups (p 1'P MRS, and the pH, PME/PDE, PDE/Pi, PME/PCr, and PDE/PCr ratios are helpful for differentiating among the different types of brain tumors.

  3. Chemo-radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gliomas: Randomized clinical trials conducted in the USA showed that radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered a long-term survival advantage to patients younger than 60 years old with malignant gliomas. Combination chemotherapy, such as procarbazine/CCNU/vincristine (PCV) must be tested further, and intra-arterial chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered no survival advantage. Combination chemotherapy with PCV showed efficacy for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Medulloblastoma: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy improved the survival of patients with poor risk medulloblastoma, and may reduce the required craniospinal radiation dose in patients with good risk medulloblastoma. Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL): Combination of chemotherapy with high-dose MTX and radiotherapy improved survival of patients with PCNSL; however, the neurotoxicity produced by this treatment modality is a serious problem in older patients. Intracranial germ cell tumors: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy may produce long term survival with good quality of life in patients with germinoma. Neoadjuvant therapy consisting of chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by complete surgical excision improved survival of patients with intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. (author)

  4. Chemo-radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochi, Masato; Ushio, Yukitaka [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    Malignant gliomas: Randomized clinical trials conducted in the USA showed that radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered a long-term survival advantage to patients younger than 60 years old with malignant gliomas. Combination chemotherapy, such as procarbazine/CCNU/vincristine (PCV) must be tested further, and intra-arterial chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered no survival advantage. Combination chemotherapy with PCV showed efficacy for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Medulloblastoma: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy improved the survival of patients with poor risk medulloblastoma, and may reduce the required craniospinal radiation dose in patients with good risk medulloblastoma. Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL): Combination of chemotherapy with high-dose MTX and radiotherapy improved survival of patients with PCNSL; however, the neurotoxicity produced by this treatment modality is a serious problem in older patients. Intracranial germ cell tumors: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy may produce long term survival with good quality of life in patients with germinoma. Neoadjuvant therapy consisting of chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by complete surgical excision improved survival of patients with intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. (author)

  5. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick N Harter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9 is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with agonistic antibodies. However, preliminary clinical phase I/II studies were stopped after the occurrence of several severe deleterious side effects. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that TNFRSF9 was strongly expressed by reactive astrocytes in primary central nervous system (CNS tumors, but was largely absent from tumor or inflammatory cells. The aim of the present study was to address the cellular source of TNFRSF9 expression in the setting of human melanoma brain metastasis, a highly immunogenic tumor with a prominent tropism to the CNS. Methods: Melanoma brain metastasis was analyzed in a cohort of 78 patients by immunohistochemistry for TNFRSF9 and its expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters including sex, age, survival, tumor size, number of tumor spots, and BRAF V600E expression status. Results: Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 was frequently expressed independently on both melanoma and endothelial cells. In addition, TNFRSF9 was also present on smooth muscle cells of larger vessels and on a subset of lymphomonocytic tumor infiltrates. No association between TNFRSF9 expression and patient survival or other clinicopathological parameters was seen. Of note, several cases showed a gradual increase in TNFRSF9 expression on tumor cells with increasing distance from blood vessels, an observation that might be linked to hypoxia-driven TNFRSF9 expression in tumor cells. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the cellular source of TNFRSF9 in melanoma brain metastasis largely exceeds the lymphomonocytic pool, and therefore further careful (re- assessment of potential TNFRSF9 functions in cell types other than

  6. Brain metastases from esophageal cancers. Clinical features and treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic brain tumors from esophageal cancer are relatively rare. We analyzed the clinical features and results of treatment in 14 cases of brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma. The average time to diagnosis of brain metastases in the 11 patients with metachronous lesions was 13 months. The average age of patients at the diagnosis of brain metastasis was 65 years. Most patients had T4 or N1 disease at the time of diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Performance status of grade 3 was most frequent at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis. Treatment for brain metastases was surgery followed by radiation in five cases, radiotherapy alone in seven cases, and conservative treatment in two cases. The median survival time of all patients from the treatment of brain metastases was 2 months, with only one patient alive after more than one year. Improvement in neurological symptoms was demonstrated in 42% of cases. These extremely poor treatment results reflect the fact that most patients at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis had poor performance status and the presence of extracerebral metastases. Therefore, a short-course, high-dose-per-fraction treatment for brain metastases from esophageal cancer should be selected from the viewpoint of quality of life. (author)

  7. General Information about Adult Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unknown Primary Treatment Colon Cancer Treatment Leukemia Home Page Melanoma Treatment Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Renal Cell Cancer Treatment Small Cell ...

  8. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in brain tumors and pituitary tumors: First experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study embraced 45 patients with meningiomas, brain tumors or pituitary tumors, which were imaged by planar and tomographic scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 111Indium-labeled octreotide. In all of the meningiomas studied (unifocal and multifocal tumors in various locations), a high density of somatostatin receptors was detected by scintigraphy. Pituitary tumors were slightly positive in 50% of cases only, independent of the endocrine activity. Gliomas with an intact blood-brain barrier showed no enhanced tracer uptake in vivo, while gliomas with distributed blood-brain barrier had a high activity uptake. We conclude that in vivo somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, although not tumor-specific, may aid in the preoperative diagnosis and staging of intracranial tumors, especially skull base tumors. (orig.)

  9. HIT`91 (prospective, co-operative study for the treatment of malignant brain tumors in childhood): accuracy and acute toxicity of the irradiation of the craniospinal axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Bamberg, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kuehl, J. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Children`s Hospital; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Flentje, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Meisner, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Information Processing

    1999-04-01

    Background: It was the aim of the quality control program of the randomized trial HIT `91 (intensive chemotherapy before irradiation versus maintenance chemotherapy after irradiation) to assess prospectively the quality of neuroaxis irradiation with respect to the protocol guidelines and to evaluate acute toxicity with respect to treatment arm. Patients, Materials and Methods: Data of 134 patients undergoing irradiation of the craniospinal axis were available. Positioning aids, shielding techniques, treatment machines, choice of energy, total dose and fractionation were evaluated. A total of 651 simulation and verification films were analyzed to assess the coverage of the clinical target volume (whole brain, posterior fossa, sacral nerve roots) and deviations of field alignment between simulation and verification of first treatment. Field matching between whole brain and adjacent cranial spinal fields was analyzed with respect to site and width of junction. Acute maximal side effects were evaluated according to a modified WHO score for neurotoxicity, infections, skin, mucosa and myelotoxicity. Results: In 91.3% of patients contemporary positioning aids and individualized shielding techniques were used to assure a reproducible treatment. In 98 patients (73.1%) linear accelerators and in 36 patients (26.8%) {sup 60}Cobalt machines were used. Single and total dose were administered according to the protocol guidelines in more than 90% of patients. In 20.2% of patients the cribriform plate, in 1.4% the middle cranial fossa and in 21.1% the posterior fossa and in 4.5% the 2nd sacral segment were incompletely encompassed by the treatment portals. Ninety-five percent of deviations of field alignment were less than 13.0 mm (whole brain) and 12 mm (cranial spinal field) with a random error between 4.9 and 7.6 mm (whole brain) and 6.9 mm and 9.9 mm (spinal canal), respectively. In 77.5% of patients the junctions between whole brain and cranial spinal fields were placed

  10. False positive Tc-99m tetrofosmin brain tumor SPECT imaging in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The Tc-99m tetrofosmin brain SPECT imaging is known to be useful for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of brain tumor, follow-up study for the detection of tumor recurrence and differential diagnosis between radiation necrosis and recurred brain tumor. We would like to report two cases of brain infarction in the brain tumor SPECT with Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with suspected brain tumor underwent Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT from March, 1997 to July, 2001. Each patient received 800 MBq tetrofosmin intravenously followed by SPECT using a dual-head gamma camera after the rest of 30 minutes. Regions of interest were outlined in the tumor area using a computer-automated program to include all counts above background activity. Mean tumor activity were obtained from this region of interest. The tumor region of interest was mirrored to the contralateral uninvolved cerebral hemisphere to obtain background control count activity. Then tumor to background activity ratios were calculated. Results: Two of 31 patients were cerebral infarction. In these patients the clinical and radiological findings necessitated more information about the nature of the lesion before treatment planning. One of two patients was 43 year-old male and the other patient was 73 year-old male. Both patients complained continuous severe headache for two weeks. Their MRI and CT findings suggested inconclusive brain tumor. Thus Tc-99m tetrofosmin brain SPECT was performed that revealed an abnormal uptake in the left frontal lobe in one patient and in the right parietal lobe in the other patient. The tumor to background activity ratios were 10.0 and 3.35, respectively. Cerebral infarction was finally confirmed by excisional biopsy in the former patient and by follow-up CT after 5 months in the other patient. Conclusion: Two cases of intracranial Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake, reported as positive tumor activity in patients with a final diagnosis of cerebral infarction

  11. Imaging of brain tumors with histological correlations. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, Antonios (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This volume provides a deeper understanding of the diagnosis of brain tumors by correlating radiographic imaging features with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All modern imaging modalities are used to complete a diagnostic overview of brain tumors with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. High-quality illustrations depicting common and uncommon imaging characteristics of a wide range of brain tumors are presented and analysed, drawing attention to the ways in which these characteristics reflect different aspects of pathology. Important theoretical considerations are also discussed. Since the first edition, chapters have been revised and updated and new material has been added, including detailed information on the clinical application of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Radiologists and other clinicians interested in the current diagnostic approach to brain tumors will find this book to be an invaluable and enlightening clinical tool. (orig.)

  12. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain has been categorized into the low risk group of radiogenic tumors. However, recent epidemiologic studies on the cancer risks among children who received repeated CT scans, radiotherapies and A-bomb have revealed that low-to-moderate dose of ionizing radiation is effective to induce brain tumors. Ionizing radiation is more strongly associated with risk for meningiomas and schwannomas compared to gliomas. While risk of meningiomas is independent of age at the time of exposure, that of gliomas is profoundly high after neonatal and infantile exposures. Inherited susceptibility to brain tumors is suggested by family history or cancer prone syndromes. People with certain gene mutations such as RB, NF1 or PTCH1 are associated with enhanced cancer risk after radiotherapies. Genetic polymorphism of cancer-related genes on brain tumor risk deserves further investigation. (author)

  13. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  14. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kagawa National Children' s Hospital, Kagawa 765-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakagawa0517@yahoo.co.jp; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Medical Informatics, Post Graduated School, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  15. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  16. What "helps" tumors evade vascular targeting treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zhi-chao; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To throw a light on the possible factors which might induce resistance of vascular targeting treatment in tumors by reviewing the recent publications in the field of tumor angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1971 to January 2008. The search terms were "angiogenesis", "vascular targeting treatment" and "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles involved in the possible influence factors during angiogenesis and vascular targeting treatment were selected, including angiogenic or anti-angiogenic mechanism, tumor vasculature, tumor cells, cancer stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells.Results As a promising strategy vascular targeting treatment still has experimental and clinical setbacks which may term tumor vasculature's resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents. There are several possible explanations for such a resistance that might account for clinical and preclinical failures of anti-angiogenic treatment against tumor.Proangiogenic effect of hypoxia, normal tumor vasculature, escape of tumor cells and tumor vasculogenesis are included.This review reveals some clues which might be helpful to direct future research in order to remove obstacles to vascular targeting treatment.Conclusions Generally and undoubtedly vascular targeting treatment remains a promising strategy. But we still have to realize the existence of a challenging future. Further research is required to enhance our knowledge of vascular targeting treatment strategy before it could make a more substantial success.

  17. Clinical impact of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To attempt to improve surgical outcome of brain surgery, clinical significance of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during resection of brain tumors was assessed. Seventy four patients with glioma located near eloquent areas underwent surgery while awake. Intraoperative tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation and cortical/subcortical electrical stimulation were correlated with clinical symptoms during and after resection of tumors. Cortical functional areas were safely removed with negative electric stimulation and eloquent cortices could be removed in some circumstances. Subcortical functional mapping was difficult except for motor function. Studying cortical functional compensation allows more extensive removal of brain tumors located in the eloquent areas. (author)

  18. Automatic detection of brain tumors in MR images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Kropatsch, W.G.; Bartušek, Karel

    Brno: University of technolgy, 2013, s. 577-580. ISBN 978-1-4799-0404-4. [International conference on telecommunications and signal processing /36./. Rome (IT), 02.07.2013-04.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : brain symmetry * brain tumor * magnetic resonance * tumor detection Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Proteomic and immunologic analyses of brain tumor exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Graner, Michael W.; Alzate, Oscar; Dechkovskaia, Angelika M.; Keene, Jack D.; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A; Bigner, Darell D.

    2009-01-01

    Brain tumors are horrific diseases with almost universally fatal outcomes; new therapeutics are desperately needed and will come from improved understandings of glioma biology. Exosomes are endosomally derived 30–100 nm membranous vesicles released from many cell types into the extracellular milieu; surprisingly, exosomes are virtually unstudied in neuro-oncology. These microvesicles were used as vaccines in other tumor settings, but their immunological significance is unevaluated in brain tu...

  20. Glutamate Release by Primary Brain Tumors Induces Epileptic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham, Susan C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Haas, Brian R.; Montana, Vedrana; Robel, Stefanie; Ogunrinu, Toyin; Sontheimer, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood co-morbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted patient-derived glioma cells into scid mice. Within 14–18 days, glioma-bearing animals developed spontaneous, recurring abnormal EEG events consistent with epileptic activity that progressed over time. Acute brain slices from these animals showed significant glutamate release from the tumor mediated by the system xc − cystine/g...

  1. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    Narkhede Sachin G.,; Prof. Vaishali Khairnar

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR) image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity and anatomical meaning. With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation, an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed. This is motivated by potential performance improvement in ...

  2. Radiation therapy for brain tumor (1). With focus on gamma knife, linac, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the radiotherapy of brain tumors, this paper explains the features of each treatment with linac, gamma knife, and cyber knife. As for linac, this paper shows the following therapeutic target and each therapeutic principle: glioma (low-grade malignancy and high-grade malignancy), medulloblastoma, ependymoma, meningioma, malignant lymphoma (primary central nerve system), pituitary adenoma, intracranial germ cell tumor (intracranial germinoma and others), and brain metastasis. It also shows the treatment planning cases and the flow of the process up to the irradiation from treatment planning. Gamma knife treatment is a stereotactic radiosurgery, where a frame is screw-fixed to the head, and high-precision irradiations of about 200 gamma rays are focused on the target at a time, and this method is excellent for the treatment of small tumors. It shows the features of treatment and the flow of irradiation. Cyber knife is a stereotactic irradiation apparatus using a robot arm, and its fixation is non-invasive. This method is suitable for divided irradiation and multi-directional irradiation and applicable to a slightly larger complex shape of tumors. This paper shows the configuration of the device, and medical application cases to the following diseases: metastatic brain tumor, glioma, germinoma, malignant lymphoma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, pituitary tumor, and cerebral arteriovenous malformation. (A.O.)

  3. Assessment of brain retraction injury from tumor operation with 99Tcm-ECD brain SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the rCBF of brain retraction injury by 99Tcm-ECD SPECT imaging. Methods: The 99Tcm-ECD SPECT brain imaging was performed in 21 patients with brain tumor before and after operation. To compare the rCBF of peripheral tumor region with that of retraction injury region by semi-quantitative analysis. The rCBF levels of the central and peripheral areas of brain retraction injury were also studied. Results: Both the peripheral tumor region before operation and retraction region after operation were ischemic, but the difference between them was significant (P99Tcm-ECD SPECT brain imaging is a useful technique in detecting retraction injury come from brain tumor operation

  4. Radiation therapy and hydroxyurea followed by the combination of 6-Thioguanine and BCNU for the treatment of primary malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate a combined modality treatment for malignant gliomas using radiation therapy with a radiosensitizer and an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen designed to modify resistance to BNCU. Methods and Materials: Patients were eligible if they were 15 years of age or older, and had newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or anaplastic glioma (AG). Treatment consisted of external beam radiotherapy given to a dose of 60 Gy using a single daily fraction Monday to Friday. Concurrent hydroxyurea at a dose of 300 mg/m2 every 6 h every other day was given during radiation. Following radiotherapy, patients were then treated with BCNU and 6-Thioguanine (6TG). The 6-TG was given by mouth every 6 h for 12 doses prior to BCNU. Patients were initially treated with 60 mg/m2/dose of 6TG, with escalation to a maximum dose of 100 mg/m2/dose. The primary study end points were time to tumor progression and survival. Results: A total of 245 eligible patients were enrolled from 1/18/88 to 12/26/91. The histologic subtypes included 135 GBM, and 110 with AG (103 with anaplastic astrocytoma, 7 with high-grade mixed oligoastrocytoma). For the GBM group, the median time to tumor progression (TTP) and median survival were 33 (95% CI 26, 39) and 56 (95% CI 49, 69) weeks, respectively. For the AG group the median TTP was 282 weeks (95% lower confidence bound = 155 weeks). Median survival for this group has not been reached (95% lower confidence bound = 284 weeks) with a median follow-up for surviving patients of 298 weeks. A proportional hazards model was used to look at potential prognostic factors for survival, including initial Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), age, and extent of surgery, as well as dose of 6TG. Higher KPS, and lower age, predicted for longer survival (p 2) or lower dose of 6TG was not statistically significant in this model. Conclusions: This therapy was no more effective in patients with GBM than other reported series. In patients

  5. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  6. Brain abscesses in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) - comparison to cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was evaluated in patients with brain abscesses in comparison to patients with cystic brain tumors. Five patients with surgically confirmed brain abscesses underwent beside a brain MRI examination with contrast media application diffusion weighted imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficients (rADC) in three orthogonal diffusion gradient were calculated. The same protocol was used to examine 5 patients with cystic brain tumors. Showing an rADC of 0.33 x 10-3/mm2/s abscesses have a highly restricted diffusion in comparison to cystic brain tumors with an rADC of 1,67 x 10-3/mm2/s. Diffusion weighted imaging is a usefull diagnostic tool in the work up of brain abscesses. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of intraoperative brain shift using an ultrasound-linked navigation system for brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image-guided neurosurgery using navigation systems is an essential tool to increase accuracy in brain tumor surgery. However, brain shift during surgery has remained problematic. The present study evaluated the utility of a new ultrasound (US)-linked navigation system for brain tumor surgery in 64 patients with intracranial tumors. The navigation system consisted of a StealthStationTM navigation system, a SonoNavTM system, and a standard US scanner. This system determines the orientation of the US images and reformats the images from preoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to match the US images. The system was used intraoperatively to measure brain shift several times, using the results to guide tumor resection. US-linked navigation provided information regarding brain shift, and extent of tumor resection during surgery. Evaluation of brain shift was easily achieved in all patients, without using intraoperative CT or MR imaging. Accurate information regarding the true anatomical configuration of the patient could be obtained in all phases of the operation. Magnitude of brain shift increased progressively from pre- to post-resection and depended on the type of cranial structure. Integration of the US scanner with the navigation system allowed comparisons between the intraoperative US and preoperative images, thus improving interpretation of US images. The system also improved the rate of tumor resection by facilitating the detection of remnant tumor tissue. This US-linked navigation system provides information on brain shift, and improves the accuracy and utility of image-guided surgery. (author)

  8. Positron emission tomographic measurement of blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor transport of 82Rb: the effect of dexamethasone and whole-brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidirectional blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor transport rate constants for rubidium 82 were determined using dynamic positron emission tomography in patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Regional influx rate constants (K1) and plasma water volume (Vp) were estimated from the time course of blood and brain radioactivity following a bolus injection of tracer. Eight patients were studied before and 24 to 72 hours after treatment using pharmacological doses of dexamethasone, and 6 additional patients with metastatic brain tumors were studied before and within 60 to 90 minutes after 200- to 600-rad whole-brain radiation therapy. Steroid treatment was associated with a 9 to 48% decrease in tumor K1 and a 21% mean decrease in tumor Vp. No consistent changes in K1 or Vp were observed in control brain regions. Tumor K1 and Vp did not increase in patients undergoing whole-brain radiation therapy, all of whom were taking dexamethasone at the time of study. These data suggest that corticosteroids decrease the permeability of tumor capillaries to small hydrophilic molecules (including those of some chemotherapeutic agents) and that steroid pretreatment prevents acute, and potentially dangerous, increases in tumor capillary permeability following cranial irradiation

  9. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- a...

