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Sample records for brain sufficiently effective

  1. Microdialysate concentration changes do not provide sufficient information to evaluate metabolic effects of lactate supplementation in brain-injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dienel, G. A.; Rothman, D. L.; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral microdialysis is a widely used clinical tool for monitoring extracellular concentrations of selected metabolites after brain injury and to guide neurocritical care. Extracellular glucose levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios have high diagnostic value because they can detect hypoglycemia an....... In such cases, lactate will not be metabolizable and lactate flooding may be harmful. More rigorous approaches are required to evaluate metabolic and physiological effects of administration of hypertonic sodium lactate to brain-injured patients.......Cerebral microdialysis is a widely used clinical tool for monitoring extracellular concentrations of selected metabolites after brain injury and to guide neurocritical care. Extracellular glucose levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios have high diagnostic value because they can detect hypoglycemia...... and deficits in oxidative metabolism, respectively. In addition, patterns of metabolite concentrations can distinguish between ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction, and are helpful to choose and evaluate therapy. Increased intracranial pressure can be life-threatening after brain injury, and hypertonic...

  2. Is high dose methotrexate without irradiation of the brain sufficiently effective in prevention of CNS disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, J.; Foltinova, A.; Kaiserova, E.; Mojzesova, A.; Sejnova, D.; Jamarik, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present 5-year results of treatment in 93 children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia using two therapeutic protocols containing multidrug chemotherapy including high dose methotrexate. We could ascertain different results in standard and high risk patients. In a group of 62 children with standard risk we observed improvement in complete remission rate being 98.9% after induction phase of therapy, only one patient died on septicemia. Relapse rate in this group was 21.2% and that 14. 7% in the bone marrow and 6.5% in CNS and no testicular relapse at all. In the group of 31 children with high risk leukemia all patients achieved complete remission. Only one of them died on acute pancreatitis due to toxicity. Overall relapse rate in this group was 28.9% with 12.8% of medullary relapse and 16.1 % of CNS relapse. The last one was significantly higher than in the previous study when brain irradiation was a part of therapeutic procedure. It seems that this treatment is effective mainly in the standard risk leukemia, however, in the high risk leukemias this procedure appears to be less effective in preventing CNS leukemia. In this group of patients irradiation of the brain need to be enclosed in the therapy. (authors)

  3. Is docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from α-linolenic acid sufficient to supply the adult brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and can be obtained directly from the diet or synthesized in the body from α-linolenic acid (ALA). Debate exists as to whether DHA synthesized from ALA can provide sufficient DHA for the adult brain, as measures of DHA synthesis from ingested ALA are typically <1% of the oral ALA dose. However, the primary fate of orally administered ALA is β-oxidation and long-term storage in adipose tissue, suggesting that DHA synthesis measures involving oral ALA tracer ingestion may underestimate total DHA synthesis. There is also evidence that DHA synthesized from ALA can meet brain DHA requirements, as animals fed ALA-only diets have brain DHA concentrations similar to DHA-fed animals, and the brain DHA requirement is estimated to be only 2.4-3.8 mg/day in humans. This review summarizes evidence that DHA synthesis from ALA can provide sufficient DHA for the adult brain by examining work in humans and animals involving estimates of DHA synthesis and brain DHA requirements. Also, an update on methods to measure DHA synthesis in humans is presented highlighting a novel approach involving steady-state infusion of stable isotope-labeled ALA that bypasses several limitations of oral tracer ingestion. It is shown that this method produces estimates of DHA synthesis that are at least 3-fold higher than brain uptake rates in rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic whole-body hypothermia reduces mortality in severe traumatic brain injury if the cooling index is sufficiently high: meta-analyses of the effect of single cooling parameters and their integrated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Emoke; Poto, Laszlo; Hegyi, Peter; Szabo, Imre; Hartmann, Petra; Solymar, Margit; Petervari, Erika; Balasko, Marta; Habon, Tamas; Rumbus, Zoltan; Tenk, Judit; Rostas, Ildiko; Weinberg, Jordan; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Garami, Andras

    2018-04-21

    Therapeutic hypothermia was investigated repeatedly as a tool to improve the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but previous clinical trials and meta-analyses found contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic whole-body hypothermia on the mortality of adult patients with severe TBI by using a novel approach of meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to February 2017. The identified human studies were evaluated regarding statistical, clinical, and methodological designs to ensure inter-study homogeneity. We extracted data on TBI severity, body temperature, mortality, and cooling parameters; then we calculated the cooling index, an integrated measure of therapeutic hypothermia. Forest plot of all identified studies showed no difference in the outcome of TBI between cooled and not cooled patients, but inter-study heterogeneity was high. On the contrary, by meta-analysis of RCTs which were homogenous with regards to statistical, clinical designs and precisely reported the cooling protocol, we showed decreased odds ratio for mortality in therapeutic hypothermia compared to no cooling. As independent factors, milder and longer cooling, and rewarming at < 0.25°C/h were associated with better outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia was beneficial only if the cooling index (measure of combination of cooling parameters) was sufficiently high. We conclude that high methodological and statistical inter-study heterogeneity could underlie the contradictory results obtained in previous studies. By analyzing methodologically homogenous studies, we show that cooling improves the outcome of severe TBI and this beneficial effect depends on certain cooling parameters and on their integrated measure, the cooling index.

  5. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  6. Novel fingerprinting method characterises the necessary and sufficient structural connectivity from deep brain stimulation electrodes for a successful outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Henrique M.; Van Hartevelt, Tim J.; Boccard, Sandra G. J.; Owen, Sarah L. F.; Cabral, Joana; Deco, Gustavo; Green, Alex L.; Fitzgerald, James J.; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a remarkably effective clinical tool, used primarily for movement disorders. DBS relies on precise targeting of specific brain regions to rebalance the oscillatory behaviour of whole-brain neural networks. Traditionally, DBS targeting has been based upon animal models (such as MPTP for Parkinson’s disease) but has also been the result of serendipity during human lesional neurosurgery. There are, however, no good animal models of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and progress in this area has been slow. In this paper, we use advanced tractography combined with whole-brain anatomical parcellation to provide a rational foundation for identifying the connectivity ‘fingerprint’ of existing, successful DBS targets. This knowledge can then be used pre-surgically and even potentially for the discovery of novel targets. First, using data from our recent case series of cingulate DBS for patients with treatment-resistant chronic pain, we demonstrate how to identify the structural ‘fingerprints’ of existing successful and unsuccessful DBS targets in terms of their connectivity to other brain regions, as defined by the whole-brain anatomical parcellation. Second, we use a number of different strategies to identify the successful fingerprints of structural connectivity across four patients with successful outcomes compared with two patients with unsuccessful outcomes. This fingerprinting method can potentially be used pre-surgically to account for a patient’s individual connectivity and identify the best DBS target. Ultimately, our novel fingerprinting method could be combined with advanced whole-brain computational modelling of the spontaneous dynamics arising from the structural changes in disease, to provide new insights and potentially new targets for hitherto impenetrable neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Ehm, Werner; Gneiting, Tilmann

    2003-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of the quantum Zeno effect is given, refining a recent conjecture of Luo, Wang and Zhang. An analogous condition is derived for the quantum anti-Zeno effect. Both results rely on a formal connection between the quantum (anti-)Zeno effect and the weak law of large numbers

  8. Inflammatory responses are not sufficient to cause delayed neuronal death in ATP-induced acute brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey-Kyeong Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutely caused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH(+ and Iba-1(+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1(+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (∼80% of that in the contralateral side did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. CONCLUSIONS: Different cellular

  9. Information trimming: Sufficient statistics, mutual information, and predictability from effective channel states

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ryan G.; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    One of the most basic characterizations of the relationship between two random variables, X and Y , is the value of their mutual information. Unfortunately, calculating it analytically and estimating it empirically are often stymied by the extremely large dimension of the variables. One might hope to replace such a high-dimensional variable by a smaller one that preserves its relationship with the other. It is well known that either X (or Y ) can be replaced by its minimal sufficient statistic about Y (or X ) while preserving the mutual information. While intuitively reasonable, it is not obvious or straightforward that both variables can be replaced simultaneously. We demonstrate that this is in fact possible: the information X 's minimal sufficient statistic preserves about Y is exactly the information that Y 's minimal sufficient statistic preserves about X . We call this procedure information trimming. As an important corollary, we consider the case where one variable is a stochastic process' past and the other its future. In this case, the mutual information is the channel transmission rate between the channel's effective states. That is, the past-future mutual information (the excess entropy) is the amount of information about the future that can be predicted using the past. Translating our result about minimal sufficient statistics, this is equivalent to the mutual information between the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. We close by discussing multivariate extensions to this use of minimal sufficient statistics.

  10. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  11. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-01-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  12. Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzari, A; Bourcier-Lucas, C; Freyssin, A; Abrous, D N; Haddjeri, N; Lucas, G

    2018-03-01

    Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats having undergone a successful LTP displayed a significant reduction of immobility when passed acutely 3 days thereafter in the forced swimming test (FST). Further, in a longitudinal paradigm using the pseudo-depressed Wistar-Kyoto rat strain, LTP elicited a decrease of FST immobility after only 2 days, whereas the AD desipramine was not effective before 16 days. In both models, the influence of LTP was transient, as it was no more observed after 8-9 days. No effects were observed on the locomotor activity or on anxiety-related behavior. Theta-burst stimulation of a brain region anatomically adjacent to the PP remained ineffective in the FST. Immunoreactivity of DG cells for phosphorylated histone H3 and doublecortin were not modified three days after LTP, indicating a lack of effect on both cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, depleting brain serotonin contents reduced the success rate of LTP but did not affect its subsequent AD-like effects. These results confirm the 'plastic DG' theory of rapid AD efficacy. Beyond, they point out stimulations of the entorhinal cortex, from which the PP originates, as putative new approaches in AD research.

  13. Food additives, food and the concept of 'food addiction': Is stimulation of the brain reward circuit by food sufficient to trigger addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, A Y; Onaolapo, O J

    2018-04-12

    In the last few years, the concept of 'food addiction' has continued to gain popularity, with human and animal studies demonstrating the differential effects of foods that are high in fat, sugar or protein on appetite, satiety, eating behaviour and the development of food addiction. However, a number of studies have disputed the occurrence of food addiction in humans. Questions have also arisen regarding the possible impacts that food additives may have on the development of food addiction or eating disorders. Also, it is known that alterations in food composition and the presence of food additives (flavour enhancers, sugars, sugar substitutes, and non-nutritive sweeteners) are factors that generally influence the sensory perception of food. Our understanding of the potential roles of central neurotransmitters (such as dopamine) and certain neuropeptides in the evolution of food addiction is also evolving; but presently, there isn't sufficient scientific evidence to consider any food ingredient, micronutrient or standard food-additive as addictive. In this review, the relevant literatures dealing with the concept of 'food addiction' are examined, and the factors which may predispose to food addiction are discussed. The possible influences that flavour-enhancers, sugars, sugar substitutes and non-nutritive sweeteners may exert on central neurotransmission, neurotransmitter/receptor interactions, appetite, satiety, conditioned- preferences and the brain reward system are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Simple Necessity and Sufficiency Relationships on Children's Causal Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Attempted to determine (1) whether developmental differences existed in children's comprehension of simple necessity and simple sufficiency relationships, and (2) the source of developmental differences in children's causal reasoning. (SB)

  15. [Effect of vitamin beverages on vitamin sufficiency of the workers of Pskov Hydroelectric Power-Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiricheva, T V; Vrezhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Iudina, A V; Spirichev, V B

    2010-01-01

    The research of influence of vitamin complexes in the form of a drink or kissel on vitamin sufficiency of working persons has been carried out. Long inclusion (6,5 months) in a diet of vitamin drinks containing about 80% from recommended daily consumption of vitamins, was accompanied by trustworthy improvement of vitamins C and B6 sufficiency and prevention of seasonal deterioration of beta-carotene status. As initially surveyed have been well provided with vitamins A and E, their blood serum level increase had not occurred.

  16. [Cost-effectiveness alone is not sufficient as basis for prioritization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness has been suggested as the sole ethical basis for prioritization systems. The methods of health economics per se may be beneficial in decision making situations of various types. The structure of Finnish healthcare system and value-based choices associated with the application of cost-effectiveness make, however, utilizability more difficult than thought. Analysis of cost- effectiveness is worth using, but criteria and methods of decision making of health economics cannot be harnessed as tools for technocratic decision-making. Value-based choices should be subjected to wide public debate.

  17. The effect of changes to question order on the prevalence of 'sufficient' physical activity in an Australian population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Christine; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-03-01

    Population surveys are frequently used to assess prevalence, correlates and health benefits of physical activity. However, nonsampling errors, such as question order effects, in surveys may lead to imprecision in self reported physical activity. This study examined the impact of modified question order in a commonly used physical activity questionnaire on the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Data were obtained from a telephone survey of adults living in Queensland, Australia. A total of 1243 adults participated in the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey conducted in July 2008 which included the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ) presented in traditional or modified order. Binary logistic regression analyses was used to examine relationships between question order and physical activity outcomes. Significant relationships were found between question order and sufficient activity, recreational walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and total activity. Respondents who received the AAQ in modified order were more likely to be categorized as sufficiently active (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). This study highlights the importance of question order on estimates of self reported physical activity. This study has shown that changes in question order can lead to an increase in the proportion of participants classified as sufficiently active.

  18. Is facial skin tone sufficient to produce a cross-racial identification effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, T R; Schultheis, J A

    2001-06-01

    Research clearly supports the existence of an other race effect for human faces whereby own-race faces are more accurately perceived and recognized. Why this occurs remains unclear. A computerized program (Mac-a-Mug Pro) for face composition was used to create pairs of target and distractor faces that differed only in skin tone. The six target faces were rated on honesty and aggressiveness by 72 university students, with just one 'Black' and one 'White' face viewed by each student. One week later, they attempted to identify these faces in four lineups: two with target-present and two with target-absent. The order of presentation of targets, lineups, and faces within lineups was varied. Own-race identification was slightly better than cross-racial identification. There was no significant difference in the confidence of responses to own- versus other-race faces. These results indicate that neither morphological variation nor differential confidence is necessary for a cross-racial identification effect.

  19. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    was obtained for all biogas scenarios, showing that biomass production for biogas on 10% of the farm area results in an energy surplus, provided that the heat from the electricity production is utilized. The energy surplus implies a displacement of fossil fuels and thereby reduced CO2 emission from the farm...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...... scenarios of biogas production on the farm. Animal manure was digested for biogas production in all scenarios and was supplemented with: (1) 100 ha grass–clover for biogas, (2) 100 ha maize for biogas, (3) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas and reduced number of livestock, and (4) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas...

  20. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Implementation: Is Sufficient Evidence Available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sophie; Dixon, Simon; Faria, Rita; Walker, Simon; Palmer, Stephen; Sculpher, Mark; Radford, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Timely implementation of recommended interventions can provide health benefits to patients and cost savings to the health service provider. Effective approaches to increase the implementation of guidance are needed. Since investment in activities that improve implementation competes for funding against other health generating interventions, it should be assessed in term of its costs and benefits. In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence released a clinical guideline recommending natriuretic peptide (NP) testing in patients with suspected heart failure. However, its implementation in practice was variable across the National Health Service in England. This study demonstrates the use of multi-period analysis together with diffusion curves to estimate the value of investing in implementation activities to increase uptake of NP testing. Diffusion curves were estimated based on historic data to produce predictions of future utilization. The value of an implementation activity (given its expected costs and effectiveness) was estimated. Both a static population and a multi-period analysis were undertaken. The value of implementation interventions encouraging the utilization of NP testing is shown to decrease over time as natural diffusion occurs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the value of the implementation activity depends on its efficacy and on the population size. Value of implementation can help inform policy decisions of how to invest in implementation activities even in situations in which data are sparse. Multi-period analysis is essential to accurately quantify the time profile of the value of implementation given the natural diffusion of the intervention and the incidence of the disease. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal Discontiguity Is neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Learning-Induced Effects on Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Benedetta; Waddell, Jaylyn; Gould, Elizabeth; Shors, Tracey J.

    2012-01-01

    Some, but not all, types of learning and memory can influence neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Trace eyeblink conditioning has been shown to enhance the survival of new neurons, whereas delay eyeblink conditioning has no such effect. The key difference between the two training procedures is that the conditioning stimuli are separated in time during trace but not delay conditioning. These findings raise the question of whether temporal discontiguity is necessary for enhancing the survival of new neurons. Here we used two approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we examined the influence of a delay conditioning task in which the duration of the conditioned stimulus (CS) was increased nearly twofold, a procedure that critically engages the hippocampus. Although the CS and unconditioned stimulus are contiguous, this very long delay conditioning procedure increased the number of new neurons that survived. Second, we examined the influence of learning the trace conditioned response (CR) after having acquired the CR during delay conditioning, a procedure that renders trace conditioning hippocampal-independent. In this case, trace conditioning did not enhance the survival of new neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that associative learning increases the survival of new neurons in the adult hippocampus, regardless of temporal contiguity. PMID:17192426

  2. Gravitationally Induced Entanglement between Two Massive Particles is Sufficient Evidence of Quantum Effects in Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletto, C; Vedral, V

    2017-12-15

    All existing quantum-gravity proposals are extremely hard to test in practice. Quantum effects in the gravitational field are exceptionally small, unlike those in the electromagnetic field. The fundamental reason is that the gravitational coupling constant is about 43 orders of magnitude smaller than the fine structure constant, which governs light-matter interactions. For example, detecting gravitons-the hypothetical quanta of the gravitational field predicted by certain quantum-gravity proposals-is deemed to be practically impossible. Here we adopt a radically different, quantum-information-theoretic approach to testing quantum gravity. We propose witnessing quantumlike features in the gravitational field, by probing it with two masses each in a superposition of two locations. First, we prove that any system (e.g., a field) mediating entanglement between two quantum systems must be quantum. This argument is general and does not rely on any specific dynamics. Then, we propose an experiment to detect the entanglement generated between two masses via gravitational interaction. By our argument, the degree of entanglement between the masses is a witness of the field quantization. This experiment does not require any quantum control over gravity. It is also closer to realization than detecting gravitons or detecting quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations.

  3. Retrocausal Effects As A Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined To Accommodate The Principle Of Sufficient Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-11-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  4. Effect of sevoflurane on neuronal activity during deep brain stimulation surgery for epilepsy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Michaël J. Bos, MD; Linda Ackermans, MD, PhD; Frédéric L.W.V.J. Schaper, MD; Rob P.W. Rouhl, MD, PhD; Vivianne H.J.M. van Kranen-Mastenbroek, MD, PhD; Wolfgang F. Buhre, MD, PhD; Marcus L.F. Janssen, MD, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus is an effective treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy who do not respond sufficiently to medical therapy. Optimal therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation probably depend on accurate positioning of the stimulating electrodes. Microelectrode recordings show bursty firing neurons in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus region, which confirms the anatomical target determined by the surgeon. Deep brain stimulation elect...

  5. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghaghi A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  6. Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

    In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

  7. Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.

  8. Effects of Cannabis on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories. PMID:23829363

  9. Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs on Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although psychostimulants have been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for approximately 70 years, little is known about the long term effects of these drugs on developing brain. The observable effects of psychostimulants are influenced by the timing of exposure, the age of examination after drug exposure and sex. Preclinical studies point out that chronic psychostimulant exposure before adolescence cause reverse sensitization or tolerance and this leads to reduction in stimulant effectiveness in adolesecence and adulthood. Preclinical studies show the potential long term effects of psychostimulants. But it is necessary to investigate the relationship between preclinical effects and clinical practice. A developmental approach is needed to understand the impact of pediatric medications on the brain that includes assessment at multiple ages to completely characterize the long term effects of these medications. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of psychostimulants on developing brain.

  10. DHA effects in brain development and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paola; Mazzocchi, Allesandra

    2016-01-01

    the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies...... justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects...

  11. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the Secretary... cancel an alcohol test? (a) As an STT, BAT, employer, or a service agent administering the testing... cancelled based on a mistake in the process that does not have a significant adverse effect on the right of...

  12. Glyphosate has limited short-term effects on commensal bacterial community composition in the gut environment due to sufficient aromatic amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roager, Henrik Munch; Casas, Mònica Escolà

    2017-01-01

    in acetic acid produced by the gut bacteria. We conclude that sufficient intestinal levels of aromatic amino acids provided by the diet alleviates the need for bacterial synthesis of aromatic amino acids and thus prevents an antimicrobial effect of glyphosate in vivo. It is however possible...

  13. The investigation on different light harvesting layers and their sufficient effect on the photovoltaic characteristics in dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-based nanofibers (TiO2 nanofiber were prepared by an electrospinning technique. The electrospun composite fibers were synthesized at different concentrations of titanium isopropoxide (25.35, 50.69, 76.05 wt% and calcinated at different temperatures (450 oC, 650 oC and 850 oC for 2 h. The diameters of nanofibers decreased by increasing the inorganic part of composite nanofibers and principally depicted anatase, anatase- rutile and rutile phases. By increasing temperature from 450 oC to 850 oC, the anatase phase decreased whereas the rutile phase increased. The different optimized TiO2 nanofibers were prepared and utilized as a sufficient scattering layer for the photoanode in dye sensitized solar cells. Then, the electron transport and recombination in TiO2 nanofiber based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was investigated. It was shown that the electron life time in DSSCs with TiO2 nanofibers, as a scattering layer, increases in different photoanode electrodes compared to that on DSSCs based on nanoparticles. As a result, conversion efficiency of 5.6% is realized, which is 55.37% higher than TiO2 photoanodes without addition of nanofibers as a scattering layer.

  14. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paolo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Ciappolino, Valentina; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders. PMID:26742060

  15. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Lauritzen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders.

  16. The Role of Reminding in the Effects of Spaced Repetitions on Cued Recall: Sufficient but Not Necessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared…

  17. Effect of AVP on brain edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; HUANG Wei-dong; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Qiu-ping; CHEN Zhao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level in patients with traumatic brain injury and investigate the role of AVP in the process of brain edema. Methods: A total of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury were involved in our study. They were divided into two groups by Glasgow Coma Scale: severe traumatic brain injury group (STBI, GCS≤ 8) and moderate traumatic brain injury group (MTBI, GCS>8).Samples of venous blood were collected in the morning at rest from 15 healthy volunteers (control group)and within 24 h after traumatic brain injury from these patients for AVP determinations by radioimmunoassay. The severity and duration of the brain edema were estimated by head CT scan.Results: plasma AVP levels (ng/L) were (mean±SD): control, 3.06±1.49; MTBI, 38.12±7.25; and STBI, 66.61±17.10.The plasma level of AVP was significantly increased within 24 h after traumatic brain injury and followed by the reduction of GCS, suggesting the deterioration of cerebral injury (P<0.01). And the AVP level was correlated with the severity (STBI r=0.919, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.724, P<0.01) and the duration of brain edema (STBI r=0.790, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.712, P<0.01). Conclusions: The plasma AVP level is closely associated with the severity of traumatic brain injury. AVP may play an important role in pathogenesis of brain edema after traumatic brain injury.

  18. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment--sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Olwenn V; Martin, Scholze; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  19. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  20. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  1. Do carbamazepine, gabapentin, or other anticonvulsants exert sufficient radioprotective effects to alter responses from trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, John C; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C

    2012-07-15

    Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up ≥6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age ≤70 years, and Type 1 typical

  2. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kano, Hideyuki [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Niranjan, Ajay [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Flickinger, John C., E-mail: flickingerjc@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  3. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up ≥6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6–153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with

  4. ECT: its brain enabling effects. A review of electroconvulsive therapy-induced structural brain plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, F.; Sienaert, P.; Obbels, J.; Dols, A.; Vandenbulcke, M.; Stek, M.L.; Bolwig, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. METHODS: By reviewing the available animal and human

  5. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Gleason, Carey E.; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (aged 42–56 years, within 5–36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Results: Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = −0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Conclusions: Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. PMID:27473135

  6. Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.

  7. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Zuk, Samantha M.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Gleason, Carey E.; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bailey, Kent R.; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (aged 42?56 years, within 5?36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 ?g/d transdermal 17?-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active ...

  8. Radiation effects on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The developing human brain has been shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. Mental retardation has been observed in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan exposed in utero during sensitive periods, and clinical studies of pelvically irradiated pregnant women have demonstrated damaging effects on the fetus. In this annex the emphasis is on reviewing the results of the study of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan, although the results of other human epidemiological investigations and of pertinent experimental studies are also considered. Refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  9. Glyphosate has limited short-term effects on commensal bacterial community composition in the gut environment due to sufficient aromatic amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roager, Henrik M; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Frandsen, Henrik L; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Bester, Kai; Licht, Tine Rask; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2018-02-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised that residues of glyphosate-based herbicides may interfere with the homeostasis of the intestinal bacterial community and thereby affect the health of humans or animals. The biochemical pathway for aromatic amino acid synthesis (Shikimate pathway), which is specifically inhibited by glyphosate, is shared by plants and numerous bacterial species. Several in vitro studies have shown that various groups of intestinal bacteria may be differently affected by glyphosate. Here, we present results from an animal exposure trial combining deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacterial community with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolic profiling of aromatic amino acids and their downstream metabolites. We found that glyphosate as well as the commercial formulation Glyfonova ® 450 PLUS administered at up to fifty times the established European Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI = 0.5 mg/kg body weight) had very limited effects on bacterial community composition in Sprague Dawley rats during a two-week exposure trial. The effect of glyphosate on prototrophic bacterial growth was highly dependent on the availability of aromatic amino acids, suggesting that the observed limited effect on bacterial composition was due to the presence of sufficient amounts of aromatic amino acids in the intestinal environment. A strong correlation was observed between intestinal concentrations of glyphosate and intestinal pH, which may partly be explained by an observed reduction in acetic acid produced by the gut bacteria. We conclude that sufficient intestinal levels of aromatic amino acids provided by the diet alleviates the need for bacterial synthesis of aromatic amino acids and thus prevents an antimicrobial effect of glyphosate in vivo. It is however possible that the situation is different in cases of human malnutrition or in production animals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  11. Radiation effects in brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, H.D.; Lierse, W.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of both the brain and spinal cord in prenatal and postnatal stages, in infancy and adult age is represented also in consideration of a combined treatment with methotrexate. In adults, application of important doses of high-energy radiation increases the risk of injurious effects to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is involved, more than 60% of the radiolesions have a progredient course ending with death. The pathogenesis and disposing factors are referred to, and the incidence of radiation necrosis with regard to age and sex, the degrees of injury and their frequence within different ranges of dosage are analyzed on the basis of data from universal literature. An examination of 'tolerance doses' for the spinal cord is made by means of Strandquist-diagrams and of the Ellis-formula. The slopes of regression lines are reported for various 'degrees of response' in skin, brain and spinal cord following radiation therapy. In the Strandquist-diagram, slopes of regression lines are dependent on the 'degree of response', flattening if skin and spinal cord are affected by radiation in the same degree, necroses having the same slope for both the organs. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Toxic effect of lithium in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, P.K.; Smithberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of lithium ion on glucose oxidation in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice was measured in vitro by the conversion of isotopic glucose into 14 CO 2 /mg wet weight. Glucose utilization is unaffected by lowest lithium dosage but is inhibited by high lithium concentrations (197-295 mM). Chronic administration of lithium to adult mice decreased the DNA content of the cerebrum and cerebellum at concentrations of 80 and 108 mM. The DNA content of selected postnatal stages of cerebrum and cerebellum was measured starting on Day 1 or 2. This served as another parameter to evaluate glucose oxidation studies at these ages. On the basis of wet weight, both brain parts of neonates of ages 1 and 10 days were approximately one-half that of the adult counterparts. On the basis of DNA content, the cerebrum enhanced its glucose utilization twofold from Day 1 to Day 10 and tripled its utilization from Day 10 to Day 20. The glucose utilization by cerebrum at Day 20 is similar to adult values. In contrast, glucose oxidation in the cerebellum remained relatively constant throughout the postnatal growth. The relative susceptibility of the two brain parts is discussed

  13. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  14. Rat brain CYP2D enzymatic metabolism alters acute and chronic haloperidol side-effects by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Wadji, Fariba Baghai; Tolledo, Edgor Cole; Remington, Gary; Nobrega, Jose N; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-08-01

    Risk for side-effects after acute (e.g. parkinsonism) or chronic (e.g. tardive dyskinesia) treatment with antipsychotics, including haloperidol, varies substantially among people. CYP2D can metabolize many antipsychotics and variable brain CYP2D metabolism can influence local drug and metabolite levels sufficiently to alter behavioral responses. Here we investigated a role for brain CYP2D in acutely and chronically administered haloperidol levels and side-effects in a rat model. Rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D activity was irreversibly inhibited with intracerebral propranolol and/or induced by seven days of subcutaneous nicotine pre-treatment. The role of variable brain CYP2D was investigated in rat models of acute (catalepsy) and chronic (vacuous chewing movements, VCMs) haloperidol side-effects. Selective inhibition and induction of brain, but not liver, CYP2D decreased and increased catalepsy after acute haloperidol, respectively. Catalepsy correlated with brain, but not hepatic, CYP2D enzyme activity. Inhibition of brain CYP2D increased VCMs after chronic haloperidol; VCMs correlated with brain, but not hepatic, CYP2D activity, haloperidol levels and lipid peroxidation. Baseline measures, hepatic CYP2D activity and plasma haloperidol levels were unchanged by brain CYP2D manipulations. Variable rat brain CYP2D alters side-effects from acute and chronic haloperidol in opposite directions; catalepsy appears to be enhanced by a brain CYP2D-derived metabolite while the parent haloperidol likely causes VCMs. These data provide novel mechanistic evidence for brain CYP2D altering side-effects of haloperidol and other antipsychotics metabolized by CYP2D, suggesting that variation in human brain CYP2D may be a risk factor for antipsychotic side-effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Estrogen on Penetrating Brain Arterioles and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Godfrey, Julie A.; Wiegman, Marchien J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effect of estrogen replacement on the structure and function of penetrating brain arterioles (PA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Materials and Methods: Female ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were replaced with estradiol (E-2) and estriol (E-3) (OVX + E;

  16. Effects of dexamethasone on brain edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Motohisa

    1982-01-01

    Experimental cerebral edema was produced on the right parietal lobe of Wistar male rats with a cold metal probe cooled by liquid nitrogen. Twenty hour later, 3 H-dexamethasone was either intramuscularly or intravenously injected into rats, estimated in the brain tissue by the liquid scintillation counting method. Edematous brain generally contained much higher 3 H-activity than the control. Furthermore, I.V. injection showed higher 3 H-activity than I.M injection in edematous and control brains at all times. For examination of the subcellular distribution of 3 H-dexamethasone in edematous brain, 3 H-activity was most strongly detected in the supernatant fraction (63%), followed by the heavy mitochondrial fraction (25.4%) and the nuclear fraction (8.4%). Although edematous brain tissue constantly demonstrated higher 3 H-activity than the control, its supernatant fraction conversely had less activity. As a next step, distribution of 3 H-dexamethasone in the supernatant fraction was studies. The result was that the high molecular weight fraction in the edematous brain showed higher radioactivity than the control. From these findings, unequivocal distribution of dexamethasone in the supernatant fraction of edematous brain tissue could be correlated with its biochemical action for preventing brain edema. (J.P.N.)

  17. Sufficiency Grounded as Sufficiently Free: A Reply to Shlomi Segall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    be grounded on (i) any personal value, nor (ii) any impersonal value. Consequently, sufficientarianism is groundless. This article contains a rejoinder to this critique. Its main claim is that the value of autonomy holds strong potential for grounding sufficiency. It argues, firstly, that autonomy carries...... both personal value for its recipient as well as impersonal value, and that both of these values are suitable for grounding sufficiency. It thus follows that we should reject both (i) and (ii). Secondly, although autonomy is presumably the strongest candidate for grounding sufficiency, the article...... provides some counterargument to Segall’s rejection of the other candidates—the impersonal value of virtue; the personal value for the allocator; and the personal value for others. If the arguments are sound, they show that we need not worry about sufficientarianism being groundless....