  10. Wavelet Based Image Fusion for Detection of Brain Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CYN Dwith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor, is one of the major causes for the increase in mortality among children and adults. Detecting the regions of brain is the major challenge in tumor detection. In the field of medical image processing, multi sensor images are widely being used as potential sources to detect brain tumor. In this paper, a wavelet based image fusion algorithm is applied on the Magnetic Resonance (MR images and Computed Tomography (CT images which are used as primary sources to extract the redundant and complementary information in order to enhance the tumor detection in the resultant fused image. The main features taken into account for detection of brain tumor are location of tumor and size of the tumor, which is further optimized through fusion of images using various wavelet transforms parameters. We discuss and enforce the principle of evaluating and comparing the performance of the algorithm applied to the images with respect to various wavelets type used for the wavelet analysis. The performance efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated on the basis of PSNR values. The obtained results are compared on the basis of PSNR with gradient vector field and big bang optimization. The algorithms are analyzed in terms of performance with respect to accuracy in estimation of tumor region and computational efficiency of the algorithms.

  11. Rapid Detection of high-level oncogene amplifications in ultrasonic surgical aspirations of brain tumors

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    Truong Long N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic tumor information, such as identification of amplified oncogenes, can be used to plan treatment. The two sources of a brain tumor that are commonly available include formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE sections from the small diagnostic biopsy and the ultrasonic surgical aspiration that contains the bulk of the tumor. In research centers, frozen tissue of a brain tumor may also be available. This study compared ultrasonic surgical aspiration and FFPE specimens from the same brain tumors for retrieval of DNA and molecular assessment of amplified oncogenes. Methods Surgical aspirations were centrifuged to separate erythrocytes from the tumor cells that predominantly formed large, overlying buffy coats. These were sampled to harvest nuclear pellets for DNA purification. Four glioblastomas, 2 lung carcinoma metastases, and an ependymoma were tested. An inexpensive PCR technique, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA, quantified 79 oncogenes using 3 kits. Copy number (CN results were normalized to DNA from non-neoplastic brain (NB in calculated ratios, [tumor DNA]/[NB DNA]. Bland-Altman and Spearman rank correlative comparisons were determined. Regression analysis identified outliers. Results Purification of DNA from ultrasonic surgical aspirations was rapid ( Conclusions Buffy coats of centrifuged ultrasonic aspirations contained abundant tumor cells whose DNA permitted rapid, multiplex detection of high-level oncogene amplifications that were confirmed in FFPE. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1883718801686466

  12. Involvement of tumor acidification in brain cancer pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    AvinashHonasoge

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas, primary brain cancers, are characterized by remarkable invasiveness and fast growth. While they share many qualities with other solid tumors, gliomas have developed special mechanisms to convert the cramped brain space and other limitations afforded by the privileged central nervous system into pathophysiological advantages. In this review we discuss gliomas and other primary brain cancers in the context of acid-base regulation and interstitial acidification; namely, how the altered ...

  13. Congenital Brain Tumors, a Series of Seven Patients

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    Farideh Nejat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Congenital brain tumors are very rare. We review these tumors in patients younger than 2 months diagnosed in our Department. Material & Methods: Seven congenital brain tumors were diagnosed during five years. Clinical and radiological findings and prognosis are analyzed. Findings: The study included 5 female and two male infants. Two cases were diagnosed antenatally by means of ultrasonography. All patients presented with intracranial hypertension. The tumor was non-homogenous with cystic and solid components in all neuroimaging, except for the case with choroid plexus papilloma. Hydrocephalus was evident in all of them. Most findings were infra-tentorial lesions. There were three teratomas, one primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor, one ependymoblastoma and one choroid plexus papilloma. Six patients were operated on, with one intra-operative death. Two passed away postoperatively with aspiration pneumonia. One patient died due to complications of chemotherapy and another one due to tumor recurrence one year after surgery. Only the patient with choroid plexus papilloma is alive after 2 years. Conclusion: Today, the availability of noninvasive imaging procedures such as computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging has improved the diagnosis of congenital brain tumors. Inspite of development in prenatal diagnosis, appropriate pre and post operative management, the mortality associated with these tumors still remains high. The final prognosis in these patients is still discouraging despite early surgery and operative and anesthetic improvements. Choroid plexus papilloma accompanies the best prognosis, whereas teratoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors have the worst prognosis.

  14. Evolution of Brain Tumor and Stability of Geometric Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tawbe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to reconstruct and to calculate geometric invariants on brain tumors. The geometric invariants considered in the paper are the volume, the area, the discrete Gauss curvature, and the discrete mean curvature. The volume of a tumor is an important aspect that helps doctors to make a medical diagnosis. And as doctors seek a stable calculation, we propose to prove the stability of some invariants. Finally, we study the evolution of brain tumor as a function of time in two or three years depending on patients with MR images every three or six months.

  15. Pathophysiological aspects of malignant brain tumors studied with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To further understand the control of brain tumor fluid balance and pH, the following studies were undertaken. The transport of a water soluble molecule across the brain and tumor capillary endothelium was studied during glucocorticoid and radiation treatment. The brain and brain-tumor acidity (pH) was evaluated as a single measurement in patients receiving a low maintenance dose of glucocorticoid. Transport changes and pH were measured in 61 patients with cerebral tumors using 82Rubidium (82Rb) and 11C-Dimethyloxa-zolidindione (11C-DMO), respectively, and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Supplementary studies of tumor and contralateral brain blood flow and blood volume using the C15O2/PET and C15O/PET technique, respectively, were included to validate the 82Rb/PET model and obtain further information. A total of 125 PET scans were performed. Supplementary studies were undertaken to estimate delay of blood registration and form distribution of arterial blood isotope activity curves. Blood-to-tumor barrier transport was outlined at baseline and at 6 and 24 hours after the start of glucocorticoid treatment, finding a significant decrease in the transpfort. Radiation treatment (2-6 gray) did not alter the blood-to-tumor barrier transport when restudied within one hour in patients receiving glucocorticoid. The pH in brain tumors was as high as 6.88-7.26, suggesting that tumors are more alkalotic than the normal brain. The permeability surface area product and the permeability coefficient were determined form the 82Rb/PET transport and C15O2/PET flow studies. Baseline permeability values were comparable to the literature values both for 82Rb and potassium. No difference in tissue blood volume was seen between 82Rb/PET and C15O/PET models and was of the same magnitude in the tumor and the contralateral tissue. Aspects of tumor alkalosis, tumor edema production, glucocorticoid edema clearance, and relationship between the anti-edema effect of glucocorticoid and the

  16. Subacute brain atrophy induced by radiation therapy to the malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to analyze brain atrophy after radiation therapy to the brain tumors, we calculated a CSF-cranial volume ratio on CT scan as an index of brain atrophy, and estimated dementia-score by Hasegawa's method in 91 post-irradiated patients with malignant brain tumors. Radiation-induced brain atrophy was observed in 51 out of 91 patients (56 %) and dementia in 23 out of 47 patients (49 %). These two conditions were closely related, and observed significantly more often in aged and whole-brain-irradiated patients. As radiation-induced brain atrophy accompanied by dementia appeared 2 - 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy, it should be regarded as a subacute brain injury caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Computed tomography of virally induced monkey brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-five (35) Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were inoculated intracerebrally with chickembryo fibroblasts which were producing the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of the Rous sarcoma virus. These were then studied by means of computed tomography (CT) to detect brain tumors. Tumors were induced in 54.3% (19/35), with an average latency of 32.6 (15 - 43) days before a CT image appeared. The brains were sectioned into 5-mm slices, coplanar with the CT images. Various CT features, such as necrosis, hemorrhage, and peritumoral edema, correlated with the pathological findings. Contrast-enhanced CT detected tumors greater than 4-6 mm in diameter, and it was accurate within 2 mm in determining. Following brain tumors by CT in 6 monkeys revealed changes in the tumor size. One monkey was treated by differential hypothermia following craniectomy; the therapeutic effect and the tumor size, as subsequently evaluated for six months, revealed tumor regression during the initial 5 weeks, followed by stabilization and late (6 months) progression. The large brain size, 90-110 grams in adults, and the availability of these monkeys make them an excellent model system for neurological, neurosurgical, CT, and multimodality therapeutic experimentation. (author)

  18. Role of mitochondrial DNA mutations in brain tumors: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor is molecularly a heterogeneous group of diseases, and genetic factors seem to play a crucial role in its genesis. Even though multiple alterations in the nuclear-encoded genes such as tumor suppressor and oncogenes are believed to play a key role in brain tumorigenesis, the involvement of the mitochondrial genome to this event remains controversial to date. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been suspected to be associated with the carcinogenesis because of its high sensitivity to mutations and inefficient repair mechanisms in comparison to nuclear DNA. Thus, defects in mtDNA could also lead to the development of brain tumor. By virtue of their clonal nature and high copy number, mtDNA mutations may provide a new effective molecular biomarker for the cancer detection. It has been suggested that establishing mtDNA defective pattern might be useful in cancer diagnostics and detection, the prognosis of cancer outcome, and/or the response to certain treatments. This mini-review gives a brief overview on the several aspects of mtDNA, with a particular focus on its role in tumorigenesis and progression of brain tumor. Understanding the role of mitochondria and brain tumor development could potentially translate into therapeutic strategies for patients with these tumors. PMID:26458578

  19. Role of mitochondrial DNA mutations in brain tumors: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor is molecularly a heterogeneous group of diseases, and genetic factors seem to play a crucial role in its genesis. Even though multiple alterations in the nuclear-encoded genes such as tumor suppressor and oncogenes are believed to play a key role in brain tumorigenesis, the involvement of the mitochondrial genome to this event remains controversial to date. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been suspected to be associated with the carcinogenesis because of its high sensitivity to mutations and inefficient repair mechanisms in comparison to nuclear DNA. Thus, defects in mtDNA could also lead to the development of brain tumor. By virtue of their clonal nature and high copy number, mtDNA mutations may provide a new effective molecular biomarker for the cancer detection. It has been suggested that establishing mtDNA defective pattern might be useful in cancer diagnostics and detection, the prognosis of cancer outcome, and/or the response to certain treatments. This mini-review gives a brief overview on the several aspects of mtDNA, with a particular focus on its role in tumorigenesis and progression of brain tumor. Understanding the role of mitochondria and brain tumor development could potentially translate into therapeutic strategies for patients with these tumors.

  20. A longitudinal magnetic resonance elastography study of murine brain tumors following radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Clayton, E. H.; Okamoto, R. J.; Engelbach, J.; Bayly, P. V.; Garbow, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate and noninvasive method for assessing treatment response following radiotherapy is needed for both treatment monitoring and planning. Measurement of solid tumor volume alone is not sufficient for reliable early detection of therapeutic response, since changes in physiological and/or biomechanical properties can precede tumor volume change following therapy. In this study, we use magnetic resonance elastography to evaluate the treatment effect after radiotherapy in a murine brain tumor model. Shear modulus was calculated and compared between the delineated tumor region of interest (ROI) and its contralateral, mirrored counterpart. We also compared the shear modulus from both the irradiated and non-irradiated tumor and mirror ROIs longitudinally, sampling four time points spanning 9–19 d post tumor implant. Results showed that the tumor ROI had a lower shear modulus than that of the mirror ROI, independent of radiation. The shear modulus of the tumor ROI decreased over time for both the treated and untreated groups. By contrast, the shear modulus of the mirror ROI appeared to be relatively constant for the treated group, while an increasing trend was observed for the untreated group. The results provide insights into the tumor properties after radiation treatment and demonstrate the potential of using the mechanical properties of the tumor as a biomarker. In future studies, more closely spaced time points will be employed for detailed analysis of the radiation effect.

  1. Research of the multimodal brain-tumor segmentation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yisu; Chen, Wufan

    2015-12-01

    It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. A new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance.

  2. CT-guided laser probe for ablation of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhadi Daneshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  In this study, 22 patients (15-75 years old were selected and transferred to CT scan for tumor ablation. For ablations, after prep and drep under the local anesthesia and mild sedation in proper position, small incision made and special needle inserted and guided by proper direction to the core of the tumor. Then, laser probe inserted through the needle and laser energy delivered. Although we have not a good prognosis in metastatic tumors but post-operative follow up and brain CT scan established the effect of laser on resection and evaporation and diminution of mass effect in tumor lesions.

  3. Memory and attention problems in children with brain tumors at diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Margelisch, Katja; Studer, Martina; Steinlin, Maja; Leibundgut, Kurt; Heinks Maldonado, Theda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Results from previous studies indicate that children with brain tumors (BT) might present with cognitive problems at diagnosis and thus before the start of any medical treatment. The question remains whether these problems are due to the underlying tumor itself or due to the high level of emotional and physical stress which is involved at diagnosis of a malignant disorder. All children with a de novo oncological diagnosis not involving the central nervous systems (CNS) are usually ex...

  4. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  5. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in brain tumors; its clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDR is one of the important factors affecting chemotherapy in high grade brain malignancies. Especially it affects commonly used agents such as vincristine, VP16, VM26, and cisplatin. MDR1 gene encoded P-glycoprotein (Pgp) prevents intratumoral retention of such drugs by expelling them at the plasma membrance of brain tumor cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate MDR in various brain tumors including metastatic tumors including metastatic tumors by dual isotope SPECT, Northern blotting or immunohistochemical staining (IHCS) using JSB-1 monoclonal antibody against MDR1 gene encoded Pgp. Twenty one patients with various brain tumors of primary, secondary, and recurrent tumors were included from 2 institutions. Whenever possible, surgical specimen from these patients were obtained to study MDR. SPET was performed with a tripple head system (Trionix, Twinsburg, Ohio or MultiSPECT 3, Siemens). Three millicuries of 201Tl chloride and 20 mCi of 99mTc-sestamibi were adminstered and SPET was performed in about 15 min. Nineteen percent of patients had MIBI (-) and Tl (+) suggesting MDR (+). MIBI tumor uptake was higher in recurrence (6.67 +/- 1.3) than the stable original tumors (3.12 +/-0.77) (For 201Tl, 3.65 +/-2.2 Vs 1.5 +/-0.41). Three recurrent gliomas biopsied showed positive blotting and these patients failed several courses of chemotherapy. Six patients with various tumors such as oligodendroglioma, meningioma, recurrent G-M (2), and astrocytoma (2) were studied by IHCS, Weakly positive MDR was seen in one recurrent G-M and an astrocytoma case. Positive MDR was seen in the other recurrent G-M and a meningioma. In conclusion, MDR in brain tumors is detected successfully by dual isotope SPECT studies in a limited number of patients. MDR in benign brain tumors has no clinical significance since they are cured by surgical removal. However, we believe its presence in metastatic and high grade especially recurrent tumors is an essential information

  6. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in brain tumors; its clinical importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Z. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia (United States); Park, C. H.; Kim, S. M.; Cho, K. K.; Bai, M. S.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.; Jin, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    MDR is one of the important factors affecting chemotherapy in high grade brain malignancies. Especially it affects commonly used agents such as vincristine, VP16, VM26, and cisplatin. MDR1 gene encoded P-glycoprotein (Pgp) prevents intratumoral retention of such drugs by expelling them at the plasma membrance of brain tumor cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate MDR in various brain tumors including metastatic tumors including metastatic tumors by dual isotope SPECT, Northern blotting or immunohistochemical staining (IHCS) using JSB-1 monoclonal antibody against MDR1 gene encoded Pgp. Twenty one patients with various brain tumors of primary, secondary, and recurrent tumors were included from 2 institutions. Whenever possible, surgical specimen from these patients were obtained to study MDR. SPET was performed with a tripple head system (Trionix, Twinsburg, Ohio or MultiSPECT 3, Siemens). Three millicuries of {sup 201}Tl chloride and 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi were adminstered and SPET was performed in about 15 min. Nineteen percent of patients had MIBI (-) and Tl (+) suggesting MDR (+). MIBI tumor uptake was higher in recurrence (6.67 +/- 1.3) than the stable original tumors (3.12 +/-0.77) (For {sup 201}Tl, 3.65 +/-2.2 Vs 1.5 +/-0.41). Three recurrent gliomas biopsied showed positive blotting and these patients failed several courses of chemotherapy. Six patients with various tumors such as oligodendroglioma, meningioma, recurrent G-M (2), and astrocytoma (2) were studied by IHCS, Weakly positive MDR was seen in one recurrent G-M and an astrocytoma case. Positive MDR was seen in the other recurrent G-M and a meningioma. In conclusion, MDR in brain tumors is detected successfully by dual isotope SPECT studies in a limited number of patients. MDR in benign brain tumors has no clinical significance since they are cured by surgical removal. However, we believe its presence in metastatic and high grade especially recurrent tumors is an

  7. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. PMID:27072331

  8. Assessment of serum L-fucose in brain tumor cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycosylation of altered tumor cell in relation to cellular heterogeneity in human intracranial tumors remains relatively unexposed. Serum protein-bound carbohydrate, L-Fucose is reported to be overexpressed during tumor progression by many investigators. Therefore, there is a need to determine the diagnostic, prognostic, functional significance of glycoprotein elevations in various cases of tumors. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of serum L-fucose in patients with brain tumor. Materials and Methods: Serum glyco-conjugate levels were estimated in 99 patients with brain tumors. Estimation of L-fucose was carried out colorimetrically by the method of Winzler using cysteine hydrochloride. Results: There was a significant increase in L-fucose level in most of the patients. In the posttreatment cases, the L-fucose levels were apparently low compared to preoperative values. Conclusion: Our results showed that the rise in serum L-fucose may be used as a general marker for brain tumors in addition to other markers.

  9. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  10. Kinome Profiling in Pediatric Brain Tumors as a New Approach for Target Discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Arend H.; Diks, Sander H.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; ter Elst, Arja; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Hoving, Eelco W.; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Boender, Piet J.; de Wijn, Rik; Kamps, Willem A.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Progression in pediatric brain tumor growth is thought to be the net result of signaling through various protein kinase-mediated networks driving cell proliferation. Defining new targets for treatment of human malignancies, without a priori knowledge on aberrant cell signaling activity, remains exce

  11. Social Skills Training Interventions: A Promising Approach for Children Treated for Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Beverley Slome; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of their disease, its treatment, and late effects, children treated for brain tumors are at risk for developing problems in social functioning in terms of social competence and peer acceptance, poor social skills, and social isolation. Despite research suggesting the effectiveness of social skills training interventions in improving…

  12. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: A rare brain tumor not to be misdiagnosed

    OpenAIRE

    Sukheeja, Deepti; Mehta, Jayanti

    2016-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a recently described, morphologically unique, and surgically curable low-grade brain tumor which is included in the latest WHO classification as neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumor. It is usually seen in children and young adults. The importance of this particular entity is that it is a surgically curable neuroepithelial neoplasm. When recognized, the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is obviated. We hereby present a case repo...

  13. A New Strategy of Drug Delivery: Electric Field Distribution in Brain Tumor Due to Electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Junxing

    2014-01-01

    As the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children under 20, and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males aged 20–39, there is a need to seek an effective treatment for brain tumors. While there may be various drugs for brain tumors, the problem is the lack of effective methods of delivery through cell membranes at a very specified and confined region. In order to tackle this specific problem of drug delivery, electroporation is introduced. Electroporation, the...

  14. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Brain Metastases from the Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer with brain metastasis was 23% to 65%, and is the most common type in brain metastasis tumors with the poor prognosis. At present, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung carcinoma and its molecular mechanism have become one hot spot of amount researches. Here, we made a systematic review of the progress of the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung and its molecular mechanism.

  15. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, J L;

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per uni...... treatments in intracranial diseases....

  16. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tricia Z.; Liya Wang; Hui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an in...

  17. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    residential nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations since 1971 with a validated dispersion model. Categorical and linear odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: The highest risk estimates for any brain cancer were observed among......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to...... replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...

  18. Visualization of brain tumor using I-123-vascular endothelial growth factor scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major angiogenic factor. VEGF receptors have been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of tumor vessels including glioblastoma, which may provide the molecular basis for a successful use of radiolabeled VEGF as tumor angiogenesis tracer. In this study we investigated the usefulness of 1231- VEGF as angiogenesis tracer for imaging brain tumors in vivo. Methods and Results: SPECT examinations were performed 30 minutes and 18 hours after intravenous application of 1231-VEGF (191 ± 15 MBq) in 20 patients with brain tumor. Glioblastomas were visualized in 7 of 8 patients (88 %) shortly after application of 1231- VEGF and were still clearly shown 18 hours post injection. Negative scan results were obtained in one patient with a small glioblastoma size (diameter <2.0 cm) and in 3 patients with benign glioma as well as in 5 patients with glioblastoma after receiving radiotherapy and for chemotherapy. Weak positive results were obtained in 3 patients with brain lymphoma or other tumors. No side effects were observed in patients after administration of 1231- VEG F. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 1231- VEGF scintigraphy may be useful to visualize the angiogenesis of brain tumors and to monitor the treatment response.

  19. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S; Schmiegelow, K; Hertz, H; Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E; Müller, J

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  20. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkhede Sachin G.,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI intensity and anatomical meaning. With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation, an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed. This is motivated by potential performance improvement in the general automatic brain tumor segmentation systems which are important for many medical and scientific applications. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods. MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub-regions especially soft tissues such as gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Although edge information is the main clue in image segmentation, it can’t get a better result in analysis the content of images without combining other information. Our goal is to detect the position and boundary of tumors automatically. Experiments were conducted on real pictures, and the results show that the algorithm is flexible and convenient.

  1. Clinical features of depressive disorders in patients with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogorenko V.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the structure of psychopathology and clinical features of depressive disorders in patients with brain oncopathology. Polymorphic mental disorders of various clinical content and severity in most cases not only are comorbid to oncological pathology of the brain, but most often are the first clinical signs of early tumors. The study was conducted using the following methods: clinical psychiatric, questionnaire Simptom Check List- 90 -Revised-SCL- 90 -R, Luscher test and mathematical processing methods. Sample included 175 patients with brain tumors with non-psychotic level of mental disorders. The peculiarities of mental disorders and psychopathological structure of nonpsychotic depressive disorders have been a clinical option of cancer debut in patients with brain tumors. We found that nonpsychotic depression is characterized by polymorphism and syndromal incompletion; this causes ambiguity of diagnoses interpretation on stages of diagnostic period. Features of depressive symptoms depending on the signs of malignancy / nonmalignancy of brain tumor were defined.

  2. BRAIN TUMOR CLASSIFICATION USING NEURAL NETWORK BASED METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani A. Bhawar*, Prof. Nitin K. Bhil

    2016-01-01

    MRI (Magnetic resonance Imaging) brain neoplasm pictures Classification may be a troublesome tasks due to the variance and complexity of tumors. This paper presents two Neural Network techniques for the classification of the magnetic resonance human brain images. The proposed Neural Network technique consists of 3 stages, namely, feature extraction, dimensionality reduction, and classification. In the first stage, we have obtained the options connected with tomography pictures victimization d...

  3. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to

  4. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartford, Alan C., E-mail: Alan.C.Hartford@Hitchcock.org [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Paravati, Anthony J. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Spire, William J. [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Li, Zhongze [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Jarvis, Lesley A. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Fadul, Camilo E. [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Rhodes, C. Harker [Department of Pathology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Erkmen, Kadir [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Friedman, Jonathan [Department of Surgery, Texas A and M College of Medicine, College Station, Texas (United States); Gladstone, David J. [Section of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Hug, Eugen B. [ProCure, New York, New York (United States); Roberts, David W.; Simmons, Nathan E. [Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to

  5. Medulloblastoma: Tumor Biology and Relevance to Treatment and Prognosis Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Daniel; Figuereido, Carlyn; Isik, Semra; Smith, Christian; Rutka, James T

    2016-05-01

    Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonic brain tumor arising in the posterior fossa and typically occurring in pediatric patients. Current multimodal treatment regimes have significantly improved the survival rates; however, a marked heterogeneity in therapy response is observed, and one third of all patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Large-scale genetic and transcriptome analysis revealed four medulloblastoma subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) associated with different demographic parameters, tumor manifestation, and clinical behavior. Future treatment protocols will integrate molecular classification schemes to evaluate subgroup-specific intensification or de-escalation of adjuvant therapies aimed to increase tumor control and reduce iatrogenic induced morbidity. Furthermore, the identification of genetic drivers allows assessing target therapies in order to increase the chemotherapeutic armamentarium. This review highlights the biology behind the current classification system and elucidates relevant aspects of the disease influencing forthcoming clinical trials. PMID:27021772

  6. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  7. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  8. Brain tumors induced in rats by human adenovirus type 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murao,Tsuyoshi

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis of human adenovirus type 12 in the brain of rats was examined. Newborn rats of Sprague-Dawley and Donryu strains were injected intracranially with human adenovirus type 12. The incidence of intracranial tumors was 91% (30/33 in SpragueDawley and 56% (14/25 in Donryu rats. Except for one tumor nodule located in the parietal cortex of a Sprague.Dawley rat, all tumors developed in the paraventricular areas or in the meninges. Tumors were quite similar histologically to those induced in hamsters and mice resembling the undifferentiated human brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, ependymoblastoma and embryonic gliomas. From the histological features and primary sites of tumor development, it is suggested that the tumors in the brain of rats induced by adenovirus type 12 originate from the embryonic cells in the paraventricular area and also from the undifferentiated supporting cells of the peripheral nerves in the leptomeninges.

  9. Problems of radiotherapy on the brain tumors in children less than two years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impaired growth and mental or developmental disturbance due to radiotherapy for 10 cases of brain tumors in the children ages less than 2 years old were evaluated. Six cases of brain tumor which did not involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, were followed more than 2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation. Four cases irradiated greater than 2900 rad to the whole brain all revealed markedly lower body heights than -2 SD of the medium. Growth impairment was found to be progressive over time, and markedly evident after 2 years following cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy. Somatomedin C in the blood was measured in 8 cases of brain tumors in childhood receiving radiotherapy. The measurement of Somatomedin C showed markedly low values measuring 0.19 to 0.54 U/ml (medium; 0.36 U/ml) in children having lower body height than -2 SD. Mental retardation or developmental disturbances were found in IQ or DQ tests in all of 5 infants or children younger than 2 years with brain tumors who got radiotherapy over 2900 rad to the whole brain. A case of craniopharyngioma, which had 5400 rad for tumor localization at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and showed markedly low height, was given growth hormone and grew to normal height without distinct side effects. It was suggested that radiotherapy for brain tumors in infants or children should have special care in deciding the dose, field and time of radiation. If low height due to radiotherapy results, growth hormone therapy should be used for its treatment in childhood. (author)

  10. Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nysom, Karsten; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    -up were assessed for general intelligence (IQ) and administered the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life (MMQL) questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression treatment with RT was the most important risk factor for reduced HRQOL. Lower scores for physical functioning and energy, social......BACKGROUND: To identify predictors for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in survivors of childhood brain tumors and its relationship to cognitive function. PROCEDURE: One hundred twenty-six consecutive Danish childhood brain tumor patients treated 1970-1997 and being 7.9-40.4 years at follow...... functioning, cognitive functioning, body image, outlook of life, and intimate relations were significantly related to RT. Tumor location in the posterior fossa was associated with lower scores for physical functioning and energy, and tumor site in the third ventricle region was associated with lower scores...

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy for children with malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the 131 cases with brain tumors treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT), seventeen were children. Eight supratentorial tumors included five astrocytomas(grade 2-4), two primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and one rhabdomyosarcoma. Seven pontine tumors included one astrocytoma, one PNET and 5 unverified gliomas. Two cerebellar tumors (PNET and astrocytoma) were also treated. All pontine tumors showed remarkable decrease in size after BNCT. However, most of them showed regrowth of the tumors because the neutrons were insufficient due to the depth. Four cases with cerebral tumor died of remote cell dissemination, although they all responded to BNCT. One of them survived 7 years after repeated BNCTs. An 11 years old girl with a large astrocytoma in the right frontal lobe has lived more than 11 years and is now a draftswoman at a civil engineering company after graduating from a technical college. An 8 years old girl with an astrocytoma in the left occipital lobe has no recurrence of the tumor for 2 years and attends on elementary school without mental and physical problems. Two children (one year old girl and four years old boy) with cerebellar tumors have shown showed an excellent growth after BNCT and had no neurological deficits. Mental and physical development in patients treated by BNCT is usually better than that in patients treated by conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Anja, E-mail: sprengea@staff.uni-marburg.de; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2012-02-08

    Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-α, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  13. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-a, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  14. Effect of tumor resection on the characteristics of functional brain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Douw, L.; Hernández, J.M.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Stam, C.J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Brain functioning such as cognitive performance depends on the functional interactions between brain areas, namely, the functional brain networks. The functional brain networks of a group of patients with brain tumors are measured before and after tumor resection. In this work, we perform a weighted

  15. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R arrests growth of breast-cancer brain metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Nan; Hoffman, Robert M.; Zhao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a morbid, treatment-resistant, end-stage frequent occurrence in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on breast cancer brain metastases. High brain-metastatic variants of murine 4T1 breast cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected orthotopically in the mammary fat pad in non-transgenic nude mice or in the left ventricle of non-transgenic nude mice and transgenic nu...

  16. ACTUALLY TREATMENT OF THE HEPATIC MALIGNANT TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of the hepatic malignant tumors is a challenge for every surgeon. In present days there are a lot of techniques with different indications and results. These methods and their efficacity are presented in some recent papers. Hepatic resection is the gold standard treatment for hepatic malignancies with a decreasing postoperative morbidity and mortality. But only 10 - 20% of the patients with hepatic malignancies are able to be operated. For the other patients the treatment is palliative. Termonecrosis (by radiofrequency, steam water, laser, microwaves, intraarterial chemotherapy, chemoembolisation, cryoablation and ethanolic injection are alternative therapies which are indicated to use as palliative procedures in the treatment of the liver tumors.

  17. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy

  18. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  19. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular ...

  20. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This study is the first reporting an image guided method for soft tissue synchrotron radiotherapy. It allowed microbeam radiation therapy irradiation fields to be reduced by a factor of ∼20 compared with previous studies. It permitted more targeted, more efficient brain tumor microbeam treatments and reduces normal brain toxicity of the radiation treatment. PMID:26698083

  1. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents.

  2. Brain hyaluronan binding protein inhibits tumor growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 曹曼林; 王蕾

    2004-01-01

    Background Great efforts have been made to search for the angiogenic inhibitors in avascular tissues. Several proteins isolated from cartilage have been proved to have anti-angiogenic or anti-tumour effects. Because cartilage contains a great amount of hyaluronic acid (HA) oligosaccharides and abundant HA binding proteins (HABP), therefore, we speculated that HABP might be one of the factors regulating vascularization in cartilage or anti-angiogenesis in tumours. The purpose of this research was to evaluale the effects of hyaluronan binding protein on inhibiting tumour growth both in vivo and vitro. Methods A unique protein termed human brain hyaluronan (HA) binding protein (b-HABP) was cloned from human brain cDNA library. MDA-435 human breast cancer cell line was chosen as a transfectant. The in vitro underlying mechanisms were investigated by determining the possibilities of MDA-435/b-HABP colony formation on soft agar, the effects of the transfectant on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the expression levels of caspase 3 and FasL from MDA-435/b-HABP. The in vivo study included tumour growth on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos and nude mice. Results Colony formation assay revealed that the colonies formed by MDA-435/b-HABP were greatly reduced compared to mock transfectants. The conditioned media from MDA-435/b-HABP inhibited the growth of endothelial cells in culture. Caspase 3 and FasL expressions were induced by MDA-435/b-HABP. The size of tumours of MDA-435/b-HABP in both CAM and nude mice was much smaller than that of MDA-435 alone. Conclusions Human brain hyaluronan binding protein (b-HABP) may represent a new kind of naturally existing anti-tumour substance. This brain-derived glycoprotein may block tumour growth by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells or by decreasing angiogenesis in tumour tissue via inhibiting proliferation of endothelial cells.

  3. Spectroscopy of brain tumors; Spektroskopie bei Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Peter; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Pilatus, Ulrich [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2008-09-15

    Metabolic imaging with NMR-spectroscopy has become a diagnostic tool that is used for the examination of cerebral pathologies. It is a non-invasive technique, which can detect and quantify biochemical changes. This paper describes the history of NMR-spectroscopy, its technical basis and possible areas of use for tumor diagnostics. An overview of the literature is given and upcoming developments are mentioned. (orig.)

  4. Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy); Funktionelle Bildgebung bei Hirntumoren (Perfusion, DTI, MR-Spektroskopie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Stieltjes, B.; Weber, M.A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2007-06-15

    This contribution considers the possibilities involved with using functional methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics for brain tumors. Of the functional methods available, we discuss perfusion MRI (PWI), diffusion MRI (DWI and DTI) and MR spectroscopy (H-MRS). In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning. In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized. PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplastically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visualization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics. Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally. Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor. Due to its operator dependence, DTI based fiber tracking for defining risk structures is controversial. DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses. H-MRS provides information on cell membrane metabolism, neuronal integrity and the function of neuronal structures, energy metabolism and the formation of tumors and brain tissue necroses. Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved. An additional contribution will discuss the control of the course of glial tumors after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging for metastatic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present series consists of 24 patients with brain metastasis smaller than 10 mm in diameter demonstrated on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging (Gd-MRI). All patients underwent contrast-enhanced (CE) CT to be compared with Gd-MRI in size, number and detectability. The primary lesions of the series included 18 patients with lung cancer (9 with adenocarcinoma, 4 with small cell cancer, 3 with squamous cell cancer and 2 with large cell cancer), 4 with breast cancer, and each 1 with parotid cancer and renal cell carcinoma. All 24 patients except one who underwent surgery were treated with radiation therapy. In 13 patients examined by Gd-MRI and CE-CT both before and after the brain irradiation, therapeutic effect was estimated on each diagnostic imaging comparatively. In regard to size of brain metastases of 24 patients, 91 lesions smaller than 5 mm in diameter were detected by Gd-MRI but only 15 by CE-CT. Three of all patients, no brain metastasis was found on CE-CT. In 6 patients estimated as CR (complete remission) by CE-CT after brain irradiation, Gd-MRI evidenced tumor residues in 5 patients to alter the score of therapeutic effect as PR (partial remission). The difference in therapeutic effects confirmed by Gd-MRI was noted according to histological results and size of metastasis. The most radiosensitive tumor was small cell lung cancer, of which brain metastases smaller than 5 mm in diameter completely disappeared after 20∼50 Gy irradiation. Prophylactic whole brain irradiation has been an alternative indication for small cell lung cancer when CT showed no evidence of brain metastasis. However, our data strongly suggest that the small or tiny brain metastases negative on CE-CT will become new subjects of 'radical' radiotherapy. The higher sensitivity of Gd-MRI for detecting brain metastasis may propose new clinical prospects in staging, planning of therapy and estimation of therapeutic effect. (author)

  6. Radiotherapy combined with Tegafur (FT-207s) for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has anti-tumor effects as an anti-metabolite, but it cannot pass the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB). FT-207 a masked-compound of 5-FU, is easily lipid soluble and is able to pass the BBB. Twenty eight patients of primary brain tumor and 8 patients of metastatic brain tumor were treated with irradiation combined with 750 mg of FT-207 suppository. Twenty four patients of primary brain tumor were treated only with irradiation as control. The mean survival time was 20.4 +- 11.8 months for the combined therapy group and 17.6 +- 8.6 months for the control. The concentration of FT-207 and 5-FU in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated after administration of 750 mg of FT-207 suppository per annum. The maximum concentration of FT-207 and of 5-FU in serum was 20.4 +- 11.8 mcg/ml and 0.06 +- 0.02 mcg/ml, respectively. There were observed several side effects, such as anorexia, nausea, exanthema and etc. These side effects were not so great as to interrupt the therapy at the dose level of 750 mg of FT-207. However, at the dose of 1500 mg, one case showed disturbance of consciousness, to which attention should be called. (author)

  7. Genetic abnormality predicts benefit for a rare brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A clinical trial has shown that addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy leads to a near doubling of median survival time in patients with a form of brain tumor (oligodendroglioma) that carries a chromosomal abnormality called the 1p19q co-deletion.

  8. Learning Profiles of Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkon, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    By 2010 it is predicted that one in 900 adults will be survivors of some form of pediatric cancer. The numbers are somewhat lower for survivors of brain tumors, though their numbers are increasing. Schools mistakenly believe that these children easily fit pre-existing categories of disability. Though these students share some of the…

  9. Automated 3D Brain Tumor Edema Segmentation in FLAIR MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    Vol. S1. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 2013, s. 489. ISSN 1352-8661. [ESMRMB 2013. Congress. Tolouse (FR), 03.10.2013-05.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Automated 3D * brain tumor edema segmentation * FLAIR MRI Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Association Between PARP1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Qin, Haifeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Liyu; Cao, Yanyan

    2016-05-01

    To systematically evaluate the association between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) rs1136410 T>C and brain tumor risk, a meta-analysis has been carried out. We performed a meta-analysis of 2004 brain tumor patients and 2944 controls by use of STATA version 12.0 to determine whether the risk of brain tumors was associated with the genotypes or alleles of rs1136410 T>C. We found a significantly decreased risk (ranging from 0.18- to 0.16-fold) in the dominant model (OR = 0.84, 95 % CI = 0.75-0.95), the C vs. T model (OR = 0.82, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.91), and the CT vs. TT model (OR = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.98). The same genetic models demonstrated noteworthy associations when analysis was restrained to glioma (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.75-0.96; OR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.92; OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.99, respectively). This meta-analysis suggests that PARP1 rs1136410 T>C may play a significant role in the protection against the development of brain tumors and glioma. PMID:25911198

  11. What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues and cells, which can develop into different types of tumors. Neurons (nerve cells): These are the most important cells ... as long as several feet. Unlike many other types of cells that can grow and divide to repair damage from injury or disease, neurons in the brain and spinal cord largely stop ...

  12. Feasibility and Utility of Telephone-Based Psychological Support for People with Brain Tumor: A Single-Case Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Stephanie; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of psychological distress are high following diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor. There can be multiple barriers to accessing psychological support, including physical and cognitive impairments and geographical limitations. Tele-based support could provide an effective and more flexible option for delivering psychological interventions. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of a telephone-based psychotherapy intervention for people with brain tumor. A sin...