  18. Effect of cadmium on lipid metabolism of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, S.; Gill, K.D.; Nath, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of early postnatal cadmium exposure on the in vivo incorporation of (1- 14 C) sodium acetate into various lipid classes of the weanling rat brain was studied. A stimulated incorporation of the label was observed in total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, cerebrosides and sulphatides of the brain of Cd-exposed animals compared to controls. (author)

  19. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Seo, Shinya; Sasaki, Yuichiro.

    1985-01-01

    The chronic effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), and on serum lipids and lipoprotein levels in neurologically normal subjects from 25 to 85 years old were studied. CBF was studied by the 133-Xenon inhalation method and gray matter flow was calculated following the method of Obrist et al. A hundred and twentyfive subjects who had no abnormalities in neurological examinations nor in CT scan, were divided into two groups smokers (48) and non-smokers (77). Those who had a smoking index (Number of cigarettes/day) x (years of smoking history)>200 were designated as smokers. The mean smoking index of smokers was 697. sixty-five of the 77 subjects in the non-smoking group had never smoked, and the mean smoking index of non-smokers was 16. Increased reduction of CBF with advancing age was clearly observed. In the male, CBF was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (mean CBF 15% lower in smokers, p<0.001). Compared to non-smokers, CBF in smokers was found to be significantly lower than the expected age matched value. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol values in smokers were significantly lower, and total cholesterol levels significantly higher than in non-smokers. We concluded that smoking chronically reduced CBF. Age dependent decrease of CBF was deteriorated by chronic smoking. Then, chronic smoking was suggested to be a risk factor for brain aging. Decrease of CBF in smokers was probably due to advanced atherosclerosis which produces vascular narrowing and raised resistance in cerebral blood vessels. (author)

  20. Modulatory Effect of Association of Brain Stimulation by Light and Binaural Beats in Specific Brain Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Furtado da Silva, Vernon; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Feijó, Olavo Guimarães; Bittencourt, Juliana Marques; Ribeiro de Souza E Silva, Alair Pedro

    2017-01-01

    One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years. The other groups were named children with Autism (CA), n=10, 11±4 years, children with Intellectual Impairment (CII), n=10, 12 ±5 years and children with normal cognitive development (CND), n=10, 11±4 years. Instruments were the Mini Mental State Examination Test (MMSE), EEG-Neurocomputer instrument for brain waves registration, brain stimulator, Digit Span Test and a Protocol for working memory training. Data collection followed a pre and post-conjugated stimulation version. The results of the inferential statistics showed that the stimulation protocol had different effects on Alpha and SMR brain waves of the patients. Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and elderlies as related to gains in brain waves modulation. The results may receive and provide support to a range of studies examining brain modulation and synaptic plasticity. Also, it was emphasized in the results discussion that there was the possibility of the technique serving as an accessory instrument to alternative brain therapies.

  1. Information geometry and sufficient statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ay, N.; Jost, J.; Le, Hong-Van; Schwachhöfer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-2 (2015), s. 327-364 ISSN 0178-8051 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fisher quadratic form * Amari-Chentsov tensor * sufficient statistic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.204, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00440-014-0574-8

  2. Effect of stress on structural brain asymmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš; Čermáková, P.; Mrzílková, J.; Koutella, A.; Kutová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2016), s. 253-264 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laterality * asymmetry * brain * evolution * stress * neuropsychiatric disorders Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  3. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Fujiwara, Takehiko

    1985-01-01

    Brain atrophy during normal aging and its relation to chronic smoking was studied using quantitative volumetric measurements of computed tomography. Study was performed about 159 smokers and 194 non-smokers with no neurological abnormality nor focal abnormality in CT scans. Each pixel of head CT scans was computed and Brain Volume Index (BVI) was calculated. BVI showed a significant decrease in smokers compared to non-smokers in three age groups, 50-to-54, 55-to-59 (p < 0.001, both) and 65-to-69 (p < 0.05). A dose-response study in the male showed that BVI in smokers was significantly lower than that for non smokers. Mean BVI tended to decrease when the smoking index increased but the trend was not significant. The systolic blood pressure and serum triglycrides of smokers were significantly higher than non-smokers (p < 0.002 and p < 0.05). It was suggested that age-related brain atrophy was enhanced by chronic smoking. Previously we showed that cerebral blood flow (CBF) was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Then, we suggest the following hypothesis; smoking chronically advances atherosclerosis, both atherosclerosis and high blood pressure reduce CBF, reduced CBF accelerated the lose of neurons which finally renders the brain atrophic. (author)

  4. Glucose transport in brain - effect of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcovicova, J

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by specific saturable transport system, which includes two types of glucose transporters: 1) sodium dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) which transport glucose against its concentration gradient and 2) sodium independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), which transport glucose by facilitative diffusion in its concentration gradient. In the brain, both types of transporters are present with different function, affinity, capacity, and tissue distribution. GLUT1 occurs in brain in two isoforms. The more glycosylated GLUT1 is produced in brain microvasculature and ensures glucose transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB). The less glycosylated form is localized in astrocytic end-feet and cell bodies and is not present in axons, neuronal synapses or microglia. Glucose transported to astrocytes by GLUT1 is metabolized to lactate serving to neurons as energy source. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β upregulates GLUT1 in endothelial cells and astrocytes, whereas it induces neuronal death in neuronal cell culture. GLUT2 is present in hypothalamic neurons and serves as a glucose sensor in regulation of food intake. In neurons of the hippocampus, GLUT2 is supposed to regulate synaptic activity and neurotransmitter release. GLUT3 is the most abundant glucose transporter in the brain having five times higher transport capacity than GLUT1. It is present in neuropil, mostly in axons and dendrites. Its density and distribution correlate well with the local cerebral glucose demands. GLUT5 is predominantly fructose transporter. In brain, GLUT5 is the only hexose transporter in microglia, whose regulation is not yet clear. It is not present in neurons. GLUT4 and GLUT8 are insulin-regulated glucose transporters in neuronal cell bodies in the cortex and cerebellum, but mainly in the hippocampus and amygdala, where they maintain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Insulin translocates GLUT4 from cytosol to plasma

  5. Quantitative analysis of CT brain images: a statistical model incorporating partial volume and beam hardening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, R.F.; Ryan, M.V.; Heuston, P.M.; McCoy, C.T.; Masterson, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a statistical model for the quantitative analysis of computed tomographic brain images. Data were derived from standard sections in 34 normal studies. A model representing the intercranial pure tissue and partial volume areas, with allowance for beam hardening, was developed. The average percentage error in estimation of areas, derived from phantom tests using the model, was 28.47%. We conclude that our model is not sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, even though allowance was made for partial volume and beam hardening effects. (author)

  6. Effects of hyperbaric treatment in cerebral air embolism on intracranial pressure, brain oxygenation, and brain glucose metabolism in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Drenthen, Judith; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lameris, Thomas W.; Visser, Gerhard H.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment after cerebral air embolism on intracranial pressure, brain oxygenation, brain glucose/lactate metabolism, and electroencephalograph. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Hyperbaric chamber. SUBJECTS: Eleven Landrace/Yorkshire

  7. Late vascular effects in irradiated mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The whole brains of mice were irradiated with 250 kVp X-ray at 120 rad min -1 (1.6 mm Cu HVL, TSD 50 cm) and a histological study was done. The dose range of X-irradiation was from 1300 to 2500 rads. i.e., 1300, 1500, 1750, 2000, and 2500 rads. In the microscopic examination, the mice were killed at the regular postirradiation intervals of between 15 and 20, 31 and 40, 41 and 50, 51 and 60, 61 and 70, 71 and 80, 81 and 90, 139 and 177 weeks. A histological examination was performed by a morphometric estimation of vascular lesion in which the degree of the damage to the arterial system was scored through whole serial brain sections. Necrosis (encephalomalacia), atrophy, cell infiltration, and telangiectatic vascular change of the brain, caused as a result of the fibrinoid necrosis of the large artery were observed. Incidence of the fibrinoid necrosis increased dose dependently between 41 and 87 weeks after irradiation. Mean score of fibrinoid necrosis increased dose dependently approximately 60 weeks after irradiation. It is suggested that scores of large vessel damage do relate to dose at 41 - 87 weeks and can be used to quantify the vessel injury and a fibrinoid necrosis of the large vessels may relate to the incidence of radionecrosis. (author)

  8. Low resolution scans can provide a sufficiently accurate, cost- and time-effective alternative to high resolution scans for 3D shape analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marcy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Advances in 3D shape capture technology have made powerful shape analyses, such as geometric morphometrics, more feasible. While the highly accurate micro-computed tomography (µCT scanners have been the “gold standard,” recent improvements in 3D surface scanners may make this technology a faster, portable, and cost-effective alternative. Several studies have already compared the two devices but all use relatively large specimens such as human crania. Here we perform shape analyses on Australia’s smallest rodent to test whether a 3D scanner produces similar results to a µCT scanner. Methods We captured 19 delicate mouse (Pseudomys delicatulus crania with a µCT scanner and a 3D scanner for geometric morphometrics. We ran multiple Procrustes ANOVAs to test how variation due to scan device compared to other sources such as biologically relevant variation and operator error. We quantified operator error as levels of variation and repeatability. Further, we tested if the two devices performed differently at classifying individuals based on sexual dimorphism. Finally, we inspected scatterplots of principal component analysis (PCA scores for non-random patterns. Results In all Procrustes ANOVAs, regardless of factors included, differences between individuals contributed the most to total variation. The PCA plots reflect this in how the individuals are dispersed. Including only the symmetric component of shape increased the biological signal relative to variation due to device and due to error. 3D scans showed a higher level of operator error as evidenced by a greater spread of their replicates on the PCA, a higher level of multivariate variation, and a lower repeatability score. However, the 3D scan and µCT scan datasets performed identically in classifying individuals based on intra-specific patterns of sexual dimorphism. Discussion Compared to µCT scans, we find that even low resolution 3D scans of very small specimens are

  9. Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, A.B.; Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brain connectivity is a hallmark of schizophrenia brain dysfunction. However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area. In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging...... studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity changes with antipsychotic drug treatment. We conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for further investigation....

  10. Effects of Biotin Deficiency on Biotinylated Proteins and Biotin-Related Genes in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Aoyama, Yuki; Shimada, Ryoko; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Negoro, Munetaka; Fukui, Toru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a cofactor for biotin-dependent carboxylases. The biochemical and physiological roles of biotin in brain regions have not yet been investigated sufficiently in vivo. Thus, in order to clarify the function of biotin in the brain, we herein examined biotin contents, biotinylated protein expression (e.g. holocarboxylases), and biotin-related gene expression in the brain of biotin-deficient rats. Three-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a control group, biotin-deficient group, and pair-fed group. Rats were fed experimental diets from 3 wk old for 8 wk, and the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and cerebellum were then collected. In the biotin-deficient group, the maintenance of total biotin and holocarboxylases, increases in the bound form of biotin and biotinidase activity, and the expression of an unknown biotinylated protein were observed in the cortex. In other regions, total and free biotin contents decreased, holocarboxylase expression was maintained, and bound biotin and biotinidase activity remained unchanged. Biotin-related gene (pyruvate carboxylase, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, holocarboxylase synthetase, and biotinidase) expression in the cortex and hippocampus also remained unchanged among the dietary groups. These results suggest that biotin may be related to cortex functions by binding protein, and the effects of a biotin deficiency and the importance of biotin differ among the different brain regions.

  11. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage irradiation was carried out on three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvementat and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20-26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. An exposure to 6000 rads, in a six weeks course, caused small, less than 1 mm, widely scattered necrotic lesions with a predilection for the forebrain white matter but not excluding the central gray matter and brain stem, at 26 weeks. At 52 weeks, there was considerable mineralization of the lesions and widespread telangiectasia. In the developing lesions, multiple minute breaks in the blood brain barrier caused diffuse brain swelling, reflected by papilloedema. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys

  12. The effects of physical activity on brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eThomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.

  13. Adverse effect after external radiotherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Takano, Shingo; Yanaka, Kiyoyuki

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the effects on normal brain tissue of radiotherapy in relation to age and irradiation dose as determined from whole-brain sections of the autopsied brains with tumors. Twenty four patients (7 glioblastomas, 2 benign gliomas, 12 brain metastases, 2 malignant lymphomas, and 1 pituitary adenoma) older than 65 years (aged), and 17 younger than 65 years (non-aged) were treated by cobalt- or linear accelerator radiotherapy. Nine patients without brain disease (4 aged and 5 non-aged) were used as a control group. The histological findings were evaluated by grading the small and capillary vessels, fibrinoid necrosis, and myelination in the white matter in whole-brain sections. Those findings were compared to the irradiation doses within all radiation fields in whole-brain sections corresponding to CT scans. Hyalinization of the small vessels was observed within the postradiation 12 months in fields exposed to total doses of less than 800 neuret. Hyalinization of the capillary vessels was greater in the irradiated group than in the control group. Demyelination was observed within the postradiation 12 months in fields irradiated by more than 800 neuret in aged patients and in fields irradiated by less than 800 neuret in non-aged patients. Fibrinoid necrosis was observed after the post-radiation 12 months in fields irradiated by less than 800 neuret in aged patients and in fields irradiated by more than 800 neuret in non-aged patients. It is worth noting that in non-aged patients with brain tumors, adverse effects of radiotherapy on vessels and parenchyma were very high even in low-dose radiation areas; and in aged patients fibrinoid necrosis, which indicates irreversible damage of vessels, was observed in low-dose radiation areas. (author)

  14. Effect of dexmedetomidine combined with propofol on brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with propofol on brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection.Methods: A total of 74 patients who received brain glioma resection in our hospital between May 2014 and December 2016 were selected and randomly divided into Dex group and control group who received dexmedetomidine intervention and saline intervention before induction respectively. Serum brain tissue damage marker, PI3K/AKT/iNOS and oxidation reaction molecule contents as well as cerebral oxygen metabolism index levels were determined before anesthesia (T0), at dura mater incision (T1), immediately after recovery (T2) and 24 h after operation (T3).Results: Serum NSE, S100B, MBP, GFAP, PI3K, AKT, iNOS and MDA contents as well as AVDO2 and CERO2 levels of both groups at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than those at T0 and T1 while serum SOD and CAT contents as well as SjvO2levels were significantly lower than those at T0 and T1, and serum NSE, S100B, MBP, GFAP, PI3K, AKT, iNOS and MDA contents as well as AVDO2 and CERO2 levels of Dex group at T2 and T3 were significantly lower than those of control group while serum SOD and CAT contents as well as SjvO2 levels were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine combined with propofol can reduce the brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection.

  15. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  16. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  17. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of lithium on brain glucose metabolism in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Tomoya; Shiga, Tohru; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kusumi, Ichiro; Matsuyama, Tetsuaki; Inoue, Tetsuya; Katoh, Chietsugu; Koyama, Tsukasa; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-12-01

    Lithium is clinically available for the treatment of mood disorders. However, it has remained unclear how lithium acts on the brain to produce its effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic lithium on human brain activity using positron emission tomography and clarify the correlation between brain activity changes and cognitive functional changes as induced by chronic lithium administration. A total of 20 healthy male subjects (mean age, 32 +/- 6 years) underwent positron emission tomographic scans with F-fluorodeoxyglucose and a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline condition and after 4 weeks of lithium administration. Brain metabolic data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Lithium increased relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased rCMRglc in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus. There was no difference in any of the variables of cognitive functions between the baseline condition and after chronic lithium administration. There was no correlation between rCMRglc changes in any of the brain regions and individual variable changes in any of the neuropsychological tests. The results suggest that the effects of chronic lithium are associated with increased activity in the bilateral dorsomedial frontal cortices including the anterior cingulate gyrus and decreased activity in the right cerebellum and left lingual gyrus/cuneus.

  19. Effect of soman on the cholinergic system in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, H.L.; Szakal, A.R.; Little, D.M.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of soman on levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) and turnover rate of ACh have been studied in whole brain and brain regions (cerebellum, medulla-pons, midbrain, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cortex) of mice. Animals were injected with saline or a dose of soman up to 80μg/kg, i.v. and were sacrificed by focussed microwave irradiation of the head. The tracer, 3 H-Ch was injected (i.v.) 2 min prior to sacrifice and turnover rate of ACh was quantitated by using HPLC with electrochemical detection. A behaviorally effective dose of 80 μg/kg soman increased the levels of ACh significantly in whole brain (57.5%), corpus striatum (42.8%), hippocampus (24.1%) and cortex (43.1%). The levels of Ch were also increased in cerebellum (80.1%), midbrain (75.7%), corpus striatum (86.0%) and cortex (52.5%). The turnover rate of ACh was decreased in whole brain (53.8%), cerebellum (80.4%), medulla-pons (66.8%), midbrain (57.0%), corpus striatum (62.1%) and cortex (52.6%). The duration of these effects lasted more than 1 hr and the results indicate that the decrease in ACh turnover is not due necessarily to an increase in brain levels of ACh and/or Ch

  20. Late effects of whole brain irradiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveness, W.F.; Carsten, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    Whole brain exposure with supervoltage x irradiation was carried out in three sets of Macaca mulatta. Two sets of 12 monkeys each, at puberty, received single and fractionated exposures, respectively. One set of 21 monkeys in adulthood received a fractionated exposure. Exposure to 1000 rads in a single dose, at puberty, caused no late effects. Exposure to 1500 rads caused small areas of necrosis in the forebrain white matter at 26 weeks, but a much more extensive involvement at and beyond 52 weeks that included confluent areas of necrosis in gray and white matter. Brain loss resulted in ventricular dilatation. Gliomas appeared in two out of three monkeys at or beyond 52 weeks. Exposure to 2000 rads caused such a wide scatter of focal areas of necrosis, including those in the brain stem, that survival beyond 20 to 26 weeks was not possible. All showed enlarged ventricular systems. Whole brain exposure, 200 rads a day, five days a week, for a course of 4000 rads, at puberty, resulted in no delayed effects. Whole brain exposure to 6000 rads in a six weeks course, in the adult, produced less effects than the same dose at puberty. The onset of the scattered necrotic lesions was later than expected, appearing in one out of three animals at 33 weeks, two out of three animals at 52 weeks, and two out of three at 104 weeks. The lesions at 104 weeks were predominantly mineralized, but were accompanied by a greater extent of telangiectasia than seen in the pubescent monkeys

  1. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  2. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  3. Effects of tissue susceptibility on brain temperature mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, Andrew A; Goryawala, Mohammed Z; Sheriff, Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field. These metabolite-specific susceptibility effects are also shown to change with age. Results indicate no change of apparent brain temperature with age from 18 to 84 years old, with a trend for increased brain temperature throughout the cerebrum in females relative for males on the order of 0.1°C; slightly increased temperatures in the left hemisphere relative to the right; and a lower temperature of 0.3°C in the cerebellum relative to that of cerebral white-matter. This study presents a novel acquisition method for noninvasive measurement of brain temperature that is of potential value for diagnostic purposes and treatment monitoring, while also demonstrating limitations of the measurement due to the confounding effects of tissue susceptibility variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  5. Sex Effects of Marijuana on Brain Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Filbey, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of ?9-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. Methods We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of ?9-THC on neural structure and functioning. Results The literature demonstrates differences in male and female marijuana users on brain str...

  6. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  7. Effect Of Nicotine And Tobacco Consumption On Brain Acetyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nicotine and tobacco consumption on brain acetyl cholinesterase and serum alkaline phosphatase in rats was studied. Rats were divided into three groups and the first group was fed rat chow and water ad libitum and an oral administration of 2ml of 0.1%(v/v) nicotine per 100g body weight of rats per day.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of Ellagic acid on Neonatal Hypoxic Brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate if ellagic acid exerts neuroprotective effects in hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory responses. Methods: Separate groups of rat pups from post-natal day 4 (D4) were administered with ellagic acid (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight) orally till post- natal day 10 ...

  9. Effects of acupuncture on tissue oxygenation of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G S; Erdmann, W

    1978-04-01

    Acupuncture has been claimed to be effective in restoring consciousness in some comatose patients. Possible mechanisms to explain alleged acupuncture-induced arousal may include vasodilatory effects caused by smypathetic stimulation which leads to an augmentation of cerebral microcirculation and thereby improves oxygen supply to the brain tissue. Experiments were performed in ten albino rats (Wistar) employing PO2 microelectrodes which were inserted into the cortex through small burholes. Brain tissue PO2 was continuously recorded before, during, and after acupuncture. Stimulation of certain acupuncture points (Go-26) resulted in immediate increase of PO2 in the frontal cortex of the rat brain. This effect was reproducible and was comparable to that obtained with increase of inspiratory CO2 known to induce arterial vasodilatation and thus capillary perfusion pressure. The effect was more significant as compared to tissue PO2 increases obtained after increase in inspiratory oxygen concentration from 21% to 100%. It appears that acupuncture causes increased brain tissue perfusion which may be, at least in part, responsible for arousal of unconscious patients.

  10. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake {sup 18}F-FDG, and the amount of {sup 18}F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting {sup 18}F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using {sup 18}F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients.

  11. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  12. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  13. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min

    2017-01-01

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake 18 F-FDG, and the amount of 18 F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting 18 F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using 18 F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients

  14. Sufficiency of the Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the nuclear fuel sufficiency is required for rational decision making on long-term energy strategy. In the past an argument often invoked against nuclear energy was that uranium resources are inadequate. At present, when climate change associated with CO 2 emission is a major concern, one novel strong argument for nuclear energy is that it can produce large amounts of energy without the CO 2 emission. Increased interest in nuclear energy is evident, and a new look into uranium resources is relevant. We examined three different scenarios of nuclear capacity growth. The low growth of 0.4 percent per year in nuclear capacity is assumed for the first scenario. The moderate growth of 1.5 percent per year in nuclear capacity preserving the present share in total energy production is assumed for the second scenario. We estimated draining out time periods for conventional resources of uranium using once through fuel cycle for the both scenarios. For the first and the second scenario we obtained the draining out time periods for conventional uranium resources of 154 years and 96 years, respectively. These results are, as expected, in agreement with usual evaluations. However, if nuclear energy is to make a major impact on CO 2 emission it should contribute much more in the total energy production than at present level of 6 percent. We therefore defined the third scenario which would increase nuclear share in the total energy production from 6 percent in year 2020 to 30 percent by year 2060 while the total world energy production would grow by 1.5 percent per year. We also looked into the uranium requirement for this scenario, determining the time window for introduction of uranium or thorium reprocessing and for better use of uranium than what is the case in the once through fuel cycle. The once through cycle would be in this scenario sustainable up to about year 2060 providing most of the expected but undiscovered conventional uranium resources were turned

  15. Effects of hyperammonemia on brain energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Leke, Renata

    2014-01-01

    . In this review, we discuss both recent and older literature related to this controversial topic. We find that it has been consistently reported that hepatic encephalopathy and concomitant hyperammonemia lead to reduced cerebral oxygen consumption. However, this may not be directly linked to an effect of ammonia...

  16. Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the “global workspace” theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs

  17. The impact of assumptions regarding vaccine-induced immunity on the public health and cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination: Is one dose sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Desmond; de Ridder, Marc; Van Effelterre, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A vaccination stimulates memory cells to produce an anamnestic response. In this study, we used a mathematical model to examine how long-term immune memory might convey additional protection against clinical/icteric infections. Dynamic and decision models were used to estimate the expected number of cases, and the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), respectively. Several scenarios were explored by assuming: (1) varying duration of vaccine-induced immune memory, (2) and/or varying levels of vaccine-induced immune memory protection (IMP), (3) and/or varying levels of infectiousness in vaccinated individuals with IMP. The base case analysis assumed a time horizon of 25 y (2012 – 2036), with additional analyses over 50 and 75 y. The analyses were conducted in the Mexican public health system perspective. In the base case that assumed no vaccine-induced IMP, the 2-dose hepatitis A vaccination strategy was cost-effective compared with the 1-dose strategy over the 3 time horizons. However, it was not cost-effective if we assumed additional IMP durations of at least 10 y in the 25-y horizon. In the 50- and 75-y horizons, the 2-dose strategy was always cost-effective, except when 100% reduction in the probability of icteric Infections, 75% reduction in infectiousness, and mean durations of IMP of at least 50 y were assumed. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against hepatitis A virus would be cost-effective in Mexico using a single-dose vaccination strategy. However, the cost-effectiveness of a second dose depends on the assumptions of additional protection by IMP and the time horizon over which the analysis is performed. PMID:27428611

  18. Gravitational Effects on Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1991-01-01

    Visual, vestibular, tactile, proprioceptive, and perhaps auditory clues are combined with knowledge of commanded voluntary movement to produce a single, usually consistent, perception of spatial orientation. The recent Spacelab flights have provided especially valuable observations on the effects of weightlessness and space flight. The response of the otolith organs to weightlessness and readapting to Earth's gravitation is described. Reference frames for orientation are briefly discussed.

  19. Effects of propranolol and clonidine on brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and endothelial glycocalyx disruption after fluid percussion brain injury in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    2018-01-01

    clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected 53 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n = 16), propranolol + clonidine (n = 16......), vehicle (n = 16), or sham (n = 5) for 24 hours. Primary outcome was brain water content at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were blood-brain barrier permeability and plasma levels of syndecan-1 (glycocalyx disruption), cell damage (histone-complexed DNA fragments), epinephrine, norepinephrine, and animal.......555). We found no effect of propranolol and propranolol/clonidine on blood-brain barrier permeability and animal motor scores. Unexpectedly, propranolol and propranolol/clonidine caused an increase in epinephrine and syndecan-1 levels. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide any support for unselective...

  20. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  1. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, G.C. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye - in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  2. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, George C.

    1994-01-01

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  3. The effect of infectious brain edema on NMDA receptor binding in rat's brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guansheng; Chen Jianfang; Chen Xiang

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of the infectious brain edema (IBE) induced by Bordetella Pertussis (BP) on the specific binding of 3 H MK-801 in rat's brain in vivo was determined. METHODS: BP was injected via left internal carotid artery in rat model of infectious brain edema. Male SD rats were divided into three groups: 1) Group control (NS, n = 11); 2) Group IBF (BP, n = 12); 3) Group pretreatment of MK-801 + PB (MK-801, n = 4). Normal saline or BP 0.2 ml/kg was injected into left internal carotid artery in NS and BP group respectively. MK-801 0.5 mg/kg per day was injected i.p. two days before injection of BP in group MK-801. Rats were killed by decapitation at 24 hours after injection of BP. The specific binding of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor were measured with 3 H-MK-801 in the neuronal membrane of cerebral cortex. The Scatchard plots were performed. RESULTS: The B max values were 0.623 +- 0.082 and 0.606 +- 0.087 pmol/mg protein in group NS and BP respectively (t = 0.48, P>0.05). The Kd values were 43.1 +- 4.2 and 30.5 +- 3.0 nmol/L in group NS and BP respectively (t = 7.8, P<0.05). The specific binding of NMDA receptor was decreased by pretreatment of MK-801. CONCLUSIONS: The total number of NMDA receptor had not changed, whereas its affinity increased significantly in the model of brain edema induced by pertussis bacilli in rat. The increase of affinity of NMDA receptor can be blockaded by MK-801 pretreatment in vivo

  4. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  5. No additional effect of different types of physical activity on 10-hour muscle protein synthesis in elderly men on a controlled energy- and protein-sufficient diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, Jacob; Agergaard, Jakob; Kjær, Michael

    2016-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) are less investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily physical activities upon MPS in elderly individuals. Methods: A total of 24 elderly men (70 +/- 1 year) were recruited and randomly assigned: inactivity in form of bed-rest (IA), daily physical......-hour myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR), and typical prerequisites for calculating FSR were fulfilled. Physical activities were monitored, and venous blood and muscle biopsies collected. Results: Physical activity was highest in the DA compared to both the IA and RE groups. Nutrient...... activities (DA), or heavy resistance exercise (RE). All groups undertook a normal eating routine containing carbohydrates (52 E%), fat (32 E%), and protein (16 E%). Ingestion of labeled milk protein ([1-C-13] leucine-labeled whey and caseinate) served to maintain tracer enrichment for determination of 10...

  6. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  7. Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women in an Iodine-Sufficient Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposes. To evaluate the effects of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. Methods. 208 pregnant women at 24–28 weeks were divided into two groups, TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. Thyroid function and TPOAb were determined in all subjects until 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain euthyroid with periodical checking of thyroid functions. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membrane, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal diseases were observed in two groups. Results. Of all women, 11.54% had a PPT. The prevalence of PPT was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (42.31% versus 7.14%, P<0.001, with 45.46% and 53.85% of PPT happening at 6 weeks postpartum in TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. The incidence of polyhydramnios was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (15.38% versus 2.74%, P=0.02. Conclusion. Pregnant women with TPOAb-positive had increased risk of PPT, predominantly happening at 6 weeks postpartum. TPOAb was associated with increased incidence of polyhydramnios and the underlying mechanisms required further investigation. Earlier screening of thyroid function during pregnancy and postpartum was warranted in our region.

  8. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on glucose uptake in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miederer, I; Uebbing, K; Röhrich, J; Maus, S; Bausbacher, N; Krauter, K; Weyer-Elberich, V; Lutz, B; Schreckenberger, M; Urban, R

    2017-05-01

    Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected. The data were acquired for 70 min and arterial blood samples were collected throughout the scan. THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH were determined at 55 min p.i. Nine volumes of interest were defined, and the cerebral glucose uptake was calculated for each brain region. Low blood THC levels of glucose uptake (6-30 %), particularly in the hypothalamus (p = 0.007), while blood THC levels > 10 ng/ml (injected dose: ≥ 0.05 mg/kg) coincided with a decreased glucose uptake (-2 to -22 %), especially in the cerebellar cortex (p = 0.008). The effective concentration in this region was estimated 2.4 ng/ml. This glucose PET study showed that stimulation of CB1 receptors by THC affects the glucose uptake in the rat brain, whereby the effect of THC is regionally different and dependent on dose - an effect that may be of relevance in behavioural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürekli, Ismail; Gökalp, Orhan; Kiray, Müge; Gökalp, Gamze; Ergüneş, Kazım; Salman, Ebru; Yürekli, Banu Sarer; Satoğlu, Ismail Safa; Beşir, Yüksel; Cakır, Habib; Gürbüz, Ali

    2013-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was the control group, Group 2 was the sham group (I/R), Rats in Group 3 were subjected to I/R and given Ph, and rats in Group 4 were subjected to I/R and given Pn. A tourniquet was applied at the level of left groin region of subjects in the I/R group after induction of anesthesia. One h of ischemia was performed with no drug administration. In the Ph group, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg Ph was administered intraperitoneally before ischemia and the remaining half before reperfusion. In the Pn group, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg Pn intraperitoneally at the 30th min of ischemia. Brains of all subjects were removed after 24 h for examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that Ph had protective effects against I/R injury developing in the brain tissue. Ph has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury created experimentally in rat brains.