  13. Identification of internalizing human single chain antibodies targeting brain tumor sphere cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Hashizume, Rintaro; James, C. David; Berger, Mitchel S.; Liu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor and there is no curative treatment to date. Resistance to conventional therapies and tumor recurrence pose major challenges to treatment and management of this disease, and therefore new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Previous studies by other investigators have shown that a subpopulation of GBM cells can grow as neurosphere-like cells when cultured in restrictive media, and exhibit enhanced tumor initiating ability and resistance to therapy. We report here the identification of internalizing human single chain antibodies (scFvs) targeting GBM tumor sphere cells. We selected a large naive phage antibody display library on the glycosylation-dependent CD133 epitope-positive subpopulation of GBM cells grown as tumor spheres and identified internalizing scFvs that target tumor sphere cells broadly, as well as scFvs that target the CD133 positive subpopulation. These scFvs were found to be efficiently internalized by GBM tumor sphere cells. One scFv GC4 inhibited self-renewal of GBM tumor sphere cells in vitro. We have further developed a full-length human IgG1 based on this scFv and found that it potently inhibits proliferation of GBM tumor sphere cells and GBM cells grown in regular non-selective media. Taken together, these results show that internalizing human scFvs targeting brain tumor sphere cells can be readily identified from a phage antibody display library, which could be useful for further development of novel therapies that target subpopulations of GBM cells to combat recurrence and resistance to treatment. PMID:20587664

  14. Tumor angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 brain tumor: model establishment, pathologic study and preliminary imaging observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a stable implanted model of VX2 rabbit brain tumor, and to evaluate the pathological and imaging features and tumor angiogenesis. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were implanted with 100 μl viable VX2 tumor cells (107/ml) through a hole 5 mm to the right of the sagittal suture and 5 mm posterior to the coronal suture bored by a dental drill. MRI was performed every 2 days after 7 days of implantation to evaluate the growth of the tumor, and perfusion CT studies were performed in different days of tumor growth. After that the animals were sacrificed on days 14, 18, 22, 26, and 30 of tumor implantation. 2% Evans blue (2 ml/kg) was given intravenously in 16 of these animals 1 hour prior to sacrifice to detect the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The specimens of the rabbit brains were examined pathologically and histologically. VEGF and MVD were evaluated in immunohistochemical examination. Results: Of the 22 animals included into the study, the tumor grew in 20 animals, which could be seen clearly on MR imaging. Pathologic examination showed characteristics of squamous carcinoma. VEGF was expressed in all tumors with the mean rate of positive cells of (52.51 ± 19.15)% (19.5%-92.9%). Mean MVD was (51.30 ± 14.42) pice piece/microscope (25-81 pice piece/microscope). Using Pearson's linear correlation analysis, positive correlation was found between tumor growth time and volume (r=0.791, P=0.000), between MVD and tumor growth time (r=0.875, P=0.000), and between MVD and tumor volume (r=0.901, P=0.000), respectively. Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed positive correlation between VEGF grade and blue stain of the tumor (rs=0.594, P=0.015). Conclusion: A stable model of VX2 rabbit brain tumor has been established with the method of skull drilling. The method was simple and easy to use, with a high tumor growth rate and remarkable angiogenesis. The model is helpful for the pathological and radiological study of tumor

  15. Association rule mining based study for identification of clinical parameters akin to occurrence of brain tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar SENGUPTA; Sood, Meemansa; Vijayvargia, Poorvika; Hota, Sunil; Naik, Pradeep K

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare sector is generating a large amount of information corresponding to diagnosis, disease identification and treatment of an individual. Mining knowledge and providing scientific decision-making for the diagnosis & treatment of disease from the clinical dataset is therefore increasingly becoming necessary. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability of knowledge discovery in brain tumor data warehouse, applying data mining techniques for investigation of clinical parameters that...

  16. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  17. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  18. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Egyptian Cases with Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cytokines are proposed to play important roles in brain tumor biology as well as neuro degeneration or impaired neuronal function. Objectives: This work aimed to check the association of polymorphisms of cytokine genes in Egyptian cases with brain tumors. Methods: This work included 45 cases affected by brain tumors diagnosed as 24 benign and 21 malignant. Their median age was 45 years, and they were 20 males and 25 females. These cases were taken randomly from the Neurosurgery Department of Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Case genotypes were compared to 98 healthy unrelated controls from the same locality. DNA was amplified using PCR utilizing sequence specific primers (SSP) for detection of polymorphisms related to TNF-a-308 (G/A), IL-10-1082 (G/A), IL-6-174 (G/C) and IL-1Ra (VNTR) genes. Results: Cases affected with benign brain tumors showed a significant higher frequency of IL-10-1082 A/A [odds ratio (OR=8.0), p<0.001] and IL-6-174 C/C (OR=6.3, p=0.002) homozygous genotypes as compared to controls. Malignant cases, on the other hand, showed significantly higher frequency of IL-6-174 C/C (OR =4.8, p=0.002) homozygous genotype and TNF-a-308 A/A (OR=4.9, p<0.001) homozygous genotype when compared to controls. In the meantime, all cases showed no significant difference regarding the distribution of IL-1Ra VNTR genotype polymorphism compared to controls. Conclusions: Cytokine gene polymorphisms showed a pattern of association with brain tumors which may have potential impact on family counseling and disease management.

  19. Simulation of brain tumor resection in image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2011-03-01

    Preoperative magnetic resonance images are typically used for neuronavigation in image-guided neurosurgery. However, intraoperative brain deformation (e.g., as a result of gravitation, loss of cerebrospinal fluid, retraction, resection, etc.) significantly degrades the accuracy in image guidance, and must be compensated for in order to maintain sufficient accuracy for navigation. Biomechanical finite element models are effective techniques that assimilate intraoperative data and compute whole-brain deformation from which to generate model-updated MR images (uMR) to improve accuracy in intraoperative guidance. To date, most studies have focused on early surgical stages (i.e., after craniotomy and durotomy), whereas simulation of more complex events at later surgical stages has remained to be a challenge using biomechanical models. We have developed a method to simulate partial or complete tumor resection that incorporates intraoperative volumetric ultrasound (US) and stereovision (SV), and the resulting whole-brain deformation was used to generate uMR. The 3D ultrasound and stereovision systems are complimentary to each other because they capture features deeper in the brain beneath the craniotomy and at the exposed cortical surface, respectively. In this paper, we illustrate the application of the proposed method to simulate brain tumor resection at three temporally distinct surgical stages throughout a clinical surgery case using sparse displacement data obtained from both the US and SV systems. We demonstrate that our technique is feasible to produce uMR that agrees well with intraoperative US and SV images after dural opening, after partial tumor resection, and after complete tumor resection. Currently, the computational cost to simulate tumor resection can be up to 30 min because of the need for re-meshing and the trial-and-error approach to refine the amount of tissue resection. However, this approach introduces minimal interruption to the surgical workflow

  20. Anti-angiogenic therapy in pediatric brain tumors : An effective strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Mariska; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are still the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among children, despite different therapeutic options including neurosurgery, chemotherapy and radiation. As angiogenesis is highly crucial in brain tumor growth and progression, numerous clinical trials evaluating diverse an

  1. Long-Term Cognitive Sequelae After Pediatric Brain Tumor Related to Medical Risk Factors, Age, and Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Tonning Olsson, Ingrid; Perrin, Sean; Lundgren, Johan; Hjorth, Lars; Johanson, Aki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young age at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiation therapy are well studied risk factors for cognitive impairment in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Other risk factors are hydrocephalus, surgery complications, and treatment with intrathecal chemotherapy. Female gender vulnerability to cognitive sequelae after cancer treatment has been evident in some studies, but no earlier studies have related this to tumor size. The purpose of our study was to find factors correlate...

  2. Utility of hyperbaric oxygenation in radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 50 years, hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy has been used in a wide variety of medical conditions; this therapy causes an increase in oxygen tension in blood and tissues. In the treatment of malignant gliomas, HBO therapy is used for the radiosensitization of cells in combination with radiotherapy (RT). Further, HBO therapy is applied for the treatment and prevention of radiation-induced brain necrosis that is the most serious complication observed after radiosurgery. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the manner in which HBO therapy contributes to clinical fields in cases of RT administration for malignant brain tumors. (author)

  3. Banking Brain Tumor Specimens Using a University Core Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Amade; Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Faber, David A; Shah, Ashish H; Gomez, Carmen R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Egea, Sophie C

    2015-08-01

    Within the past three decades, the significance of banking human cancer tissue for the advancement of cancer research has grown exponentially. The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in collecting brain tumor specimens in collaboration with the University of Miami/Sylvester Tissue Bank Core Facility (UM-TBCF), to ensure the availability of high-quality samples of central nervous system tumor tissue for research. Successful tissue collection begins with obtaining informed consent from patients following institutional IRB and federal HIPAA guidelines, and it needs a well-trained professional staff and continued maintenance of high ethical standards and record keeping. Since starting in 2011, we have successfully banked 225 brain tumor specimens for research. Thus far, the most common tumor histology identified among those specimens has been glioblastoma (22.1%), followed by meningioma (18.1%). The majority of patients were White, non-Hispanics accounting for 45.1% of the patient population; Hispanic/Latinos accounted for 23%, and Black/African Americans accounted for 14%, which represent the particular population of the State of Florida according to the 2010 census data. The most common tumors found in each subgroup were as follows: Black/African American, glioblastoma and meningioma; Hispanic, metastasis and glioblastoma; White, glioblastoma and meningioma. The UM-TBCF is a valuable repository, offering high-quality tumor samples from a unique patient population. PMID:26280502

  4. 1H MRS spectroscopy in brain tumors - in search of the highest efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many thousands of published papers, a lot of communications and daily practice show the outstanding role of proton spectroscopy (1H MRS) in neurooncology. Paradoxically, in several clinical centres (neurosurgery ones) we can observe the lack of full acceptance of the reliability of this method. Presumably, the reason for this attitude lies in non-uniform methodology and quite superficial treatment of spectroscopic results. At the beginning of this paper, we would like to stress that fortunately, there is a certain number of publications which order criteria of tumor's malignancy, its tissue characterisation and the degree of malignancy. In this paper we intend to point out the proper ways of improving reliability of 1H MRS in brain tumor diagnosis. Obviously, the quality of spectroscopic exams is influenced by methodology and manner of result interpretation (e.g. just simple visual inspection of MRS spectra is not sufficient for correct diagnosis). Currently, imaging diagnosis of brain tumors is based on many modalities (DTI, perfusion CT, MR, PET, SPECT) which are sufficiently effective in detection and differentiation of the lesions; in this context, we can say that 1H MRS spectroscopy constitutes the element of multimodal diagnostic approach for brain tumors. Nevertheless, the current papers concerning MR spectroscopy stress its significant role in making therapeutic decision, particularly as an alternative for surgery treatment and solution of the recurrence of tumor or/and extent of the tumor's spreading. Over 15 years of experience with 1H MRS in diagnosis of brain tumors convinced us that these methods have very high diagnostic and decision-making value provided that it is properly applied and interpreted correctly. It is also important to choose the statistic methods that will show the best discriminators (markers) for particular pathologies. Authors' intention is to recommend the best ways to form the right diagnosis considering technological requirements

  5. Differential MRI Diagnosis Between Brain Abscess and Necrotic or Cystic Brain Tumors Using Diffusion Weighted Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Miabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Differentiating brain abscesses from cystic or necrotic tumors by CT or MR imaging can be difficult. Difficulties in the diagnosis of intracranial abscess are mainly due to the combination of often unspecified clinical findings and similarities in the morphologic appearance of some intracranial mass lesions, such as cystic gliomas, metastases, and brain abscesses. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides a way to evaluate the diffusion properties of water molecules in tissue and has been used for diseases such as ischemia, tumors, epilepsy, and white matter disorders. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of diffusion MRI to differentiate between brain abscesses and necrotic or cystic brain tumors. "nMaterials and Methods: MRI was performed in 17 patients (12 men and five women; age range, 19–74 years [mean, 55 years] with necrotic lesions and MR imaging evidence of ring-shaped enhancement after the injection of contrast material .In addition to standard MR sequences diffusion weighted MRI with apparent coefficient (ADC maps. "nResults: Eleven patients had tumors, and six had pyogenic abscesses. The tumors were glioblastomas (five patients, anaplastic astrocytoma (three patients, metastases (three patients, and primary malignancy, including lung (2 and breast (1 cancer. Surgical or stereotactic biopsies were obtained, and histologic studies were performed in all except one case (case 5. In the cases of abscess, bacteriologic analysis was also conducted. None of these lesions appeared hemorrhagic on T1-weighted images. "nConclusion: Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for differentiating brain abscess from cystic or necrotic brain tumor, which is often difficult with conventional MR imaging. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful as an additional imaging technique for establishing the differential diagnosis between brain abscesses and cystic or necrotic brain tumors. It requires less imaging time and is more

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapy by patients with primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R

    2008-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. CAM includes mind-body interventions, biologically based therapies, energy therapies, and body-based methods. Primary brain tumors arise within the brain and have a poor prognosis when malignant. Even patients with benign tumors suffer neurologic and systemic symptoms as a result of the tumor or its treatment. CAM is used by 30% of brain tumor patients, who often do not report its use to their physician. Herbal medicines may affect the metabolism of prescribed medications or produce adverse effects that may be attributed to other causes. In patients with systemic cancer, mind-body modalities such as meditation and relaxation therapy have been shown to be helpful in reducing anxiety and pain; acupuncture and hypnotherapy may also reduce both pain and nausea. Recent preclinical studies have reported that ginseng, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Angelica sinensis may promote apoptosis of tumor cells or exercise antiangiogenic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of CAM on symptom control or tumor growth in this vulnerable patient population. PMID:18541122

  7. Interobserver variations in gross tumor volume delineation of brain tumors on computed tomography and impact of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: (1) To assess the interobserver variability of brain tumor delineation on computed tomography (CT). (2) To assess the impact of the addition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) information. Methods: Nine physicians were asked to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV) of five patients with supratentorial inoperable brain tumors on CT scans and 2 weeks (or more) later on MRIs. The delineations were performed on a computer screen. During delineation on MRI, the registered CT images (without delineation) were displayed on the screen (MRI+CT). Results: A high interobserver variability in GTV delineation on CT is found: the ratio of the largest to the smallest defined volumes varies for the five patients by factors of resp. 2.8, 1.8, 1.8, 1.9 and 1.7. The interobserver variability is as large on MRI+CT as on CT alone (ratio largest/smallest volume: 2.4, 1.7, 1.9, 2.7 and 1.5). Volumes delineated on MRI+CT (mean: 69.6 cm3) are larger than on CT alone (mean: 59.5 cm3). Residual volumes (volume delineated on one image modality but not on the other) are >0 for CT alone and for MRI+CT. Conclusions: A large interobserver variability in GTV delineation of brain tumors is demonstrated. The addition of MRI to CT does not reduce interobserver variability. GTVs delineated on MRI+CT are larger than on CT alone, but some volumes are delineated on CT and not on MRI. Therefore, a combination of the two image modalities is recommended for brain tumor delineation for treatment planning

  8. Brain Tumor Susceptibility: the Role of Genetic Factors and Uses of Mouse Models to Unravel Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Karlyne M.

    2009-01-01

    Brain tumors are relatively rare but deadly cancers, and present challenges in the determination of risk factors in the population. These tumors are inherently difficult to cure because of their protected location in the brain, with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy options carrying potentially lasting morbidity for patients and incomplete cure of the tumor. The development of methods to prevent or detect brain tumors at an early stage is extremely important to reduce damage to the brain fr...

  9. Caring for the brain tumor patient: Family caregiver burden and unmet needs

    OpenAIRE

    Schubart, Jane R.; Kinzie, Mable B.; Farace, Elana

    2008-01-01

    The rapid onset and progression of a brain tumor, cognitive and behavioral changes, and uncertainty surrounding prognosis are issues well known to health practitioners in neuro-oncology. We studied the specific challenges that family caregivers face when caring for patients experiencing the significant neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders associated with brain tumors. We selected 25 family caregivers of adult brain tumor patients to represent the brain tumor illness trajectory (crisis...

  10. Signs and symptoms of pediatric brain tumors and diagnostic value of preoperative EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuß, Matthias; Preiss, Sophia; Syrbe, Steffen; Nestler, Ulf; Fischer, Lars; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Bertsche, Astrid; Christiansen, Holger; Bernhard, Matthias K

    2015-11-01

    In pediatric patients, brain tumors have been estimated to be the cause for seizures in only 0.2-0.3% of cases, whereas seizures occurred in about 13% of pediatric brain tumor patients at presentation. This survey was conducted to analyze EEG findings in pediatric tumor patients over the past 14 years to evaluate the diagnostic value of preoperative EEG for diagnosis of brain tumors. Surface EEG was obtained in awake patients using the international 10- to 20-electrode placement in all pediatric patients with intracranial neoplasms between 2000 and 2013 at the University Hospital of Leipzig except for those who needed emergency operative treatment. One hundred forty-two pediatric patients with 80 infratentorial and 62 supratentorial tumors (WHO grades I-II: 91 patients; WHO grades III-IV: 46 patients). Symptomatic hydrocephalus was found in 37. Sensitivity and specificity of ophthalmologic examination for predicting hydrocephalus was 0.39 and 0.72. Preoperative EEG has been conducted in 116 patients, showing normal activity in 54 patients (47%). Out of 62 pathologic EEGs, 40 indicated correctly to the site of the lesion, 15 were pathologic despite of infratentorial location of the tumor. Nineteen patients had a history of seizures of which six had normal EEGs. Sensitivity for and specificity of EEG examination for symptomatic epilepsy was 0.68 and 0.7. Conclusion Preoperative routine EEG provides no additional value in the diagnostic algorithm of pediatric train tumors. The low specificity and sensitivity of EEG (even in patients with clinical seizures as primary symptom of a brain tumor) underline that EEG does not contribute to diagnosis and a normal EEG might even delay correct diagnosis. PMID:26248670

  11. Synchrotron supported DEI/KES of a brain tumor in an animal model: The search for a microimaging modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, K. A.; Schültke, E.; Menk, R. H.; Siu, K.; Pavlov, K.; Kelly, M.; McLoughlin, G.; Beveridge, T.; Tromba, G.; Juurlink, B. H.; Chapman, D.; Rigon, L.; Griebel, R. W.

    2005-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. The high rate of tumor recurrence results in a poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. One reason for high rate of recurrence is the invasive nature of the tumor into the surrounding normal brain tissue or multifocal occurrence at sites remote from that of the primary tumor establishment. Existing imaging demonstrates the primary tumor but fail to show the residual tumor microaggregates left behind following initial treatment. In this study, we employed diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) in an attempt to find an imaging modality that will provide visualization of residual disease that is not be apparent on MRI or CT scans.

  12. Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

  13. ACTUALLY TREATMENT OF THE HEPATIC MALIGNANT TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of the hepatic malignant tumors is a challenge for every surgeon. In present days there are a lot of techniques with different indications and results. These methods and their efficacity are presented in some recent papers. Hepatic resection is the gold standard treatment for hepatic malignancies with a decreasing postoperative morbidity and mortality. But only 10 - 20% of the patients with hepatic malignancies are able to be operated. For the other patients the treatment is pal...

  14. A new treatment method for brain diseases. Stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with stereotactic radiosurgery, a novel medical treatment technique for brain diseases. It is the most sophisticated modality that allows the functional preservation. Recently, CT scan and MRI scan have dramatically changed the diagnostic accuracy of tumor localization in the brain. A device named stereotactic head fixation system makes it possible to localize deep-seated brain diseases with an accuracy of 1-1.5 mm. Using multiple convergent narrow beams of high-energy X-ray, a stereotactic head frame, and a three dimensional computer graphics of CT images, patients with deep-seated nidus can be treated without any complications. Normal tissues would not receive large doses but the center of the nidus is irradiated heavily because of the convergence of X-ray beams. Thus stereotactic radiosurgery is more accurate, effective, and less toxic than conventional radiotherapy and is safer and more effective than surgery for many brain diseases. Small arteriovenous malformation in the brain, which is a fetal disease, and small acoustic neurinomas, in which surgery often causes facial nerve palsy and hearing loss, are presented as good candidates for radiosurgery. For metastatic brain tumors, stereotactic radiosurgery makes such patients free from neurological symptoms, such as difficulty in walking and speaking, in a few days. (N.K.)

  15. Optical spectroscopy for stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Niklas; von Berg, Anna; Fiedler, Sebastian; Goetz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Polzer, Christoph; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic biopsy procedure is performed to obtain a tissue sample for diagnosis purposes. Currently, a fiber-based mechano-optical device for stereotactic biopsies of brain tumors is developed. Two different fluorophores are employed to improve the safety and reliability of this procedure: The fluorescence of intravenously applied indocyanine green (ICG) facilitates the recognition of blood vessels and thus helps minimize the risk of cerebral hemorrhages. 5- aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence is used to localize vital tumor tissue. ICG fluorescence detection using a 2-fiber probe turned out to be an applicable method to recognize blood vessels about 1.5 mm ahead of the fiber tip during a brain tumor biopsy. Moreover, the suitability of two different PpIX excitation wavelengths regarding practical aspects was investigated: While PpIX excitation in the violet region (at 405 nm) allows for higher sensitivity, red excitation (at 633 nm) is noticeably superior with regard to blood layers obscuring the fluorescence signal. Contact measurements on brain simulating agar phantoms demonstrated that a typical blood coverage of the tumor reduces the PpIX signal to about 75% and nearly 0% for 633 nm and 405 nm excitation, respectively. As a result, 633 nm seems to be the wavelength of choice for PpIX-assisted detection of high-grade gliomas in stereotactic biopsy.

  16. Clinical Evaluation of a Fully-automatic Segmentation Method for Longitudinal Brain Tumor Volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael; Knecht, Urspeter; Loosli, Tina; Bauer, Stefan; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Information about the size of a tumor and its temporal evolution is needed for diagnosis as well as treatment of brain tumor patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a fully-automatic segmentation method, called BraTumIA, for longitudinal brain tumor volumetry by comparing the automatically estimated volumes with ground truth data acquired via manual segmentation. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging data of 14 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma encompassing 64 MR acquisitions, ranging from preoperative up to 12 month follow-up images, was analysed. Manual segmentation was performed by two human raters. Strong correlations (R = 0.83–0.96, p < 0.001) were observed between volumetric estimates of BraTumIA and of each of the human raters for the contrast-enhancing (CET) and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments (NCE-T2). A quantitative analysis of the inter-rater disagreement showed that the disagreement between BraTumIA and each of the human raters was comparable to the disagreement between the human raters. In summary, BraTumIA generated volumetric trend curves of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments comparable to estimates of human raters. These findings suggest the potential of automated longitudinal tumor segmentation to substitute manual volumetric follow-up of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments. PMID:27001047

  17. Clinical Evaluation of a Fully-automatic Segmentation Method for Longitudinal Brain Tumor Volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael; Knecht, Urspeter; Loosli, Tina; Bauer, Stefan; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Information about the size of a tumor and its temporal evolution is needed for diagnosis as well as treatment of brain tumor patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a fully-automatic segmentation method, called BraTumIA, for longitudinal brain tumor volumetry by comparing the automatically estimated volumes with ground truth data acquired via manual segmentation. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging data of 14 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma encompassing 64 MR acquisitions, ranging from preoperative up to 12 month follow-up images, was analysed. Manual segmentation was performed by two human raters. Strong correlations (R = 0.83–0.96, p human raters for the contrast-enhancing (CET) and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments (NCE-T2). A quantitative analysis of the inter-rater disagreement showed that the disagreement between BraTumIA and each of the human raters was comparable to the disagreement between the human raters. In summary, BraTumIA generated volumetric trend curves of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments comparable to estimates of human raters. These findings suggest the potential of automated longitudinal tumor segmentation to substitute manual volumetric follow-up of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments.

  18. Optical laser scanning of a leucodye micelle gel: preliminary results of a 3D dose verification of an IMRT treatment for a brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, J.; De Deene, Y.

    2013-06-01

    In the present study an in-house developed leucodye micelle gel was used in combination with an in-house developed optical laser scanner for the 3D dose verification of an IMRT treatment of a pituitary adenoma. In an initial prospective study, a gel measured depth dose distribution of a square 6 MV photon beam was compared with an ion chamber measurement. In a second experiment, the gel and scanner were used to verify a clinical dose distribution on a recently installed linear accelerator. The calibration procedure is identified as the major source of dose deviations.

  19. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic) brain tumors. Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 105 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BEDtumor = 30.6 Gy). In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90%) showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18%) died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy

  20. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: A rare brain tumor not to be misdiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukheeja, Deepti; Mehta, Jayanti

    2016-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a recently described, morphologically unique, and surgically curable low-grade brain tumor which is included in the latest WHO classification as neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumor. It is usually seen in children and young adults. The importance of this particular entity is that it is a surgically curable neuroepithelial neoplasm. When recognized, the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is obviated. We hereby present a case report of an 8-year-old male child who presented with intractable seizures and parieto-occipital space occupying lesion. Histologically, the tumor exhibited features of WHO grade I dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor which was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. PMID:27057233

  1. New Experimental Model of Brain Tumors in Brains of Adult Immunocompetent Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baklaushev, Vladimir P.; Kavsan, Vadym M.; Balynska, Olena V; Yusubalieva, Gaukhar M.; Abakumov, Maxim A.; Chekhonin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Xenograft models, namely heterotransplantation of human cancer cells or tumor biopsies into immunodeficient rodents are the major preclinical approach for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. However, in these models the animals must be used only after the severe systemic immune suppression in order to ensure graft survival. Thus, additional new human brain tumor models without immune suppression of the recipient rodent may be required. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory o...

  2. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  3. A review of endocrine late effects in children after brain tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Advances in the therapy of malignant brain tumors in children have led to a significant improvement in survival rates over the last few decades. As a result, the recognition and treatment of late effects have become more important. In addition to secondary tumors and deficiencies in cognitive and intellectual skills, the resulting endocrine disturbances play an important role. Method: Own data and literature review. Results: Deviations from the normal growth hormone secretion are usually recognized first and are most common, and have already been observed after conventional whole brain irradiation with 18 G. With some delay, other hypothalamopituitary deficiencies may occur, including panhypopituitarism. Puberty may come too early or too late or may not appear at all. Girls in particular, frequently experience an early and rapid pubertal development after brain tumor therapy, which may lead to further reduction in height due to an accelerated bone maturation. Functional disturbances of the thyroid and adrenal glands due to hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency are less common, and usually seen only after a radiation dose of over 40 Gy. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood brain tumors must be considered as long-term survivors, in whom the first therapy-induced long-term side effects appear almost immediately after the end of therapy. Maximum quality of life for the individual patient can only be achieved by long-term care and close cooperation of specialists in the different medical disciplines involved. (orig.)

  4. Successful treatment of tuberculous brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F; Hupperts, R M; Vreeling, F W; Greve, L H; Janevski, B; Willebrand, D; Berfelo, W F

    1985-01-01

    A case of tuberculous brain abscess occurred in spite of 4 months' treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis with a triple drug anti-tuberculous regimen. Surgical removal and further chemotherapy were successful. PMID:4020392

  5. Efficient multilevel brain tumor segmentation with integrated bayesian model classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, J J; Sharon, E; Dube, S; El-Saden, S; Sinha, U; Yuille, A

    2008-05-01

    We present a new method for automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data that takes a step toward bridging the gap between bottom-up affinity-based segmentation methods and top-down generative model based approaches. The main contribution of the paper is a Bayesian formulation for incorporating soft model assignments into the calculation of affinities, which are conventionally model free. We integrate the resulting model-aware affinities into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation algorithm, and apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema in multichannel magnetic resonance (MR) volumes. The computationally efficient method runs orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art techniques giving comparable or improved results. Our quantitative results indicate the benefit of incorporating model-aware affinities into the segmentation process for the difficult case of glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor. PMID:18450536

  6. Brain tumor segmentation in MR slices using improved GrowCut algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Shi, Zhifeng; Mao, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The detection of brain tumor from MR images is very significant for medical diagnosis and treatment. However, the existing methods are mostly based on manual or semiautomatic segmentation which are awkward when dealing with a large amount of MR slices. In this paper, a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain tumors in MR slices is presented. Based on the hypothesis of the symmetric brain structure, the method improves the interactive GrowCut algorithm by further using the bounding box algorithm in the pre-processing step. More importantly, local reflectional symmetry is used to make up the deficiency of the bounding box method. After segmentation, 3D tumor image is reconstructed. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method on MR slices with synthetic tumors and actual clinical MR images. Result of the proposed method is compared with the actual position of simulated 3D tumor qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, our automatic method produces equivalent performance as manual segmentation and the interactive GrowCut with manual interference while providing fully automatic segmentation.

  7. Caring for children with brain tumors in an oncology ward: a phenomenologic-hermeneutic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Fioretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are the most common form of solid tumors in childhood and are characterized by an uncertain prognosis, often meaning tumor invasive surgical procedures in the first steps of the patient’s treatment. In a Pediatric Oncology Ward, children with brain tumors are considered a challenge for health professionals, due to the nature of the relationship between the child, the parents, and the health care providers in the initial phase of the patient’s illness. Here we present a phenomenologic-hermeneutic study, developed in the Oncology Ward of a Hospital in Southern Spain. All the caregivers of the Ward underwent interviews concerning their experience in caring for children with brain tumors. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with the consent of the participants and were analyzed by content themes. In the present paper, we focus on the experiences concerning the first meeting of the professionals with the children and their families and the principal critical issues related to the communication of the diagnosis.

  8. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF METASTATIC SPINAL TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏光; 王以朋; 邱贵兴; 叶启彬; 张嘉

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment on metastatic spinal tumor. Methods. The results of surgical intervention for metastatic spinal tumor of 31 consecutive patients since October 1985 were reviewed. Results. The average survival time was 17.6 months (range from 3 months to 9 years), and 4 patients are still alive with an average survival time of 24.6 months (range, 14~ 84 months). No postoperative complication was noted. The preoperative symptoms were partially relieved and neurological functions were improved after surgery. Conclusions. Surgical treatment for metastatic spinal tumor could improve the life quality, but should be adopted cautiously. The surgical procedures such as decompression and internal fixation should be involved only when neurological deficits occurred. The surgery with postoperative complementary therapy may not only improve the life quality , but also extend the patients' life span.

  9. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF METASTATIC SPINAL TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏光; 王以朋; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment on metastatic spinal tumor.Methods:The results of surgical intervention for metastatic spinal tumor of 31 consecutive patients since October 1985 were reviewed.Results:The average survival time was 17.6 months (range from 3 months to 9 years),and 4 patients are still alive with an average survival time of 24.6 months(range,14-84 months).No postoperative complication was noted.The preoperative symptoms were partially relieved and neurological functions were improved after surgery.Conclusions:Surgical treatment for metastatic spinal tumor could improve the life quality,but should be adopted cautiously.The surgical procedures such as decompression and internal fixation should be involved only when neurological deficits occurred.The surgery with postoperative complementary therapy may not only improve the life quality,but also extend the patients' life span.

  10. Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Rachel A; Anders, Carey K.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of women with metastatic breast cancer will develop brain metastases. Treatment options for these women remain limited, particularly at the time of central nervous system (CNS) relapse following completion of initial CNS-directed therapy. Historically, prior studies have broadly examined systemic treatments for breast cancer brain metastases with mixed, but overall disappointing, results. More recently, studies have increasingly selected patients based on breast cance...

  11. Using Diffusion-weighted Images to Identify Brain Tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Šprláková, A.

    Cambridge: The Electromagnetics Academy, 2014, s. 2340-2343. ISBN 978-1-934142-28-8. [PIERS 2014. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium /35./. Guangzhou (CN), 25.08.2014-28.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : brain tumor * MRI * diffusion-weighted image s Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  12. Epidemiology of brain tumors in childhood--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death among children and the second most common type of pediatric cancer. Despite several decades of epidemiologic investigation, the etiology of childhood brain tumors (CBT) is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation are established risk factors. Many environmental exposures and infectious agents have been suspected of playing a role in the development of CBT. This review, based on a search of the medical literature through August 2003, summarizes the epidemiologic evidence to date. The types of exposures discussed include ionizing radiation, N-nitroso compounds (NOC), pesticides, tobacco smoke, electromagnetic frequencies (EMF), infectious agents, medications, and parental occupational exposures. We have chosen to focus on perinatal exposures and review some of the recent evidence indicating that such exposures may play a significant role in the causation of CBT. The scientific community is rapidly learning more about the molecular mechanisms by which carcinogenesis occurs and how the brain develops. We believe that advances in genetic and molecular biologic technology, including improved histologic subtyping of tumors, will be of huge importance in the future of epidemiologic research and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of CBT etiology. We discuss some of the early findings using these technologies

  13. Linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the safety and availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for metastatic brain tumors, we reviewed 54 consecutive cases with a total of 118 brain metastases treated with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation (STI). Nineteen patients with a total of 27 brain tumors that were larger than 3 cm or close to critical normal tissues were treated with SRT. The marginal dose of SRT was 15-21 Gy (median 21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 3 days. The median marginal dose of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was 20 Gy. Effective rates of imaging studies were 72.7% and 94.4%, and those of clinical symptoms were 46.7% and 55.6% for SRT and SRS, respectively. One-year and two-year survival rates of SRT were 40.9% and 17.6%, respectively, and the median follow-up period was 6.4 months. The one-year survival rate of SRS was 32.7%, with a median follow-up of 4.6 months. Fourteen cases (7 cases each) had recurrent tumors at STI sites. Early complications were observed in one case of SRT and 8 cases of SRS, and late complications occurred in 3 cases of SRS. There were no significant differences among effective rates, survival rates, median follow-up times, recurrence rates, and complications between SRT and SRS. We concluded that SRT is a safe, effective therapy for large or eloquent area metastases. (author)

  14. Linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2003-05-01

    To assess the safety and availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for metastatic brain tumors, we reviewed 54 consecutive cases with a total of 118 brain metastases treated with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation (STI). Nineteen patients with a total of 27 brain tumors that were larger than 3 cm or close to critical normal tissues were treated with SRT. The marginal dose of SRT was 15-21 Gy (median 21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 3 days. The median marginal dose of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was 20 Gy. Effective rates of imaging studies were 72.7% and 94.4%, and those of clinical symptoms were 46.7% and 55.6% for SRT and SRS, respectively. One-year and two-year survival rates of SRT were 40.9% and 17.6%, respectively, and the median follow-up period was 6.4 months. The one-year survival rate of SRS was 32.7%, with a median follow-up of 4.6 months. Fourteen cases (7 cases each) had recurrent tumors at STI sites. Early complications were observed in one case of SRT and 8 cases of SRS, and late complications occurred in 3 cases of SRS. There were no significant differences among effective rates, survival rates, median follow-up times, recurrence rates, and complications between SRT and SRS. We concluded that SRT is a safe, effective therapy for large or eloquent area metastases. (author)

  15. Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  16. Holmium-166-chico intracavitary radiation therapy for cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmium-166-chitosan complex (Ho-166-chico) is injected into the unresectable seven cystic brain tumors (2 cases of metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer, 1 case of recurrent trigeminal neurinoma, 3 cases of recurrent low grade cystic astrocytomas, and 1 case of craniopharyngioma). The Ommaya reservoir was installed stereotactically. The cyst volume and wall thickness were measured by MRI before Ho-166-chico injection. The thickness of the cyst wall is up to 4 mm. Ho-166-chico (555-740 MBq) injected into the cyst to result in 25 Gy of dose to a cyst wall at a depth of 4 mm. Dose to the cyst wall was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using the EGS4 code. All Ho-166-chico injected was assumed to be uniformly distributed in the spherical cyst. After Ho-166-chico injection, the distribution of isotopes was monitored by gamma camera. Two injections were administrated in two cases, and one injection in all the others. The response was evaluated with MRI. Four of 7 cases were shrunk in size with thinning of the cyst wall, 2 of 7 cases showed growth arrest, and one case showed progression. Estimated surface dose of cyst wall was between 78 and 2566 Gy. No one showed systemic absorption of Ho-166-chico, and specific complication associated with isotope injection. Ho-166-chico intracavitary radiation therapy for cystic brain tumor may be safe, and reliable method and deserves further evaluation

  17. Non-invasive quantification of brain tumor-induced astrogliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CNS injury including stroke, infection, and tumor growth lead to astrogliosis, a process that involves upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in astrocytes. However, the kinetics of astrogliosis that is related to these insults (i.e. tumor is largely unknown. Results Using transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase under the regulation of the GFAP promoter (GFAP-luc, we developed a model system to monitor astrogliosis upon tumor growth in a rapid, non-invasive manner. A biphasic induction of astrogliosis was observed in our xenograft model in which an early phase of activation of GFAP was associated with inflammatory response followed by a secondary, long-term upregulation of GFAP. These animals reveal GFAP activation with kinetics that is in parallel with tumor growth. Furthermore, a strong correlation between astrogliosis and tumor size was observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that non-invasive, quantitative bioluminescent imaging using GFAP-luc reporter animal is a useful tool to monitor temporal-spatial kinetics of host-mediated astrogliosis that is associated with glioma and metastatic brain tumor growth.

  18. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standard of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics of childhood brain tumors, including neurologic signs, neuroimaging and neuropathology. To critically assess indications for therapy relevant to presenting characteristics, age, and disease status. To discuss current management strategies including neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To analyze current clinical trials and future directions of clinical research. Brain tumors account for 20% of neoplastic diseases in children. The most common tumors include astrocytoma and malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET's, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, and intracranial germ cell tumors. Tumor type and clinical course are often correlated with age at presentation and anatomic site. The clinical characteristics and disease extent largely determine the relative merits of available 'standard' and investigational therapeutic approaches. Treatment outcome, including disease control and functional integrity, is dependent upon age at presentation, tumor type, and disease extent. An understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and histologic characteristics as they relate to decisions regarding therapy is critical to the radiation oncologist. Appropriate radiation therapy is central to curative therapy for a majority of pediatric brain tumor presentations. Technical advances in neurosurgery provide greater safety for 'gross total resection' in a majority of hemispheric astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The relative roles of 'standard' radiation therapy and evolving chemotherapy for centrally located astrocytomas (e.g., diencephalic, optic pathway) need to be analyzed in the context of initial and overall disease control, neurotoxicities, and potential modifications in the risk:benefit ratio apparent in the introduction of precision radiation techniques. Modifications in radiation delivery are fundamental to current investigations in medulloblastoma; the rationale for contemporary and projected

  19. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  20. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Su won (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  1. Brain Tumor Detection Based on Bilateral Symmetry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkhede Sachin,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data, biological patient data, data regarding access of web sites , financial data, and the like. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods. MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub-regions especially soft tissues such as gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Although edge information is the main clue in image segmentation, it can’t get a better result in analysis the content of images without combining other information. The segmentation of brain tissue in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is very important for detecting the existence and outlines of tumors. In this thesis , an algorithm about segmentation based on the symmetry character of brain MRI image is presented. Our goal is to detect the position and boundary of tumors automatically. Experiments were conducted on real pictures, and the results show that the algorithm is flexible and convenient.

  2. mTHPC-mediated photodynamic diagnosis of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical tumor resection is the basis for prolonged survival of patients suffering from malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiform. We have carried out a phase II study involving 22 patients with malignant brain tumors to assess the feasibility and the effectiveness of the combination of intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) mediated by the second generation photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC). In addition, intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed. Several commercially available fluorescence diagnostic systems were investigated for their applicability for clinical practice. We have adapted and optimized a diagnostic system which includes a surgical microscope, an excitation light source (filtered to 370-440 nm), a video camera detection system, and a spectrometer for clear identification of the mTHPC fluorescence emission at 652 nm. Especially in regions of faint fluorescence it turned out to be essential to maximize the spectral information by optimizing and matching the spectral properties of all components, such as excitation source, camera and color filters. In summary, based on 138 tissue samples derived from 22 tumor specimens we have been able to achieve a sensitivity of 87.9 % and a specificity of 95.7 %. This study demonstrates that mTHPC-mediated intraoperative fluorescence-guided resection followed by photodynamic therapy is a feasible concept. (author)

  3. Changes in liver mitochondrial plasticity induced by brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulating data suggest that liver is a major target organ of systemic effects observed in the presence of a cancer. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the presence of chemically induced brain tumors in rats on biophysical parameters accounting for the dynamics of water in liver mitochondria. Tumors of the central nervous system were induced by intraveinous administration of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) to pregnant females on the 19th day of gestation. The mitochondrial crude fraction was isolated from the liver of each animal and the dynamic parameters of total water and its macromolecule-associated fraction (structured water, H2Ost) were calculated from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. The presence of a malignant brain tumor induced a loss of water structural order that implicated changes in the physical properties of the hydration shells of liver mitochondria macromolecules. This feature was linked to an increase in the membrane cholesterol content, a way to limit water penetration into the bilayer and then to reduce membrane permeability. As expected, these alterations in mitochondrial plasticity affected ionic exchanges and led to abnormal features of mitochondrial biogenesis and caspase activation. This study enlightens the sensitivity of the structured water phase in the liver mitochondria machinery to external conditions such as tumor development at a distant site. The profound metabolic and functional changes led to abnormal features of ion transport, mitochondrial biogenesis and caspase activation

  4. Peritumoral hemorrhage immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with metastatic brain tumors who suffered peri-tumoral hemorrhage soon after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). She had been suffering from breast cancer with multiple systemic metastasis. She started to have headache, nausea, dizziness and speech disturbance 1 month before admission. There was no bleeding tendency in the hematological examination and the patient was normotensive. Neurological examination disclosed headache and slightly aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large round mass lesion in the left temporal lobe. It was a well-demarcated, highly enhanced mass, 45 mm in diameter. SRS was performed on four lesions in a single session (Main mass: maximum dose was 30 Gy in the center and 20 Gy in the margin of the tumor. Others: maximum 25 Gy margin 20 Gy). After radiosurgery, she had severe headache, nausea and vomiting and showed progression of aphasia. CT scan revealed a peritumoral hemorrhage. Conservative therapy was undertaken and the patient's symptoms improved. After 7 days, she was discharged, able to walk. The patient died of extensive distant metastasis 5 months after SRS. Acute transient swelling following conventional radiotherapy is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the present case indicates that such an occurrence is also possible in SRS. We have hypothesized that acute reactions such as brain swelling occur due to breakdown of the fragile vessels of the tumor or surrounding tissue. (author)

  5. Changes in liver mitochondrial plasticity induced by brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debien Emilie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest that liver is a major target organ of systemic effects observed in the presence of a cancer. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the presence of chemically induced brain tumors in rats on biophysical parameters accounting for the dynamics of water in liver mitochondria. Methods Tumors of the central nervous system were induced by intraveinous administration of ethylnitrosourea (ENU to pregnant females on the 19th day of gestation. The mitochondrial crude fraction was isolated from the liver of each animal and the dynamic parameters of total water and its macromolecule-associated fraction (structured water, H2Ost were calculated from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements. Results The presence of a malignant brain tumor induced a loss of water structural order that implicated changes in the physical properties of the hydration shells of liver mitochondria macromolecules. This feature was linked to an increase in the membrane cholesterol content, a way to limit water penetration into the bilayer and then to reduce membrane permeability. As expected, these alterations in mitochondrial plasticity affected ionic exchanges and led to abnormal features of mitochondrial biogenesis and caspase activation. Conclusion This study enlightens the sensitivity of the structured water phase in the liver mitochondria machinery to external conditions such as tumor development at a distant site. The profound metabolic and functional changes led to abnormal features of ion transport, mitochondrial biogenesis and caspase activation.