  10. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro-Vieira, Sara; Costa, Vera Marisa; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2017-08-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatry disorders in children and adolescents, and methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug available worldwide for its treatment. Despite the proven therapeutic efficacy, concerns have been raised regarding the possible consequences of chronic MPH exposure during childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in the neurodevelopment at these crucial stages are major concerns given the unknown future life consequences. This review is focused on the long-term adverse effects of MPH to the brain biochemistry. Reports conducted with young and/or adolescent animals and studies with humans are reviewed in the context of long-term consequences after early life-exposure. MPH pharmacokinetics is also reviewed as there are differences among laboratory animals and humans that may be relevant to extrapolate the findings. Studies reveal that exposure to MPH in laboratory animals during young and/or adolescent ages can impact the brain, but the outcomes are dependent on MPH dose, treatment period, and animal's age. Importantly, the female sex is largely overlooked in both animal and human studies. Unfortunately, human reports that evaluate adults following adolescent or child exposure to MPH are very scarce. In general, human data indicates that MPH is generally safe, although it can promote several brain changes in early ages. Even so, there is a lack of long course patient evaluation to clearly establish whether MPH-induced changes are friendly or foe to the brain and more human studies are needed to assess the adult brain changes that arise from early MPH treatment. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic effective connectivity of inter-areal brain circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    Full Text Available Anatomic connections between brain areas affect information flow between neuronal circuits and the synchronization of neuronal activity. However, such structural connectivity does not coincide with effective connectivity (or, more precisely, causal connectivity, related to the elusive question "Which areas cause the present activity of which others?". Effective connectivity is directed and depends flexibly on contexts and tasks. Here we show that dynamic effective connectivity can emerge from transitions in the collective organization of coherent neural activity. Integrating simulation and semi-analytic approaches, we study mesoscale network motifs of interacting cortical areas, modeled as large random networks of spiking neurons or as simple rate units. Through a causal analysis of time-series of model neural activity, we show that different dynamical states generated by a same structural connectivity motif correspond to distinct effective connectivity motifs. Such effective motifs can display a dominant directionality, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective entrainment between local brain rhythms, although all connections in the considered structural motifs are reciprocal. We show then that transitions between effective connectivity configurations (like, for instance, reversal in the direction of inter-areal interactions can be triggered reliably by brief perturbation inputs, properly timed with respect to an ongoing local oscillation, without the need for plastic synaptic changes. Finally, we analyze how the information encoded in spiking patterns of a local neuronal population is propagated across a fixed structural connectivity motif, demonstrating that changes in the active effective connectivity regulate both the efficiency and the directionality of information transfer. Previous studies stressed the role played by coherent oscillations in establishing efficient communication between distant areas. Going beyond these early

  12. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S.; Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the

  13. Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Multiple Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Kyu; Lee, Sang Ryul; Cho, Jin Mo; Yang, Kyung Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with multiple brain metastases and to investigate prognostic factors related to treatment outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed clinico-radiological and dosimetric data of 36 patients with 4-14 brain metastases who underwent GKRS for 264 lesions between August 2008 and April 2011. The most common primary tumor site was the lung (n=22), followed by breast (n=7). At GKRS, the median Karnofsky performance scale score was 90 and the mean tumor volume was 1.2 cc (0.002-12.6). The mean prescription dose of 17.8 Gy was delivered to the mean 61.1% isodose line. Among 264 metastases, 175 lesions were assessed for treatment response by at least one imaging follow-up. Results The overall median survival after GKRS was 9.1±1.7 months. Among various factors, primary tumor control was a significant prognostic factor (11.1±1.3 months vs. 3.3±2.4 months, p=0.031). The calculated local tumor control rate at 6 and 9 months after GKRS were 87.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Paddick's conformity index (>0.75) was significantly related to local tumor control. The actuarial peritumoral edema reduction rate was 22.4% at 6 months. Conclusion According to our results, GKRS can provide beneficial effect for the patients with multiple (4 or more) brain metastases, when systemic cancer is controlled. And, careful dosimetry is essential for local tumor control. Therefore, GKRS can be considered as one of the treatment modalities for multiple brain metastase. PMID:22102945

  14. Effect of selenium on malignant tumor cells of brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Nakatsu, S; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H

    1995-07-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that selenium can inhibit tumorigenesis in some tissues of animal. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect on malignant tumor cells of brain. The purpose of our study was to determine the biological effect of selenium on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma cell lines. Cell lines C6 and A172 were obtained from Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan (JCRB). Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of air and 5% CO2. Antiproliferative effects of selenium were evaluated using growth rate assay quantifying cell number by MTT assay. An antiproliferative effect of selenium was found in two cell lines, which was more effective on human A172 glioblastoma and less effective on rat C6 glioma.

  15. Characteristic effects of heavy ion irradiation on the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.Z.; Takahashi, S.; Kubota, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Takeda, H.; Zhang, R.; Fukui, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy ion irradiation has the feature to administer a large radiation dose in the vicinity of the endpoint in the beam range, and its irradiation system and biophysical characteristics are different from ordinary irradiation instruments like X- or gamma-rays. Using this special feature, heavy ion irradiation has been applied for cancer treatment. The safety and efficacy of heavy ion irradiator have been demonstrated to a great extent. For instance, brain tumors treated by heavy-ion beams became smaller or disappearance. However, fundamental research related to such clinical phenotypes and their underlying mechanisms are little known. In order to clarify characteristic effects of heavy ion irradiation on the brain, we developed an experimental system for irradiating a restricted region of the rat brain using heavy ion beams. The characteristics of the heavy ion beams, histological, behavioral and elemental changes were studied in the rat following heavy ion irradiation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 12 weeks and weighing 260-340 g (Shizuoka Laboratory Animal Center, Hamamatsu, Japan) were used. Rats were deeply anesthetized 10-15 minutes before irradiation with ketamine (40 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg), immobilized in a specifically designed jig, and irradiated with 290 MeV/nucleon charged carbon beams in a dorsal-to ventral direction, The left cerebral hemispheres of the brain were irradiated at doses of 100 Gy charged carbon particles. The depth-dose distribution of the heavy ion beams was modified to make a spread-out bragg peak of 5 mm wide with a range modulator. The characteristics of the heavy-ion beams (field and depth of the heavy-ion beams) were examined by a measuring paraffin section of rat brain at different thickness. That extensive necrosis was observed between 2.5 mm and 7.5 mm depth from the surface of the rat head, suggesting a relatively high dose and uniform dose was delivered among designed depths and the spread-out bragg peak used here

  16. Improving the Perception of Self-Sufficiency towards Creative Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Korkmaz, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Creative Drama Based Perception of Self-sufficiency Skills Training Program on 2nd grade bachelor degree students' (who are attending a preschool teacher training program) perception of self-sufficiency. This is a quasi-experimental study. Totally 50 students were equally divided into…

  17. Exercise therapy in multiple sclerosis and its effects on function and the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    to clinically relevant improvements in physical function, but should be considered an adjunct to specific task-based training. Exercise has also shown positive effects on the brain, including improvements in brain volume and cognition. In summary, exercise therapy is a safe and potent nonpharmacological...... intervention in MS, with beneficial effects on both functional capacity and the brain....

  18. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A; Schouw, Marieke L J; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G H; Schrantee, Anouk G M; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G; Denys, D.; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Reitsma, Hans B; Geurts, Hilde M; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  19. The effects of psychotropic drugs on developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, M.A.; Schouw, M.L.J.; Klomp, A.; Tamminga, G.H.; Schrantee, A.G.M.; Bouziane, C.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Boer, F.; Ruhé, H.G.; Denys, D.; Rijsman, R.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Reitsma, H.B.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  20. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  1. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of different

  2. Effects of caffeine on the preterm brain: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Laura M L; van Bel, Frank; Baerts, Willem; Lemmers, Petra M A

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine improves neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants. This study analyses the effects of caffeine on the neonatal brain. We hypothesized that caffeine has a neuroprotective effect through an increase in oxygen metabolism; reflected by increased cerebral oxygen extraction, electrical function, and perfusion. Preterm infants <32 weeks gestation (GA) receiving their primary dose caffeine-base (10 mg/kg) were included. Ten minutes of stable monitoring were selected before, during, and every hour up to 6 h after caffeine. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitored regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO 2 ) and extraction (FTOE). Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) monitored minimum, mean and maximum amplitudes. Spontaneous activity transients (SAT) rate and the interval between SATs (ISI) were calculated. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) were monitored. Arterial pCO 2 's were collected before and 4 h after caffeine. Brain perfusion was assessed 1 h before and 3 h after caffeine by Doppler-measured resistance-index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV), in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Results were presented in mean ± SD. 34 infants, mean GA 28.8 ± 2.1 wk, were included. rScO 2 significantly decreased from 69 ± 11 to 63 ± 12 1 h after caffeine, and recovered at 6 h (66 ± 10). FTOE increased correspondingly. MABP and HR increased significantly. PSV in the ACA decreased slightly. Other Doppler variables, aEEG parameters, and SaO 2 were unaffected. Caffeine increases oxygen extraction, suggesting a (transient) stimulating effect on brain metabolism. However, no substantial changes were found in brain perfusion and in electrical brain activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Antibiotics in Early Life on Brain Function and Behaviour

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recent evidence in animal models suggests that gut microbiota can influence ... of the microbiota-gut-brain axis related to antibiotic effects on brain function and behaviour ... IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals.

  4. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain mediators of the effects of noxious heat on pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Lauren Y; Lindquist, Martin A; Bolger, Niall; Wager, Tor D

    2014-08-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of either noxious stimulus intensity or reported pain. Although useful, analyzing brain relationships with stimulus intensity and behavior separately does not address how sensation and pain are linked in the central nervous system. In this study, we used multi-level mediation analysis to identify brain mediators of pain--regions in which trial-by-trial responses to heat explained variability in the relationship between noxious stimulus intensity (across 4 levels) and pain. This approach has the potential to identify multiple circuits with complementary roles in pain genesis. Brain mediators of noxious heat effects on pain included targets of ascending nociceptive pathways (anterior cingulate, insula, SII, and medial thalamus) and also prefrontal and subcortical regions not associated with nociceptive pathways per se. Cluster analysis revealed that mediators were grouped into several distinct functional networks, including the following: somatosensory, paralimbic, and striatal-cerebellar networks that increased with stimulus intensity; and 2 networks co-localized with "default mode" regions in which stimulus intensity-related decreases mediated increased pain. We also identified "thermosensory" regions that responded to increasing noxious heat but did not predict pain reports. Finally, several regions did not respond to noxious input, but their activity predicted pain; these included ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cerebellar regions, and supplementary motor cortices. These regions likely underlie both nociceptive and non-nociceptive processes that contribute to pain, such as attention and decision-making processes. Overall, these results elucidate how multiple distinct brain systems jointly contribute to the central generation of pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, L S; Axelsson, J; Riklund, K

    2017-01-01

    In longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the presence of volumetric changes over time can lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the true changes in the quantified PET signal due to the partial volume effect (PVE) introduced by the limited spatial resolution of existing PET...... cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events...... from list-mode acquisitions, we investigated the artificial volume dependence of BP due to PVE, and potential bias arising from varying BP. Comparing multiple reconstruction algorithms we found that a high-resolution ordered-subsets maximization algorithm with spatially variant point-spread function...

  7. Brain Structural Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with subtle neuroanatomical deficits including lateral ventricular enlargement, grey matter deficits incorporating limbic system structures, and distributed white matter pathophysiology. Substantial heterogeneity has been identified by structural neuroimaging studies to date and differential psychotropic medication use is potentially a substantial contributor to this. This selective review of structural neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies considers evidence that lithium, mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medication and antidepressant medications are associated with neuroanatomical variation. Most studies are negative and suffer from methodological weaknesses in terms of directly assessing medication effects on neuroanatomy, since they commonly comprise posthoc assessments of medication associations with neuroimaging metrics in small heterogenous patient groups. However the studies which report positive findings tend to form a relatively consistent picture whereby lithium and antiepileptic mood stabiliser use is associated with increased regional grey matter volume, especially in limbic structures. These findings are further supported by the more methodologically robust studies which include large numbers of patients or repeated intra-individual scanning in longitudinal designs. Some similar findings of an apparently ameliorative effect of lithium on white matter microstructure are also emerging. There is less support for an effect of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication on brain structure in bipolar disorder, but these studies are further limited by methodological difficulties. In general the literature to date supports a normalising effect of lithium and mood stabilisers on brain structure in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with the neuroprotective characteristics of these medications identified by preclinical studies. PMID:26412064

  8. Maternal effects and the evolution of brain size in birds: overlooked developmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N; Surai, P

    2007-01-01

    A central dogma for the evolution of brain size posits that the maintenance of large brains incurs developmental costs, because they need prolonged periods to grow during the early ontogeny. Such constraints are supported by the interspecific relationship between ontological differences and relative brain size in birds and mammals. Given that mothers can strongly influence the development of the offspring via maternal effects that potentially involve substances essential for growing brains, we argue that such effects may represent an important but overlooked component of developmental constraints on brain size. To demonstrate the importance of maternal effect on the evolution of brains, we investigated the interspecific relationship between relative brain size and maternal effects, as reflected by yolk testosterone, carotenoids, and vitamins A and E in a phylogenetic study of birds. Females of species with relatively large brains invested more in eggs in terms of testosterone and vitamin E than females of species with small brains. The effects of carotenoid and vitamin A levels on the evolution of relative brain size were weaker and non-significant. The association between relative brain size and yolk testosterone was curvilinear, suggesting that very high testosterone levels can be suppressive. However, at least in moderate physiological ranges, the positive relationship between components of maternal effects and relative brain size may imply one aspect of developmental costs of large brains. The relationship between vitamin E and relative brain size was weakened when we controlled for developmental mode, and thus the effect of this antioxidant may be indirect. Testosterone-enhanced neurogenesis and vitamin E-mediated defence against oxidative stress may have key functions when the brain of the embryo develops, with evolutionary consequences for relative brain size.

  9. Age-dependent effects of brain stimulation on network centrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonenko, Daria; Nierhaus, Till; Meinzer, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that advanced age may mediate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain function. However, studies directly comparing neural tDCS effects between young and older adults are scarce and limited to task......-related imaging paradigms. Resting-state (rs-) fMRI, that is independent of age-related differences in performance, is well suited to investigate age associated differential neural tDCS effects. Three “online” tDCS conditions (anodal, cathodal, sham) were compared in a cross-over, within-subject design, in 30...... characterized neural tDCS effects. An interaction between anodal tDCS and age group was observed. Specifically, centrality in bilateral paracentral and posterior regions (precuneus, superior parietal cortex) was increased in young, but decreased in older adults. Seed-based analyses revealed that these opposing...

  10. The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J

    2011-12-05

    A role for vitamin D in brain development and function has been gaining support over the last decade. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that this vitamin is actually a neuroactive steroid that acts on brain development, leading to alterations in brain neurochemistry and adult brain function. Early deficiencies have been linked with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, and adult deficiencies have been associated with a host of adverse brain outcomes, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression and cognitive decline. This review summarises the current state of research on the actions of vitamin D in the brain and the consequences of deficiencies in this vitamin. Furthermore, we discuss specific implications of vitamin D status on the neurotransmitter, dopamine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective return-to-work interventions after acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker-Cools, Birgit H P M; Daams, Joost G; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2016-01-01

    To gather knowledge about effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). A database search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library using keywords and Medical Subject Headings. Studies were included if they met inclusion criteria: adult patients with non-progressive ABI, working pre-injury and an intervention principally designed to improve RTW as an outcome. The methodological quality of included studies was determined and evidence was assessed qualitatively. Twelve studies were included, of which five were randomized controlled trials and seven were cohort studies. Nine studies had sufficient methodological quality. There is strong evidence that work-directed interventions in combination with education/coaching are effective regarding RTW and there are indicative findings for the effectiveness of work-directed interventions in combination with skills training and education/coaching. Reported components of the most effective interventions were tailored approach, early intervention, involvement of patient and employer, work or workplace accommodations, work practice and training of social and work-related skills, including coping and emotional support. Effective RTW interventions for patients with ABI are a combination of work-directed interventions, coaching/education and/or skills training. These interventions have the potential to facilitate sustained RTW for patients with ABI.

  12. Effects of the murine skull in optoacoustic brain microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Shoham, Shy; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great promise behind the recent introduction of optoacoustic technology into the arsenal of small-animal neuroimaging methods, a variety of acoustic and light-related effects introduced by adult murine skull severely compromise the performance of optoacoustics in transcranial imaging. As a result, high-resolution noninvasive optoacoustic microscopy studies are still limited to a thin layer of pial microvasculature, which can be effectively resolved by tight focusing of the excitation light. We examined a range of distortions introduced by an adult murine skull in transcranial optoacoustic imaging under both acoustically- and optically-determined resolution scenarios. It is shown that strong low-pass filtering characteristics of the skull may significantly deteriorate the achievable spatial resolution in deep brain imaging where no light focusing is possible. While only brain vasculature with a diameter larger than 60 µm was effectively resolved via transcranial measurements with acoustic resolution, significant improvements are seen through cranial windows and thinned skull experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (− 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (− 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  14. Magnetic field effects on brain monoamine oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borets, V.M.; Ostrovskiy, V.Yu.; Bankovskiy, A.A.; Dudinskaya, T.F.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the increasing use of magnetotherapy, studies were conducted on the effects of 35 mTesla magnetic fields on monoamine oxidase activity in the rat brain. Under in vitro conditions a constant magnetic field in the continuous mode was most effective in inhibiting deamination of dopamine following 1 min exposure, while in vivo studies with 8 min or 10 day exposures showed that inhibition was obtained only with a variable field in the continuous mode. However, inhibition of dopamine deamination was only evident within the first 24 h after exposure was terminated. In addition, in none of the cases was norepinephrine deamination inhibited. The effects of the magnetic fields were, therefore, transient and selective with the CNS as the target system. 9 references.

  15. Brain-stem evoked potentials and noise effects in seagulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S A

    1985-01-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) recorded from the seagull were large-amplitude, short-latency, vertex-positive deflections which originate in the eighth nerve and several brain-stem nuclei. BAEP waveforms were similar in latency and configurations to that reported for certain other lower vertebrates and some mammals. BAEP recorded at several pure tone frequencies throughout the seagull's auditory spectrum showed an area of heightened auditory sensitivity between 1 and 3 kHz. This range was also found to be the primary bandwidth of the vocalization output of young seagulls. Masking by white noise and pure tones had remarkable effects on several parameters of the BAEP. In general, the tone- and click-induced BAEP were either reduced or obliterated by both pure tone and white noise maskers of specific signal to noise ratios and high intensity levels. The masking effects observed in this study may be related to the manner in which seagulls respond to intense environmental noise. One possible conclusion is that intense environmental noise, such as aircraft engine noise, may severely alter the seagull's localization apparatus and induce sonogenic stress, both of which could cause collisions with low-flying aircraft.

  16. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n=109 and the Active Control Group (n=100. Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  17. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Tam, Helena M K; Chu, Leung W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Felix; Lam, Linda C W; Woo, Jean; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n = 109) and the Active Control Group (n = 100). Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  18. Effects of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, H.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Saefwenberg, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Newborn rats were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays. Doses of 0, 80 or 160 rads were given to the whole body. The whole body and brain weights, DNA and RNA contents of the brain and 3 H-thymidine or 3 H-uridine incorporated by the brain were measured at 5, 10 or 15 days after birth. A dose of 160 rads produced clear alterations in the brain but no clear effects could be detected when 80 rads were given. (author)

  19. Network Theory and Effects of Transcranial Brain Stimulation Methods on the Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Demirci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a shift from classic localizational approaches to new approaches where the brain is considered as a complex system. Therefore, there has been an increase in the number of studies involving collaborations with other areas of neurology in order to develop methods to understand the complex systems. One of the new approaches is graphic theory that has principles based on mathematics and physics. According to this theory, the functional-anatomical connections of the brain are defined as a network. Moreover, transcranial brain stimulation techniques are amongst the recent research and treatment methods that have been commonly used in recent years. Changes that occur as a result of applying brain stimulation techniques on physiological and pathological networks help better understand the normal and abnormal functions of the brain, especially when combined with techniques such as neuroimaging and electroencephalography. This review aims to provide an overview of the applications of graphic theory and related parameters, studies conducted on brain functions in neurology and neuroscience, and applications of brain stimulation systems in the changing treatment of brain network models and treatment of pathological networks defined on the basis of this theory.

  20. Effects of diabetes on brain metabolism - is brain glycogen a significant player?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle M; Waagepetersen, Helle S.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glycogen, being an intracellular glucose reservoir, contributes to maintain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Under conditions with a disturbance in systemic glucose metabolism such as in diabetes, the supply of glucose to the br......Brain glycogen, being an intracellular glucose reservoir, contributes to maintain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Under conditions with a disturbance in systemic glucose metabolism such as in diabetes, the supply of glucose...... to the brain may be affected and have important impacts on brain metabolism and neurotransmission. This also implies that brain glycogen may serve an essential role in the diabetic state to sustain appropriate brain function. There are two main types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2 diabetes and both types may...... understanding of how brain energy and neurotransmitter metabolism is affected in diabetes. There will be a particular focus on the role of brain glycogen to support glycolytic and TCA cycle activity as well as glutamate-glutamine cycle in type 1 and type 2 diabetes....

  1. Sufficiency does energy consumption become a moral issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Adrian (Socio-economic Inst. and Univ. Research Priority Programme in Ethics, Univ. of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing the externalities from energy use is crucial for sustainability. There are basically four ways to reduce externalities from energy use: increasing technical efficiency ('energy input per unit energy service'), increasing economic efficiency ('internalising external costs'), using 'clean' energy sources with few externalities, or sufficiency ('identifying 'optimal' energy service levels'). A combination of those strategies is most promising for sustainable energy systems. However, the debate on sustainable energy is dominated by efficiency and clean energy strategies, while sufficiency plays a minor role. Efficiency and clean energy face several problems, though. Thus, the current debate should be complemented with a critical discussion of sufficiency. In this paper, I develop a concept of sufficiency, which is adequate for liberal societies. I focus on ethical foundations for sufficiency, as the discussion of such is missing or cursory only in the existing literature. I first show that many examples of sufficiency can be understood as (economic) efficiency, but that the two concepts do not coincide. I then show that sufficiency based on moralization of actions can be understood as implementation of the boundary conditions for social justice that come with notions of liberal societies, in particular the duty not to harm other people. By this, to increase sufficiency becomes a duty beyond individual taste. I further illustrate this in the context of the adverse effects of climate change as externalities from energy use.

  2. Quantification of brain tissue through incorporation of partial volume effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Howard D.; Santago, Peter, II; Snyder, Wesley E.

    1992-06-01

    This research addresses the problem of automatically quantifying the various types of brain tissue, CSF, white matter, and gray matter, using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. The method employs a statistical model of the noise and partial volume effect and fits the derived probability density function to that of the data. Following this fit, the optimal decision points can be found for the materials and thus they can be quantified. Emphasis is placed on repeatable results for which a confidence in the solution might be measured. Results are presented assuming a single Gaussian noise source and a uniform distribution of partial volume pixels for both simulated and actual data. Thus far results have been mixed, with no clear advantage being shown in taking into account partial volume effects. Due to the fitting problem being ill-conditioned, it is not yet clear whether these results are due to problems with the model or the method of solution.

  3. Look again: effects of brain images and mind-brain dualism on lay evaluations of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Cayce J; Farah, Martha J

    2013-09-01

    Brain scans have frequently been credited with uniquely seductive and persuasive qualities, leading to claims that fMRI research receives a disproportionate share of public attention and funding. It has been suggested that functional brain images are fascinating because they contradict dualist beliefs regarding the relationship between the body and the mind. Although previous research has indicated that brain images can increase judgments of an article's scientific reasoning, the hypotheses that brain scans make research appear more interesting, surprising, or worthy of funding have not been tested. Neither has the relation between the allure of brain imaging and dualism. In the following three studies, laypersons rated both fictional research descriptions and real science news articles accompanied by brain scans, bar charts, or photographs. Across 988 participants, we found little evidence of neuroimaging's seductive allure or of its relation to self-professed dualistic beliefs. These results, taken together with other recent null findings, suggest that brain images are less powerful than has been argued.

  4. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Kumar, Ashok J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Levin, Victor A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% (±22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% (±18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg (±3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment

  5. Effect of ethanol on enkephalinergic opioid system of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyayev, N.A.; Balakireva, N.N.; Brusov, O.S.; Panchenko, L.F.

    1983-10-13

    Specific binding of /sup 3/H-morphine and /sup 3/H-(D-Ala/sup 2/, D-Leu/sup 5/)-enkephalin (H-EN) with opiatic receptors was studied on white rats along with the content of Met- and Leu-enkephalin and the activity of enkephalinase in various brain segments after single dose (20% solution in 0.9% NaCl, IP; 1.5-4.5 g/kg body weight) and chronic injection (20% EtOH substituted for drinking water) of ethanol. The single injection of EtOH (1.5-4.5 g/kg) resulted in a depression of the specific binding of H-EN with opiate receptors. Doses of 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg led to a lower content of Leu-enkephalin in mid-brain but to an increase of Met-enkephalin; the 4.5 g/kg dose had no effect on the striatum. With chronic administration of EtOH, most of the values obtained on the experimental animals were similar to the control data. 23 references.

  6. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of cocaine use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky T Yeung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Animal and molecular studies have shown that cocaine exerts a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. Aims: To determine if the presence of cocaine metabolites on admission following traumatic brain injury (TBI is associated with better outcomes. Settings and Design: Level-1 trauma center, retrospective cohort. Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB approval, the trauma registry was searched from 2006 to 2009 for all patients aged 15-55 years with blunt head trauma and non-head AIS <3. Exclusion criteria were pre-existing brain pathology and death within 30 min of admission. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS, and Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression was used to determine the independent effect of cocaine on mortality. Hospital LOS was compared with multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 741 patients met criteria and had drug screens. The screened versus unscreened groups were similar. Cocaine positive patients were predominantly African-American (46% vs. 21%, P < 0.0001, older (40 years vs. 30 years, P < 0.0001, and had ethanol present more often (50.7% vs. 37.8%, P = 0.01. There were no differences in mortality (cocaine-positive 1.4% vs. cocaine-negative 2.7%, P = 0.6 on both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Positive cocaine screening was not associated with mortality in TBI. An effect may not have been detected because of the low mortality rate. LOS is affected by many factors unrelated to the injury and may not be a good surrogate for recovery. Similarly, GOS may be too coarse a measure to identify a benefit.

  8. Methamphetamine Effects on Blood-Brain Barrier Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alia Northrop

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (Meth is a widely abuse psychostimulant. Traditionally, studies have focused on the neurotoxic effects of Meth on monoaminergic neurotransmitter terminals. Recently, both in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the effects of Meth on the BBB and found that Meth produces a decrease in BBB structural proteins and an increase in BBB permeability to various molecules. Moreover, preclinical studies are validated by clinical studies in which human Meth users have increased concentrations of toxins in the brain. Therefore, this review will focus on the structural and functional disruption of the BBB caused by Meth and the mechanisms that contribute to Meth-induced BBB disruption. The review will reveal that the mechanisms by which Meth damages dopamine and serotonin terminals are similar to the mechanisms by which the blood-brain barrier (BBB is damaged. Furthermore, this review will cover the factors that are known to potentiate the effects of Meth on the BBB, such as stress and HIV, both of which are co-morbid conditions associated with Meth abuse. Overall, the goal of this review is to demonstrate that the scope of damage produced by Meth goes beyond damage to monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems to include BBB disruption as well as provide a rationale for investigating therapeutics to treat Meth-induced BBB disruption. Since a breach of the BBB can have a multitude of consequences, therapies directed towards the treatment of BBB disruption may help to ameliorate the long-term neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits produced by Meth and possibly even Meth addiction.

  9. Natural killer (NK) cells inhibit systemic metastasis of glioblastoma cells and have therapeutic effects against glioblastomas in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Jeong; Kang, Won Young; Yoon, Yeup; Jin, Ju Youn; Song, Hye Jin; Her, Jung Hyun; Kang, Sang Mi; Hwang, Yu Kyeong; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-12-24

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by extensive local invasion, which is in contrast with extremely rare systemic metastasis of GBM. Molecular mechanisms inhibiting systemic metastasis of GBM would be a novel therapeutic candidate for GBM in the brain. Patient-derived GBM cells were primarily cultured from surgical samples of GBM patients and were inoculated into the brains of immune deficient BALB/c-nude or NOD-SCID IL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice. Human NK cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononucleated cells and expanded in vitro. Patient-derived GBM cells in the brains of NSG mice unexpectedly induced spontaneous lung metastasis although no metastasis was detected in BALB/c-nude mice. Based on the difference of the innate immunity between two mouse strains, NK cell activities of orthotopic GBM xenograft models based on BALB/c-nude mice were inhibited. NK cell inactivation induced spontaneous lung metastasis of GBM cells, which indicated that NK cells inhibit the systemic metastasis. In vitro cytotoxic activities of human NK cells against GBM cells indicated that cytotoxic activity of NK cells against GBM cells prevents systemic metastasis of GBM and that NK cells could be effective cell therapeutics against GBM. Accordingly, NK cells transplanted into orthotopic GBM xenograft models intravenously or intratumorally induced apoptosis of GBM cells in the brain and showed significant therapeutic effects. Our results suggest that innate NK immunity is responsible for rare systemic metastasis of GBM and that sufficient supplementation of NK cells could be a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM in the brain.

  10. Determinants of Effective Caregiver Communication After Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart-Porter, Laura; Wade, Shari; Minich, Nori; Kirkwood, Michael; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, Hudson Gerry

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the effects of caregiver mental health and coping strategies on interactions with an injured adolescent acutely after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Multi-site, cross-sectional study. Outpatient setting of 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 2 tertiary general medical centers. Adolescents (N = 125) aged 12-17 years, 1-6 months after being hospitalized with complicated mild to severe TBI. Data were collected as part of a multi-site clinical trial of family problem-solving therapy after TBI. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of caregiver and environmental characteristics to the dimensions of effective communication, warmth, and negativity during caregiver-adolescent problem-solving discussions. Adolescent and caregiver interactions, as measured by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. Caregivers who utilized problem-focused coping strategies were rated as having higher levels of effective communication (P teen interactions. Problem-focused coping strategies are associated with higher levels of effective communication and lower levels of caregiver negativity during the initial months after adolescent TBI, suggesting that effective caregiver coping may facilitate better caregiver-adolescent interactions after TBI. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of antidepressant drugs on different receptors in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, H.; Oegren, S.-O.

    1981-01-01

    Radioligand receptor binding techniques were used to characterize the effects of different structural types of antidepressant drugs on neurotransmitter receptors. The tricyclic antidepressants more or less potently inhibited the binding to rat brain preparations of several different radiolabelled ligands ([ 3 H]WB4101, [ 3 H]QNB, [ 3 H]d-LSD, [ 3 H]mepyramine). The potency of the nontricyclic antidepressants varied greatly. Mianserin, potently displaced [ 3 H]mepyramine, [ 3 H]d-LSD and [ 3 H]WB4101 while it was very weak on [ 3 H]QNB-binding. Nomifensine and the specific 5-HT uptake inhibitors zimelidine and alaproclate had very low affinity for these receptors. All the antidepressants tested were practically devoid of activity on [ 3 H]DHA binding, [ 3 H]spiroperidol binding, [ 3 H]flunitrazepam binding, [ 3 H]muscimol binding and [ 3 H]naloxone binding. The implications of these findings for biogenic amine theories of affective disorders are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the

  13. Effect of prophylactic hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation-induced brain injury after stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Takayuki; Imada, Hajime; Kohshi, Kiyotaka; Kakeda, Shingo; Ohnari, Norihiro; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita; Konda, Nobuhide; Korogi, Yukunori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for radiation-induced brain injury in patients with brain metastasis treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: The data of 78 patients presenting with 101 brain metastases treated with SRS between October 1994 and September 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 32 patients with 47 brain metastases were treated with prophylactic HBO (HBO group), which included all 21 patients who underwent subsequent or prior radiotherapy and 11 patients with common predictors of longer survival, such as inactive extracranial tumors and younger age. The other 46 patients with 54 brain metastases did not undergo HBO (non-HBO group). Radiation-induced brain injuries were divided into two categories, white matter injury (WMI) and radiation necrosis (RN), on the basis of imaging findings. Results: Radiation-induced brain injury occurred in 5 lesions (11%) in the HBO group (2 WMIs and 3 RNs) and in 11 (20%) in the non-HBO group (9 WMIs and 2 RNs). The WMI was less frequent for the HBO group than for the non-HBO group (p = 0.05), although multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that WMI was not significantly correlated with HBO (p = 0.07). The 1-year actuarial probability of WMI was significantly better for the HBO group (2%) than for the non-HBO group (36%) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed a potential value of prophylactic HBO for Radiation-induced WMIs, which justifies further evaluation to confirm its definite benefit

  14. The modulatory effect of adaptive deep brain stimulation on beta bursts in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkhauser, Gerd; Pogosyan, Alek; Little, Simon; Beudel, Martijn; Herz, Damian M; Tan, Huiling; Brown, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive deep brain stimulation uses feedback about the state of neural circuits to control stimulation rather than delivering fixed stimulation all the time, as currently performed. In patients with Parkinson's disease, elevations in beta activity (13-35 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus have been demonstrated to correlate with clinical impairment and have provided the basis for feedback control in trials of adaptive deep brain stimulation. These pilot studies have suggested that adaptive deep brain stimulation may potentially be more effective, efficient and selective than conventional deep brain stimulation, implying mechanistic differences between the two approaches. Here we test the hypothesis that such differences arise through differential effects on the temporal dynamics of beta activity. The latter is not constantly increased in Parkinson's disease, but comes in bursts of different durations and amplitudes. We demonstrate that the amplitude of beta activity in the subthalamic nucleus increases in proportion to burst duration, consistent with progressively increasing synchronization. Effective adaptive deep brain stimulation truncated long beta bursts shifting the distribution of burst duration away from long duration with large amplitude towards short duration, lower amplitude bursts. Critically, bursts with shorter duration are negatively and bursts with longer duration positively correlated with the motor impairment off stimulation. Conventional deep brain stimulation did not change the distribution of burst durations. Although both adaptive and conventional deep brain stimulation suppressed mean beta activity amplitude compared to the unstimulated state, this was achieved by a selective effect on burst duration during adaptive deep brain stimulation, whereas conventional deep brain stimulation globally suppressed beta activity. We posit that the relatively selective effect of adaptive deep brain stimulation provides a rationale for why this approach could

  15. Age-dependent effects of brain stimulation on network centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Daria; Nierhaus, Till; Meinzer, Marcus; Prehn, Kristin; Thielscher, Axel; Ittermann, Bernd; Flöel, Agnes

    2018-04-18

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that advanced age may mediate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain function. However, studies directly comparing neural tDCS effects between young and older adults are scarce and limited to task-related imaging paradigms. Resting-state (rs-) fMRI, that is independent of age-related differences in performance, is well suited to investigate age-associated differential neural tDCS effects. Three "online" tDCS conditions (anodal, cathodal, sham) were compared in a cross-over, within-subject design, in 30 young and 30 older adults. Active stimulation targeted the left sensorimotor network (active electrode over left sensorimotor cortex with right supraorbital reference electrode). A graph-based rs-fMRI data analysis approach (eigenvector centrality mapping) and complementary seed-based analyses characterized neural tDCS effects. An interaction between anodal tDCS and age group was observed. Specifically, centrality in bilateral paracentral and posterior regions (precuneus, superior parietal cortex) was increased in young, but decreased in older adults. Seed-based analyses revealed that these opposing patterns of tDCS-induced centrality modulation were explained from differential effects of tDCS on functional coupling of the stimulated left paracentral lobule. Cathodal tDCS did not show significant effects. Our study provides first evidence for differential tDCS effects on neural network organization in young and older adults. Anodal stimulation mainly affected coupling of sensorimotor with ventromedial prefrontal areas in young and decoupling with posteromedial areas in older adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Solvation effects on brain uptakes of isomers of 99mTc brain imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of electrostatic hydration free energies of the isomers of the 99mTc-BAT and 99mTc-DADT complexes is carried out using the computer simulation technique. The results show that not only a correlation exists between the logarithm of the brain uptake and the electrostatic hydration free energy for the isomers of 99mTc-brain radiopharmaceuticals, but also a linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the ratio of the brain uptake of the syn isomer to that of the anti one and the difference between the electrostatic hydration free energy of the syn-isomer and that of the anti one. Furthermore, the investigation on the important factors influencing the brain uptakes of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals and the reasons of the different biodistribution of the isomers of the 99mTc-complexes is explored at the molecular level. The results may provide a reference for the rational drug design of brain imaging agents.

  17. Effect of aging and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology on brain monoamines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Linstow, C U; Severino, M; Metaxas, A; Waider, J; Babcock, A A; Lesch, K P; Gramsbergen, J B; Finsen, B

    2017-09-01

    Aging is the greatest single risk factor of the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). The monoaminergic system, including serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulates cognition, which is affected in AD. Changes in monoamine levels have been observed in AD, but these can both be age- and/or disease-related. We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APP SWE /PS1 ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice. While, we observed no aging effect in WT mice, we detected region-specific changes in the levels of all monoamines in 18-month-old transgenic compared with WT mice. This included reductions in 5-HT (-30%), DA (-47%) and NA (-32%) levels in the neocortex and increases of 5-HT in the brainstem (+18%). No changes were observed in any of the monoamines in the neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 mice. In combination, these findings indicate that aging alone is not sufficient to affect brain monoamine levels, unlike the APP SWE /PS1 ΔE9 genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, L. S.; Axelsson, J.; Riklund, K.; Boraxbekk, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    In longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the presence of volumetric changes over time can lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the true changes in the quantified PET signal due to the partial volume effect (PVE) introduced by the limited spatial resolution of existing PET cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events from list-mode acquisitions, we investigated the artificial volume dependence of BP due to PVE, and potential bias arising from varying BP. Comparing multiple reconstruction algorithms we found that a high-resolution ordered-subsets maximization algorithm with spatially variant point-spread function resolution modeling provided the most accurate data. For striatum, the BP changed by 0.08% for every 1% volume change, but for smaller volumes such as the posterior caudate the artificial change in BP was as high as 0.7% per 1% volume change. A simple gross correction for striatal volume is unsatisfactory, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology, combined with the wall removal method, can be implemented to gain knowledge about the predictable bias introduced by the PVE differences in uptake regions of varying shape.

  19. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells.

  20. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells

  1. Is aggressive treatment of traumatic brain injury cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Robert G; Thawani, Jayesh P; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M; Sanborn, Matthew R; Stein, Sherman C

    2012-05-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether aggressive treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), including invasive intracranial monitoring and decompressive craniectomy, is cost-effective. A decision-analytical model was created to compare costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for treating a patient with severe TBI. The aggressive-care approach is compared with "routine care," in which Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines are not followed. A "comfort care" category, in which a single day in the ICU is followed by routine floor care, is included for comparison only. Probabilities of each treatment resulting in various Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were obtained from the literature. The GOS scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), based on expected longevity and calculated quality of life associated with each GOS category. Estimated direct (acute and long-term medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were calculated from the perspective of society. Sensitivity analyses employed a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 trials, each with 1000 patients. The model was also used to estimate these values for patients 40, 60, and 80 years of age. For the average 20-year-old, aggressive care yields 11.7 (± 1.6 [SD]) QALYs, compared with routine care (10.0 ± 1.5 QALYs). This difference is highly significant (p care remains significantly better at all ages. When all costs are considered, aggressive care is also significantly less costly than routine care ($1,264,000 ± $118,000 vs $1,361,000 ± $107,000) for the average 20-year-old. Aggressive care remains significantly less costly until age 80, at which age it costs more than routine care. However, even in the 80-year-old, aggressive care is likely the more cost-effective approach. Comfort care is associated with poorer outcomes at all ages and with higher costs for all groups except 80-year-olds. When all the costs of severe TBI are considered, aggressive

  2. Effect of naloxone hydrochloride on c-fos protein expression in brain and plasma beta-endorphin level in rats with diffuse brain injury and secondary brain insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie JING

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes of c-fos protein expression in brain and beta-endorphin (β-EP level in blood plasma in rats with diffuse brain injury (DBI and secondary brain insult (SBI after intraperitoneal injection of naloxone hydrochloride, and explore the role of c-fos andβ-EP in development of SBI in rats. Methods Seventy health male SD rats were enrolled in the present study and randomly divided into group A (intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% saline after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, group B (injected intraperitoneally with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, and group C (intraperitoneally injected with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and before SBI model was reproduced. The animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injury, and the number of c-fos positive cells in brain and content of β-EP in blood plasma were determined by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay respectively, the water content and number of injured neurons in brain tissue were measured by pathomorphological observation of the brain tissue. Results No significant difference was observed between group B and C for all the detection parameters. In group B and C, the water content in brain tissue at 3h and 24h was found to be decreased, while the number of injured neurons at 24h and 48h increased, number of c-fos positive cells in brain at 3h, 24h and 48h decreased, and content of β-EP in blood plasma at 3h and 24h decreased when compared with group A(P < 0.05. Conclusion Naloxone hydrochloride could decrease the c-fos expression in brain and β-EP level in blood plasma, alleviate the nerve injury, and protect neural function. The therapeutic effect of naloxone administered either after DBI and SBI or after DBI and before SBI was similar.

  3. Effect of pharmacologic resuscitation on the brain gene expression profiles in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Bambakidis, Ted; Sillesen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that addition of valproic acid (VPA; a histone deacetylase inhibitor) to hetastarch (Hextend [HEX]) resuscitation significantly decreases lesion size in a swine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, the precise mechanisms...... have not been well defined. As VPA is a transcriptional modulator, the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on brain gene expression profiles. METHODS: Swine were subjected to controlled TBI and HS (40% blood volume), kept in shock for 2 hours, and resuscitated with HEX or HEX + VPA (n = 5...... per group). Following 6 hours of observation, brain RNA was isolated, and gene expression profiles were measured using a Porcine Gene ST 1.1 microarray (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Pathway analysis was done using network analysis tools Gene Ontology, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and Parametric Gene...

  4. Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2010-06-15

    Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  5. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na+ - K+ - ATpase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain ...

  6. The somatotropic axis: Effects on brain and cognitive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Both hormones of the somatotropic axis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) can cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to their receptors in neurons and glia throughout the brain. Features of aging resemble those of GHD and aging is also associated with a decline in the

  7. Anatomically guided voxel-based partial volume effect correction in brain PET : Impact of MRI segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Assal, Frederic; Allaoua, Mohamed; Ratib, Osman; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Partial volume effect is still considered one of the main limitations in brain PET imaging given the limited spatial resolution of current generation PET scanners. The accuracy of anatomically guided partial volume effect correction (PVC) algorithms in brain PET is largely dependent on the

  8. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male but not in female patients. This sex difference explains some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked.

  9. Effects of oxycodone on brain responses to emotional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Margaret C; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Angstadt, Michael; Rabinak, Christine A; de Wit, Harriet; Phan, K Luan

    2014-11-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that opiate drugs decrease emotional responses to negative stimuli and increase responses to positive stimuli. Such emotional effects may motivate misuse of oxycodone (OXY), a widely abused opiate. Yet, we know little about how OXY affects neural circuits underlying emotional processing in humans. We examined effects of OXY on brain activity during presentation of positive and negative visual emotional stimuli. We predicted that OXY would decrease amygdala activity to negative stimuli and increase ventral striatum (VS) activity to positive stimuli. Secondarily, we examined the effects of OXY on other emotional network regions on an exploratory basis. In a three-session study, healthy adults (N = 17) received placebo, 10 and 20 mg OXY under counterbalanced, double-blind conditions. At each session, participants completed subjective and cardiovascular measures and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning while completing two emotional response tasks. Our emotional tasks reliably activated emotional network areas. OXY produced subjective effects but did not alter either behavioral responses to emotional stimuli or activity in our primary areas of interest. OXY did decrease right medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC) responses to happy faces. Contrary to our expectations, OXY did not affect behavioral or neural responses to emotional stimuli in our primary areas of interest. Further, the effects of OXY in the MOFC would be more consistent with a decrease in value for happy faces. This may indicate that healthy adults do not receive emotional benefits from opiates, or the pharmacological actions of OXY differ from other opiates.

  10. Orientation-modulated attention effect on visual evoked potential: Application for PIN system using brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilaiprasitporn, Theerawit; Yagi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    This research demonstrates the orientation-modulated attention effect on visual evoked potential. We combined this finding with our previous findings about the motion-modulated attention effect and used the result to develop novel visual stimuli for a personal identification number (PIN) application based on a brain-computer interface (BCI) framework. An electroencephalography amplifier with a single electrode channel was sufficient for our application. A computationally inexpensive algorithm and small datasets were used in processing. Seven healthy volunteers participated in experiments to measure offline performance. Mean accuracy was 83.3% at 13.9 bits/min. Encouraged by these results, we plan to continue developing the BCI-based personal identification application toward real-time systems.

  11. Effect of operating microscope light on brain temperature during craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Parthasarathi; Menon, Girish G; Suneel, Puthuvassery R

    2013-07-01

    Operating microscopes used during neurosurgery are fitted with xenon light. Burn injuries have been reported because of xenon microscope lighting as the intensity of xenon light is 300 W. We designed this study to find out if the light of operating microscope causes an increase in temperature of the brain tissue, which is exposed underneath. Twenty-one adult patients scheduled for elective craniotomies were enrolled. Distal esophageal temperature (T Eso), brain temperature under the microscope light (T Brain), and brain temperature under dura mater (T Dura) were measured continuously at 15-minute intervals during microscope use. The irrigation fluid temperature, room temperature, intensity of the microscope light, and the distance of the microscope from the brain surface were kept constant. The average age of the patients was 44±15 years (18 males and 3 females). The mean duration of microscope use was 140±39 minutes. There were no significant changes in T Brain and T Dura and T Eso over time. T Dura was significantly lower than T Brain both at time 0 and 60 minutes but not at 90 minutes. T Brain was significantly lower than T Eso both at time 0 and 60 minutes but not at 90 minutes. The T Dura remained significantly lower than T Eso at 0, 60, and 90 minutes. Our study shows that there is no significant rise in brain temperature under xenon microscope light up to 120 minutes duration, at intensity of 60% to 70%, from a distance of 20 to 25 cm from the brain surface.

  12. A Review of the Effectiveness of Neuroimaging Modalities for the Detection of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyot, Franck; Arciniegas, David B.; Brazaitis, Michael P.; Curley, Kenneth C.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Herscovitch, Peter; Hinds, Sidney R.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Razumovsky, Alexander; Riley, Jason; Salzer, Wanda; Shih, Robert; Smirniotopoulos, James G.; Stocker, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States was 3.5 million cases in 2009, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a contributing factor in 30.5% of injury-related deaths among civilians. Additionally, since 2000, more than 260,000 service members were diagnosed with TBI, with the vast majority classified as mild or concussive (76%). The objective assessment of TBI via imaging is a critical research gap, both in the military and civilian communities. In 2011, the Department of Defense (DoD) prepared a congressional report summarizing the effectiveness of seven neuroimaging modalities (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], transcranial Doppler [TCD], positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, electrophysiologic techniques [magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography], and functional near-infrared spectroscopy) to assess the spectrum of TBI from concussion to coma. For this report, neuroimaging experts identified the most relevant peer-reviewed publications and assessed the quality of the literature for each of these imaging technique in the clinical and research settings. Although CT, MRI, and TCD were determined to be the most useful modalities in the clinical setting, no single imaging modality proved sufficient for all patients due to the heterogeneity of TBI. All imaging modalities reviewed demonstrated the potential to emerge as part of future clinical care. This paper describes and updates the results of the DoD report and also expands on the use of angiography in patients with TBI. PMID:26176603

  13. Brain serotonin, psychoactive drugs, and effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, María Elena

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin, a biogenic amine, is present in significant amounts in many structures of the CNS. It is involved in regulation of a wide variety of physiological functions, such as sensory and motor functions, memory, mood, and secretion of hormones including reproductive hormones. It has also been implicated in the etiology of a range of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and eating disorders, along with other conditions such as obesity and migraine. While some drugs that affect serotonin, such as fenfluramine and fluoxetine, have been successfully used in treatment of a range of psychiatric diseases, others, such as the amphetamine analogues MDMA and METH, are potent psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Alterations in serotonergic neurons caused by many of these drugs are well characterized; however, little is known about the reproductive consequences of such alterations. This review evaluates the effects of drugs such as MDMA, pCA, fenfluramine, and fluoxetine on serotonergic transmission in the brain, examines the relationships of these drug effects with the neuroendocrine mechanisms modulating reproductive events such as gonadotropin secretion, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior in animal models, and discusses possible reproductive implications of these drugs in humans.

  14. Effects of potassium or potassium/magnesium supplementation on potassium content of body tissues and fluids in furosemide-treated rats on magnesium-deficient or magnesium-sufficient diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, W.M.; Kapeghian, J.C.; Plocinski, A.F.; Toledo, L.M.; Douglas, F.L.; Weiss, G.B. (Univ. of New Jersey, Newmark (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Persistent Mg{sup 2+} deficiency may interfere with restoration of normal tissue K{sup +} levels. This study examined: (a) the effects of chronic furosemide treatment of K{sup +} of sartorius, aorta and ventricle of rats fed Mg{sup 2+}-deficient or Mg{sup 2+} sufficient diet and deionized water; (b) whether normal tissue K{sup +} is restored by oral K{sup +} or K{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} supplementation with continued furosemide therapy. Levels of Mg{sup 2+} were also measured. Furosemide decreased K{sup +} in sartorius, aorta and ventricle by 5.5, 4.3 and 19.9 {mu}Eq/gm, respectively, in rats fed 100 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. Furosemide did not alter K{sup +} levels in rats fed 400 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. K{sup +} supplementation restored K{sup +} to normal in sartorius but the addition of Mg{sup 2+} supplementation was necessary to restore K+ levels to normal in ventricle and aorta. These data indicate that furosemide can decrease tissue K{sup +} in rats on a Mg{sup 2+}- deficient diet. This decrease can be reversed during diuretic administration by K{sup +} supplementation in sartorius, or K{sup +} plus Mg{sup 2+} supplementation in ventricle and aorta.

  15. Excitant and depressant drugs modulate effects of environment on brain weight and cholinesterases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Wu, S.Y.C.

    1973-01-01

    Certain excitant drugs can enhance the effects of enriched experience on weights of brain sections and on the activities of acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase in the brain, and certain depressants can lessen the brain weight effects. Most experiments were performed with prepubertal male rats. Some rats were exposed in groups of 12 to an enriched environmental condition (EC), usually for 2 h per day and over a 30-day period; others remained in their individual home cages (HC) throughout. Some received a drug injection and others received a saline injection before the daily EC period; HC controls received similar injections. The drug injections had no significant effects on brain values of HC rats, but they altered effects of EC, probably by influencing the animals' reactions to the environment. Methamphetamine and d-amphetamine enhanced the EC effects; metrazol had small positive effects; and strychnine was without effects. Phenobarbital depressed the brain weight effects but increased the enzymatic effects. Use of methamphetamine made it possible to find EC effects with short daily periods (30 min) or with a shortened experimental duration (15 days). In experiments with adult rats, methamphetamine did not modulate the brain weight effects. The results of this study may bear on the use of stimulants to promote recovery from brain damage.

  16. Denmark. Self-sufficiency and reserves management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erceville, H. d'.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1991, Denmark is a self-sufficient and a net petroleum and natural gas exporting country. Like all neighboring countries of the North sea, this country enjoys many advantages. However, Denmark exports and imports about a third of its hydrocarbons. This policy is a way to control its reserves for the future. (J.S.)

  17. Blue-Light Therapy following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on White Matter Water Diffusion in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Bajaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is a common and often inconspicuous wound that is frequently associated with chronic low-grade symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Previous evidence suggests that daily blue wavelength light therapy may be effective at reducing fatigue and improving sleep in patients recovering from mTBI. However, the effects of light therapy on recovering brain structure remain unexplored. In this study, we analyzed white matter diffusion properties, including generalized fractional anisotropy, and the quantity of water diffusion in isotropic (i.e., isotropic diffusion and anisotropic fashion (i.e., quantitative anisotropy, QA for fibers crossing 11 brain areas known to be significantly affected following mTBI. Specifically, we investigated how 6 weeks of daily morning blue light exposure therapy (compared to an amber-light placebo condition impacted changes in white matter diffusion in individuals with mTBI. We observed a significant impact of the blue light treatment (relative to the placebo on the amount of water diffusion (QA for multiple brain areas, including the corpus callosum, anterior corona radiata, and thalamus. Moreover, many of these changes were associated with improvements in sleep latency and delayed memory. These findings suggest that blue wavelength light exposure may serve as one of the potential non-pharmacological treatments for facilitating structural and functional recovery following mTBI; they also support the use of QA as a reliable neuro-biomarker for mTBI therapies.

  18. Proximal and distal effects of play on child compliance with a brain-injured parent.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, J M; Rushford, N

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury may experience severe cognitive and other impairments. For brain-injured parents, such deficits may be associated with child behavior problems, including noncompliance. We assessed the effects of a play period conducted by a brain-injured father on the compliance of his son, who had become uncooperative with his father after the injury. The child consistently demonstrated improved compliance during proximal and distal compliance sessions that followed father-son ...

  19. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  20. Effectiveness of Traumatic Brain Injury Management Guideline Introduction in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorinola, Abayomi; Buki, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Czeiter, Endre

    2018-01-01

    To describe the impact of the Traumatic Brain Injury management guideline introduction in Hungary. Hospital discharge records (HDR) including age, gender, codes of interventions applied, ICD codes of diagnosed disorders of patients admitted between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2010 with the diagnosis of intracranial injury (S06 by ICD10) from every inpatient institution in Hungary were collected from the database of National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). The Case Fatality Ratios (CFR) for one week, one month and six months were calculated for the periods before and after the guideline introduction. The change of CFRs was applied as indicators for change of clinical quality elicited by the guideline. The centers together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 23.4%, 37.7% and 47.5% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 22.1%, 39.1%, and 50.0% respectively. The secondary institutions together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.5%, 34.8% and 46.3% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.9%, 37.0%, and 48.9% respectively. None of the CFRs showed significant change. The effectiveness of TBI management guideline adaptation in Hungary is poor. Without supportive financing and external auditing system, guideline introduction alone cannot achieve standard clinical practice and a reduction in CFR.

  1. Radiation effect on oligodendroglial lineage cells of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dahai; Tianye

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a important treatment method for primary and metastatic cancers in the brain. How-ever, a high dose of radiation always leads to the brain injury. A representative pathological manifest of the radiation-induced brain impairment is demyelination. Therefore oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system, have been focused more attention recently. Oligodendrocytes originate from the migratory, mitotic progenitors and mature progressively into postmitotic myelinating cells. Recent years, a series of studies have been initiated to address the role of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in radiation-induced neurotoxic processes. This article pays attention to these studies, aiming to explore mechanisms of the radiation-induced brain impairment. (authors)

  2. Effect of propolis consumption on hepatotoxicity and brain damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... histological changes. Also, CPF caused significant decrease in the activity of serum and brain ... animals by esophageal intubation, and propolis was obtained from. Superior Nutrition ... The change in extinction coefficient was ...

  3. Inhibitory effect of MgSO4 on calcium overload after radiation-induced brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Yu; Zhou Yuying; Wang Lili

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the neuroprotective effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: A total of 60 mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental therapy group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental therapy group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electrons. Magnesium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental therapy group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points (24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 30 days after irradiation), the brain tissue was taken. Plasma direct reading spectrography was used to measure the contents of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ in brain tissue, and the percentage of brain water content was calculated with the wet-dry weight formula. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the percentage of brain water and content of Ca 2+ in brain of the experimental control group increased markedly (P 2+ decreased significantly (P 2+ in brain of the experimental therapy group were significantly lower than those of the experimental control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate used in the early stage after irradiation can inhibit the calcium overload in rat brain , and attenuate brain edema and injuries. (authors)

  4. BDNF and BMI effects on brain structures of bipolar offspring: results from the global mood and brain science initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, R B; Brietzke, E; McIntyre, R S; Cao, B; Lee, Y; Japiassú, L; Chen, K; Lu, R; Lu, W; Li, T; Xu, G; Lin, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and healthy controls (HCs) and investigate the effects of BDNF levels and body mass index (BMI) on brain structures. Sixty-seven bipolar offspring and 45 HCs were included (ages 8-28). Structural images were acquired using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Serum BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted. Significantly higher BDNF levels were observed among bipolar offspring, relative to HCs (P > 0.025). Offspring status moderated the association between BDNF and BMI (F 1 =4.636, P = 0.034). After adjustment for relevant covariates, there was a trend for a significant interaction of group and BDNF on neuroimaging parameters (Wilks'λ F 56,94 =1.463, P = 0.052), with significant effects on cerebellar white matter and superior and middle frontal regions. Brain volume and BDNF were positively correlated among HCs and negatively correlated among bipolar offspring. Interactions between BDNF and BMI on brain volumes were non-significant among HCs (Wilks'λ F 28,2 =2.229, P = 0.357), but significant among bipolar offspring (Wilks'λ F 28,12 =2.899, P = 0.028). Offspring status and BMI moderate the association between BDNF levels and brain structures among bipolar offspring, underscoring BDNF regulation and overweight/obesity as key moderators of BD pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Deep-brain electrical microstimulation is an effective tool to explore functional characteristics of somatosensory neurons in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Jia Jiang

    Full Text Available In neurophysiology researches, peripheral stimulation is used along with recordings of neural activities to study the processing of somatosensory signals in the brain. However, limited precision of peripheral stimulation makes it difficult to activate the neuron with millisecond resolution and study its functional properties in this scale. Also, tissue/receptor damage that could occur in some experiments often limits the amount of responses that can be recorded and hence reduces data reproducibility. To overcome these limitations, electrical microstimulation (ES of the brain could be used to directly and more precisely evoke neural responses. For this purpose, a deep-brain ES protocol for rat somatosensory relay neurons was developed in this study. Three male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The ES was applied to the thalamic region responsive to hindpaw tactile stimulation (TS via a theta glass microelectrode. The resulting ES-evoked cortical responses showed action potentials and thalamocortical relay latencies very similar to those evoked by TS. This result shows that the developed deep-brain ES protocol is an effective tool to bypass peripheral tissue for in vivo functional analysis of specific types of somatosensory neurons. This protocol could be readily applied in researches of nociception and other somatosensory systems to allow more extensive exploration of the neural functional networks.

  6. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  7. Understanding the biophysical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on brain tissue: the bridge between brain stimulation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Petrov, Petar I; Mandija, Stefano; Sommer, Iris E C; van den Berg, Nico A T

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly being adopted in neuroscience, medicine, psychology, and biology, for basic research purposes, diagnosis, and therapy. However, a coherent picture of how TMS affects neuronal processing, and especially how this in turn influences behavior, is still largely unavailable despite several studies that investigated aspects of the underlying neurophysiological effects of TMS. Perhaps as a result from this "black box approach," TMS studies show a large interindividual variability in applied paradigms and TMS treatment outcome can be quite variable, hampering its general efficacy and introduction into the clinic. A better insight into the biophysical, neuronal, and cognitive mechanisms underlying TMS is crucial in order to apply it effectively in the clinic and to increase our understanding of brain-behavior relationship. Therefore, computational and experimental efforts have been started recently to understand and control the effect TMS has on neuronal functioning. Especially, how the brain shapes magnetic fields induced by a TMS coil, how currents are generated locally in the cortical surface, and how they interact with complex functional neuronal circuits within and between brain areas are crucial to understand the observed behavioral changes and potential therapeutic effects resulting from TMS. Here, we review the current knowledge about the biophysical underpinnings of single-pulse TMS and argue how to move forward to fully understand and exploit the powerful technique that TMS can be. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Marijuana effects on changes in brain structure and cognitive function among HIV+ and HIV- adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Kuhn, Taylor P; Williamson, Timothy J; Jones, Jacob D; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Hammond, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of HIV and marijuana (MJ) use on brain structure and cognitive function among a sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. Participants (HIV+, n=48; HIV-, n=29) individuals underwent cognitive testing, questionnaires about substance use, and brain MRI. The HIV+ group was clinically stable based upon current plasma CD4 count, 50% had undetectable viral load (i.e.,brain structure and cognition. However, our results do not support that HIV+ MJ users are at greater risk for adverse brain or cognitive outcomes compared to HIV- MJ users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is primary care access to CT brain examinations effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamore, R.E.; Wright, D.; Britton, I.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia

  10. Is primary care access to CT brain examinations effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamore, R.E. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rachelbenamore@doctors.org.uk; Wright, D. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom); Britton, I. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia.

  11. Error Bounds: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Kruger, A.Y.; Fabian, Marián; Henrion, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 121-149 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Error bounds * Calmness * Subdifferential * Slope Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-error bounds necessary and sufficient conditions.pdf

  12. The Army Ethic-Inchoate but Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    are constraints imposed by this thesis. Delimitations include the scope, jus ad bellum, cultural relativism , descriptive ethics , and implementation...politicians. Third, this thesis will not look in depth at cultural relativism and how changes in laws and society’s philosophical and ethical ...THE ARMY ETHIC –INCHOATE BUT SUFFICIENT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

  13. The effects of chronic stress on the human brain: From neurotoxicity, to vulnerability, to opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, Sonia J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France

    2018-04-01

    For the last five decades, science has managed to delineate the mechanisms by which stress hormones can impact on the human brain. Receptors for glucocorticoids are found in the hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex, three brain regions involved in memory processing and emotional regulation. Studies have shown that chronic exposure to stress is associated with reduced volume of the hippocampus and that chronic stress can modulate volumes of both the amygdala and frontal cortex, suggesting neurotoxic effects of stress hormones on the brain. Yet, other studies report that exposure to early adversity and/or familial/social stressors can increase vulnerability to stress in adulthood. Models have been recently developed to describe the roles that neurotoxic and vulnerability effects can have on the developing brain. These models suggest that developing early stress interventions could potentially counteract the effects of chronic stress on the brain and results going along with this hypothesis are summarized. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  15. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  16. Effects of diets containing unripe plantain diet on brain serotonin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of plantain-containing mouse diet on brain serotonin mice was investigated in mice. Thirty adult Swiss mice were divided into three groups of ten each and fed normal rodent chow containing 0%, 50% and 100% unripe plantain. After thirty days, the brain levels of 5-HT and 5-HTP were measured using ...

  17. Effect of cadmium on lipid metabolism of brain. In vivo incorporation of labelled acetate into lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, S; Gill, K D; Nath, R

    1987-01-01

    The effect of early postnatal cadmium exposure on the in vivo incorporation of (1-/sup 14/C) sodium acetate into various lipid classes of the weanling rat brain was studied. A stimulated incorporation of the label was observed in total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, cerebrosides and sulphatides of the brain of Cd-exposed animals compared to controls.

  18. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  19. Inferencing Processes after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Effects of Contextual Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Comprehension deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have been attributed to an inability to use context, but there is little direct evidence to support the claim. This study evaluated the effect of varying contextual bias on predictive inferencing by adults with RHD. Method: Fourteen adults with no brain damage…

  20. Pharmacologic Effects in vivo in Brain by Vector-Mediated Peptide Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Ulrich; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Landaw, Elliot M.; Faull, Kym F.; Pardridge, William M.

    1993-04-01

    Pharmacologic effects in brain caused by systemic administration of neuropeptides are prevented by poor transport of the peptide through the brain vascular endothelium, which comprises the blood-brain barrier in vivo. In the present study, successful application of a chimeric peptide approach to enhance drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier for the purpose of achieving a central nervous system pharmacologic effect is described. The chimeric peptide was formed by linkage of a potent vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue, which had been monobiotinylated, to a drug transport vector. The vector consisted of a covalent conjugate of avidin and the OX26 monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor. Owing to the high concentration of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelia, OX26 targets brain and undergoes receptor-mediated transcytosis through the blood-brain barrier. Systemic infusion of low doses (12 μg/kg) of the VIP chimeric peptide in rats resulted in an in vivo central nervous system pharmacologic effect: a 65% increase in cerebral blood flow. Biotinylated VIP analogue without the brain transport vector was ineffective.

  1. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  2. Effect of chronic hypoglycaemia on glucose concentration and glycogen content in rat brain: a localized 13C NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    While chronic hypoglycaemia has been reported to increase unidirectional glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to increase GLUT1 expression at the endothelium, the effect on steady-state brain d-glucose and brain glycogen content is currently unknown. Brain glucose and glycogen concentrations were directly measured in vivo using localized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) following 12-14 days of hypoglycaemia. Brain glucose content was significantly increased by 4...