  6. Multiclass imbalance learning:Improving classification of pediatric brain tumors from magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zarinabad, Niloufar; Wilson, Martin P; Gill, Simrandip K.; Manias, Karen A; Davies, Nigel P; Peet, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification of pediatric brain tumors from (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can aid diagnosis and management of brain tumors. However, varied incidence of the different tumor types leads to imbalanced class sizes and introduces difficulties in classifying rare tumor groups. This study assessed different imbalanced multiclass learning techniques and compared the use of complete spectra and quantified metabolite profiles for classification of three main childhood brain tu...

  7. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques

  8. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiya, Al-Qadisiya (Iraq); Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Penang (Malaysia); Abood, Loay Kadom [Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  9. Pediatric Cancers and Brain Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal tumors classically occur in young children, some principally within the first year of life. Prospective national and international clinical trials during recent decades have brought about progressive improvements in survival, and associated biological studies have advanced our understanding of tumor biology, in some cases allowing biological tumor characteristics to be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. Embryonal tumors continue to occur, albeit less commonly, during childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. These tumors are less well understood, usually not managed according to standardized protocols and rarely included in clinical trials. Survival outcomes are generally poorer than their childhood equivalents. We present here a summary of the published literature on embryonal tumors that present ectopically during adolescence and adulthood. We show that for some tumors protocol-driven treatment, supported by accurate and complete diagnostics and staging, can result in equivalent outcomes to those seen during childhood. We make the case that clinical trial eligibility criteria should be disease-based rather than age-based, and support improvements in dialogue between children's and adults' cancer clinicians to improve outcomes for these rare tumors. PMID:27595358

  10. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg-/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg-/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  11. Assessment of the long-term effects of primary radiation therapy for brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-hundred-twelve children with primary brain tumors received definitive radiotherapy between the years 1958-1979. Sixty-nine patients were alive at intervals of 1-21 years. Thirty-eight patients underwent neurologic and endocrine evaluation, psychologic and intelligence testing, and assessment for second malignancy post-treatment. A second intracranial malgnancy developed in one child, for an incidence of 1.6%. Performance status was good to excellent in 89% of the patients studied. Seventeen percent of the group were mentally retarded. Behavioral disorders were identified in 39% of the patients, 59% of the mothers, and 43% of the fathers. Of the 23 patients with nonparasellar tumors, six were found to have growth hormone deficiency, including two patients with panhypopituitarism. Disability was related to age under 3 years at the time of treatment and tumor extension to the hypothalamus

  12. Utility of C-11 Choline PET for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-11C choline (C-11 choline) in brain tumors. The results of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 23 patients suspected of having brain tumors were then compared to the results of C-11 choline and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). PET with C-11 choline and FDG, in addition to gadolinium-enhanced MR, were performed in these patients. A pathological diagnosis was made for each patient by open surgery. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) of brain tumors and the tumor-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of C-11 choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared to the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that of low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean±SD: 8.7±6.2, n=9 versus 1.5±0.7 respectively, n=5, p<0.03) when data pertaining to the prominent uptake of C-11 choline by a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma was excluded. C-11 choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of C-11 choline accumulation in PET scans were longer than areas visualized by contrast enhancement on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. C-11 choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplasms. A combination of C-11 choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with accurate means to identify high-grade gliomas. (author)

  13. Utility of C-11 Choline PET for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Hashiba, Yasuhiro; Tosaka, Masahiko; Fujimaki, Hiroya; Sasaki, Tomio; Oriuchi, Noboru [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-{sup 11}C choline (C-11 choline) in brain tumors. The results of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 23 patients suspected of having brain tumors were then compared to the results of C-11 choline and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). PET with C-11 choline and FDG, in addition to gadolinium-enhanced MR, were performed in these patients. A pathological diagnosis was made for each patient by open surgery. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) of brain tumors and the tumor-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of C-11 choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared to the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that of low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean{+-}SD: 8.7{+-}6.2, n=9 versus 1.5{+-}0.7 respectively, n=5, p<0.03) when data pertaining to the prominent uptake of C-11 choline by a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma was excluded. C-11 choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of C-11 choline accumulation in PET scans were longer than areas visualized by contrast enhancement on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. C-11 choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplasms. A combination of C-11 choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with accurate means to identify high-grade gliomas. (author)

  14. Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis by Weighting According to the Primary Tumor Oncotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Hee Keun; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Jung Hoon; Song, Chang Hoon [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was performed to retrospectively analyze patient survival by weighting according to the primary tumor oncotype in 160 patients with brain metastasis and who underwent whole brain radiotherapy. A total of 160 metastatic brain cancer patients who were treated with whole brain radiotherapy of 30 Gy between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary tumor oncotype of 20 patients was breast cancer, and that of 103 patients was lung cancer. Except for 18 patients with leptomeningeal seeding, a total of 142 patients were analyzed according to the prognostic factors and the Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) class. Weighted Partitioning Analysis (WPA), with the weighting being done according to the primary tumor oncotype, was performed and the results were correlated with survival and then compared with the RPA Class. The median survival of the patients in RPA Class I (8 patients) was 20.0 months, that for Class II (76 patients) was 10.0 months and that for Class III (58 patients) was 3.0 months (p<0.003). The median survival of patients in WPA Class I (3 patients) was 36 months, that for the patients in Class II (9 patients) was 23.7 months, that for the patients in Class III (70 patients) was 10.9 months and that for the patients in Class IV (60 patients) was 8.6 months (p<0.001). The WPA Class might have more accuracy in assessing survival, and it may be superior to the RPA Class for assessing survival. A new prognostic index, the WPA Class, has more prognostic value than the RPA Class for the treatment of patients with metastatic brain cancer. This WPA Class may be useful to guide the appropriate treatment of metastatic brain lesions.

  15. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy: report of a series of pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Spinoza, Zulma; Choi, Hoon

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is a novel, minimally invasive treatment that has multiple advantages in pediatric use and broad applicability for different types of lesions. Here, the authors report the preliminary results of the first series of pediatric brain tumors treated with MRgLITT at Golisano Children's Hospital in Syracuse, New York. METHODS Pediatric brain tumors treated with MRgLITT between February 2012 and August 2014 at Golisano Children's Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Medical records, radiological findings, surgical data, complications, and results of tumor volumetric analyses were reviewed. The Visualase thermal laser system (Medtronic) was used in all MRgLITT procedures. RESULTS This series included 11 patients with 12 tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, choroid plexus xanthogranuloma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and ganglioglioma). A single laser and multiple overlapping ablations were used for all procedures. The mean laser dose was 10.23 W, and the mean total ablation time was 68.95 seconds. The mean initial target volume was 6.79 cm(3), and the mean immediate post-ablation volume was 7.86 cm(3). The mean hospital stay was 3.25 days, and the mean follow-up time was 24.5 months. Tumor volume decreased in the first 3 months after surgery (n = 11; p = 0.007) and continued to decrease by the 4- to 6-month followup (n = 11; mean volume 2.61 cm(3); p = 0.009). Two patients experienced post-ablation complications: transient right leg weakness in one patient, and transient hemiparesis, akinetic mutism, and eye movement disorder in the other. CONCLUSIONS Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy is an effective first- or second-line treatment for select pediatric brain tumors. Larger multiinstitutional clinical trials are necessary to evaluate its use for different types of lesions to further standardize practices. PMID:26849811

  16. Brain tumor chemo-radiotherapy: a study of direct intratumoral perfusion with antineoplastic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High grade gliomas are aggressive tumors for which current treatments remain palliative. Radiotherapy efficacy is restricted by the surrounding brain tissue tolerance. One method based on the concomitant use of chemotherapeutic drugs and external photon irradiation has been proposed to improve the treatment outcome. The systemic administration of drugs is not effective in achieving the therapeutic level of drug needed for brain tumor treatment. This is due to the blood brain barrier (BBB) that prevents molecules passing through the vascular endothelium. Recent methods have been developed to circumvent the BBB. Among them, convection-enhanced delivery (CED) relies on the continuous infusion of a fluid containing a therapeutic agent, under a pressure gradient. It permits a homogeneous and controlled drug distribution. The aims of this study were to characterise the CED method, and then to utilize it for glioma treatment in preclinical studies. Several drugs were tested: cisplatin, carbo-platin, oxaliplatin, and iodo-deoxyuridine. Two radiation modalities were evaluated: synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (monochromatic beam < 100 keV) and high energy irradiation (6 MV) obtained with a conventional medical linear accelerator. The results obtained reveal that the effectiveness of the combined treatment (platinated drug plus photon irradiation) is highly related to that of the chemotherapy. The data, obtained with the platinated chemotherapy, also show that high-energy X-ray irradiation (6 MV) is as effective as synchrotron X-ray irradiation. The results broaden the applicability of this chemotherapeutic approach to clinical trials. (author)

  17. Simulating ‘structure-function’ patterns of malignant brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansury, Yuri; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid growth and extensive tissue infiltration are characteristics of highly malignant neuroepithelial brain tumors. Very little is known, however, about the existence of structure-function relationships in these types of neoplasm. Therefore, using a previously developed two-dimensional agent-based model, we have investigated the emergent patterns of multiple tumor cells that proliferate and migrate on an adaptive grid lattice, driven by a local-search mechanism and guided by the presence of distinct environmental conditions. Numerical results indicate a strong correlation between the fractal dimensions of the tumor surface and the average velocity of the tumor's spatial expansion. In particular, when the so called ‘beaten-path advantage’ intensifies, i.e., rising ‘mechanical rewards’ for cells to follow each other along preformed pathways, it results in an increase of the tumor system's fractal dimensions leading to a concomitant acceleration of its spatial expansion. Whereas cell migration is the dominant phenotype responsible for the more extensive branching patterns exhibiting higher fractal dimensions, cell proliferation appears to become more active primarily at lower fracticality associated with stronger mechanical confinements. Implications of these results for experimental and clinical cancer research are discussed.

  18. Hemodynamic response imaging: a potential tool for the assessment of angiogenesis in brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Ben Bashat

    Full Text Available Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD imaging under either hypercapnia or hyperoxia has been used to study neuronal activation and for assessment of various brain pathologies. We evaluated the benefit of a combined protocol of BOLD imaging during both hyperoxic and hypercapnic challenges (termed hemodynamic response imaging (HRI. Nineteen healthy controls and seven patients with primary brain tumors were included: six with glioblastoma (two newly diagnosed and four with recurrent tumors and one with atypical-meningioma. Maps of percent signal intensity changes (ΔS during hyperoxia (carbogen; 95%O2+5%CO2 and hypercapnia (95%air+5%CO2 challenges and vascular reactivity mismatch maps (VRM; voxels that responded to carbogen with reduced/absent response to CO2 were calculated. VRM values were measured in white matter (WM and gray matter (GM areas of healthy subjects and used as threshold values in patients. Significantly higher response to carbogen was detected in healthy subjects, compared to hypercapnia, with a GM/WM ratio of 3.8 during both challenges. In patients with newly diagnosed/treatment-naive tumors (n = 3, increased response to carbogen was detected with substantially increased VRM response (compared to threshold values within and around the tumors. In patients with recurrent tumors, reduced/absent response during both challenges was demonstrated. An additional finding in 2 of 4 patients with recurrent glioblastoma was a negative response during carbogen, distant from tumor location, which may indicate steal effect. In conclusion, the HRI method enables the assessment of blood vessel functionality and reactivity. Reference values from healthy subjects are presented and preliminary results demonstrate the potential of this method to complement perfusion imaging for the detection and follow up of angiogenesis in patients with brain tumors.

  19. Detection of Brain Tumor in EEG Signals Using Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Akram; Tahir, Seema; Choudhury, Aamer Saleem

    2015-01-01

    The Electroencephalogram(EEG) is Scientifically becoming an important tool of measuring brain activity. The EEG data is used to diagnose brain diseases and brain abnormalities. EEG helps to suit the increasing demand of brain tumor detection on affordable prices with better clinical and healthcare services. This research work presents a technique of efficient brain tumor detection in EEG signals using Independent Component Analysis(ICA). EEG signals which actually are carrying information reg...

  20. Liposomal cytarabine in neoplastic meningitis from primary brain tumors: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviani, P; Corsini, E; Salmaggi, A; Lamperti, E; Botturi, A; Erbetta, A; Milanesi, I; Legnani, F; Pollo, B; Silvani, A

    2013-12-01

    Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is diagnosed in 1-2 % of patients with primary brain tumors. Standard treatment of NM includes single-agent or combination chemotherapy, with compounds such as methotrexate, thiotepa, and cytarabine (Ara-C) or its injectable, sustained-release formulation Depocyte(®). In this Report, we reported the data of efficacy and tolerability of an intrathecal Depocyte(®) regimen for patients presenting with NM from primary brain tumors. We described 12 patients with NM confirmed at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology. Patients were treated with repeated courses of intrathecal Depocyte(®) (once every 2 weeks for 1 month of induction therapy and as consolidation therapy on a monthly base in responding patients). Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) were treated by our Institution. The diagnosis of primitive brain tumor was medulloblastoma in six patients, germinoma in two patients, pylocitic astrocytomas with spongioblastic aspects, teratocarcinoma, meningeal melanoma, and ependimoma in the other four patients. The total number of Depocyte(®) cycles ranged from one to nine. In 7/12 patients, there was clinical and/or radiological response after Depocyte(®), and the toxicity was moderate and transient, mainly due to the lumbar puncture procedure. In the two patients with germinoma, we observed a normalization of MRI Imaging and negativization of CSF with disappearance of the tumor cells. OS was 180 days (range 20-300, CI 95 %). PMID:23525755

  1. Analysis of Spectral Features of EEG signal in Brain Tumor Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam V. Salai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The scalp electroencephalography (EEG signal is an important clinical tool for the diagnosis of several brain disorders. The objective of the presented work is to analyze the feasibility of the spectral features extracted from the scalp EEG signals in detecting brain tumors. A set of 16 candidate features from frequency domain is considered. The significance on the mean values of these features between 100 brain tumor patients and 102 normal subjects is statistically evaluated. Nine of the candidate features significantly discriminate the brain tumor case from the normal one. The results encourage the use of (quantitative scalp EEG for the diagnosis of brain tumors

  2. Successful Treatment of Multifoci Nocardial Brain Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qingsheng; ZHAN, Renya; Feng, Yiping; Chen, Jiajia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brain nocardiosis is a serious opportunistic infection with high mortality. It exists more common in the immunocompromised hosts than the immunocompetent patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) has been mostly considered as the choice of the medical treatment. Linezolid is also newly found to be effective to avoid the invasive surgery. The authors reported a case of patient with multifoci nocardial brain abscesses who failed with the combination of linezolid and TMP-SMZ alo...

  3. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function.

  4. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function.

  5. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  6. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  7. Treatment for delayed brain injury after pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment for delayed brain injury after pituitary irradiation is discussed. Six cases with delayed brain injury were treated with a combination of dexamethasone or betamethasone, with heparin, glycerol, dextran 40 and some vasodilators. Two cases with temporal lobe syndrome were treated in the early stages of brain injury for a period of over 12 months were almost completely cured, another two cases with chiasma syndrome were treated in the relatively late stages, showed a partial improvement. One case which was irradiated 120 GY during 13 years did not improve. The final case treated with steroids for a short period also resulted in failure and the patient underwent an operation for the removal of the necrotic mass three years after the radiotherapy. Steroid therapy started in the early stages of brain injury after irradiation for over the 12 months is thought to be effective. Heparin therapy was also effective in one out of three cases, but in one of the cases subarachnoid hemorrhage from a traumatic aneurysm occurred during the therapy. In an acute phase, showing edematous change of the injured brain, the administration of glycerol is also thought to be useful. But the effectiveness of the other medicines containing some vasodilators was obscure or doubtful. We propose the following : (1) A meticulous observation is essential for the patients who received high doses of irradiation to diagnose brain injury in the early reversible stage. (2) Steroids should be given immediately in this reversible stage of brain injury before the irreversible ''necrosis'' occurs. (3) Steroids should be maintained for a long period over 12 months. (4) Heparin therapy is also thought to be effective, but careful precautions to avoid hemorrhagic complications before the therapy should be scheduled. This recommended plan may also be used for the treatment of brain injuries after cranial irradiation for other intracranial tumors. (author)

  8. Treatment for delayed brain injury after pituitary irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Takashi; Misumi, Shuzoh; Shibasaki, Takashi; Tamura, Masaru; Kunimine, Hideo; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Hideo; Miyazaki, Mizuho; Miyagi, Osamu.

    1988-03-01

    Treatment for delayed brain injury after pituitary irradiation is discussed. Six cases with delayed brain injury were treated with a combination of dexamethasone or betamethasone, with heparin, glycerol, dextran 40 and some vasodilators. Two cases with temporal lobe syndrome were treated in the early stages of brain injury for a period of over 12 months were almost completely cured, another two cases with chiasma syndrome were treated in the relatively late stages, showed a partial improvement. One case which was irradiated 120 GY during 13 years did not improve. The final case treated with steroids for a short period also resulted in failure and the patient underwent an operation for the removal of the necrotic mass three years after the radiotherapy. Steroid therapy started in the early stages of brain injury after irradiation for over the 12 months is thought to be effective. Heparin therapy was also effective in one out of three cases, but in one of the cases subarachnoid hemorrhage from a traumatic aneurysm occurred during the therapy. In an acute phase, showing edematous change of the injured brain, the administration of glycerol is also thought to be useful. But the effectiveness of the other medicines containing some vasodilators was obscure or doubtful. We propose the following : (1) A meticulous observation is essential for the patients who received high doses of irradiation to diagnose brain injury in the early reversible stage. (2) Steroids should be given immediately in this reversible stage of brain injury before the irreversible ''necrosis'' occurs. (3) Steroids should be maintained for a long period over 12 months. (4) Heparin therapy is also thought to be effective, but careful precautions to avoid hemorrhagic complications before the therapy should be scheduled. This recommended plan may also be used for the treatment of brain injuries after cranial irradiation for other intracranial tumors.