  3. Effects of intracarotid ioxaglate on the normal blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, J.; Sage, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Using two different models, the effect on the blood-brain barrier of intracarotid injections of sodium/meglumine ioxaglate at similar iodine concentrations (280 mgI/ml) was investigated. In both models the degree of blood-brain barrier damage was assessed visually using Evans' Blue stain. Quantitative assessment of blood-brain barrier disruption was made by contrast enhancement as measured by CT of the dog brain, and by 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake by the brain in the rabbit model. No Evans' Blue staining was observed in any study using the canine/CT model. Slight staining was observed in two studies with ioxaglate using the rabbit/pertechnetate model. Statistical analysis of results from the canine/CT model did not detect any damage to the blood-brain barrier with either ioxaglate or saline control studies (P>0.1). However, in the rabbit/pertechnetate model a slight increase in disruption of the blood-brain barrier was observed with ioxaglate compared with control studies, but this was only significant at the 0.1 level. The results suggest that the rabbit/pertechnetate model is a more sensitive measure of blood-brain barrier disruption than the canine/CT model. This study also demonstrates that blood-brain barrier disruption following intracarotid injection of ioxaglate is minimal. (orig.)

  4. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  5. Energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The study is not an engineering analysis but begins the process of exploring the potential for conservation and local renewable-resource development in a specific community, Northampton, Massachusetts, with the social, institutional, and environmental factors in that community taken into account. Section I is an extensive executive summary of the full study, and Section II is a detailed examination of the potential for increased local energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, including current and future demand estimates, the possible role of conservation and renewable resources, and a discussion of the economic and social implications of alternative energy systems. (MOW)

  6. Effects of Insulin on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Nesterov, Sergey V.; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism, but this effect of insulin is already maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects. It is not known whether insulin is able to stimulate glucose metabolism above fasting concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of insulin on brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in 13 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and nine healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). All subjects underwent PET with both [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for brain glucose metabolism) and [15O]H2O (for cerebral blood flow) in two separate conditions (in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Arterial blood samples were acquired during the PET scans to allow fully quantitative modeling. RESULTS The hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism only in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (whole brain: +18%, P = 0.001) but not in healthy subjects (whole brain: +3.9%, P = 0.373). The hyperinsulinemic clamp did not alter cerebral blood flow in either group. CONCLUSIONS We found that insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism at physiological postprandial levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance but not in healthy subjects. These results suggest that insulin stimulation of brain glucose metabolism is maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects but not in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21270256

  7. Resting state functional MRI in Parkinson's disease: the impact of deep brain stimulation on 'effective' connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Joshua; Urner, Maren; Moran, Rosalyn; Flandin, Guillaume; Marreiros, Andre; Mancini, Laura; White, Mark; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl; Foltynie, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Depleted of dopamine, the dynamics of the parkinsonian brain impact on both 'action' and 'resting' motor behaviour. Deep brain stimulation has become an established means of managing these symptoms, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Non-invasive characterizations of induced brain responses, and the effective connectivity underlying them, generally appeals to dynamic causal modelling of neuroimaging data. When the brain is at rest, however, this sort of characterization has been limited to correlations (functional connectivity). In this work, we model the 'effective' connectivity underlying low frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in the resting Parkinsonian motor network-disclosing the distributed effects of deep brain stimulation on cortico-subcortical connections. Specifically, we show that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation modulates all the major components of the motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop, including the cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical, direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways, and the hyperdirect subthalamic nucleus projections. The strength of effective subthalamic nucleus afferents and efferents were reduced by stimulation, whereas cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical and direct pathways were strengthened. Remarkably, regression analysis revealed that the hyperdirect, direct, and basal ganglia afferents to the subthalamic nucleus predicted clinical status and therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation; however, suppression of the sensitivity of the subthalamic nucleus to its hyperdirect afferents by deep brain stimulation may subvert the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation. Our findings highlight the distributed effects of stimulation on the resting motor network and provide a framework for analysing effective connectivity in resting state functional MRI with strong a priori hypotheses.

  8. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  9. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The gap junction plays an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and stressed cells to the neighboring viable cells. The present study was performed to investigate the important role of gap junction communication on rabbits' explosive brain injury. Methods: Explosion of paper ...

  10. Effects of Age on Brain Development in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Total brain volumes were measured by MRI in 67 non-mentally retarded children with autism and 83 healthy controls, aged 8 to 46 years, in a study at University of Washington, Seattle: Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore: and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA.

  11. The effects of aluminium and selenium supplementation on brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This in vivo study was designed to investigate the potential of aluminium (Al), in the absence of added iron, to participate in either antioxidant or pro-oxidant events. Some markers of oxidative stress were determined in liver and brain of rats exposed to aluminium lactate, either alone or in the presence of dietary supplements ...

  12. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Blood Brain Barrier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Persson, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    ...) in the 91 5-2450 MHz range on the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in rats. Male and female Fischer rats were exposed to continuous wave or pulse-modulated EMF, with different pulse powers and times up to 960 minutes...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Effect on Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Stacy B.

    2012-01-01

    Over one million people suffer a traumatic brain injury every year, many of whom are students between the ages of 5 and 18. Using a qualitative case study approach, I wanted to discover the specific factors that both impede and help the school re-entry process for students in grades kindergarten through twelve so that these students can return to…

  14. Effects of dissolucytotic gold ions on recovering brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Larsen, Agnete

    2010-04-01

    Recent experimental research has shown that metallic gold releases charged gold atoms when placed intracerebrally and that the liberated gold ions affect inflammation in the brain. The observations suggest that metallic gold can be used as a safe suppressor of inflammation in the central nervous system.

  15. Effect of Teaching Using Whole Brain Instruction on Accounting Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Tze; Hung, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    McCarthy (1985) constructed the 4MAT teaching model, an eight step instrument developed in 1980, by synthesizing Dewey's experiential learning, Kolb's four learning styles, Jung's personality types, as well as Bogen's left mode and right mode of brain processing preferences. An important implication of this model is that learning retention is…

  16. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  17. Estimation of effective brain connectivity with dual Kalman filter and EEG source localization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabioun, Mehdi; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-09-01

    Effective connectivity is one of the most important considerations in brain functional mapping via EEG. It demonstrates the effects of a particular active brain region on others. In this paper, a new method is proposed which is based on dual Kalman filter. In this method, firstly by using a brain active localization method (standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) and applying it to EEG signal, active regions are extracted, and appropriate time model (multivariate autoregressive model) is fitted to extracted brain active sources for evaluating the activity and time dependence between sources. Then, dual Kalman filter is used to estimate model parameters or effective connectivity between active regions. The advantage of this method is the estimation of different brain parts activity simultaneously with the calculation of effective connectivity between active regions. By combining dual Kalman filter with brain source localization methods, in addition to the connectivity estimation between parts, source activity is updated during the time. The proposed method performance has been evaluated firstly by applying it to simulated EEG signals with interacting connectivity simulation between active parts. Noisy simulated signals with different signal to noise ratios are used for evaluating method sensitivity to noise and comparing proposed method performance with other methods. Then the method is applied to real signals and the estimation error during a sweeping window is calculated. By comparing proposed method results in different simulation (simulated and real signals), proposed method gives acceptable results with least mean square error in noisy or real conditions.

  18. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2015-08-05

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF-interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by "retention" of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on brainwide transport of inert

  19. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus Stereotactic Radiosurgery with Upfront Whole Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Rajagopalan, M S; Beriwal, S; Smith, K J

    2017-10-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone or upfront whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) plus SRS are the most commonly used treatment options for one to three brain oligometastases. The most recent randomised clinical trial result comparing SRS alone with upfront WBRT plus SRS (NCCTG N0574) has favoured SRS alone for neurocognitive function, whereas treatment options remain controversial in terms of cognitive decline and local control. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of these two competing treatments. A Markov model was constructed for patients treated with SRS alone or SRS plus upfront WBRT based on largely randomised clinical trials. Costs were based on 2016 Medicare reimbursement. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Strategies were evaluated from the healthcare payer's perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY gained. In the base case analysis, the median survival was 9 months for both arms. SRS alone resulted in an ICER of $9917 per QALY gained. In one-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation in cognitive decline rates for both groups and median survival rates, but the SRS alone remained cost-effective for most parameter ranges. Based on the current available evidence, SRS alone was found to be cost-effective for patients with one to three brain metastases compared with upfront WBRT plus SRS. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  1. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-07-01

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The Effect of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive on Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2005-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  3. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although considerable data show that sleep deprivation alters many aspects of behavior, little is known about changes in the brain substrate underlying the behavioral effects, and even less is known...

  4. Effect of ephedrine and phenylephrine on brain oxygenation and microcirculation in anaesthetised patients with cerebral tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Klaus Ulrik; Tietze, Anna; Aanerud, Joel

    2017-01-01

    extraction fraction. Surgery is initiated after MRI/PET measurements and subdural intracranial pressure is measured. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Central Denmark Region Committee on Health Research Ethics (12 June 2015; 1-10-72-116-15). Results will be disseminated via peer......INTRODUCTION: During brain tumour surgery, vasopressor drugs are commonly administered to increase mean arterial blood pressure with the aim of maintaining sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure. Studies of the commonly used vasopressors show that brain oxygen saturation is reduced after......, anaesthetised patients will be randomised to receive either phenylephrine or ephedrine infusion until mean arterial blood pressure increases to above 60 mm Hg or 20% above baseline. Twenty-four patients were allocated to MRI and another 24 patients to PET examination. MRI measurements include cerebral blood...

  5. Fetal guinea pig brain 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase: Ontogeny and effect of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treissman, D.; Brien, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ontogeny of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-OH-PGDH) activity in the brain of the fetal guinea pig and to test the hypothesis that acute in vitro ethanol exposure produces concentration-dependent inhibition of fetal brain 15-OH-PGDH activity. Enzyme activity was determined in vitro by measuring the rate of oxidation of PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2 using an optimized radiometric procedure. The study was conducted utilizing the whole brain of the fetal guinea pig at mean gestational ages of 34, 43 and 62 days (term, about 66 days) and the brain stem (pons and medulla) of the fetal guinea pig at mean gestational ages of 43 and 62 days. The direct effect of acute in vitro exposure to ethanol was assessed by incubating 15-OH-PGDH with ethanol in the concentration range of 10 to 80 mM. 15-OH-PGDH was measurable in the whole brain and brain stem, and the enzyme activity was similar for the gestational ages examined. There was no significant ethanol-induced inhibition of 15-OH-PGDH activity in the whole brain or brain stem. The data demonstrate that the whole brain and brain stem of the fetal guinea pig have the capacity to metabolize PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2, an inactive metabolite, during the second half of gestation. The data apparently are not consistent with the hypothesis that acute in vitro exposure to ethanol directly inhibits 15-OH-PGDH activity in fetal brain

  6. Skull and cerebrospinal fluid effects on microwave radiation propagation in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Zarei, M.; Akhlaghipour, N.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of microwave absorption distribution in the human brain is necessary for the detection of brain tumors using thermo-acoustic imaging and for removing them using hyperthermia treatment. In contrast to ionizing radiation, hyperthermia treatment can be applied to remove tumors inside the brain without the concern of including secondary malignancies, which typically form from the neuronal cells of the septum pellucidum. The aim of this study is to determine the microwave absorption distribution in an adult human brain and to study the effects of skull and cerebrospinal fluid on the propagation of microwave radiation inside the brain. To this end, we simulate the microwave absorption distribution in a realistic adult brain model (Colin 27) using the mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC) method. This is because in spite of there being other numerical methods, the MMC does not require a large memory, even for complicated geometries, and its algorithm is simple and easy to implement with low computational cost. The brain model is constructed using high-resolution (1 mm isotropic voxel) and low noise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and its volume contains 181×217×181 voxels, covering the brain completely. Using the MMC method, the radiative transport equation is solved and the absorbed microwave energy distribution in different brain regions is obtained without any fracture or anomaly. The simulation results show that the skull and cerebrospinal fluid guide the microwave radiation and suppress its penetration through deep brain compartments as a shielding factor. These results reveal that the MMC can be used to predict the amount of required energy to increase the temperature inside the tumour during hyperthermia treatment. Our results also show why a deep tumour inside an adult human brain cannot be efficiently treated using hyperthermia treatment. Finally, the accuracy of the presented numerical method is verified using the signal flow graph technique.

  7. Effects Of Amitryptilin Administration on Rat Sera and Brain Beta-endorphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish the influence of antidepressive drugs on serum and brain beta-endorphins in experimental animals. Experiment was performed on albino Wistar rats. Antidepressant amitryptiline was used, and for quantification of sera and brain beta-endorphins RIA technique. Our results showed difference between sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration in amitryptiline pretreated animals, vs. those in serum and brain of control group treated with 0.95% NaCl. This study shows that use of psychoactive drugs have influence on sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration. Beta-endorphins could be of great importance, used as markers for evaluation of antidepressant drug effects.

  8. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  9. Ideal energy self-sufficient bioclimatic house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1990-04-01

    This paper points out some of the interesting architectural features of a conceptual house being designed to be self-sufficient relative to the use of conventional energy sources. Brief notes are given on the following special design characteristics: the house's orientation and form - essentially a V - shaped two storey design with an orientation such as to maximize the surface area exposed to winter insolation; its special low emissivity glazing equipped with nightfall insulating screens; the adoption of maximized insulation, in which case cost benefits were assessed based on amortization over the entire life span of the house; hybrid space heating and ventilation systems involving the integration of pumps and ventilators for air circulation, and the use of a varied mix of active and passive solar heating and cooling systems.

  10. Effects of sevoflurane on adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Changdong; Yang Jianping; Dai Tijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on c adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE) activity in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of rats, and to examine the role of cAMP in sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Fourty SD rats were delaminately designed and allocated randomly to 5 groups inhaling 1.5% sevoflurane i.e., no recovery (recovery group, n=8) and one hour after righting reflexrecovery (aware group, n=8). The brain tissues were rapidly dissected into cerebrocortex and hippocampus and brain stem.Then the adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity were assessed. Results: So far as the activity of AC is concerned, compared with the control group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem brain stem of induction group and anesthesia group, the cerebrocortex, and hippocampus in the recovery group were significantly increased; compared with those in the anesthesia group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of aware group were significantly decreased (P<0.05); For the activity of PDE, compared with the control group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem in the induction group and anesthesia group was significantly decreased, compared with that in anesthesia group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of recovery group and aware group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: cAMP may play an important role in sevoflurane anesthesia. (authors)

  11. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Simonsen, Mette; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine, and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into glutamine in all tissues. It did not affect alanine concentrations in any of the tissues but plasma alanine concentration increased; incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into alanine was increased in brain in sham and BDL rats and in kidney in sham rats. It inhibited GS in all tissues examined but only in brain was an increased incorporation of (15)N-ammonia into alanine observed. Liver and kidney were important for metabolizing blood-borne ammonia.

  12. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Li, X. Allen; El Naqa, Issam; Hahn, Carol A.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of 80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (≥2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of ≥18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury Has Not Prominent Effects on Cardiopulmonary Indices of Rat after 24 Hours: Hemodynamic, Histopathology, and Biochemical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Najafipour, Hamid; Siahposht Khachaki, Ali; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Joukar, Siyavash; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accidents are the second reason for mortality and morbidity in Iran. Among them, brain injuries are the most important damage. Clarification of the effects of brain injuries on different body systems will help physicians to prioritize their treatment strategies. In this study, the effect of pure brain trauma on the cardiovascular system and lungs 24 hours post trauma was assessed. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into sham control and traumatic brain injury (TBI) gr...

  14. Evaluation on therapeutic effect of de-compressive craniectomies for patients with diffuse brain swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Sanchao; Zhang Changrong; Zuo Yi; Zhou Xiaowei; Li Jian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of de-compressive craniectomies in acute traumatic patients with diffuse brain swelling. Methods: 23 patients with acute posttraumatic diffuse brain swelling admitted and confirmed by X-CT were randomly treated by surgical de-compressive craniectomies (operative group). Their treated results were compared with those of another 11 patients treated conservatively (non-operative group) at the same period. Results: The mortality rate was similar in both operative and nonoperative groups. Conclusion: The de-compressive craniectomy operation has no value and not valid for treatment of acute posttraumatic diffuse brain swelling

  15. Postmortem magnetic resonance images of the injured brain: effective evidence in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L S

    1991-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the whole, formalin-fixed brain produce details of pathologic changes deep within brain substance not apparent on external examination. Photographs of these radiographic images present pathologic features in a black-and-white, 2-dimensional format which has proven particularly effective in court before judge and jury. This pathologist has noted acceptance of such photographs in explaining to jurors the details of his testimony in selected cases where brain trauma resulted in a wrongful death. Penetrating missile wounds and blunt impact injuries are particularly well documented by this method.

  16. Interpretability of Multivariate Brain Maps in Linear Brain Decoding: Definition, and Heuristic Quantification in Multivariate Analysis of MEG Time-Locked Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Vega Pons, Sandro; Weisz, Nathan; Passerini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Brain decoding is a popular multivariate approach for hypothesis testing in neuroimaging. Linear classifiers are widely employed in the brain decoding paradigm to discriminate among experimental conditions. Then, the derived linear weights are visualized in the form of multivariate brain maps to further study spatio-temporal patterns of underlying neural activities. It is well known that the brain maps derived from weights of linear classifiers are hard to interpret because of high correlations between predictors, low signal to noise ratios, and the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. Therefore, improving the interpretability of brain decoding approaches is of primary interest in many neuroimaging studies. Despite extensive studies of this type, at present, there is no formal definition for interpretability of multivariate brain maps. As a consequence, there is no quantitative measure for evaluating the interpretability of different brain decoding methods. In this paper, first, we present a theoretical definition of interpretability in brain decoding; we show that the interpretability of multivariate brain maps can be decomposed into their reproducibility and representativeness. Second, as an application of the proposed definition, we exemplify a heuristic for approximating the interpretability in multivariate analysis of evoked magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Third, we propose to combine the approximated interpretability and the generalization performance of the brain decoding into a new multi-objective criterion for model selection. Our results, for the simulated and real MEG data, show that optimizing the hyper-parameters of the regularized linear classifier based on the proposed criterion results in more informative multivariate brain maps. More importantly, the presented definition provides the theoretical background for quantitative evaluation of interpretability, and hence, facilitates the development of more effective brain decoding algorithms

  17. A simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluating the effect of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, Kyle, E-mail: saylor@vt.edu; Zhang, Chenming, E-mail: chzhang2@vt.edu

    2016-09-15

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans. Successful construction of both rat and human models was achieved by fitting model outputs to published nicotine concentration time course data in the blood and in the brain. Key parameters presumed to have the most effect on the ability of these antibodies to prevent nicotine from entering the brain were selected for investigation using the human model. These parameters, which included antibody affinity for nicotine, antibody cross-reactivity with cotinine, and antibody concentration, were broken down into different, clinically-derived in silico treatment levels and fed into the human PBPK model. Model predictions suggested that all three parameters, in addition to smoking status, have a sizable impact on anti-nicotine antibodies' ability to prevent nicotine from entering the brain and that the antibodies elicited by current human vaccines do not have sufficient binding characteristics to reduce brain nicotine concentrations. If the antibody binding characteristics achieved in animal studies can similarly be achieved in human studies, however, nicotine vaccine efficacy in terms of brain nicotine concentration reduction is predicted to meet threshold values for alleviating nicotine dependence. - Highlights: • Modelling of nicotine disposition in the presence of anti-nicotine antibodies • Key vaccine efficacy factors are evaluated in silico in rats and in humans. • Model predicts insufficient antibody binding in past human nicotine vaccines. • Improving immunogenicity and antibody specificity may lead to vaccine success.

  18. A simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluating the effect of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, Kyle; Zhang, Chenming

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans. Successful construction of both rat and human models was achieved by fitting model outputs to published nicotine concentration time course data in the blood and in the brain. Key parameters presumed to have the most effect on the ability of these antibodies to prevent nicotine from entering the brain were selected for investigation using the human model. These parameters, which included antibody affinity for nicotine, antibody cross-reactivity with cotinine, and antibody concentration, were broken down into different, clinically-derived in silico treatment levels and fed into the human PBPK model. Model predictions suggested that all three parameters, in addition to smoking status, have a sizable impact on anti-nicotine antibodies' ability to prevent nicotine from entering the brain and that the antibodies elicited by current human vaccines do not have sufficient binding characteristics to reduce brain nicotine concentrations. If the antibody binding characteristics achieved in animal studies can similarly be achieved in human studies, however, nicotine vaccine efficacy in terms of brain nicotine concentration reduction is predicted to meet threshold values for alleviating nicotine dependence. - Highlights: • Modelling of nicotine disposition in the presence of anti-nicotine antibodies • Key vaccine efficacy factors are evaluated in silico in rats and in humans. • Model predicts insufficient antibody binding in past human nicotine vaccines. • Improving immunogenicity and antibody specificity may lead to vaccine success.

  19. Melatonin in Pregnancy: Effects on Brain Development and CNS Programming Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrillo-Fagundes, Lucas; Assunção Salustiano, Eugênia Maria; Yen, Philippe Wong; Soliman, Ahmed; Vaillancourt, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is an important neuroprotective factor and its receptors are expressed in the fetal brain. During normal pregnancy, maternal melatonin level increases progressively until term and is highly transferred to the fetus, with an important role in brain formation and differentiation. Maternal melatonin provides the first circadian signal to the fetus. This indolamine is also produced de novo and plays a protective role in the human placenta. In pregnancy disorders, both maternal and placental melatonin levels are decreased. Alteration in maternal melatonin level has been associated with disrupted brain programming with long-term effects. Melatonin has strong antioxidant protective effects directly and indirectly via the activation of its receptors. The fetal brain is highly susceptible to oxygenation variation and oxidative stress that can lead to neuronal development disruption. Based on that, several approaches have been tested as a treatment in case of pregnancy disorders and melatonin, through its neuroprotective effect, has been recently accepted against fetal brain injury. This review provides an overview about the protective effects of melatonin during pregnancy and on fetal brain development.

  20. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Gunal, M Yalcin; Ayturk, Nilufer; Kilic, Ulkan; Ozansoy, Mehmet; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence exists that enoxaparin can reduce brain injury because of its anticoagulant activity. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury, at 20 minutes after modeling, male BALB/c mouse models of cold-induced traumatic brain injury were intraperitoneally administered 3 and 10 mg/kg enoxaparin or isotonic saline solution. Twenty-four hours later, enoxaparin at 10 mg/kg greatly reduced infarct volume, decreased cell apoptosis in the cortex and obviously increased serum level of total antioxidant status. By contrast, administration of enoxaparin at 3 mg/kg did not lead to these changes. These findings suggest that enoxaparin exhibits neuroprotective effect on cold-induced traumatic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Effect of Experimental Thyrotoxicosis on Brain Gray Matter: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Hyper-as well hypothyroidism have an effect on behavior and brain function. Moreover, during development thyroid hormones influence brain structure. This study aimed to demonstrate an effect of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on brain gray matter in healthy adult humans. High-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired in 29 healthy young subjects prior to as well as after receiving 250 µg of T4 per day for 8 weeks. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8). Laboratory testing confirmed the induction of hyperthyroidism. In the hyperthyroid condition, gray matter volumes were increased in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VI) and decreased in the bilateral visual cortex and anterior cerebellum (lobules I-IV) compared to the euthyroid condition. Our study provides evidence that short periods of hyperthyroidism induce distinct alterations in brain structures of cerebellar regions that have been associated with sensorimotor functions as well as working memory in the literature.

  2. Guess LOD approach: sufficient conditions for robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J A; Amos, C I

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of genetic linkage between a disease and a marker locus requires specifying a genetic model describing both the inheritance pattern and the gene frequencies of the marker and trait loci. Misspecification of the genetic model is likely for etiologically complex diseases. In previous work we have shown through analytic studies that misspecifying the genetic model for disease inheritance does not lead to excess false-positive evidence for genetic linkage provided the genetic marker alleles of all pedigree members are known, or can be inferred without bias from the data. Here, under various selection or ascertainment schemes we extend these previous results to situations in which the genetic model for the marker locus may be incorrect. We provide sufficient conditions for the asymptotic unbiased estimation of the recombination fraction under the null hypothesis of no linkage, and also conditions for the limiting distribution of the likelihood ratio test for no linkage to be chi-squared. Through simulation studies we document some situations under which asymptotic bias can result when the genetic model is misspecified. Among those situations under which an excess of false-positive evidence for genetic linkage can be generated, the most common is failure to provide accurate estimates of the marker allele frequencies. We show that in most cases false-positive evidence for genetic linkage is unlikely to result solely from the misspecification of the genetic model for disease or trait inheritance.

  3. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in phospholipids or triglycerides on brain DHA uptake and accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alex P; Metherel, Adam H; Chen, Chuck T; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Berger, Alvin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-07-01

    Tracer studies suggest that phospholipid DHA (PL-DHA) more effectively targets the brain than triglyceride DHA (TAG-DHA), although the mechanism and whether this translates into higher brain DHA concentrations are not clear. Rats were gavaged with [U-(3)H]PL-DHA and [U-(3)H]TAG-DHA and blood sampled over 6h prior to collection of brain regions and other tissues. In another experiment, rats were supplemented for 4weeks with TAG-DHA (fish oil), PL-DHA (roe PL) or a mixture of both for comparison to a low-omega-3 diet. Brain regions and other tissues were collected, and blood was sampled weekly. DHA accretion rates were estimated using the balance method. [U-(3)H]PL-DHA rats had higher radioactivity in cerebellum, hippocampus and remainder of brain, with no differences in other tissues despite higher serum lipid radioactivity in [U-(3)H]TAG-DHA rats. TAG-DHA, PL-DHA or a mixture were equally effective at increasing brain DHA. There were no differences between DHA-supplemented groups in brain region, whole-body, or tissue DHA accretion rates except heart and serum TAG where the PL-DHA/TAG-DHA blend was higher than TAG-DHA. Apparent DHA β-oxidation was not different between DHA-supplemented groups. This indicates that more labeled DHA enters the brain when consumed as PL; however, this may not translate into higher brain DHA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The individual and combined effects of γ rays and hyperthermia on the development of embryonic brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yepeng; Ruan Ming; Liu Jingyuan; Hong Min; Lu Chunlin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the individual and combined effects of exposure to γ rays and hyperthermia on the development of embryonic brains. Methods: the pregnant LACA mice were exposed to 1.0 Gy 60 Co-γ rays, 42 degree C hyperthermia for 10 minutes or the two treatments combined together on day 9 of pregnancy. The females were sacrificed on day 18 of pregnancy and the fetuses were gained by cesarean section. The appearance of fetuses was observed and, then, the weight of fetal brains, the cell number of whole brains, the contents of nucleic acid and protein in brain tissue and the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain tissue as a marker for cholinergic neurons were determined. Results: Nervous tube defects did not occur in all groups. Compared with the control group, all the indices determined significantly declined in the radiation group while the cell number of whole brains and the AChE activity in brain tissue significantly decreased in the hyperthermia group. In the group of hyperthermia in advance, 4 hours later, followed by exposure to radiation, the AChE activity in brain tissue was significantly higher than the single radiation group. In the group of prior radiation exposure, 4 hours later, followed by hyperthermia, all the indices did not present significant difference from the single radiation group. Conclusion: The effects of 42 degree C hyperthermia for 10 minutes on the development of mouse embryo's brains are much weaker than 1.0 Gy γ radiation. It seems that the hyperthermia in advance can induce mouse fetuses to produce the cross adaptability to the following exposure to radiation. Exposure to γ radiation followed by hyperthermia does not present and additive action or a synergistic action

  5. Modeling the effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation at the biophysical, network, and cognitive Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Bergmann, Til Ole; Herz, Damian Marc

    2015-01-01

    these approaches advance the scientific potential of NTBS as an interventional tool in cognitive neuroscience. (i) Leveraging the anatomical information provided by structural imaging, the electric field distribution in the brain can be modeled and simulated. Biophysical modeling approaches generate testable...... predictions regarding the impact of interindividual variations in cortical anatomy on the injected electric fields or the influence of the orientation of current flow on the physiological stimulation effects. (ii) Functional brain mapping of the spatiotemporal neural dynamics during cognitive tasks can...

  6. Effects of a ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    For a subpopulation of drug-resistant epilepsies, a ketogenic diet constitutes the treatment of choice. A ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, which induces ketosis. Despite the use in treatment of epilepsy since 1924, the clinical efficacy was not demonstrated...... in a controlled, randomized trial until 2008, showing its capability of reducing seizure frequency with more than 50%. However, the exact mechanism of this form of treatment is still unknown. We report here a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, where a brain 18F-FDG PET examination...

  7. Neurobehavioral Effects of Levetiracetam in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Benge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.

  8. Evaluating acute effects of Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) on brain perfusion with Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguven, M.; Ozturk, E.; Gunalp, B.; Ozgen, F.; Bayhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in 10 schizophrenes (8 male, 2 female) undergoing electro convulsive therapy (ECT) and the results were compared to those of baseline studies performed 3 days prior to the ECT application to evaluate its acute effect on brain perfusion. ECT caused a redistribution in the tracers uptake. There was a global increase in the rCBF and the uptake became more pronounced in the basal ganglia (left: 44.4+-1.9%, right: 43.1+-19%) and to a degree in the parietal (left: 26.5+-4.1%, right: 25+-3.4%) and temporal (left: 22.9+-4.3%, right: 22.3+-3.6%) cortices. When evaluating the effects of ECT on rCBF, factors like the used perfusion agent, the injection and rCBF measurement times, clinical status of the patient, duration of the illness, used therapeutic agents and variations in the ECT application should be taken into consideration because the obtained data may reflect either the ictal or post-ictal changes on rCBF and is specific to the group of patients undergoing the study

  9. Effects of Brain-Based Learning Approach on Students' Motivation and Attitudes Levels in Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…

  10. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and the…

  11. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  12. The effect of observers on behavior and the brain during aggressive encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Julie K; Becker, Lisa; Fernald, Russell D

    2015-10-01

    What effect does an audience have on an animal's behavior and where is this influence registered in the brain? To answer these questions, we analyzed male cichlid fish fighting in the presence of audiences of various compositions and measured expression of immediate early genes in the brain as a proxy for neural activity. We hypothesized their behavior would change depending on who was watching them. We measured behavioral responses from both the "watchers" and the "watched" during aggressive encounters and found that males fighting in the presence of an audience were more aggressive than males fighting without an audience. Depending on the nature of the audience, immediate early gene expression in key brain nuclei was differentially influenced. Both when an audience of larger males watched fighting males, and when they were watching larger males fighting, nuclei in the brain considered homologous with mammalian nuclei known to be associated with anxiety showed increased activity. When males were in the presence of any audience or when males saw any other males fighting, nuclei in the brain known to be involved in reproduction and aggression were differentially activated relative to control animals. In all cases, there was a close relationship between patterns of brain gene expression between fighters and observers. This suggests that the network of brain regions known as the social behavior network, common across vertebrates, are activated not only in association with the expression of social behavior but also by the reception of social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Koichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The effects of the cranial size and the computed tomography (CT) numbers of the cranial bone on that of the brain were studied in 70 subjects, aged from 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and showed no abnormalities in the central nervous system upon physical examinations and a CT scan. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39 cm{sup 2}) at the bilateral thalamus and at twelve areas of the deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size, and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. The effect of the cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers was statistically significant. The brain CT numbers increased with the increase in the cranial bone CT numbers. There was, however, no significant correlation between brain CT numbers and cranial size. In measuring the brain CT numbers, it is desirable that consideration be given to the cranial bone CT numbers. (author).

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Qian, Z.; Yang, T.; Li, W.; Hu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μs') and BWC. By recording μs' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  15. Chronic Antipsychotic Treatment in the Rat – Effects on Brain Interleukin-8 and Kynurenic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus K. Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with activation of the brain immune system as reflected by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA and proinflammatory cytokines. Although antipsychotic drugs have been used for decades in the treatment of the disease, potential effects of these drugs on brain immune signaling are not fully known. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of cytokines and KYNA. Rats were treated daily by intraperitoneally administered haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, n = 6, olanzapine (2 mg/kg, n = 6, and clozapine (20 mg/kg, n = 6 or saline ( n = 6 for 30 days. Clozapine, but not haloperidol or olanzapine-treated rats displayed significantly lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of interleukin-8 compared to controls. Whole brain levels of KYNA were not changed in any group. Our data suggest that the superior therapeutic effect of clozapine may be a result of its presently shown immunosuppressive action. Further, our data do not support the possibility that elevated brain KYNA found in patients with schizophrenia is a result of antipsychotic treatment.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J; Qian, Z; Li, W; Hu, G [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, T, E-mail: zhiyu@nuaa.edu.cn [School of Clinical Medicine, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient ({mu}{sub s}') and BWC. By recording {mu}{sub s}' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J; Qian, Z; Li, W; Hu, G; Yang, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μ s ') and BWC. By recording μ s ' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  18. Interaction Effects of BDNF and COMT Genes on Resting-State Brain Activity and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Chunhui; Xia, Mingrui; Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Wang, Wenjing; He, Yong; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them. Significant interactive effects of BDNF and COMT were found for WM performance as well as for resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) in WM-related brain areas, including the left medial frontal gyrus (lMeFG), left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG), right superior and medial frontal gyrus (rSMFG), right medial orbitofrontal gyrus (rMOFG), right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), precuneus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Simple effects analyses showed that compared to other genotypes, subjects with COMT-VV/BDNF-VV had higher WM and lower ReHo in all five frontal brain areas. The results supported the hypothesis that COMT and BDNF polymorphisms influence WM performance and spontaneous brain activity (i.e., ReHo). PMID:27853425

  19. The Effectiveness of the Brain Based Teaching Approach in Enhancing Scientific Understanding of Newtonian Physics among Form Four Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…

  20. Pilot Study on Long Term Effects of HZE Exposure on the Canine Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T.; Brennan, K.; Pearlstein, R.

    A ground-based pilot experiment was initiated in December 1992 to evaluate the long term effects on health and aging after HZE cosmic radiation of the canine brain. Six adult male beagle dogs (1 yr) from the UC Davis breeding colony at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research were researched in this study. Iron nuclei at 600 MeV/amu (180 keV/mm) were used to irradiate the whole brain. The fluence of 3 x 106 iron nuclei/ cm2 mimics the HZE exposure (all > He) for a 2- year mission to Mars. The HZE irradiation was a fully stripped iron particle beam at the LBNL BEVALAC. Using a Raster Scanner we were able to spread the beam to deliver a uniform dose over the brain. The total dose to the brain was 200 cGy. Four dogs were whole brain irradiated with iron and two dogs served as litter-mate controls. The control dogs received a similar amount of background neutron irradiation as the irradiated dogs. One of the control dogs died suddenly 3/98 of intestinal cancer unrelated to the brain irradiation. That brain was not harvested before autolysis had prevented analysis. Periodic PET metabolism and yearly MRI studies have been done on these dog's brain since irradiation. All dogs had yearly physical, neurological and blood chemistry work-ups. PET imaging was performed with the Donner 600-crystal high-resolution PET (2.6 mm resolution) and with the commercial PET, CTI/Siemens ECAT 951 PET Scanner (5 mm resolution). NMR imaging is performed with the 1 5T GE Signa at UCSF using T spoiled gradient imaging.1 sequences for T1 contrast at 1 mm resolution as well as a T2 weighted spin echo imaging sequence at 1 mm resolution. A major goal of this work is to present an accurate method for measuring surface areas and volumes of the irradiated vs the non-irradiated canine brain using MRI data which are isotropic in resolution at the 1 mm level. This allows us to monitor the changes in brain size with aging and radiation exposure. Nine years post irradiation, these dog brains

  1. Quantitative SPECT brain imaging: Effects of attenuation and detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Bowsher, J.E.; Turkington, T.G.; Liang, Z.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two physical factors that substantially degrade quantitative accuracy in SPECT imaging of the brain are attenuation and detector response. In addition to the physical factors, random noise in the reconstructed image can greatly affect the quantitative measurement. The purpose of this work was to implement two reconstruction methods that compensate for attenuation and detector response, a 3D maximum likelihood-EM method (ML) and a filtered backprojection method (FB) with Metz filter and Chang attenuation compensation, and compare the methods in terms of quantitative accuracy and image noise. The methods were tested on simulated data of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. The simulation incorporated attenuation and distance-dependent detector response. Bias and standard deviation of reconstructed voxel intensities were measured in the gray and white matter regions. The results with ML showed that in both the gray and white matter regions as the number of iterations increased, bias decreased and standard deviation increased. Similar results were observed with FB as the Metz filter power increased. In both regions, ML had smaller standard deviation than FB for a given bias. Reconstruction times for the ML method have been greatly reduced through efficient coding, limited source support, and by computing attenuation factors only along rays perpendicular to the detector

  2. Age and Gender Effects On Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yones Lotfi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR is a result of eight nerve and brain stem nuclei stimulation. Several factors may affect the latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitudes in ABR especially sex and age. In this study, age and sex influence on ABR were studied. Methods: This study was performed on 120 cases (60 males and 60 females at Akhavan rehabilitation center of university of welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran. Cases were divided in three age groups: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years old. Each age group consists of 20 males and 20 females. Age and sex influences on absolute latency of wave I and V, and IPL of I-V were examined. Results: Independent t test showed that females have significantly shorter latency of wave I, V, and IPL I-V latency (P<0.001 than males. Two way ANOVA showed that latency of wave I, V and IPL I-V in 51-70 years old group was significantly higher than 18-30 and 31-50 years old groups (P<0.001 Discussion: According to the results of present study and similar studies, in clinical practice, different norms for older adults and both genders should be established.

  3. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  4. Effects of acupuncture on tissue-oxygenation of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G S; Erdmann, W

    1977-01-01

    Acupuncture has been claimed to be effective in restoring consciousness in some comatose patients. Possible mechanisms to explain alleged acupuncture-induced arousal may include vasodilatory effects caused by sympathetic stimulation which leads to an augmentation of cerebral microcirculation and thereby improves oxygen supply to the brain tissue. Experiments were performed in ten albino rats (Wistar) employing PO2 microelectrodes which were inserted into the cortex of the animals through small burholes. Brain tissue PO2 was continuously recorded before, during, and after acupuncture. Stimulation of certain acupuncture loci (Go-26) resulted in immediate increase of PO2 in the frontal cortex of the rat brain. This effect was reproducible. The effect was comparable to that obtained with increase of inspiratory CO2 known to induce arterial vasodilatation and thus capillary perfusion pressure. The effect was more significant as compared to tissue PO2 increases obtained after increase of inspiratory oxygen concentration from 21% to 100%. It appears that acupuncture causes an increase of brain tissue perfusion which may be, at least in part, responsible for arousal of unconscious patients. Dilatation of cerebral vascular vessels and improvement of autoregulation in the brain by acupuncture stimulation may also explain the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of migraine headache.

  5. Metabolic mapping of the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine on the brains of congenitally helpless rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumake, Jason; Colorado, Rene A; Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2010-07-09

    Antidepressants require adaptive brain changes before efficacy is achieved, and they may impact the affectively disordered brain differently than the normal brain. We previously demonstrated metabolic disturbances in limbic and cortical regions of the congenitally helpless rat, a model of susceptibility to affective disorder, and we wished to test whether administration of fluoxetine would normalize these metabolic differences. Fluoxetine was chosen because it has become a first-line drug for the treatment of affective disorders. We hypothesized that fluoxetine antidepressant effects may be mediated by decreasing metabolism in the habenula and increasing metabolism in the ventral tegmental area. We measured the effects of fluoxetine on forced swim behavior and regional brain cytochrome oxidase activity in congenitally helpless rats treated for 2 weeks with fluoxetine (5mg/kg, i.p., daily). Fluoxetine reduced immobility in the forced swim test as anticipated, but congenitally helpless rats responded in an atypical manner, i.e., increasing climbing without affecting swimming. As hypothesized, fluoxetine reduced metabolism in the habenula and increased metabolism in the ventral tegmental area. In addition, fluoxetine reduced the metabolism of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This study provided the first detailed mapping of the regional brain effects of an antidepressant drug in congenitally helpless rats. All of the effects were consistent with previous studies that have metabolically mapped the effects of serotonergic antidepressants in the normal rat brain, and were in the predicted direction of metabolic normalization of the congenitally helpless rat for all affected brain regions except the prefrontal cortex. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of cocaine on structural changes in brain: MRI volumetry using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Ponnada A; Datta, Sushmita; Tao, Guozhi; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in cocaine-dependent subjects to determine the structural changes in brain compared to non-drug using controls. Cocaine-dependent subjects and controls were carefully screened to rule out brain pathology of undetermined origin. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) without and with modulation to adjust for volume changes during normalization. For TBM analysis, unbiased atlases were generated using two different inverse consistent and diffeomorphic nonlinear registration techniques. Two different control groups were used for generating unbiased atlases. Independent of the nonlinear registration technique and normal cohorts used for creating the unbiased atlases, our analysis failed to detect any statistically significant effect of cocaine on brain volumes. These results show that cocaine-dependent subjects do not show differences in regional brain volumes compared to non-drug using controls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of CoO nanoparticles on the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of CoO nanoparticles (NPs on the brain of mice administered through gastrointestinal tract for a period of 30 days was studied. AAS analysis revealed that NPs administered orally were retained by cerebellum, cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb. This retention of nanoparticles by the brain promoted a significant increase in glucose, pyruvate, lactate and glycogen levels along with the concomitant increase in hexokinase, glucose 6 phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogense activities. However, a decrease in glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed in the brain regions indicating a deterioration of the pentose phosphate pathway. Thus, the present study suggests that the CoO NPs affect the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain.

  8. Radiofrequency and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittby, Henrietta; Grafström, Gustav; Eberhardt, Jacob L; Malmgren, Lars; Brun, Arne; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2008-01-01

    During the last century, mankind has introduced electricity and during the very last decades, the microwaves of the modern communication society have spread a totally new entity--the radiofrequency fields--around the world. How does this affect biology on Earth? The mammalian brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which prevents harmful substances from reaching the brain tissue. There is evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields at non thermal levels disrupts this barrier. In this review, the scientific findings in this field are presented. The result is a complex picture, where some studies show effects on the blood-brain barrier, whereas others do not. Possible mechanisms for the interactions between electromagnetic fields and the living organisms are discussed. Demonstrated effects on the blood-brain barrier, as well as a series of other effects upon biology, have caused societal anxiety. Continued research is needed to come to an understanding of how these possible effects can be neutralized, or at least reduced. Furthermore, it should be kept in mind that proven effects on biology also should have positive potentials, e.g., for medical use.

  9. Effect of alternate energy substrates on mammalian brain metabolism during ischemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppaka, S S; Puchowicz; LaManna, J C; Gatica, J E

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of brain metabolism and cerebral blood flow involves complex control systems with several interacting variables at both cellular and organ levels. Quantitative understanding of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous brain control mechanisms during internal and external stimuli requires the development and validation of a computational (mathematical) model of metabolic processes in brain. This paper describes a computational model of cellular metabolism in blood-perfused brain tissue, which considers the astrocyte-neuron lactate-shuttle (ANLS) hypothesis. The model structure consists of neurons, astrocytes, extra-cellular space, and a surrounding capillary network. Each cell is further compartmentalized into cytosol and mitochondria. Inter-compartment interaction is accounted in the form of passive and carrier-mediated transport. Our model was validated against experimental data reported by Crumrine and LaManna, who studied the effect of ischemia and its recovery on various intra-cellular tissue substrates under standard diet conditions. The effect of ketone bodies on brain metabolism was also examined under ischemic conditions following cardiac resuscitation through our model simulations. The influence of ketone bodies on lactate dynamics on mammalian brain following ischemia is studied incorporating experimental data.

  10. Effects of Bisphenol A on glucose homeostasis and brain insulin signaling pathways in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fangfang; Chen, Donglong; Yu, Pan; Qian, Wenyi; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Jingli; Gao, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Hang

    2015-02-01

    The potential effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on peripheral insulin resistance have recently gained more attention, however, its functions on brain insulin resistance are still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BPA on insulin signaling and glucose transport in mouse brain. The male mice were administrated of 100 μg/kg/day BPA or vehicle for 15 days then challenged with glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The insulin levels were detected with radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the insulin signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot. Our results revealed that BPA significantly increased peripheral plasma insulin levels, and decreased the insulin signals including phosphorylated insulin receptor (p-IR), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS1), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) and phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK1/2) in the brain, though insulin expression in both hippocampus and profrontal cortex was increased. In parallel, BPA exposure might contribute to glucose transport disturbance in the brain since the expression of glucose transporters were markedly decreased. In conclusion, BPA exposure perturbs the insulin signaling and glucose transport in the brain, therefore, it might be a risk factor for brain insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  12. The effect of perinatal 60Co gamma radiation on brain weight in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    Beagle dogs were given single, whole-body 60 Co gamma-radiation exposures at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) or three postnatal (2, 70, or 365 days postpartum) ages to evaluate the relative radiosensitivity of various stages of brain development. A total of 387 dogs received mean doses ranging from 0.16 to 3.83 Gy, and 120 dogs were sham-irradiated. Groups of dogs were sacrificed at preselected times from 70 days to 11 years of age. Brain weight decreased significantly with increasing dose in dogs irradiated at 28 or 55 days postcoitus or at 2 days postpartum. Irradiations at 28 days postcoitus were dramatically more effective in causing a reduction in brain weight than those at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum. Among dogs given 1.0 Gy or more and followed for up to 4 years, there was a radiation effect evident at all three sensitive exposure ages. Among dogs given lower doses and followed for up to 11 years, there was a significant decrease in brain weight in dogs given 0.80-0.88 Gy at 28 days postcoitus. All decreases in brain weight were present after normalization for radiation-induced reductions in skeletal (body) size. No specific morphologic changes were noted in the brains which showed the radiation-related reductions in size

  13. Effect of antenatal corticosteroids on postmortem brain weight of preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D J

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the effects of single and repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroids on brain growth in very preterm babies. Retrospective study of 110 very preterm babies delivered at a single University Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 1999 who had a full necropsy including detailed examination of the brain. Mean brain weight did not differ significantly between babies who received corticosteroids and those who did not 160 vs. 157 g, (p=0.82), nor was there a difference between mean brain weight of stillborn or liveborn babies in relation to steroid use 164 vs. 159 g, (p=0.84) and 156 vs. 152g (p=0.81). There was no apparent dose-response relationship between the total number of doses of corticosteroids or timing since the first dose of corticosteroids and brain weight, p=0.95 and p=0.87. Single and multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids had no significant effect on brain growth in babies delivered preterm who died but long-term follow-up studies are required to evaluate the functional neurological outcome of surviving children.

  14. Prenatal effects of trichlorfon on the guinea pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, G.N.; Nafstad, I.; Fonnum, F.

    1986-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound trichlorfon, dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate, was administered by stomach tube (100 mg/kg) to pregnant guinea pigs at two different stages of gestation (days 36, 37, 38 and 51, 52, 53). The pups developed locomotory disturbances, and post mortem examination revealed significantly decreased weights of the total brain and the cerebellum, as compared to controls. There was also a significant weight reduction particularly of the medulla oblongata, but also of the hippocampus, the thalamus, and the colliculi. Histological examination of the cerebellum revealed reduction of the external granular layer and the molecular layer, and regional absence of Purkinje cells. The activities of the neutrotransmitter enzymes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebellum were reduced as compared to the control values. (orig.)

  15. Cost-effective immobilization for whole brain radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Ashley E; Ingram, W Scott; Anderson, Brian M; Gay, Skylar S; Fave, Xenia J; Ger, Rachel B; McCarroll, Rachel E; Owens, Constance A; Netherton, Tucker J; Kisling, Kelly D; Court, Laurence E; Yang, Jinzhong; Li, Yuting; Lee, Joonsang; Mackin, Dennis S; Cardenas, Carlos E

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the inter- and intra-fraction motion associated with the use of a low-cost tape immobilization technique as an alternative to thermoplastic immobilization masks for whole-brain treatments. The results of this study may be of interest to clinical staff with severely limited resources (e.g., in low-income countries) and also when treating patients who cannot tolerate standard immobilization masks. Setup reproducibility of eight healthy volunteers was assessed for two different immobilization techniques. (a) One strip of tape was placed across the volunteer's forehead and attached to the sides of the treatment table. (b) A second strip was added to the first, under the chin, and secured to the table above the volunteer's head. After initial positioning, anterior and lateral photographs were acquired. Volunteers were positioned five times with each technique to allow calculation of inter-fraction reproducibility measurements. To estimate intra-fraction reproducibility, 5-minute anterior and lateral videos were taken for each technique per volunteer. An in-house software was used to analyze the photos and videos to assess setup reproducibility. The maximum intra-fraction displacement for all volunteers was 2.8 mm. Intra-fraction motion increased with time on table. The maximum inter-fraction range of positions for all volunteers was 5.4 mm. The magnitude of inter-fraction and intra-fraction motion found using the "1-strip" and "2-strip" tape immobilization techniques was comparable to motion restrictions provided by a thermoplastic mask for whole-brain radiotherapy. The results suggest that tape-based immobilization techniques represent an economical and useful alternative to the thermoplastic mask. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Brain Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Gertrud; Blomquist, Erik; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-01-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for brain tumours is based on data from 9 randomized trials and 1 meta-analysis. Moreover, data from 2 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 4 other articles were used. In total, 19 scientific articles are included, involving 4,266 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 11,252 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized as follows: The conclusion from SBU 129/2 that curative treatment is not available for patients with high-grade malignant glioma (grade III and IV) is still valid. The survival benefit from postoperative radiotherapy compared to supportive care only or chemotherapy is about 3-4 months, as demonstrated in earlier randomized studies. Quality of life is now currently estimated and considered to be of major importance when reporting the outcome of treatment for patients with brain tumours. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy using hyper- and hypofractionation leads to longer survival for patients with high-grade malignant glioma than conventional radiotherapy. There is large documentation, but only one randomized study. There is some documentation to support the view that patients with grade IV glioma and poor prognosis can be treated with hypofractionation and with an outcome similar to that after conventional fractionation. A shorter treatment time should be convenient for the patient. Documentation of the benefit of a radiotherapy boost with brachytherapy is limited and no conclusion can be drawn. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy prolongs life for patients with low-grade glioma. There are some data supporting that radiotherapy can be used to treat symptoms in

  17. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A. Dorothea; Otten, Leun J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual ...

  18. Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytus Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake, intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding, and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function.

  19. Education amplifies brain atrophy effect on cognitive decline: implications for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Gavett, Brandon; Fletcher, Evan; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce

    2018-08-01

    Level of education is often regarded as a proxy for cognitive reserve in older adults. This implies that brain degeneration has a smaller effect on cognitive decline in those with more education, but this has not been directly tested in previous research. We examined how education, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of brain degeneration, and their interaction affect cognitive decline in diverse older adults spanning the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia. Gray matter atrophy was strongly related to cognitive decline. While education was not related to cognitive decline, brain atrophy had a stronger effect on cognitive decline in those with more education. Importantly, high education was associated with slower decline in individuals with lesser atrophy but with faster decline in those with greater atrophy. This moderation effect was observed in Hispanics (who had high heterogeneity of education) but not in African-Americans or Caucasians. These results suggest that education is an indicator of cognitive reserve in individuals with low levels of brain degeneration, but the protective effect of higher education is rapidly depleted as brain degeneration progresses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2004-01-01

    .... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The overarching objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  1. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillin, J

    2003-01-01

    ..... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  2. Effects of a Self-Monitoring Intervention on Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Susan C.; Jones, Kevin M.; Rafoth, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a self-monitoring intervention on teachers' direct behavior ratings of 3 students with traumatic brain injury. The authors used a multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effect of the strategy on each child's classwork and classroom behavior. The self-monitoring strategy…

  3. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Shows Cocaine and Methylphenidate Have Opposite Effects on Major Lipids in Drosophila Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Mai H; Phan, Nhu T N; Fletcher, John S; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew G

    2018-03-20

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the effects of cocaine versus methylphenidate administration on both the localization and abundance of lipids in Drosophila melanogaster brain. A J105 ToF-SIMS with a 40 keV gas cluster primary ion source enabled us to probe molecular ions of biomolecules on the fly with a spatial resolution of ∼3 μm, giving us unique insights into the effect of these drugs on molecular lipids in the nervous system. Significant changes in phospholipid composition were observed in the central brain for both. Principal components image analysis revealed that changes occurred mainly for phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositols. When the lipid changes caused by cocaine were compared with those induced by methylphenidate, it was shown that these drugs exert opposite effects on the brain lipid structure. We speculate that this might relate to the molecular mechanism of cognition and memory.

  4. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  5. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Potential effect of skull thickening on the associations between cognition and brain atrophy in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin Segun; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    intracranial volume (ICV) is commonly used as a marker of premorbid brain size in neuroimaging studies as it is thought to remain fixed throughout adulthood. However, inner skull table thickening would encroach on ICV and could mask actual brain atrophy. we investigated the effect that thickening might have on the associations between brain atrophy and cognition. the sample comprised 57 non-demented older adults who underwent structural brain MRI at mean age 72.7 ± 0.7 years and were assessed on cognitive ability at mean age 11 and 73 years. Principal component analysis was used to derive factors of general cognitive ability (g), information processing speed and memory from the recorded cognitive ability data. The total brain tissue volume and ICV with (estimated original ICV) and without (current ICV) adjusting for the effects of inner table skull thickening were measured. General linear modelling was used to test for associations. all cognitive ability variables were significantly (P skull thickening (g: η(2) = 0.177, speed: η(2) = 0.264 and memory: η(2) = 0.132). After accounting for skull thickening, only speed was significantly associated with percentage total brain volume in ICV (η(2) = 0.085, P = 0.034), not g or memory. not accounting for skull thickening when computing ICV can distort the association between brain atrophy and cognitive ability in old age. Larger samples are required to determine the true effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Combined effects of caffeine and zinc in the maternal diet on fetal brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, T.; Gottschalk, S.B.; Yazdani, M.; Joseph, F. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors have reported that caffeine (C) intake during the lactational period by dams decreases the Zn content of the brain in their offspring. The objective of the present study is to determine how C plus Zn supplementation to the maternal diet during gestation affects the fetal brains. Timed-pregnant rats at day 3 of gestation were randomly divided into 4 groups (G). G1 was fed a 20% protein diet as a control, G2 was fed a diet supplemented with Zn, G3 was fed a diet with C and G4 was fed a diet with C and Zn. At day 22 of gestation, fetuses were taken out surgically. Fetal brains were removed. Their weights, DNA, Zn, protein, cholesterol, caffeine concentration, and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined. Body and brain weights and cholesterol contents in G4 were greater than in G1, whereas Zn concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity were less. Zn concentration and Zn/DNA in G2 were greater than in G1. Cholesterol content in G4 was higher than in G3. Although mean caffeine concentration in brain and plasma in G4 was greater than in G3, there was no statistical significance between the G due to the wide fluctuation among the pups. It is concluded that supplementation of C and Zn in the maternal diet during gestation could influence fetal brain composition differently than C supplementation alone. Supplementation of Zn alone showed minor effects.

  8. The Effect of Hydroxylated Fullerene Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Defense System in Brain Ischemia Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: According to the previous findings, brain ischemia attenuates the brain antioxidant defense system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxylated fullerene nanoparticle on antioxidant defense system in ischemic brain rat. Methods: In this Experimental study, rats were divided into three groups (n=6 in each group: sham, ischemic control, and ischemic treatment group. Brain ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion for 90 minutes followed by a 24-hour reperfusion. Ischemic treatment animals received fullerene nanoparticles intraperitoneally at a dose of 10mg/kg immediately after the end of MCA occlusion. After 24-h reperfusion period, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione activities were assessed by biochemical methods. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The mean glutathione level and catalase and SOD activities in sham animals were 1±0.18%, 1±0.20%, and 1±0.04%, respectively. Induction of brain ischemia decreased the value of glutathione level and catalase and SOD activities in control ischemic rats and their values were obtained to be 0.55±0.09%, 0.44±0.05%, and 0.86±0.02%, respectively. Fullerene significantly increased the activities of catalase (0.93±0.29% and SOD (1.33±0.22% in ischemic treatment group compared to ischemic control rats, but did not change the glutathione level (0.52±0.25%. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with fullerene nanoparticles improves the brain antioxidant defense system, which is weakened during brain ischemia, through increasing catalase and SOD activities.

  9. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the effects of aspartame on memory and oxidative stress in brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, O M E; Salem, N A; El-Shamarka, M E S; Hussein, J S; Ahmed, N A S; El-Nagar, M E S

    2012-12-01

    The dipeptide aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-Lphenylalanine, 1-methyl ester; alpha-APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of aspartame in the working memory version of Morris water maze test, on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in brain of mice. Aspartame (0.625, 1.875 or 5.625 mg/kg) was administered once daily subcutaneously for 2 weeks and mice were examined four times a week for their ability to locate a submerged plate. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide levels (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) and glucose were determined in brain. Only at the highest dose of 5.625 mg/kg, did aspartame significantly impaired water maze performance. The mean time taken to find the escape platform (latency) over 2 weeks was significantly delayed by aspartame 5.625 mg/kg, compared with the saline-treated control group. Significant differences occurred only on the first trial to find the escape platform. Significant increase in brain MDA by 16.5% and nitric oxide by 16.2% and a decrease in GSH by 25.1% and glucose by 22.5% occurred after treatment with aspartame at 1.875 mg/kg. Aspartame administered at 5.625 mg/kg significantly increased brain MDA by 43.8%, nitric oxide by 18.6% and decreased GSH by 32.7% and glucose by 25.8%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. These findings suggest impaired memory performance and increased brain oxidative stress by repeated aspartame administration. The impaired memory performance is likely to involve increased oxidative stress as well as decreased brain glucose availability.

  11. SU-E-T-549: Modeling Relative Biological Effectiveness of Protons for Radiation Induced Brain Necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkovic, D; Peeler, C; Grosshans, D; Titt, U; Taleei, R; Mohan, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons as a function of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) for induction of brain necrosis using clinical data. Methods: In this study, treatment planning information was exported from a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) and used to construct a detailed Monte Carlo model of the patient and the beam delivery system. The physical proton dose and LET were computed in each voxel of the patient volume using Monte Carlo particle transport. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study registered to the treatment planning CT was used to determine the region of the necrosis in the brain volume. Both, the whole brain and the necrosis volumes were segmented from the computed tomography (CT) dataset using the contours drawn by a physician and the corresponding voxels were binned with respect to dose and LET. The brain necrosis probability was computed as a function of dose and LET by dividing the total volume of all necrosis voxels with a given dose and LET with the corresponding total brain volume resulting in a set of NTCP-like curves (probability as a function of dose parameterized by LET). Results: The resulting model shows dependence on both dose and LET indicating the weakness of the constant RBE model for describing the brain toxicity. To the best of our knowledge the constant RBE model is currently used in all clinical applications which may Result in increased rate of brain toxicities in patients treated with protons. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more accurate brain toxicity models for patients treated with protons and other heavy ions

  12. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  13. Effect of nitroimidazoles on glucose utilization and lactate accumulation in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.F.; Subjeck, J.R.; Brody, H.; Shen, J.; Johnson, R.J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) can produce central and peripheral neuropathy in patients and laboratory animals. Nitroimidazoles can also interfere with glycolysis in vitro under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the present work, the authors studied the effect of MISO or DMM on lactate production and glucose utilization in mouse brain. It is observed that these compounds result in a 25% inhibition of lactate production in brain slices relative to the control at a 10 mM level. Additionally, MISO (1.0 mg/g/day) or DMM (1.4 mg/g/day) were administered daily (oral) for 1, 4, 7, or 14 days to examine the effect of these two drugs on the regional glucose utilization in C3Hf mouse brain. Five microcuries of 2-deoxy[ 14 C]glucose was given following the last drug dose and autoradiographs of serial brain sections were made and analyzed by a densitometer. Following a single dose of either MISO or DMM, no significant differences in glucose uptake were observed when compared with controls. However, following 4, 7, and 14 doses the rate of glucose utilization was significantly reduced in the intoxicated animals. Larger reductions were measured in specific regions including the posterior colliculus, cochlear nuclei, vestibular nuclei, and pons with increasing effects observed at later stages. These results share a degree of correspondence with the regional brain pathology produced by these nitroimidazoles

  14. Protective effect of crocin on acrolein-induced tau phosphorylation in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein, as a by-product of lipid peroxidation, is implicated in brain aging and in the pathogenesis of oxidative stressmediated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Widespread human exposure to the toxic environmental pollutant that is acrolein renders it necessary to evaluate the effects of exogenous acrolein on the brain. This study investigated the toxic effects of oral administration of 3 mg/kg/day acrolein on the rat cerebral cortex. Moreover, the neuroprotective effects of crocin, the main constituent of saffron, against acrolein toxicity were evaluated. We showed that acrolein decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Amyloid-beta (Abeta) and phospho-tau in the brain. Simultaneously, acrolein activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathways. Co-administration of crocin significantly attenuated MDA, Abeta and p-tau levels by modulating MAPKs signalling pathways. Our data demonstrated that environmental exposure to acrolein triggers some molecular events which contribute to brain aging and neurodisorders. Additionally, crocin as an antioxidant is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as brain aging and AD.

  15. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Reynaud, Olivier; Le Bihan, Denis; Uhrig, Lynn; Jarraya, Bechir

    2012-01-01

    During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T2'*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7 T and 17.2 T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine). We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T2'*- weighted images at 17.2 T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7 T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation. (authors)

  16. Implantation of glioblastoma spheroids into organotypic brain slice cultures as a model for investigating effects of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    , models for studying the effects of radiotherapy in combination with novel strategies are lacking but important since radiotherapy is the most successful non-surgical treatment of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a glioblastoma spheroid-organotypic rat brain slice culture model...... comprising both tumors, tumor-brain interface and brain tissue to provide a proof of concept that this model is useful for studying effects of radiotherapy. Organotypic brain slice cultures cultured for 1-2 days or 11-16 days corresponding to immature brain and mature brain respectively were irradiated...... with doses between 10 and 50 Gy. There was a high uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide in the immature cultures. In addition, MAP2 expression decreased whereas GFAP expression increased in these cultures suggesting neuronal death and astrogliosis. We therefore proceeded with the mature cultures...

  17. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein–protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  18. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the formation of psycho-vegetative syndrome with brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyanina N.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the formation and forecasting of psycho-vegetative syndrome in patients with cerebral mild to moderate injury. Material and Methods. There have been 150 patients with contusion of the brain, examined. Indicators of neurological, psycho-vegetative status, quantitative content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the serum were studied. Results. At patients with brain contusion neurological, psycho-vegetative disturbances and decrease neurotrophic factors are determined. It was found to depend of the content of BDNF and psycho-vegetative indicators. Conclusion. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum (less than 300 pg/ml is a predictor of psycho-vegetative syndrome in the long term of the brain injury.

  19. Differential effects of fresh frozen plasma and normal saline on secondary brain damage in a large animal model of polytrauma, hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwabejire, John O; Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the extent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in large animal models can be reduced with early infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether resuscitation with FFP or normal saline differed in th...... in their effects on cerebral metabolism and excitotoxic secondary brain injury in a model of polytrauma, TBI, and hemorrhagic shock....