  9. Early Experience of Pre- and Post-Contrast 7.0T MRI in Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, Seung Leal; Chung, Young Seob; Paek, Sun Ha; Hwang, Jae Ha; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Choi, Seung Hong; Son, Young Don; Kim, Young Bo; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kendall H.; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the safety and clinical applicability of 7.0 Tesla (T) brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with brain tumors. Twenty-four patients with intraaxial or extraaxial brain tumors were enrolled in this study. 7.0T MRIs of T2*-weighted axial and T1-weighted coronal or sagittal images were obtained and compared with 1.5T brain MRIs. The T2*-weighted images from 7.0T brain MRI revealed detailed microvasculature and the internal contents of supratentorial brain tumors bet...

  10. The prognostic value of tumor necrosis in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    significant if only smaller tumors with a volume below 3.5 cm3 (p = 0.03). Side effects were rare, only one patient suffered from serious acute side effects. Results of this retrospective study support that stereotactic radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for patients with metastatic brain lesions. The prognostic impact of visible tumor necrosis (ring-enhancement) on pretreatment MRI scans should be further investigated

  11. NT-30COMPLICATIONS OF LASER INTERSTITIAL THERMAL THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulder, Michael; Black, Karen; Mehta, Ashesh; Gamble, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has been described as a treatment for patients with brain tumors refractory to other treatments, with little emphasis on the risks of the procedure. This report focuses on complications of LITT in patients with tumors of the central nervous system. METHODS: Laser probes were inserted in the operating room using low-field intraoperative MRI (iMRI) guidance (5 patients), frameless stereotaxy (FS) in 2, and frame-based placement in 3. LITT itself was done in a 1.5 Tesla diagnostic MRI. Diagnoses included metastatic tumors in 7 patients, glioma in 2, and pituitary tumor in 1. One patient had a filum terminale ependymoma (with laser placement in the diagnostic MRI). RESULTS: In 1 patient in whom FS was used for image guidance, diagnostic MRI showed the laser fiber to be misplaced. Three complications resulted from the LITT itself. One patient with a glioblastoma of the vermis and fourth ventricle had bilateral palsies of cranial nerves 6 and 7 after treatment. A patient with a recurrent metastatic tumor after stereotactic radiosurgery had worsened left hemiparesis. These two patients were treated with steroids, with partial improvement of their deficits. The patient with the filum terminale ependymoma developed a paraparesis the day after treatment; MRI showed expansion of the intraspinal mass with resolution of enhancement, consistent with tumor ablation. She required a laminectomy and removal of the mass, with a combination of tumor and necrosis on histological examination. CONCLUSIONS: Complications of LITT can result from laser misplacement and from the laser treatment itself. Use of a stereotactic frame can limit the risk of inaccurate placement. Avoiding complications of the LITT itself can be done by undertreating the margin of a target in close proximity to critical structures. Intraspinal LITT should be used with great caution.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cognitive Functioning at On- and Off-Treatment Periods in Children Aged between 6-13 Years Old with Brain Tumors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    An, Kyung Jin; Joung, Yoo Sook; Sung, Ki Woong; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine the relationship between intelligence and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children (6-13 years old) diagnosed as having a brain tumor. Materials and Methods We administered a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, version 4.0 (PedsQL), the Korean version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, and the Korean Version of the Parenting Sense of Competence (K-PSOC) scale before or ...

  13. Evaluation of image quality of MRI data for brain tumor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Frank; Arlt, Felix; Geisler, Benjamin; Zidowitz, Stephan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    3D medical images are important components of modern medicine. Their usefulness for the physician depends on their quality, though. Only high-quality images allow accurate and reproducible diagnosis and appropriate support during treatment. We have analyzed 202 MRI images for brain tumor surgery in a retrospective study. Both an experienced neurosurgeon and an experienced neuroradiologist rated each available image with respect to its role in the clinical workflow, its suitability for this specific role, various image quality characteristics, and imaging artifacts. Our results show that MRI data acquired for brain tumor surgery does not always fulfill the required quality standards and that there is a significant disagreement between the surgeon and the radiologist, with the surgeon being more critical. Noise, resolution, as well as the coverage of anatomical structures were the most important criteria for the surgeon, while the radiologist was mainly disturbed by motion artifacts.

  14. What's New in Wilms Tumor Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor research and treatment? Previous Topic Emotional and social issues for Wilms tumor survivors and their families Next ... outlook. As researchers have learned more about the gene changes in Wilms ... Targeted therapies have already become standard treatments for some kinds ...

  15. Effect of lymphokine-activated killer cells with or without radiation therapy against malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Kunio; Kamezaki, Takao; Shibata, Yasushi; Tsunoda, Takashi; Meguro, Kotoo; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    1995-01-01

    The use of autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells to treat malignant brain tumors was evaluated in 10 patients, one with metastatic malignant melanoma and nine with malignant glioma. LAK cells were obtained by culturing autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes with human recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) for 7-28 days. All patients underwent surgery to remove as much tumor as possible and an Ommaya reservoir was implaced in the tumor cavity. Two of the 10 patients had received radiotherapy elsewhere, so were treated with LAK cells alone. Eight patients were treated with a combination of LAK cells and radiotherapy, using 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions given five times a week with a total dosage between 54 and 65 Gy. LAK cells and rIL-2 were injected to the tumor cavity via the Ommaya reservoir once a week for inpatients and once a month for outpatients. The duration of the LAK therapy ranged from 3 to 23 months (mean 13.7 mos). Neuroimaging evaluation revealed two complete responses, three partial responses, four no changes, and one progressive disease. In one patient with pontine glioma, the Karnofsky performance score was raised from 20 to 60. There were no side effects after the injection of LAK cells and rIL-2. The results suggest low-dose LAK therapy is a useful and safe treatment modality for malignant brain tumors. (author).

  16. Collective Behavior of Brain Tumor Cells: the Role of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Katakowski, Mark; Hopkins, Scott; Szalad, Alexandra; Zheng, Xuguang; Jiang, Feng; Chopp, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We consider emergent collective behavior of a multicellular biological system. Specifically we investigate the role of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in migration of brain tumor cells. We performed two series of cell migration experiments. The first set of experiments was performed in a typical wound healing geometry: cells were placed on a substrate, and a scratch was done. In the second set of experiments, cell migration away from a tumor spheroid was investigated. Experiments show a controversy: cells under normal and hypoxic conditions have migrated the same distance in the ``spheroid'' experiment, while in the ``scratch'' experiment cells under normal conditions migrated much faster than under hypoxic conditions. To explain this paradox, we formulate a discrete stochastic model for cell dynamics. The theoretical model explains our experimental observations and suggests that hypoxia decreases both the motility of cells and the strength of cell-cell adhesion. The theoretical predictions were further verified in independent experiments.

  17. A case of radiation necrosis seemingly appearing as brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56 years old female with late irradiation necrosis of the frontal cerebrum was presented. It appeared 3.5 years later of Betatron electron irradiation for the treatment of skin cancer along the forehead and simulated clinically to tumor of the frontal cerebrum. The patient underwent removal of that late irradiation necrosis and took satisfactory postoperative course. (auth.)

  18. Phenylalanine-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles for brain tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the targeting potential of amino acid (phenylalanine)-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with ionically complexed doxorubicin HCl (Dox). Ionic complexation was used to enhance the loading efficiency and release characteristics of water soluble form of Dox. l-Type amino acid transporters (LAT1) are highly expressed on blood brain barrier as well as on many brain cancer cells, thus targeting LAT1 using phenylalanine improved anticancer activity of prepared nanocarrier. The phenylalanine-coupled SLN were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The particle size of the resulting SLN was found to be in the range of 163.3 ± 5.2 to 113.0 ± 2.6 nm, with a slightly negative surface charge. In ex vivo study on C6 glioma cell lines, the cellular cytotoxicity of the SLN was highly increased when coupled with phenylalanine. In addition, stealthing sheath of PEG present on the surface of the SLN enhanced the cellular uptake of the SLN on C6 glioma cell line. Results of biodistribution and fluorescence studies clearly revealed that phenylalanine-coupled SLN could deliver high amount of drug into the brain tumor cells and showed the brain-targeting potential

  19. Early dynamic Thallium-201 SPECT in evaluation of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We performed early dynamic 201TlCl SPECT studies on patients with brain tumors to determine the value of 201TlCl dynamics for 15 minutes in distinguishing and evaluating the histologic grade of brain tumors. Method: SPECT studies were performed on 69 patients with brain tumors prior to surgical resection. Histological diagnosis was as follows: 28 patients with glioblastoma (grade IV), 8 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), 5 patients with grade II astrocytoma, 1 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (grade I), and 27 patients with meningioma. Pilocytic astrocytoma and grade II astrocytoma were grouped together as low-grade gliomas. Results: In glioblastomas, the Time-activity ratios(TARs) increased significantly at 6 min (99.2±6.0%, p<0.0001 ), 9 min (103.0±4.6%, p<0.0001), 12 min (102.1±6.4%, p<0.01), and 15 min (102.0±5.0%, p<0.001) after 201TlCl administration when compared to the TAR at 3 min (93.7±6.9%). Unchanged radioactivity was observed on the time-activity curve in anaplastic astrocytomas (3 min: 106.0±17.8%, 6 min: 103.8±9.4%, 9 min: 99.1±6.3%, 12 min: 95.0±11.0%, 15 min: 96.0±13.0%). The TARs decreased significantly at 6 min (104.0±7.1%, p<0.05), 9 min (96.1±4.9%, p<0.02), 12 min(95.0±6.5%, p<0.05), and 15 min (89.8±12.8%, p<0.05) compared to the TAR at 3 min (113.9±9.5%) in low grade gliomas. In meningiomas, the TARs decreased at 12 min (94.0±9.1%, p<0.01), and 15 min (93.6±12.8%, p<0.02) compared to the TAR at 3 min (108.6±18.5%) respectively. Conclusion: In this early dynamic SPECT study, the entire duration of the examination is short, 15 minutes, a period similar to other general laboratory tests. Moreover, there is no need for adjustments of the imaging location with this method since continuous scanning is utilized. This examination method indicated not only 201Tl uptake but accumulative dynamics and also offer more accurate assessment in the diagnosis of brain tumors

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) accounts for 1-2% of total pancreatic tumors and 0.4-1.5% of autopsy cases, reflecting the recently increasing trend. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2004), PET is classified by the type of hormone produced by the tumor and its biological behavior. Together with the classical clinical images and hormone markers, 11C-5-HTP-Positron emission tomography, OctreoScan ([111In-DTPA0] octreotide) scintigram, selective arterial calcium injection (SACI)-test and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) are used for diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, if supposed to be curative and tolerable. In case of a well-differentiated endocrine tumor, with no indication of resection or interventional radiology (IVR), somatostatin analog is another therapy showing stable disease status for a long period. Systemic chemotherapy, including 5-fluorouracil (FU)+streptozotocin, and streptozotocin+doxorubicin, are used in cases of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and cisplatin+etoposide are applied for poorly-differentiated endocrine carcinoma (or small cell carcinoma). Recent studies focus on molecular target therapy including small molecules and monoclonal antibody, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. (author)

  1. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Samia de Freitas Brandao; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted int...

  2. Liquid biopsies: tumor diagnosis and treatment monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Thanh Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease with high evolutionary, i.e., malignant, characteristics that change under selective pressure from therapy. Characterization based on molecular or primary tumor properties or clinicopathological staging does not fully reflect the state of cancer, especially when cancer cells metastasize. This is the major reason for failure of cancer treatment. Currently, there is an urgent need for new approaches that allow more effective, but less invasive, monitoring of cancer status, thereby improving the efficacy of treatments. With recent technological advances, and ldquo;liquid biopsies, and rdquo; the isolation of intact cells or analysis of components that are secreted from cells, such as nucleic acids or exosomes, could be implemented easily. This approach would facilitate real-time monitoring and accurate measurement of critical biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the identification of circulating tumor cells using new high-resolution approaches and discuss new circulating tumor nucleic acid- and exosome-based approaches. The information obtained through liquid biopsies could be used to gain a better understanding of cancer cell invasiveness and metastatic competence, which would then benefit translational applications such as personalized medicine. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(8.000: 745-756

  3. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G.R. Schmalz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed.

  4. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalz, Philip G.R.; Park, John K.; Shen, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects o...

  5. Treatment Resistance Mechanisms of Malignant Glioma Tumor Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gliomas are highly lethal because of their resistance to conventional treatments. Recent evidence suggests that a minor subpopulation of cells with stem cell properties reside within these tumors. These tumor stem cells are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapies than their counterpart differentiated tumor cells and may underlie the persistence and recurrence of tumors following treatment. The various mechanisms by which tumor stem cells avoid or repair the damaging effects of cancer therapies are discussed

  6. Comparison of two brain tumor-localizing MRI agent. GD-BOPTA and GD-DTPA. MRI and ICP study of rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we compared the behavior of Gd-BOPTA as a brain tumor selective contrast agent with Gd-DTPA in a common dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We performed a MRI study using those two agent as contrast material, and we measured tissue Gd-concentrations by ICP-AES. As a result, Gd-BOPTA showed a better MRI enhancement in brain tumor. ICP showed significantly greater uptake of Gd-BOPTA in tumor samples, at all time course peaked at 5 minutes after administration, Gd being retained for a longer time in brain tumor till 2 hours, without rapid elimination as Gd-DTPA. We conclude that Gd-BOPTA is a new useful contrast material for MR imaging in brain tumor and an effective absorption agent for neutron capture therapy for further research. (author)

  7. [Untoward side effects of chemoradiotherapy in children with malignant brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, S K; Begun, I V; Spivak, L V; Radiuk, K A; Papkevich, I I; Savich, T V; Pershaĭ, E B; Vashkevich, T I; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2002-01-01

    Untoward side-effects of chemoradiotherapy were compared in 48 children treated for brain tumors and those in remission lasting from less than 12 months to 11 years. The investigation concerned disturbances in the neurologic, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, hepatobiliary and psychic systems; neurologic ones proved the most frequent. No cases of heart failure were reported among patients with brain tumors during remission. Hormonal study revealed inhibited thyroid function in brain tumor sufferers. PMID:12455363

  8. Brain Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography: Quantification and Biomedical Applications in Alzheimer's Disease and Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Wardak, Mirwais

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique and powerful imaging technique that is used to visualize and quantify various biological processes in living subjects in health and disease. PET imaging can also provide biological information for the assessment of therapies. In this dissertation, we will cover three projects that utilize the quantitative capability of PET for studying two neurological disorders: Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors.One of the goals in PET imaging is to produce...

  9. Safety and efficacy of carmustine (BCNU wafers for metastatic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibawanye I Ene

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: BCNU wafers are a safe and a potentially efficacious adjunct to surgery and radiation for improving local disease control in metastatic brain tumors. Larger studies, however, are needed to examine overall efficacy and tumor specific efficacy.

  10. Metastatic Brain Tumors: A Retrospective Review in East Azarbyjan (Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Miabi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of one hundred and twenty nine patients with known primary malignancy and suspected brain metastasis was reviewed in present study. The patients were selected among patients presented to the MRI section of Imam Khomeini Hospital or a private MRI center in Tabriz (Iran. Primary tumor site, clinical manifestations, number and site of lesions were identified in this patient population. The primary tumor site was breast in 55 patients (42.6%, followed by lung (40.3%, kidney (7.7%, colorectal (4.6%, lymphoma (3.1% and melanoma (1.5%. Most patients were presented with features of increased intracranial pressure (headaches and vomiting, seizures and focal neurologic signs. Single brain metastasis occurred in 16.3% of patients, while multiple lesions accounted for 83.7% of patients. Ninety seven patients had supratentorial metastases (75.2%. Twenty cases (15.5% had metastases in both compartments. Infratentorial lesions were observed only in twelve patients (9.3%.

  11. Is outpatient brain tumor surgery feasible in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Mazda K; Bernstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The current trend in all fields of surgery is towards less invasive procedures with shorter hospital stays. The reasons for this change include convenience to patients, optimal resource utilization, and cost saving. Technological advances in neurosurgery, aided by improvements in anesthesia, have resulted in surgery that is faster, simpler, and safer with excellent perioperative recovery. As a result of improved outcomes, some centers are performing brain tumor surgery on an outpatient basis, wherein patients arrive at the hospital the morning of their procedure and leave the hospital the same evening, thus avoiding an overnight stay in the hospital. In addition to the medical benefits of the outpatient procedure, its impact on patient satisfaction is substantial. The economic benefits are extremely favorable for the patient, physician, as well as the hospital. In high volume centers, a day surgery program can exist alongside those for elective and emergency surgeries, providing another pathway for patient care. However, due to skepticism surrounding the medicolegal aspects, and how radical the concept at first sounds, these procedures have not gained widespread popularity. We provide an overview of outpatient brain tumor surgery in the western world, discussing the socioeconomic, medicolegal, and ethical issues related to its adaptability in a developing nation. PMID:27625225

  12. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  13. Value of 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT in differentiating recurrence and radiotherapy effects in tumors brain patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the limitations of SPECT in providing absolute quantification. Regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated on the 2 transaxial slices with the highest tracer uptake in the lesion. The ratio between the tumor ROT on a slice with maximum uptake and a mirrored control ROT was calculated and if >2 it was considered pathological. Results: The results of MRI and 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT studies were matched and analyzed. Both studies well correlated being both positive for recurrence in 5 patients as confirmed by biopsy (biopsy was performed when re-operation was judged safe and useful), while both negative in 2 patients, considered as having radiation effects (evaluate by clinical follow up). One patient with negative SPECT was operated being severely symptomatic and the biopsy was positive for low grade tumor. Combined sensitivity was 83,3%, specificity 100%, NPV 66% and PPV 100%. Discussion: Treatment efficacy in malignant glioma is evaluated by neuroimaging studies. Conventional MRI assess morphologic parameters such as changes in tumor size and contrast enhancement. However, changes in size and alterations in blood-brain barrier properties (after therapy) not only reflect therapeutic efficacy but also can represent nonspecific inflammatory reactions due to irradiation, tumor necrosis, or postoperative enhancement along the resection margins. 99mTc-MIBI concentrates in mitochondria by active diffusion because of an increased negative transmembrane potential. Because there is no reason for MIBI uptake in nonvital tissues, 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT can be used to evaluate tumor viability and therapeutic response in malignant glioma patients. According to our results, the specificity and sensitivity of 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT and MRT studies in detection of relapses of gliomas and glioblastomas seem to be high and also the most adequate anatomic depiction of extent of tumor process. Conclusion: Our results confirm that MIBI SPECT is could be considered as a valuable tool to

  14. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats; Aspectos tomograficos de tumores cerebrais primarios em caes e gatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem - FMVZ - UNESP/Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  15. Fetal brain tumors: Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hérbene; José; Milani; Edward; Araujo; Júnior; Sérgio; Cavalheiro; Patrícia; Soares; Oliveira; Wagner; Jou; Hisaba; Enoch; Quinderé; Sá; Barreto; Maurício; Mendes; Barbosa; Luciano; Marcondes; Nardozza; Antonio; Fernandes; Moron

    2015-01-01

    Congenital central nervous system tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are rare, and often have a poor prognosis. The most frequent type is the teratoma. Use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance image allows the suspicion of brain tumors during pregnancy. However, the definitive diagnosis is only confirmed after birth by histology. The purpose of this mini-review article is to describe the general clinical aspects of intracranial tumors and describe the main fetal brain tumors.

  16. Adult Brain Plasticity Elicited by Anomia Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Katri; Laine, Matti; Tarkiainen, Antti; Järvensivu, Tiina; Martin, Nadine; Salmelin, Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We describe a study where a specific treatment method for word-finding difficulty (so-called contextual priming technique, which combines massive repetition priming with semantic priming) was applied with three chronic left hemisphere-damaged aphasics. Both before and after treatment, which focused on naming of a series of pictures, naming-related brain activity was measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Due to its excellent temporal resolution and good spatial resolution, we were able to ...

  17. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1)), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions.