  20. Reshaping the brain after stroke: The effect of prismatic adaptation in patients with right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottaz-Herbette, Sonia; Fornari, Eleonora; Notter, Michael P; Bindschaedler, Claire; Manzoni, Laura; Clarke, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Prismatic adaptation has been repeatedly reported to alleviate neglect symptoms; in normal subjects, it was shown to enhance the representation of the left visual space within the left inferior parietal cortex. Our study aimed to determine in humans whether similar compensatory mechanisms underlie the beneficial effect of prismatic adaptation in neglect. Fifteen patients with right hemispheric lesions and 11 age-matched controls underwent a prismatic adaptation session which was preceded and followed by fMRI using a visual detection task. In patients, the prismatic adaptation session improved the accuracy of target detection in the left and central space and enhanced the representation of this visual space within the left hemisphere in parts of the temporal convexity, inferior parietal lobule and prefrontal cortex. Across patients, the increase in neuronal activation within the temporal regions correlated with performance improvements in this visual space. In control subjects, prismatic adaptation enhanced the representation of the left visual space within the left inferior parietal lobule and decreased it within the left temporal cortex. Thus, a brief exposure to prismatic adaptation enhances, both in patients and in control subjects, the competence of the left hemisphere for the left space, but the regions extended beyond the inferior parietal lobule to the temporal convexity in patients. These results suggest that the left hemisphere provides compensatory mechanisms in neglect by assuming the representation of the whole space within the ventral attentional system. The rapidity of the change suggests that the underlying mechanism relies on uncovering pre-existing synaptic connections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A prospective cohort study on sustained effects of low-dose ecstasy use on the brain in new ecstasy users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Jager, Gerry; Vlieger, Erik-Jan P.; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; Lavini, Cristina; Bisschops, Ivo; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2007-01-01

    It is debated whether ecstasy use has neurotoxic effects on the human brain and what the effects are of a low dose of ecstasy use. We prospectively studied sustained effects (>2 weeks abstinence) of a low dose of ecstasy on the brain in ecstasy-naive volunteers using a combination of advanced MR

  2. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Rhythms and Entropy during Self-Paced Finger Movement using the Epoc Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U. Manto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications. Therefore, the EEG was recorded with a comfortable and easy to wear 14 channels wireless helmet (Epoc headset; electrode location was based on the 10–20 system. Cerebellar neurostimulation modified brain rhythmicity with a decrease in the delta band (electrode F3 and T8, p < 0.05. By contrast, our study did not show any significant change in entropy ratios and laterality coefficients (LC after atDCS of the cerebellum in the 14 channels. The cerebellum is heavily connected with the cerebral cortex including the frontal lobes and parietal lobes via the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway. We propose that the effects of anodal stimulation of the cerebellar cortex upon cerebral cortical rhythms are mediated by this key-pathway. Additional studies using high-density EEG recordings and behavioral correlates are now required to confirm our findings, especially given the limited coverage of Epoc headset.

  3. Fine-mapping the effects of Alzheimer's disease risk loci on brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Adams, Hieab H; van der Lee, Sven J; Vernooij, Meike W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van der Lugt, Aad; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; Ikram, Mohammad A

    2016-12-01

    The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions. Brain regions most significantly associated with AD risk variants were the left postcentral gyrus with ABCA7 (rs4147929, p = 4.45 × 10 -6 ), right superior frontal gyrus by ZCWPW1 (rs1476679, p = 5.12 × 10 -6 ), and right postcentral gyrus by APOE (p = 6.91 × 10 -6 ). Although no individual voxel passed multiple-testing correction, we found significant spatial overlap between the effects of AD risk loci on VBM and the expression of genes (MEF2C, CLU, and SLC24A4) in the Allen Brain Atlas. Results are available online on www.imagene.nl/ADSNPs/. In this single largest imaging genetics data set worldwide, we found that AD risk loci affect cortical gray matter in several brain regions known to be involved in AD, as well as regions that have not been implicated before. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Intermediate-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Verdugo-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI represents a significant public health concern and has been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although several research groups have proposed the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to enhance neuroprotection and recovery in patients with TBI, few studies have obtained sufficient evidence regarding its effects in this population. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of intermediate-frequency rTMS (2 Hz on behavioral and histological recovery following TBI in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: three groups without TBI (no manipulation, movement restriction plus sham rTMS, and movement restriction plus rTMS and three groups subjected to TBI (TBI only, TBI plus movement restriction and sham rTMS, and TBI plus movement restriction and rTMS. The movement restriction groups were included so that rTMS could be applied without anesthesia. Our results indicate that the restriction of movement and sham rTMS per se promotes recovery, as measured using a neurobehavioral scale, although rTMS was associated with faster and superior recovery. We also observed that TBI caused alterations in the CA1 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus, which are partly restored by movement restriction and rTMS. Our findings indicated that movement restriction prevents damage caused by TBI and that intermediate-frequency rTMS promotes behavioral and histologic recovery after TBI.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with brain involvement by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.S.; Kao, C.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Huang, W.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, J.J.H. [Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medicine University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Chang, C.P. [Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Wang, J.J. [Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) was introduced to avoid life-threatening complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with brain manifestations; however, the efficacy of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement is still uncertain and needs to be objectively evaluated. We enrolled 15 female SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations in this study. All patients had normal brain MRI and abnormal brain HMPAO-SPECT findings. Follow-up HMPAO-SPECT studies were conducted 2 weeks after MPT. Serum levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-ribosomal P antibodies (anti-P) were measured before and after MPT. Before MPT, 7 patients were positive for ACA and 7 patients were positive for anti-P. After MPT, none of the 15 patients demonstrated positive serologic findings or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Based on the follow up brain HMPAO-SPECT images following MPT, 13 patients showed disappearance of the perfusion defects and 2 patients showed partial recovery of rCBF. Brain HMPAO-SPECT imaging is a logical and objective tool for measuring the effects of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement by determining of changes in rCBF. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  7. The effect of the diazepam to the free radical under the brain radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hongmei; Wang Chen; Zhang Zhilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the diazepam on free radical under in the brain radiation injury in the early stage. Methods: A model of whole brain radiation injury in wakefulness was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Diazepam was given intraperitoneally 30 minutes before radiation. The brain tissue homogenate was prepared respectively while the rats were executed 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month after irradiation. The contents of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the tissue homogenate were measured by chemical colorimetry. Results: Diazepam could increase the vigor of SOD and reduce the MDA contents after irradiated. Conclusions: Diazepam has certain neuroprotection effect on radiation injury and decreasing the level of the free radicals. (authors)

  8. The effects of lithium and anticonvulsants on brain structure in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaná, C; Kempton, M J; Sarnicola, A; Christodoulou, T; Haldane, M; Hadjulis, M; Girardi, P; Tatarelli, R; Frangou, S

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effect of lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics on brain structure in bipolar disorder (BD). A cross-sectional structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study of 74 remitted patients with BD, aged 18-65, who were receiving long-term prophylactic treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants or antipsychotics. Global and regional grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid volumes were compared between treatment groups. Grey matter in the subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus on the right (extending into the hypothalamus) and in the postcentral gyrus, the hippocampus/amygdale complex and the insula on the left was greater in BD patients on lithium treatment compared to all other treatment groups. Lithium treatment in BD has a significant effect on brain structure particularly in limbic/paralimbic regions associated with emotional processing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Soft drink effects on sensorimotor rhythm brain computer interface performance and resting-state spectral power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundahl, John; Jianjun Meng; He, Jeffrey; Bin He

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems allow users to directly control computers and other machines by modulating their brain waves. In the present study, we investigated the effect of soft drinks on resting state (RS) EEG signals and BCI control. Eight healthy human volunteers each participated in three sessions of BCI cursor tasks and resting state EEG. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar, caffeine, or neither ingredient. A comparison of resting state spectral power shows a substantial decrease in alpha and beta power after caffeine consumption relative to control. Despite attenuation of the frequency range used for the control signal, caffeine average BCI performance was the same as control. Our work provides a useful characterization of caffeine, the world's most popular stimulant, on brain signal frequencies and their effect on BCI performance.

  10. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Sexual brain differentiation is a potential EDC target. It depends on a combination of estrogen receptor- and androgen receptor-mediated effects in males and on estrogens in females. It is not known how these processes are affected by real-world mixtures of EDCs. We investigated the effect of three...... EDC mixtures on gene expression in developing brain. Amix (8 anti-androgenic chemicals), Emix (4 estrogenic chemicals) and Tmix (Amix + Emix + paracetamol recently identified as anti-androgenic) were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestational day 7 until weaning, at doses corresponding...... to 450×, 200× and 100× high end human intakes (S. Christiansen et al., 2012. International Journal of Andrology 35, 303). At postnatal day 6, during the last part of sexual brain differentiation, exon microarray analyses were performed in medial preoptic area (MPO) in the highest dose group, and real...

  11. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of ‘complete’ absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention.

  12. Comparative effect of pesticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Carvalho, Elba Veronica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2012-12-15

    Monitoring of pesticides based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition in vitro avoids interference of detoxification defenses and bioactivation of some of those compounds in non-target tissues. Moreover, environmental temperature, age and stress are able to affect specific enzyme activities when performing in vivo studies. Few comparative studies have investigated the inter-specific differences in AChE activity in fish. Screening studies allow choosing the suitable species as source of AChE to detect pesticides in a given situation. Brain AChE from the tropical fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized and their activities were assayed in the presence of pesticides (the organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate- TEPP and the carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC₅₀ and Ki) for each species were found and compared with commercial AChE from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. A. gigas AChE retained 81% of the activity after incubation at 50 °C for 30 min. The electric eel enzyme was more sensitive to the compounds (mainly carbofuran, IC₅₀ of 5 nM), excepting the one from A. gigas (IC₅₀ of 9 nM) under TEPP inhibition. These results show comparable sensitivity between purified and non-purified enzymes suggesting them as biomarkers for organophosphorus and carbamate detection in routine environmental and food monitoring programs for pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Wada, Shun; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) with two lipid types on lipid peroxidation of the brain was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Each group of female Balb/c mice was fed a diet containing DHA-connecting phospholipids (DHA-PL) or DHA-connecting triacylglycerols (DHA-TG) for 5 wk. Safflower oil was fed as the control. The lipid peroxide level of the brain was significantly lower in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet when compared to those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets, while the alpha-tocopherol level was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets. The DHA level of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil diet. The dimethylacetal levels were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA-connecting phospholipids have an antioxidant activity on the brain lipids in mice, and the effect may be related to the brain plasmalogen.

  14. FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baixiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that the primary acupuncture effects are mediated by the central nervous system. However, specific brain networks underpinning these effects remain unclear. Results In the present study using fMRI, we employed a within-condition interregional covariance analysis method to investigate functional connectivity of brain networks involved in acupuncture. The fMRI experiment was performed before, during and after acupuncture manipulations on healthy volunteers at an acupuncture point, which was previously implicated in a neural pathway for pain modulation. We first identified significant fMRI signal changes during acupuncture stimulation in the left amygdala, which was subsequently selected as a functional reference for connectivity analyses. Our results have demonstrated that there is a brain network associated with the amygdala during a resting condition. This network encompasses the brain structures that are implicated in both pain sensation and pain modulation. We also found that such a pain-related network could be modulated by both verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture. Furthermore, compared with a sham acupuncture, the verum acupuncture induced a higher level of correlations among the amygdala-associated network. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acupuncture may change this amygdala-specific brain network into a functional state that underlies pain perception and pain modulation.

  15. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick, S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T 2 pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average (±SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions

  16. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. © The Author(s) 2012.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of Feronia limonia on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhunde, Purushottam B; Saher, Sana; Ali, Syed Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Brain stroke is a leading cause of death without effective treatment. Feronia limonia have potent antioxidant activity and can be proved as neuroprotective against ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injury. We studied the effect of methanolic extract of F. limonia fruit (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and Vitamin E as reference standard drug on 30 min induced ischemia, followed by reperfusion by testing the neurobehavioral tests such as neurodeficit score, rota rod test, hanging wire test, beam walk test and elevated plus maze. The biochemical parameters, which were measured in animals brain were catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in control and treated rats. The methanolic extract of F. limonia fruit (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) treated groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the neurobehavioral parameters such as motor performance (neurological status, significant increase in grasping ability, forelimb strength improvement in balance and co-ordination). The biochemical parameters in the brains of rats showed a significant reduction in the total nitrite (P < 0.01) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01), also a significant enhanced activity of enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.05). These observations suggest the neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of F. limonia and Vitamin E on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury and may require further evaluation.

  18. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  19. The integral biologically effective dose to predict brain stem toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Souhami, Luis; Pla, Conrado; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Caron, Jean-Louis; Olivier, Andre; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a parameter for use during fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning to aid in the determination of the appropriate treatment volume and fractionation regimen that will minimize risk of late damage to normal tissue. Materials and Methods: We have used the linear quadratic model to assess the biologically effective dose at the periphery of stereotactic radiotherapy treatment volumes that impinge on the brain stem. This paper reports a retrospective study of 77 patients with malignant and benign intracranial lesions, treated between 1987 and 1995, with the dynamic rotation technique in 6 fractions over a period of 2 weeks, to a total dose of 42 Gy prescribed at the 90% isodose surface. From differential dose-volume histograms, we evaluated biologically effective dose-volume histograms and obtained an integral biologically-effective dose (IBED) in each case. Results: Of the 77 patients in the study, 36 had target volumes positioned so that the brain stem received more than 1% of the prescribed dose, and 4 of these, all treated for meningioma, developed serious late damage involving the brain stem. Other than type of lesion, the only significant variable was the volume of brain stem exposed. An analysis of the IBEDs received by these 36 patients shows evidence of a threshold value for late damage to the brain stem consistent with similar thresholds that have been determined for external beam radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have introduced a new parameter, the IBED, that may be used to represent the fractional effective dose to structures such as the brain stem that are partially irradiated with stereotactic dose distributions. The IBED is easily calculated prior to treatment and may be used to determine appropriate treatment volumes and fractionation regimens minimizing possible toxicity to normal tissue

  20. The effect of Quinpirol and Sulpiride on the brain activity waves in conscious and aneasthetized rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki AR

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain's waves are produced by spontaneous activity of neurons. These waves are changed by neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS. Concentration of these neurotransmitters can be changed by various drugs and total power of brain waves also increase or decrease by these drugs. In this research effect of Quinpirol and Sulpiride on the brain waves was investigated. Male wistar rats (weight 190-230 were aneasthetized with thiopental and two holes were made into the frontal and occipital area and two Ag/AgCl electrodes were fixed into these holes. One week after recovery, two electrodes were connected to the physiograph and the results were analyzed before and after intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of drugs by PC computer. Our results showed that intraperitoneal administration (5 mg/kg of diazepam reduced the depth of anesthesia. Conversely, intracerebroventricular injection of sulpiride increased the depth of anesthesia which was manifested by an increase in relative power of delta waves and reduction of relative power of alpha waves. This drug had a biphasic effect on EEG, at high doses in increased the depth of aneasthesia and total sleep. Wehteas depth of anesthesia was decreased at low dose. Simutanuos administration of sulpiride and quinpirole produced an effect on EEG similar to diazepam. As a result, biphasic effect of D2 agonist and antagonist drugs on brain waves are due to nonspecific action of these drugs on these receptors and this effect may be produced by other mechanisms

  1. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  2. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of ginger in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Kholy, Wael

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in neuronal damage caused by increased intracellular glucose leading to oxidative stress. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress markers. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time, whether the antioxidant properties of ginger has beneficial effects on the structural brain damage associated with diabetes. We investigated the observable neurodegenerative changes in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum after 4, 6, and 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and the effect(s) of ginger (500 mg/kg/day). Sections of frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using light microscopy. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical assessments of the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Ki67 were performed. Our results revealed a protective role of ginger on the diabetic brain via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In addition, this study revealed that the beneficial effect of ginger was also mediated by modulating the astroglial response to the injury, reducing AChE expression, and improving neurogenesis. These results represent a new insight into the beneficial effects of ginger on the structural alterations of diabetic brain and suggest that ginger might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic-induced damage in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidepressant effects of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice: Modulation of brain serotonin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-04-22

    Diabetes is a persistent metabolic disorder, which often leads to depression as a result of the impaired neurotransmitter function. Insulin is believed to have antidepressant effects in depression associated with diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the postulated effect is poorly understood. In the present study, it is hypothesized that insulin mediates an antidepressant effect in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice through modulation of the serotonin system in the brain. Therefore, the current study investigated the antidepressant effect of insulin in STZ induced diabetes in mice and insulin mediated modulation in the brain serotonin system. In addition, the possible pathways that lead to altered serotonin levels as a result of insulin administration were examined. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice of either sex were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ. After one week, diabetic mice received a single dose of either insulin or saline or escitalopram for 14days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test the behavioral despair effects using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), followed by biochemical estimations of serotonin concentrations and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the whole brain content. The results demonstrated that, STZ treated diabetic mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility in FST and TST as compared to non-diabetic mice, while insulin treatment significantly reversed the effect. Biochemical assays revealed that administration of insulin attenuated STZ treated diabetes induced neurochemical alterations as indicated by elevated serotonin levels and decreased MAO-A and MAO-B activities in the brain. Collectively, the data indicate that insulin exhibits antidepressant effects in depression associated with STZ induced diabetes in mice through the elevation of the brain serotonin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Error Augmentation on Brain Activation and Motor Learning of a Complex Locomotor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marchal-Crespo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors—error amplification and random force disturbance—and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task. Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the experiment with a robotic stepper (MARCOS in a 1.5 T MR scanner. The task consisted in tracking a Lissajous figure presented on a display by coordinating the legs in a gait-like movement pattern. Behavioral results showed that training without perturbations enhanced motor learning in initially less skilled subjects, while error amplification benefited better-skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, hampered transfer of learning. Randomly disturbing forces induced learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because the unexpected forces increased subjects' attention. Functional MRI revealed main effects of training strategy and skill level during training. A main effect of training strategy was seen in brain regions typically associated with motor control and learning, such as, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, intraparietal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Especially, random disturbance and no perturbation lead to stronger brain activation in similar brain regions than error amplification. Skill-level related effects were observed in the IPS, in parts of the superior parietal lobe (SPL, i.e., precuneus, and temporal cortex. These neuroimaging findings

  6. Transdermal Physostigmine—Absence of Effect on Topographic Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Neufeld

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine patients with primary degenerative dementia (PDD participated in an open trial of transdermal physostigmine (TPh. In order to evaluate the neurophysiologic effects of TPh, EEG data were recorded and compared at baseline and following 2 months of continuous treatment. There was no significant effect of TPh on EEG spectra in patients with PDD.

  7. Controlling the brain : How electrical stimulation can be used as an effective treatment for many brain disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dongen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Our brain is the center of our nervous system. Literally everything we do, from eating an apple to solving a Schrödinger equation, is controlled by it. Usually we don’t give much thought to the fact our brain is so utterly important, but imagine something starts to go drastically wrong inside the

  8. Why direct effects of predation complicate the social brain hypothesis: And how incorporation of explicit proximate behavioral mechanisms might help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Kolm, Niclas

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of studies have found that large brains may help animals survive by avoiding predation. These studies provide an alternative explanation for existing correlative evidence for one of the dominant hypotheses regarding the evolution of brain size in animals, the social brain hypothesis (SBH). The SBH proposes that social complexity is a major evolutionary driver of large brains. However, if predation both directly selects for large brains and higher levels of sociality, correlations between sociality and brain size may be spurious. We argue that tests of the SBH should take direct effects of predation into account, either by explicitly including them in comparative analyses or by pin-pointing the brain-behavior-fitness pathway through which the SBH operates. Existing data and theory on social behavior can then be used to identify precise candidate mechanisms and formulate new testable predictions. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of caffeine and maltodextrin mouth rinsing on P300, brain imaging, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, K; Roelands, B; Knaepen, K; Polfliet, M; Stiens, J; Meeusen, R

    2015-03-15

    Caffeine (CAF) and maltodextrin (MALT) mouth rinses (MR) improve exercise performance. The current experiment aims to determine the effect of CAF and MALT MR on cognitive performance and brain activity. Ten healthy male subjects (age 27 ± 3 yr) completed three experimental trials. Each trial included four Stroop tasks: two familiarization tasks, and one task before and one task after an MR period. The reaction time (in milliseconds) and accuracy (percent) of simple, congruent, and incongruent stimuli were assessed. Electroencephalography was applied throughout the experiment to record brain activity. The amplitudes and latencies of the P300 were determined during the Stroop tasks before and after the MR period. Subjects received MR with CAF (0.3 g/25 ml), MALT (1.6 g/25 ml), or placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. During MR, the brain imaging technique standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied. Magnitude-based inferences showed that CAF MR is likely trivial (63.5%) and likely beneficial (36.4%) compared with PLAC MR, and compared with MALT MR likely beneficial to reaction time on incongruent stimuli (61.6%). Additionally, both the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were activated only during CAF MR, potentially explaining the likely beneficial effect on reaction times. MALT MR increased brain activity only within the orbitofrontal cortex. However, this brain activation did not alter the reaction time. Furthermore, no significant differences in the accuracy of stimuli responses were observed between conditions. In conclusion, only CAF MR exerted a likely beneficial effect on reaction time due to the subsequent activation of both the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortexes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Differential pharmacological effects on brain reactivity and plasticity in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharine eBrem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown.We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated with monotherapy (AChEI (N=7 were compared to patients receiving combination therapy (COM (N=9 and a group of age-matched, healthy controls (HC (N=13. Cortical reactivity and plasticity of the motor cortex (MC were examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Cognitive functions were assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, activities of daily living with the ADCS-ADL. In addition we assessed the degree of brain atrophy by measuring brain-scalp distances in seven different brain areas.Patient groups differed in resting motor threshold and brain atrophy, with COM showing a lower motor threshold but less atrophy than AChEI. COM showed similar plasticity effects as the HC group, while plasticity was reduced in AChEI. Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI was impaired in both patient groups when compared to HC. ADAS-Cog scores were positively correlated with LICI measures and with brain atrophy, specifically in the left IPL.AD patients treated with mono- or combination therapy show distinct neurophysiological patterns. Further studies should investigate whether these measures might serve as biomarkers of treatment response and whether they could guide other therapeutic interventions.

  11. Deep brain stimulation effects in dystonia: time course of electrophysiological changes in early treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Bhatia, Kailash P; Quinn, Niall P; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Limousin, Patricia; Rothwell, John C

    2011-08-15

    Deep brain stimulation to the internal globus pallidus is an effective treatment for primary dystonia. The optimal clinical effect often occurs only weeks to months after starting stimulation. To better understand the underlying electrophysiological changes in this period, we assessed longitudinally 2 pathophysiological markers of dystonia in patients prior to and in the early treatment period (1, 3, 6 months) after deep brain stimulation surgery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to track changes in short-latency intracortical inhibition, a measure of excitability of GABA(A) -ergic corticocortical connections and long-term potentiation-like synaptic plasticity (as a response to paired associative stimulation). Deep brain stimulation remained on for the duration of the study. Prior to surgery, inhibition was reduced and plasticity increased in patients compared with healthy controls. Following surgery and commencement of deep brain stimulation, short-latency intracortical inhibition increased toward normal levels over the following months with the same monotonic time course as the patients' clinical benefit. In contrast, synaptic plasticity changed rapidly, following a nonmonotonic time course: it was absent early (1 month) after surgery, and then over the following months increased toward levels observed in healthy individuals. We postulate that before surgery preexisting high levels of plasticity form strong memories of dystonic movement patterns. When deep brain stimulation is turned on, it disrupts abnormal basal ganglia signals, resulting in the absent response to paired associative stimulation at 1 month. Clinical benefit is delayed because engrams of abnormal movement persist and take time to normalize. Our observations suggest that plasticity may be a driver of long-term therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: kinetic properties, regional distribution, and effects of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J C; Cooper, A J

    1986-11-01

    The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine pyrophosphate, but no requirement for Mg2+ under the assay conditions employed in this study. The pH optimum was between 7.2 and 7.4, but, at pH values below 7.0 or above 7.8, KGDHC activity decreased markedly. KGDHC activity in various brain regions followed the rank order: cerebral cortex greater than cerebellum greater than or equal to midbrain greater than striatum = hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than pons and medulla greater than olfactory bulb. Significant inhibition of brain mitochondrial KGDHC was noted at pathological concentrations of ammonia (0.2-2 mM). However, the purified bovine heart KGDHC and KGDHC activity in isolated rat heart mitochondria were much less sensitive to inhibition. At 5 mM both beta-methylene-D,L-aspartate and D,L-vinylglycine (inhibitors of cerebral glucose oxidation) inhibited the purified heart but not the brain mitochondrial enzyme complex. At approximately 10 microM, calcium slightly stimulated (by 10-15%) the brain mitochondrial KGDHC. At concentrations above 100 microM, calcium (IC50 = 1 mM) inhibited both brain mitochondrial and purified heart KGDHC. The present results suggest that some of the kinetic properties of the rat brain mitochondrial KGDHC differ from those of the purified bovine heart and rat heart mitochondrial enzyme complexes. They also suggest that the inhibition of KGDHC by ammonia and the consequent effect on the citric acid cycle fluxes may be of pathophysiological and/or pathogenetic importance in hyperammonemia and in diseases (e.g., hepatic encephalopathy, inborn errors of urea metabolism, Reye's syndrome) where hyperammonemia is a

  13. The Effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method on Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Nurulazam Md Zain, Ahmad; Salmiza, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method over conventional teaching method on eight graders in their understanding of simple electric circuits in Jordan. Participants (N = 273 students; M = 139, F = 134) were randomly selected from Bani Kenanah region-North of Jordan and randomly assigned to…

  14. Investigation of the Effects of Brain Teasers on Attention Spans of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Meryem; Hazar, Muhsin; Hazar, Zekihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of preschool children of age six. The study was conducted using an experimental design with a control group and pre-test/post-test. The sample of the study is children of age six selected via random appointment among ones who were enrolled in the Merkez…

  15. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Plenge, P.; Jørgensen, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional, an...

  16. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Swaab, Dick F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Majoie, Charles B.; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2016-01-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the

  17. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the

  18. Protective effect of grifolin against brain injury in an acute cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of grifolin against brain injury in an acute cerebral ischemia rat model. Methods: Rats were assigned to five groups: control, negative control, and grifolin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) treated groups, which received the drug for 2 weeks. All the animals were sacrificed at the end of ...

  19. Effects of Ecballium elaterium on brain in a rat model of sepsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demet Arslan

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... vascular edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the cerebral cortex. We found a ... according to the method described by Okur et al. [10]. ... Turkey) was used for surgical anesthesia in all ani- .... Fluid resuscitation, if delayed, may not improve the .... −6 induce behavioral-activating effects in mice. Brain.

  20. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  1. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  2. Effects of intravenous glucose on Dopaminergic function in the human brain in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haltia, Lauri T.; Rinne, Juha O.; Merisaari, Harri; Maguire, Ralph P.; Savontaus, Eriika; Helin, Semi; Nagren, Kjell; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    Dopamine is known to regulate food intake by modulating food reward via the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of high energy input (i.v. glucose) on striatal and thalamic dopamine release in overweight and lean individuals. We hypothesized that

  3. Conductive Hearing Loss during Infancy: Effects on Later Auditory Brain Stem Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; Finitzo, Terese

    1991-01-01

    Long-term effects on auditory electrophysiology from early fluctuating hearing loss were studied in 27 children, aged 5 to 7 years, who had been evaluated originally in infancy. Findings suggested that early fluctuating hearing loss disrupts later auditory brain stem electrophysiology. (Author/DB)

  4. Metabolic, gastrointestinal, and CNS neuropeptide effects of brain leptin administration in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, G; Seeley, RJ; Thiele, TE; Friedman, MI; Ji, H; Wilkinson, CW; Burn, P; Campfield, LA; Tenenbaum, R; Baskin, DG; Woods, SC; Schwartz, MW; Seeley, Randy J.; Thiele, Todd E.; Friedman, Mark I.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Woods, Stephen C.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    To investigate whether brain leptin involves neuropeptidergic pathways influencing ingestion, metabolism, and gastrointestinal functioning, leptin (3.5 mu g) was infused daily into the third cerebral ventricular of rats for 3 days. To distinguish between direct leptin effects and those secondary to

  5. Effect of brain death on gene expression and tissue activation in human donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, WN; Schuurs, TA; van der Hoeven, JAB; Fekken, S; Wiersema-Buist, J; Leuvenink, HGD; Hofker, Hendrik; Homan van der Heide, J; van Son, WJ; Ploeg, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background. After kidney transplantation, decreased graft survival is seen in grafts from brain dead (BD) donors compared with living donors. This might result partly from a progressive nonspecific inflammation in the graft. In this study, we focused on the effects of BD on inflammatory response

  6. Effect of brain death on gene expression and tissue activation in human donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Willemijn N.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van der Hoeven, Joost A. B.; Fekken, Susan; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Hofker, Sijbrand; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; van Son, Willem J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.

    2004-01-01

    After kidney transplantation, decreased graft survival is seen in grafts from brain dead (BD) donors compared with living donors. This might result partly from a progressive nonspecific inflammation in the graft. In this study, we focused on the effects of BD on inflammatory response (adhesion

  7. Effective return-to-work interventions after acquired brain injury: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker-Cools, Birgit H. P. M.; Daams, Joost G.; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    To gather knowledge about effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). A database search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library using keywords and Medical Subject Headings. Studies were included if they met inclusion

  8. Imaging Effects of Neurotrophic Factor Genes on Brain Plasticity and Repair in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    sensitive to focal and diffuse changes in brain tissue (including cortical thickness and subcortical volume measures, lesion volumetry , and voxel-based...sensitive to both focal and diffuse effects in gray and white matter, including cortical thickness and subcortical volume measures, lesion volumetry , and

  9. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain : a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity

  10. Oxytocin effects on complex brain networks are moderated by experiences of maternal love withdrawal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riem, M.M.E.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Tops, M.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in a variety of social processes. However, recent studies indicate that oxytocin does not enhance prosocial behavior in all people in all circumstances. Here, we investigate effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on intrinsic functional brain

  11. Brain uptake of a non-radioactive pseudo-carrier and its effect on the biodistribution of [18 F]AV-133 in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xianying; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Aifang; Han, Jie; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F.; Qiao, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: 9-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 18 F]AV-133) is a new PET imaging agent targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type II (VMAT2). To shorten the preparation of [ 18 F]AV-133 and to make it more widely available, a simple and rapid purification method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The SPE method produced doses containing the non-radioactive pseudo-carrier 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the brain uptake of AV-149 by UPLC-MS/MS and its effect on the biodistribution of [ 18 F]AV-133 in the brains of mice. Methods: The mice were injected with a bolus including [ 18 F]AV-133 and different doses of AV-149. Brain tissue and blood samples were harvested. The effect of different amounts of AV-149 on [ 18 F]AV-133 was evaluated by quantifying the brain distribution of radiolabelled tracer [ 18 F]AV-133. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma were analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method. Results: The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma exhibited a good linear relationship with the doses. The receptor occupancy curve was fit, and the calculated ED 50 value was 8.165 mg/kg. The brain biodistribution and regional selectivity of [ 18 F]AV-133 had no obvious differences at AV-149 doses lower than 0.1 mg/kg. With increasing doses of AV-149, the brain biodistribution of [ 18 F]AV-133 changed significantly. Conclusion: The results are important to further support that the improved radiolabelling procedure of [ 18 F]AV-133 using an SPE method may be suitable for routine clinical application

  12. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: a prospective neuroimaging study in novel users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Cristina; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; den Heeten, Gerard J; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained effects of ecstasy use on the brain in novel ecstasy users using repeated measurements with a combination of different neuroimaging parameters of neurotoxicity. At baseline, 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability of first ecstasy use were examined. After a mean period of 17 months follow-up, neuroimaging was repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users and 56 matched persistent ecstasy-naives and their outcomes were compared. Neuroimaging included [(123)I]beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (CIT) SPECT to measure serotonin transporter densities as indicators of serotonergic function; (1)H-MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure brain metabolites as indicators of neuronal damage; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusional motion of water molecules in the brain as indicators of axonal integrity; and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) to measure regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) which indicates brain perfusion. With this approach, both structural ((1)H-MRS and DTI) and functional ([(123)I]beta-CIT SPECT and PWI) aspects of neurotoxicity were combined. Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the globus pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in globus pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus. No changes in serotonin transporter densities and brain metabolites were observed. These findings suggest sustained effects of ecstasy on brain microvasculature, white

  13. Effects of hypoglycemia on human brain activation measured with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Adam W; Heptulla, Rubina A; Driesen, Naomi; Flanagan, Daniel; Goldberg, Philip A; Jones, Timothy W; Rife, Fran; Sarofin, Hedy; Tamborlane, William; Sherwin, Robert; Gore, John C

    2006-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure the effects of acute hypoglycemia caused by passive sensory stimulation on brain activation. Visual stimulation was used to generate blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, which was monitored during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic and euglycemic clamp studies. Hypoglycemia (50 +/- 1 mg glucose/dl) decreased the fMRI signal relative to euglycemia in 10 healthy human subjects: the fractional signal change was reduced by 28 +/- 12% (P variations in blood glucose levels may modulate BOLD signals in the healthy brain.