  18. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  19. HMGB1 Mediates Endogenous TLR2 Activation and Brain Tumor Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Curtin, James; Liu, Naiyou; Candolfi, Marianela; Xiong, Weidong; Assi, Hikmat; Yagiz, Kader; Edwards, Matthew; Michelsen, Kathrin; Kroeger, Kurt; Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, AKM Ghulam; Clark, Mary; Arditi, Moshe; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Ribas, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every year, more than 175,000 people develop a primary brain tumor (a cancer that starts in the brain rather than spreading in from elsewhere). Like all cancers, brain tumors develop when a cell acquires genetic changes that allow it to grow uncontrollably and that change other aspects of its behavior, including the proteins it makes. There are many different types of cells in the brain and, as a result, there are many different types of brain tumors. However, one...

  20. Utility of 99mTc-GHA Brain SPECT in the grading of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Brain tumors are of diverse histological types, the most common being derived from glial tissue. The clinical management and prognosis of brain tumor patients is dependent on accurate neuro-pathologic diagnosis and grading. Radiological imaging is not always a good modality for assessing the exact nature and grade of a malignant tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a very high soft tissue resolution and is helpful in classifying the grade of tumor. Radionuclide imaging techniques that can reveal metabolic activity within tumor cells are very helpful in predicting the degree of malignancy. Usefulness of Tl-201 SPECT and FDG PET studies have been widely reported to evaluate malignant lesions by measuring increased regional glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. 99mTc-GHA (Glucoheptonate), more or less analogous to 18F-FDG, may show increased glucose metabolism and help in grading tumors. This study was carried out to determine the utility of 99mTc-GHA SPECT for grading cerebral gliomas. Nineteen patients (12M, 7F) aged 22 to 51 years (36.1 ± 8.3) diagnosed clinically and radiologically to have a brain tumor were evaluated with 99mTc-GHA brain SPECT. All the patients had undergone CT/ MRI examination prior to the brain SPECT study. No patient had undergone surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy before the imaging studies. Brain SPECT was performed twice, i.e 40 min and 3 hours after intravenous administration of 20 mCi of Tc99m-GHA under a dual head SPECT gamma camera (Ecam, Siemens), with a low energy high-resolution collimator. A total of 128 frames of 30 seconds each, 64 per detector, were acquired in 128 x 128 matrix, with 360-degree rotation in step and shoot mode. Reconstruction of the SPECT data was done using standard software. Abnormal concentration of tracer at the tumor site was compared to normal uptake on the contralateral side, and ratios obtained for early (40 min) and delayed (3 hours) uptake of tracer. Retention ratio (RR), a

  1. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Darshana S; Bajaj, Amrita N; Athawale, Rajani B; Shikhande, Shruti S; Pandey, Abhijeet; Goel, Peeyush N; Gude, Rajiv P; Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. PMID:27040235

  2. Chemotherapy Modulates Intestinal Immune Gene Expression Including Surfactant Protein-D and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 in Piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Thomassen, Mads; Shen, René L.; Pontoppidan, Peter E L; Husby, Steffen; Müller, Klaus; Kruse, Torben A.; Sangild, Per T.

    BUCY and DOX piglets. Selected genes of potential biological significance with a similar change in expression across the treatments were controlled by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Key innate defense molecules, including surfactant protein-D and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1, were among...

  3. A phase II trial with bevacizumab and irinotecan for patients with primary brain tumors and progression after standard therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Grunnet, Kirsten; Hansen, Steinbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    The combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab has shown efficacy in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A prospective, phase II study of 85 patients with various recurrent brain tumors was carried out. Primary endpoints were progression free survival (PFS) and response rate....

  4. Microsurgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical characteristics, diagnostic imaging by MRI, histological diagnosis, and clinical outcome of intramedullary spinal cord tumors were investigated, and problems in diagnosis and treatment were assessed. The subjects were 45 patients surgically treated for intramedullary spinal cord tumors between 1983 and 2000 (males 25, females 20; age 2-80 years; ependymoma in 11, astrocytoma in 11, hemangioma in 7, schwannoma in 4, hemangioblastoma in 3, ganglioma in 2, others in 7). Radiotherapy had been used in combination to treat 7 astrocytomas and 1 glioblastoma. Numbness was the initial symptom in many of the patients with ependymoma and hemangioma, and dyskinesia was the initial symptom in many of the astrocytoma patients. The duration of morbidity was significantly shorter in the astrocytoma and hemangioma patients than in the ependymoma patients. These results were useful for qualitative diagnosis. Preoperative MRI was performed in 24 patients. The rate of diagnosis by MRI was 37.5%, and the rate of agreement with the intra- and post-operative histological diagnosis was 58.1%. Some of the cases were difficult to diagnose, and as a result the diagnostic rate was low. The ependymomas and vascular tumors were able to be completely removed by surgery, and the surgical outcome was good in those patients, with no deterioration of motor function. None of the astrocytoma patients improved, and 6 ≥ grade II patients died an average of 14.2 months postoperatively. Diagnosis and treatment with close cooperation between radiologists and pathologists as well as progress in surgical technique appeared to be important in improving diagnosis and treatment outcome. (K.H.)

  5. Using Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI to Measure Inflammation in Patients With Brain Tumors or Other Conditions of the CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-08

    Brain Injury; Central Nervous System Degenerative Disorder; Central Nervous System Infectious Disorder; Central Nervous System Vascular Malformation; Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Accident; Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident; Primary Brain Neoplasm; Brain Cancer; Brain Tumors

  6. The Role of Fast Cell Cycle Analysis in Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, George A; Vartholomatos, George; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Lykoudis, Efstathios G; Patereli, Amalia; Tseka, Georgia; Tzoufi, Meropi; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry has not been adequately studied in pediatric brain tumors. We investigated the value of a modified rapid (within 6 min) cell cycle analysis protocol for the characterization of malignancy of pediatric brain tumors and for the differentiation of neoplastic from nonneoplastic tissue for possible intraoperative application. We retrospectively studied brain tumor specimens from patients treated at our institute over a 5-year period. All tumor samples were histopathologically verified before flow-cytometric analysis. The histopathological examination of permanent tissue sections was the gold standard. There were 68 brain tumor cases. All tumors had significantly lower G0/G1 and significantly higher S phase and mitosis fractions than normal brain tissue. Furthermore low-grade tumors could be differentiated from high-grade tumors. DNA aneuploidy was detected in 35 tumors. A correlation between S phase fraction and Ki-67 index was found in medulloblastomas and anaplastic ependymomas. Rapid cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry is a promising method for the identification of neoplastic tissue intraoperatively. Low-grade tumors could be differentiated from high-grade tumors. Thus, cell cycle analysis can be a valuable adjunct to the histopathological evaluation of pediatric brain tumors, whereas its intraoperative application warrants further investigation. PMID:26287721

  7. Differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation injury after gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors. Value of serial thallium-201 chloride SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of serial 201thallium (Tl-201) SPECT after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for metastatic brain tumors was reviewed. Among 2,450 metastatic brain tumors treated with GKS at the Chiba Cardiovascular Center between January 1998 and December 2000, 74 lesions were analyzed for this study. For all lesions, Tl indexes were serially measured and enhanced MRI was simultaneously performed at pre GKS, 1, 2 and 3 months later. The following 3 patterns of Tl index change were classified: 40 lesions showed a continuous decrease to 1, 2 or 3 months later (group A); 9 lesions demonstrated a transient decrease 1 month later and an increase above the pre-GKS index 3 months later (group B); 25 lesions showed a transient decrease 1 month later and a fluctuation between 40% and 60% of the pre-GKS index 2-3 months later (group C). Prognosis of all of the tumors in group A was good. Lesions in group B were proved to have early tumor recurrence by histological examination or clinical course and needed microsurgical removal or re-GKS. Lesions in group C were estimated as radiation injuries and were managed with steroid treatment. Serial measurement of the Tl index was very effective for differentiating between tumor recurrence and radiation injury in metastatic brain tumors treated with GKS. (author)

  8. Treatments of intramedullary spinal cord tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish a treatment for intramedullary spinal cord tumors, histology, symptoms (preoperative, upon discharge from the hospital, and at the final follow-up examination), postoperative combination therapy, postoperative complications, and recurrence were assessed in patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors treated in the author's hospital during the past 19 years. There were 26 subjects (astrocytoma in 8, ependymoma in 6, intramedullary neurinoma in 3, lipoma in 3, hemangioblastoma in 3, cavernous angioma in 1, capillary hemangioma in 1, and enterogenous cyst in 1). Surgery had been performed in 24 of them, and 7 of the tumors were completely resected, 6 were incompletely resected, and 3 were partially resected. Radiotherapy had been performed to treat 7 astrocytomas and 2 ependymomas. Kyphosis was noted as a postoperative complication in 1 patient with an astrocytoma who had received postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative improvement was better in the patients who had the ependymomas, lipoma, and angioma, and in 1 patient with an astrocytoma. The astrocytomas were very difficult to completely remove surgically, and postoperative radiotherapy was thought to be indispensable. The ependymomas, hemangioblastomas, and angiomas could be surgically resected, but the surgeon must has to exercise sufficient care during the operation. The lipomas were also difficult to resect surgically and intratumoral decompression or decompression should be performed. For adolescents spinal deformity should be considered as one of the postoperative complications. (K.H.)

  9. Multiple brain metastases - current management and perspectives for treatment with electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Gehl, Julie

    2012-01-01

    targeted agents may also be warranted. Several experimental treatments are emerging, one of which is ECT, an effective cancer treatment comprising electric pulses given by electrodes in the tumor tissue, causing electroporation of the cell membrane, and thereby augmenting uptake and the cytotoxicity of the......BACKGROUND: Due to the advanced oncological treatments of cancer, an overall increase in cancer incidence, and better diagnostic tools, the incidence of brain metastases is on the rise. This review addresses the current treatment options for patients with multiple brain metastases, presenting...... electrochemotherapy (ECT) as one of the new experimental treatments for this group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neurosurgery, stereotactic surgery, and whole-brain radiotherapy are the evidence-based treatments that can be applied for patients with multiple brain metastases. Treatment with chemotherapy and molecularly...

  10. Erythropoietin Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury: Operation Brain Trauma Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton; Dixon, C Edward; Shear, Deborah A; Schmid, Kara E; Mondello, Stefania; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L; Povlishock, John T; Tortella, Frank C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2016-03-15

    Experimental studies targeting traumatic brain injury (TBI) have reported that erythropoietin (EPO) is an endogenous neuroprotectant in multiple models. In addition to its neuroprotective effects, it has also been shown to enhance reparative processes including angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Based on compelling pre-clinical data, EPO was tested by the Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (OBTT) consortium to evaluate therapeutic potential in multiple TBI models along with biomarker assessments. Based on the pre-clinical TBI literature, two doses of EPO (5000 and 10,000 IU/kg) were tested given at 15 min after moderate fluid percussion brain injury (FPI), controlled cortical impact (CCI), or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) with subsequent behavioral, histopathological, and biomarker outcome assessments. There was a significant benefit on beam walk with the 5000 IU dose in CCI, but no benefit on any other motor task across models in OBTT. Also, no benefit of EPO treatment across the three TBI models was noted using the Morris water maze to assess cognitive deficits. Lesion volume analysis showed no treatment effects after either FPI or CCI; however, with the 5000 IU/kg dose of EPO, a paradoxical increase in lesion volume and percent hemispheric tissue loss was seen after PBBI. Biomarker assessments included measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in blood at 4 or 24 h after injury. No treatment effects were seen on biomarker levels after FPI, whereas treatment at either dose exacerbated the increase in GFAP at 24 h in PBBI but attenuated 24-4 h delta UCH-L1 levels at high dose in CCI. Our data indicate a surprising lack of efficacy of EPO across three established TBI models in terms of behavioral, histopathological, and biomarker assessments. Although we cannot rule out the possibility that other doses or more prolonged treatment could show different effects, the lack of efficacy of EPO

  11. Clinical experience of BNCT for brain and skin tumors at Kyoto University Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research nuclear reactor of Kyoto University (KUR), which was established in 1963, has the power of 5 MW and has rendered services to scientists in various fields including biology and medicine. The first clinical application was carried out on a brain tumor patient by Professor Hatanaka in 1974. Eight Japanese, 2 German and one American patients were treated. The ages of patients were 9-66 years and all were male. Skin tumors were irradiated at KUR to measure 10B content in the tissues by Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube (NMNGT) attached to KUR, before BNCT. Except in a few cases, patients had recurrent tumours after previous treatment by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgical treatments. The absorbed dose used in the previous radiotherapy before BNCT was a curative dose. The time intervals between previous radiotherapy and BNCT varied. The treated skin tumours included various grades of melanoma. Some cases appeared to be astrocytoma grade IV

  12. Noninvasive detection of temozolomide in brain tumor xenografts by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Y.; Holm, David Alberg; Okollie, B.;

    2010-01-01

    Poor drug delivery to brain tumors caused by aberrant tumor vasculature and a partly intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) can significantly impair the efficacy of chemotherapy. Determining drug delivery to brain tumors is a challenging problem, and the noninvasive...... detection of drug directly in the tumor can be critically important for accessing, predicting, and eventually improving effectiveness of therapy. In this study, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to detect an anticancer agent, temozolomide (TMZ), in vivo in murine xenotransplants of U87...... of similar to 140 mg/kg (450 mg/m(2), well within the maximal clinical dose of 1000 mg/m(2) used in humans) during the course of in vivo MRS experiments. Heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) MRS of brain tumors was performed before and after i.p. administration of [C-13]TMZ. Dynamic MRI...

  13. Development and characterization of non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS) for brain tumor margining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Sudhir

    During tumor removal surgery, due to the problems associated with obtaining high-resolution, real-time chemical images of where exactly the tumor ends and healthy tissue begins (tumor margining), it is often necessary to remove a much larger volume of tissue than the tumor itself. In the case of brain tumor surgery, however, it is extremely unsafe to remove excess tissue. Therefore, without an accurate image of the tumor margins, some of the tumor's finger-like projections are inevitably left behind in the surrounding parenchyma to grow again. For this reason, the development of techniques capable of providing high-resolution real-time images of tumor margins up to centimeters below the surface of a tissue is ideal for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors, as well as surgical guidance during brain tumor excision. A novel spectroscopic technique, non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS), is being developed with the capabilities of obtaining high-resolution subsurface chemical-based images of underlying tumors. This novel technique combines the strengths of multiphoton tissue spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy into a diagnostic methodology that will, ultimately, provide unparalleled chemical information and images to provide the state of sub-surface tissues. The NMPPAS technique employs near-infrared light (in the diagnostic window) to excite ultraviolet and/or visible light absorbing species deep below the tissue's surface. Once a multiphoton absorption event occurs, non-radiative relaxation processes generates a localized thermal expansion and subsequent acoustic wave that can be detected using a piezoelectric transducer. Since NMPPAS employs an acoustic detection modality, much deeper diagnoses can be performed than that is possible using current state of the art high-resolution chemical imaging techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence spectroscopy. NMPPAS was employed to differentiate between excised brain tumors (astrocytoma III

  14. Pre Operative Brain Mapping with Functional MRI in Patient with Brain Tumors: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hooshmand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI plays a significant role in pre-neurosurgical planning at present. FMRI is a possible candidate to replace invasive methods for determination of the language dominant hemisphere and cortical areas associated with language and memory. We used this method to explore language and motor functions in healthy volunteers before creating standard paradigms for Persian language. In this study, we used the standard protocol of language and motor brain mapping in patients harboring brain tumors."nPatients and Methods: Ten patients with brain tumor were included in this study. Each subject performed three to five language related tasks during fMRI scan and also one motor related task. These tasks included; "Word Generation" (WG, "Object Naming" (ON, and "Word Reading" (WR, "Word Production" (WP and "Reverse Word Reading" (RWR. They also performed the thumb apposition task for activating primary sensory-motor areas. Fifteen continuous slices were acquired, and data analysis was carried out using FSL 4.1. After evaluating the individual results, the lateralization index (LI for each subject-task was calculated and the dominant hemisphere for language production was reported. Also localization of critical language areas in the cerebral cortex was performed and the coordinates of epicenter for language production in Broca's area was calculated."nResults: We found that WP, RWR, and WG activate language related areas in the dominant hemisphere robustly in patients with brain tumors and can predict the dominant hemisphere along with eloquent language cortices. However, ON and WR fail to delineate these activation areas optimally. In addition, the results reveal that higher activation intensities are obtained by WP in the frontal lobe including Broca's area, whereas RWR leads to the highest LI among all examined tasks. In patients harboring brain tumors, precise lateralization and

  15. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Childhood Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Results: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T1-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T2-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74% ± 6% at 1 year and 57% ± 8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Conclusion: Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-a-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation

  16. DVHs evaluation in brain metastases stereotactic radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a retrospective study of radiobiological indicators based on Dose-Volume Histograms analysis obtained by stereotactic radiotherapy treatments. Methods and materials: Fifty-five patients for a total of sixty-seven brain metastases with a mean target volume of 8.49 cc were treated by Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy (DCAT) and Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (IMRST). The Delivered prescription dose was chosen on the basis of tumor size and location so as to ensure a 100% isodose coverage to the target volume. Results: The treatment plans reported a mean value of 10% and 2.19% for the inhomogeneity and conformal index, respectively. The F factor showed we overdosed sixty-three patients delivering an additional 7% dose more than calculated values. The radiobiological parameters: TCP and NTCP showed a complete tumor control limiting the organs at risk damage. Conclusion: One goal of stereotactic radiotherapy is to design a treatment plan in which the steep dose gradient achievable minimizes the amount of radiation delivered outside the tumor region. This technique allows to deliver a much larger dose to the target without exceeding the radiation-related tolerance of normal tissues and improving patients' quality of life

  17. Symposium on the principles of radiation research applied to environmental agents. The concept of drug dose for in vitro studies with chemotherapeutic agents. [Treatment of rat 9L brain tumor cells in vitro with BCNU and CCNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, K.T. (Univ. of Rochester, NY); Levin, V.A.; Deen, D.F.

    1978-12-01

    Determination of the radiation dose delivered to or received by tissue culture cells during irradiation in vitro is relatively straightforward compared to determination of the drug dose delivered to or received by these same cells when treated with chemical agents. After defining drug exposure dose and drug absorbed dose, this paper uses pharmacokinetic and cell survival data collected from experiments where rat 9L brain tumor cells were treated in culture with BCNU and CCNU to illustrate the problems and principles involved in adequately assessing the appropriate drug dose in such experiments. Practical solutions to these experimental problems are presented for many of those situations where pharmacokinetic data is either unobtainable or unavailable. It is hoped that the concepts illustrated here will provide a more uniform framework for performing interpretable in vitro drug experiments.

  18. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  19. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: mwmcdona@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  20. Clinical studies of photodynamic therapy for malignant brain tumors: facial nerve palsy after temporal fossa photoillumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith

    2003-06-01

    In two randomized prospective studies of brain tumor PDT more than 180 patients have been accrued. At the Toronto site we recognized two patients who developed a lower motor neuron (LMN) facial paralysis in the week following the PDT treatment. In both cases a temporal lobectomy was undertaken and the residual tumor cavity was photo-illuminated. The surface illuminated included the temporal fossa floor, thus potentially exposing the facial nerve to the effect of PDT. The number of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital tumors in this cohort was 39, 24, 12 and 4, respectively. Of the 24 temporal tumors 18 were randomized to Photofrin-PDT. Of these 18 a temporal lobectomy was carried out exposing the middle fossa floor as part of the tumor resection. In two of the 10 patients where the lobectomy was carried out and the fossa floor was exposed to light there occurred a postoperative facial palsy. Both patients recovered facial nerve function in 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. 46 J/cm2 were used in the former and 130 J/cm2 in the latter. We did not encounter a single post-operative LMN facial plasy in the 101 phase 2 patients treated with Photofrin-PDT. Among 688 supratentorial brain tumor operations in the last decade involving all pathologies and all locations no case of early post-operative LMN facial palsy was identified in the absence of PDT. One further patient who had a with post-PDT facial palsy was identified at the Denver site. Although it is possible that these patients had incidental Bell's palsy, we now recommend shielding the temporal fossa floor during PDT.