  14. Probabilistic mapping of deep brain stimulation effects in essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till A Dembek

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Our results support the assumption, that the ZI might be a very effective target for tremor suppression. However stimulation inside the ZI and in its close vicinity was also related to the occurrence of stimulation-induced side-effects, so it remains unclear whether the VIM or the ZI is the overall better target. The study demonstrates the use of PSMs for target selection and evaluation. While their accuracy has to be carefully discussed, they can improve the understanding of DBS effects and can be of use for other DBS targets in the therapy of neurological or psychiatric disorders as well. Furthermore they provide a priori information about expected DBS effects in a certain region and might be helpful to clinicians in programming DBS devices in the future.

  15. Multimodal Characterization of the Late Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Methodological Overview of the Late Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L; Keene, C Dirk; Perl, Daniel P; Iacono, Diego; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Stewart, William; Mac Donald, Christine L; Augustinack, Jean; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Estrada, Camilo; Flannery, Elissa; Gordon, Wayne A; Grabowski, Thomas J; Hansen, Kelly; Hoffman, Jeanne; Kroenke, Christopher; Larson, Eric B; Lee, Patricia; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A; McPhee, Jeanne; Moreau, Allison L; Renz, Anne; Richmire, KatieRose; Stevens, Allison; Tang, Cheuk Y; Tirrell, Lee S; Trittschuh, Emily H; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Wald, Lawrence L; Wu, Ona; Yendiki, Anastasia; Young, Liza; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Crane, Paul K; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen

    2018-05-03

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a single moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Histopathological studies describe complex neurodegenerative pathologies in individuals exposed to single moderate-to-severe TBI or repetitive mild TBI, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, the clinicopathological links between TBI and post-traumatic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, PD, and CTE remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the methodology of the Late Effects of TBI (LETBI) study, whose goals are to characterize chronic post-traumatic neuropathology and to identify in vivo biomarkers of post-traumatic neurodegeneration. LETBI participants undergo extensive clinical evaluation using National Institutes of Health TBI Common Data Elements, proteomic and genomic analysis, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and prospective consent for brain donation. Selected brain specimens undergo ultra-high resolution ex vivo MRI and histopathological evaluation including whole-mount analysis. Co-registration of ex vivo and in vivo MRI data enables identification of ex vivo lesions that were present during life. In vivo signatures of postmortem pathology are then correlated with cognitive and behavioral data to characterize the clinical phenotype(s) associated with pathological brain lesions. We illustrate the study methods and demonstrate proof of concept for this approach by reporting results from the first LETBI participant, who despite the presence of multiple in vivo and ex vivo pathoanatomic lesions had normal cognition and was functionally independent until her mid-80s. The LETBI project represents a multidisciplinary effort to characterize post-traumatic neuropathology and identify in vivo signatures of postmortem pathology in a prospective study.

  16. Effects of deferoxamine on blood-brain barrier disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjiang Li

    Full Text Available Blood brain barrier (BBB disruption is a key mechanism of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-induced brain injury. This study examined the mechanism of iron-induced BBB disruption after SAH and investigated the potential therapeutic effect of iron chelation on SAH. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats had an endovascular perforation of left internal carotid artery bifurcation or sham operation. The rats were treated with deferoxamine (DFX or vehicle (100mg/kg for a maximum of 7 days. Brain edema, BBB leakage, behavioral and cognitive impairment were examined. In SAH rat, the peak time of brain edema and BBB impairment in the cortex was at day 3 after SAH. SAH resulted in a significant increase in ferritin expression in the cortex. The ferritin positive cells were colocalized with endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Compared with vehicle, DFX caused less ferritin upregulation, brain water content, BBB impairment, behavioral and cognitive deficits in SAH rats. The results suggest iron overload could be a therapeutic target for SAH induced BBB damage.

  17. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008

  18. Metabolic connectivity mapping reveals effective connectivity in the resting human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Utz, Lukas; Castrillón, Gabriel; Grimmer, Timo; Rauschecker, Josef P; Ploner, Markus; Friston, Karl J; Drzezga, Alexander; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-12

    Directionality of signaling among brain regions provides essential information about human cognition and disease states. Assessing such effective connectivity (EC) across brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alone has proven difficult, however. We propose a novel measure of EC, termed metabolic connectivity mapping (MCM), that integrates undirected functional connectivity (FC) with local energy metabolism from fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquired simultaneously. This method is based on the concept that most energy required for neuronal communication is consumed postsynaptically, i.e., at the target neurons. We investigated MCM and possible changes in EC within the physiological range using "eyes open" versus "eyes closed" conditions in healthy subjects. Independent of condition, MCM reliably detected stable and bidirectional communication between early and higher visual regions. Moreover, we found stable top-down signaling from a frontoparietal network including frontal eye fields. In contrast, we found additional top-down signaling from all major clusters of the salience network to early visual cortex only in the eyes open condition. MCM revealed consistent bidirectional and unidirectional signaling across the entire cortex, along with prominent changes in network interactions across two simple brain states. We propose MCM as a novel approach for inferring EC from neuronal energy metabolism that is ideally suited to study signaling hierarchies in the brain and their defects in brain disorders.

  19. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  20. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, D.; Lithgow, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  1. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Brain Connectivity and Body Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jae; Cha, Eun Joo; Kim, Sun Mi; Kang, Kyung Doo; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have reported that Taekwondo training could improve body perception, control and brain activity, as assessed with an electroencephalogram. This study aimed to assess body intelligence and brain connectivity in children with Taekwondo training as compared to children without Taekwondo training. Fifteen children with Taekwondo training (TKD) and 13 age- and sex-matched children who had no previous experience of Taekwondo training (controls) were recruited. Body intelligence, clinical characteristics and brain connectivity in all children were assessed with the Body Intelligence Scale (BIS), self-report, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The mean BIS score in the TKD group was higher than that in the control group. The TKD group showed increased low-frequency fluctuations in the right frontal precentral gyrus and the right parietal precuneus, compared to the control group. The TKD group showed positive cerebellum vermis (lobe VII) seed to the right frontal, left frontal, and left parietal lobe. The control group showed positive cerebellum seed to the left frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex. Relative to the control group, the TKD group showed increased functional connectivity from cerebellum seed to the right inferior frontal gyrus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effect of Taekwondo training on brain connectivity in children. Taekwondo training improved body intelligence and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the parietal and frontal cortex.

  2. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin; Zhu Lingli

    2001-01-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium 235 U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 β (IL- β), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells

  3. Changes in the organ procurement system in South Korea: effects on brain-dead donor numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S D; Kim, J H

    2009-11-01

    In Korea, the Organ Transplantation Act came into effect in 2000, establishing the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) with centralized authority for organ procurement as well as for approval of donors and recipients to ensure fair organ allocation. However, the number of brain-dead donors decreased sharply, and the organ allocation system proved inefficient. The government revised the Organ Transplantation Act in August 2002, introducing an incentive system. If a transplantation hospital formed a Committee for Brain Death Evaluation and a Hospital Organ Procurement Organization, it could receive a kidney from a brain dead-donor as an incentive to foster organ procurement regardless of the KONOS wait list. The government also launched a pilot brain-dead donor registry program to strengthen Hospital Organ Procurement Organization activity. If local hospitals collaborated with specialized hospitals in organ procurement, local hospitals obtained financial incentives. But because the organ shortage problem has not been resolved, the government has proposed four initiatives: first, broadening the incentive system, which makes it possible to give each specialized hospital a choice of one of eight organs from each donor as an incentive; second, development of an Independent Organ Procurement Organization; third introduction of an opt-out system; and last, improvement of the Committee for Brain Death Evaluation system. It is uncertain which initiatives will be adopted, but changes in organ procurement systems are nonetheless considered a key to solve the organ shortage problem in Korea.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of NAP against excitotoxic brain damage in the newborn mice: implications for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, P; Passemard, S; Mok, A; Schwendimann, L; Gozes, I; Gressens, P

    2011-01-26

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) was shown to be essential for embryogenesis and brain development while NAP, an active motif of ADNP, is neuroprotective in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we examined the protective potential of ADNP/NAP in a mouse model of excitotoxic brain lesion mimicking brain damage associated with cerebral palsy. We demonstrated that NAP had a potent neuroprotective effect against ibotenate-induced excitotoxic damage in the cortical plate and the white matter of P5 mice, and moderate against brain lesions of P0 mice. In contrast, endogenous ADNP appears not to be involved in the response to excitotoxic challenge in the studied model. Our findings further show that NAP reduced the number of apoptotic neurons through activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway in the cortical plate or both PI-3K/Akt and MAPK/MEK1 kinases in the white matter. In addition, NAP prevented ibotenate-induced loss of pre-oligodendrocytes without affecting the number of astrocytes or activated microglia around the site of injection. These findings indicate that protective actions of NAP are mediated by triggering transduction pathways that are crucial for neuronal and oligodendroglial survival, thus, NAP might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating developing brain damage. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute dimethyl sulfoxide therapy in brain edema. Part 3: effect of a 3-hour infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, M; James, H E; Camp, P E; Werner, R; Marshall, L F; Tung, H

    1982-01-01

    Albino rabbits with experimental brain edema produced by a combined cryogenic left hemisphere lesion and metabolic 6-aminonicotinamide lesion were administered a 3-hour intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Simultaneous recording of intracranial pressure (ICP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and central venous pressure (CVP) and electroencephalography were performed while the animals were being ventilated mechanically to produce a constant Pa CO2 value (38-42 torr). At the end of the infusion, the brain water and electrolyte contents were measured. There was a persistent and progressive reduction of ICP during the infusion, the nadir occurring at 3 hours (p less than 0.005 from zero time), with no change in SAP or CVP. There was a reduction of brain water in both hemispheres when compared to untreated controls, but this was significant for the right hemisphere only (p less than 0.005). There was a significant reduction of the brain sodium content for both hemispheres, but no significant change occurred in brain potassium content. The DMSO infusion was effective not only in reducing ICP, but also in sustaining this reduction for 3 hours.

  6. Effects of enriched uranium on developing brain damage of neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guixiong, Gu; Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Shuqin, Yang; Lingli, Zhu [Suzhou Medical College, Suzhou (China)

    2001-04-01

    The model of irradiation-induced brain damage in vivo was settled first of all. The micro-auto-radiographic tracing showed that when the rat's brain at postnatal day after lateral ventricle injection with enriched uranium {sup 235}U the radionuclides were mainly accumulated in the nucleus. At the same time autoradiographic tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. The effects of cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by determination of multiple parameters. In the growth and development of the neonatal rat's cerebrum exposure to enriched uranium, the somatic growth such as body weight and brain weight increase was lower significantly. The data indicated that the neonatal wistar rats having cerebrum exposure to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The changes of neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-1 {beta} (IL- {beta}), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and endothelin (ET) in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalons of the rat brain after expose to alpha irradiation by enriched uranium were examined with radioimmunoassay. The results showed that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of enriched uranium, and can be distinctly inhibited by the high dose. The data in view of biochemistry indicated firstly that alpha irradiation from enriched uranium on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility, fragility and compensation in nervous cells.

  7. Radio frequency radiation effects on protein kinase C activity in rats' brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulraj, R.; Behari, J.

    2004-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of amplitude modulated radio frequency (rf) radiation (112 MHz amplitude-modulated at 16 Hz) on calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) activity on developing rat brain. Thirty-five days old Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were exposed 2 h per day for 35 days at a power density of 1.0 mW/cm 2 (SAR=1.48 W/kg). After exposure, rats were sacrificed and PKC was determined in whole brain, hippocampus and whole brain minus hippocampus separately. A significant decrease in the enzyme level was observed in the exposed group as compared to the sham exposed group. These results indicate that this type of radiation could affect membrane bound enzymes associated with cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation. This may also suggest an affect on the behavior of chronically exposed rats

  8. Effects of anesthesia on [11C]raclopride binding in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Simonsen, Mette; Møller, Arne

    Background Very often rats are anesthetized prior to micro positron emission tomography (microPET) brain imaging in order to prevent head movements. Anesthesia can be administered by inhalation agents, such as isoflurane, or injection mixtures, such as fentanyl-fluanisone-midazolam. Unfortunately......, anesthesia affects a variety of physiological variables, including in the brain. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the effects of inhalation and injection anesthesia on the binding potential of the dopaminergic D2/3 tracer [11C]raclopride used for PET brain imaging in human and animal studies....... Materials & Methods Nine male Lew/Mol rats were assigned to either inhalation (isoflurane; N=4) or injection (fentanyl-fluanisone-midazolam; N=5) anesthesia. Catheters were surgically placed in femoral arteries and veins for blood sampling and tracer injection. After a short attenuation scan, the rats were...

  9. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on brain exchange of amino acids during sustained exercise in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Møller, Kirsten; Secher, Niels Henry

    2005-01-01

    occasions; either supplemented with a 6% carbohydrate solution or with flavoured water (placebo). Catheters were inserted into the right internal jugular vein and the radial artery of the non-dominant arm. The brain exchange of amino acids during exercise was calculated from the arterial-jugular venous......AIM: This study investigated the effect of prolonged exercise with and without carbohydrate intake on the brain exchange of amino acids, especially focussing on tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). METHODS: Five male subjects exercised for 3 h on a cycle ergometer at 200 +/- 7 W on two...... concentration difference multiplied by plasma flow. RESULTS: About 106 micromol (22 mg) of tryptophan was taken up by the brain during exercise in the placebo trial, whereas no significant uptake was observed in the carbohydrate trial. In accordance, the arterial concentration of free tryptophan increased from...

  10. The effect of brain hematoma location on volumetric inductive phase shift spectroscopy of the brain with circular and magnetron sensor coils: a numerical simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, R; González, C A; Rubinsky, B

    2008-01-01

    This numerical simulation study addressed the effects of the location of a discrete brain hematoma on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the brain measured with an induction circular sensor coil and an induction magnetron sensor coil. The theoretical study simulates the brain cavity as a circular sphere transversely centered with respect to the circular and magnetron sensor coils. As a case study for the effects of hematoma location, we employed similar size simulated spherical hematomas placed at three different positions from the center of the brain outward. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of the field equations in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz revealed a substantial effect of hematoma location on the ability of both the circular and magnetron sensors to detect the hematomas. In particular it was found that there are frequencies, which may be related to resonance, at which the occurrence of the hematomas has no effect on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the brain. Furthermore it was found that the relative sensitivity of circular and magnetron sensor coils with respect to the occurrence of hematoma varies with the location of the hematoma

  11. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vassili A; Kruggel, Frithjof; von Cramon, D Yves

    2003-07-01

    Effects of gender and age on structural brain asymmetry were studied by 3D texture analysis in 380 adults. Asymmetry is detected by comparing the complex 3D gray-scale image patterns in the left and right cerebral hemispheres as revealed by anatomical T1-weighted MRI datasets. The Talairach and Tournoux parcellation system was applied to study the asymmetry on five levels: the whole cerebrum, nine coronal sections, 12 axial sections, boxes resulting from both coronal and axial subdivisions, and by a sliding spherical window of 9 mm diameter. The analysis revealed that the brain asymmetry increases in the anterior-posterior direction starting from the central region onward. Male brains were found to be more asymmetric than female. This gender-related effect is noticeable in all brain areas but is most significant in the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, the adjacent white matter regions in the temporal stem and the knee of the optic radiation, the thalamus, and the posterior cingulate. The brain asymmetry increases significantly with age in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, coronal radiata, and knee region of the internal capsule. Asymmetry decreases with age in the optic radiation, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus. The texture-based method reported here is based on extended multisort cooccurrence matrices that employ intensity, gradient, and anisotropy features in a uniform way. It is sensitive, simple to reproduce, robust, and unbiased in the sense that segmentation of brain compartments and spatial transformations are not necessary. Thus, it should be considered as another tool for digital morphometry in neuroscience.

  12. Effects of lanthanum exposure on elemental distribution in rat brains measured by synchrotron radiation XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liuxing; Xiao Haiqing; He Xiao; Liu Nianqing; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Zhang Zhiyong

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a coherent series of 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium and possessing very similar chemical properties. In recent decades, with the rapid increase of the exploitation of REE resources and their applications to modern industry and daily life, particularly to agriculture as fertilizer additives in China, more and more REEs are coming into environmental system as well as food chain through various ways. It has become increasingly important to obtain more information on the physiological function of REEs and their long-term biological effects on body of living beings. Epidemiological investigations found that the intelligence quotients (IQ) of children from the REE-high background regions are obviously different from that of the normal region. This indicated that REEs probably affect the function of brain. However, the mechanism is totally unknown. The contents and distributions of major and trace elements are sometimes good indicators of the physiological and pathological conditions of human and animal brains In this study, the effects of subchronic lanthanum exposure on the elemental distribution in the rat brains were studied. Wistar rats were exposed to lanthanum chloride through oral administration at O, 0.1, 2, and 40-mg/kg doses for 6 months. The elements such as Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in brain slices were identified by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis. Differences in two-dimensional maps of elemental distribution were noticed. Cl, Ca, and Zn were primarily concentrated in hippocampus of the controls. With the increase of the lanthanum dosage, the Ca and Zn levels were significantly decreased, while the Cu levels were significantly elevated in cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Our results suggest that subchronic lanthanum exposure in rats appears to change elemental distribution in brain. The impact of lanthanides on brain function is not negligible.

  13. Effects of insulin on hexose transport across blood-brain barrier in normoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, H.; Lucignani, G.; Nehlig, A.; Patlak, C.; Pettigrew, K.; Kennedy, C.; Sokoloff, L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of insulin on 3-O-[ 14 C] methylglucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were studied in conscious rats under steady-state normoglycemic conditions. The [ 14 C]methylglucose was infused intravenously at a constant rate, and animals were killed at various times between 5 and 30 min after the initiation of the infusion. The time course of the arterial plasma concentration of [ 14 C]methylglucose was determined in timed arterial blood samples taken during the infusion. Local cerebral tissue concentrations of [ 14 C]methylglucose at the time of killing were determined by quantitative autoradiography of brain sections. The rate constants for inward and outward transport of [ 14 C]methylglucose across the BBB, K 1 , and k 2 , respectively, were estimated by a least-squares, best-fit of a kinetic equation to the measured time courses of plasma and tissue concentrations. The equilibrium distribution ration, K 1 /k 2 , for [ 14 C]methylglucose in brain increased by ∼ 10-11% in the hyperinsulinemic animals. Because 3-O-[ 14 C]methylglucose shares the same carrier that transports glucose and other hexoses across the BBB, these results suggest that hyperinsulinemia decreases the rate constants for transport but increases the distribution space for hexoses in brain. These effects are, however, quite small and are probably minor or negligible when compared with the major effects of insulin in other tissues

  14. The effect of physical activity on the brain derived neurotrophic factor: from animal to human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A

    2010-10-01

    It is well documented that physical activity can induce a number of various stimuli which are able to enhance the strength and endurance performance of muscles. Moreover, regular physical activity can preserve or delay the appearance of several metabolic disorders in the human body. Physical exercise is also known to enhance the mood and cognitive functions of active people, although the physiological backgrounds of these effects remain unclear. In recent years, since the pioneering study in the past showed that physical activity increases the expression of the brain derived neurothophic factor (BDNF) in the rat brain, a number of studies were undertaken in order to establish the link between that neurothrophin and post-exercise enhancement of mood and cognitive functions in humans. It was recently demonstrated that physical exercise can increase plasma and/or serum BDNF concentration in humans. It was also reported that physical exercise or electrical stimulation can increase the BDNF expression in the skeletal muscles. In the present review, we report the current state of research concerning the effect of a single bout of exercise and training on the BDNF expression in the brain, in both the working muscles as well as on its concentrations in the blood. We have concluded that there may be potential benefits of the exercise-induced enhancement of the BDNF expression and release in the brain as well as in the peripheral tissues, resulting in the improvement of the functioning of the body, although this effect, especially in humans, requires more research.

  15. Adolescent binge drinking linked to abnormal spatial working memory brain activation: differential gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F

    2011-10-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Forty binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males), aged 16 to 19 years, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and an SWM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant binge drinking status × gender interactions were found (p working memory performances (p performance (p gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during an SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that blood oxygen level-dependent activation is affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive marker of alcohol impact to the brain on future behaviors, such as driving safety, academic performance, and neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Vaska, Paul; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Alexoff, Dave; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Context The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. Objective To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes (“on” condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated (“off” condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm3) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Main Outcome Measure Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism (µmol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Results Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 µmol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67–4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001

  17. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucos Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Vaska, P.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Alexoff, D.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ( 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ('on' condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ('off' condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm 3 ) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism ((micro)mol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 (micro)mol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2); P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone

  18. Controlling the brain: How electrical stimulation can be used as an effective treatment for many brain disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dongen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Our brain is the center of our nervous system. Literally everything we do, from eating an apple to solving a Schrödinger equation, is controlled by it. Usually we don’t give much thought to the fact our brain is so utterly important, but imagine something starts to go drastically wrong inside the brain. Not being able to solve a Schrödinger equation might not be a big problem for the majority of people, but eating an apple is.

  19. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  20. How art changes your brain: differential effects of visual art production and cognitive art evaluation on functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood.

  1. How Art Changes Your Brain: Differential Effects of Visual Art Production and Cognitive Art Evaluation on Functional Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R.; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood. PMID:24983951

  2. A meta-analytic review of the effects of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    OpenAIRE

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Bugatti, Matteo; Otto, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates that exercise improves cognition and mood, with preliminary evidence suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate these effects. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between exercise and increased BDNF levels in humans across multiple exercise paradigms. We conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies (N = 1,111 participants) examining the effect of exercise on BDNF levels in three e...

  3. Investigating the acute and long-term effects of traumatic brain injury on the immune and fibrinolytic system

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA DAGLAS

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a serious condition that results in long-term disability in most patients. This thesis investigated the early and long-term effects of the immune and fibrinolytic response (blood clot breakdown), and the link between these two systems after brain injury in mice. A unique discovery was that the chronic immune response, over a period of 8 months, directly contributes to a worse outcome after brain injury. We also found gender-specific differences occurring at the early...

  4. Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liye; Song, Yuehan; Li, Feng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jie; Mao, Meng; Wu, Fengzhi; Wu, Ying; Li, Sinai; Guan, Binghe; Liu, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medicine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang's pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang ...

  5. Effect of fentanyl on 125I-β-CIT uptake in mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Lin Xiangtong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fentanyl on 125 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane ( 125 I-β-CIT) uptake in mice brain. Methods: 1) KM mice groups of five were given different doses of fentanyl, and 10 min or 1 h later were given a dose of 125 I-β-CIT. 2)Two groups of animals were killed at 2 h after injection of 125 I-β-CIT. 3)One group of animals were killed at 1 h after injection of 125 I-β-CIT. Results: 1)In the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain, a dose-dependent increase in uptake (%ID/g or %ID) of 125 I-β-CIT was detected at the fentanyl doses ranging from 125 to 300 μg/kg, and the uptakes of hippocampus and cerebellum were higher than that of the controls. There was a great difference in the value of %ID/g or %ID between the group treated with 250 μg/kg fentanyl and the control group; while at the doses from 12.5 to 100 μg/kg, a dose-dependent decrease in uptake in the same regions was observed and all the uptake levels were lower (hippocampus: except 62.5 and 12.5 μg/kg groups; brain stem: except 62.5 μg/kg group) than that of the controls. 2)The uptakes of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain in the groups injected with 125 I-β-CIT 10 min after fentanyl treatment were higher than that in the groups injected with 125 I-β-CIT 1 h after fentanyl treatment. 3)The binding of 125 I-β-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain in the groups killed at 1 h after injection of 125 I-β-CIT was higher than that in the control group, but without significant difference. Conclusion: Fentanyl may have different effects on 125 I-β-CIT at various time points and doses

  6. Brain plasticity effects of neuromodulation against multiple sclerosis fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca eTecchio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RationaleWe recently reported on the efficacy of a personalized transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS treatment in reducing MS fatigue. That result supports the notion that interventions targeted at modifying unbalanced interactions within the sensorimotor network could represent valid non-pharmacological treatments. ObjectiveThe present work aimed at assessing whether the mentioned intervention also induces changes in the excitability of cortical areas. MethodTwo separate groups of fatigued MS patients were given a 5-day tDCS treatments targeting respectively the whole body somatosensory areas (S1wb and the hand sensorimotor areas (SM1hand. The study had a double blind, sham-controlled, randomized, cross-over (Real vs. Sham design. Before and after each treatment, we measured fatigue levels (by the modified Fatigue Impact Scale, mFIS, motor evoked potentials (MEPs in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP in response to median nerve stimulation. We took MEPs and SEPs as measures of the excitability of the primary motor area (M1 and the primary somatosensory area (S1 respectively.ResultsThe Real S1wb treatment produced a 27% reduction of the mFIS baseline level, while the SM1hand treatment showed no difference between Real and Sham stimulations. M1 excitability increased on average 6 % of the baseline in the S1wb group and 40% in the SM1hand group. Observed SEP changes were not significant and we found no association between M1 excitability changes and mFIS decrease.ConclusionsThe tDCS treatment was more effective against MS fatigue when the electrode was focused on the bilateral whole body somatosensory area. Changes in S1 and M1 excitability did not correlate with symptoms amelioration.SignificanceThe neuromodulation treatment that proved effective against MS fatigue induced only minor variations of the motor cortex excitability, not enough to explain the beneficial effects of

  7. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M

    2007-10-01

    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  8. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  9. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert eBoonstra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food supplement version of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB, but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  10. Dosimetric analysis of the alopecia preventing effect of hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Anand; Sampson, Carrie; LaRosa, Salvatore; Floyd, Scott R.; Wong, Eric T.; Uhlmann, Erik J.; Sengupta, Soma; Kasper, Ekkehard M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is widely used for the treatment of brain metastases. Cognitive decline and alopecia are recognized adverse effects of WBRT. Recently hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation therapy (HS-WBRT) has been shown to reduce the incidence of memory loss. In this study, we found that multi-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with strict constraints to the brain parenchyma and to the hippocampus, reduces follicular scalp dose and prevents alopecia. Suitable patients befitting the inclusion criteria of the RTOG 0933 trial received Hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation. On follow up, they were noticed to have full scalp hair preservation. 5 mm thickness of follicle bearing scalp in the radiation field was outlined in the planning CT scans. Conventional opposed lateral WBRT radiation fields were applied to these patient-specific image sets and planned with the same nominal dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The mean and maximum dose to follicle bearing skin and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) data were analyzed for conventional and HS-WBRT. Paired t-test was used to compare the means. All six patients had fully preserved scalp hair and remained clinically cognitively intact 1–3 months after HS-WBRT. Compared to conventional WBRT, in addition to the intended sparing of the Hippocampus, HS-WBRT delivered significantly lower mean dose (22.42 cGy vs. 16.33 cGy, p < 0.0001), V 24 (9 cc vs. 44 cc, p < 0.0000) and V 30 (9 cc vs. 0.096 cc, p = 0.0106) to follicle hair bearing scalp and prevented alopecia. There were no recurrences in the Hippocampus area. HS-WBRT, with an 11-field set up as described, while attempting to conserve hippocampus radiation and maintain radiation dose to brain inadvertently spares follicle-bearing scalp and prevents alopecia

  11. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  12. A review of endocrine late effects in children after brain tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.; Langer, T.; Beck, J.D.; Doerr, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Advances in the therapy of malignant brain tumors in children have led to a significant improvement in survival rates over the last few decades. As a result, the recognition and treatment of late effects have become more important. In addition to secondary tumors and deficiencies in cognitive and intellectual skills, the resulting endocrine disturbances play an important role. Method: Own data and literature review. Results: Deviations from the normal growth hormone secretion are usually recognized first and are most common, and have already been observed after conventional whole brain irradiation with 18 G. With some delay, other hypothalamopituitary deficiencies may occur, including panhypopituitarism. Puberty may come too early or too late or may not appear at all. Girls in particular, frequently experience an early and rapid pubertal development after brain tumor therapy, which may lead to further reduction in height due to an accelerated bone maturation. Functional disturbances of the thyroid and adrenal glands due to hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency are less common, and usually seen only after a radiation dose of over 40 Gy. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood brain tumors must be considered as long-term survivors, in whom the first therapy-induced long-term side effects appear almost immediately after the end of therapy. Maximum quality of life for the individual patient can only be achieved by long-term care and close cooperation of specialists in the different medical disciplines involved. (orig.) [de

  13. Early Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation on Foetal Brain Development in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Ghiani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans and animal models link maternal infection and imbalanced levels of inflammatory mediators in the foetal brain to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In a number of animal models, it was shown that exposure to viral or bacterial agents during a period that corresponds to the second trimester in human gestation triggers brain and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. However, little is known about the early cellular and molecular events elicited by inflammation in the foetal brain shortly after maternal infection has occurred. In this study, maternal infection was mimicked by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 200 μg of LPS (lipopolysaccharide/kg to timed-pregnant rats at GD15 (gestational day 15 and GD16. Increased thickness of the CP (cortical plate and hippocampus together with abnormal distribution of immature neuronal markers and decreased expression of markers for neural progenitors were observed in the LPS-exposed foetal forebrains at GD18. Such effects were accompanied by decreased levels of reelin and the radial glial marker GLAST (glial glutamate transporter, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum and foetal forebrains. Foetal inflammation elicited by maternal injections of LPS has discrete detrimental effects on brain development. The early biochemical and morphological changes described in this work begin to explain the sequelae of early events that underlie the neurobehavioural deficits reported in humans and animals exposed to prenatal insults.

  14. Effects of different concentrations of pollen extract on brain tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Gulhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant capacities of pollen extract applied at different concentrations on biochemical parameters in brain tissues of rainbow trouts. Methods: The effective concentration of pollen was determined with some biochemical parameters in brain tissues of fish treated at various concentrations of the pollen extract (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L for 96 h. The malondialdehyde levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and amounts of total free sulfhydryl groups were analyzed in fish brain. Results: The malondialdehyde levels decreased in groups of 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L pollen-treated compared to control group (P<0.05. The highest level of total antioxidant status (P<0.05 and the lowest value (P<0.05 of the total oxidant status was 10 mg/L concentration of pollen. Oxidative stress index and level of sulfhydryl groups showed lowest values (P<0.05 in 10 mg/L pollen treated group compared with control group. Conclusions: To apply the pollen to fish reduces the detrimental effects and modulates oxidative status via activating antioxidant defense systems at brain tissue. As a result, pollen can be added up to 10 mg/L to the medium of rainbow trout to improve health of fish.

  15. Noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation: Local and distant effects for motor recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Lei eLiew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS may enhance motor recovery after neurological injury through the causal induction of plasticity processes. Neurological injury, such as stroke, often results in serious long-term physical disabilities, and despite intensive therapy, a large majority of brain injury survivors fail to regain full motor function. Emerging research suggests that NIBS techniques, such as transcranial magnetic (TMS and direct current (tDCS stimulation, in association with customarily used neurorehabilitative treatments, may enhance motor recovery. This paper provides a general review on TMS and tDCS paradigms, the mechanisms by which they operate and the stimulation techniques used in neurorehabilitation, specifically stroke. TMS and tDCS influence regional neural activity underlying the stimulation location and also distant interconnected network activity throughout the brain. We discuss recent studies that document NIBS effects on global brain activity measured with various neuroimaging techniques, which help to characterize better strategies for more accurate NIBS stimulation. These rapidly growing areas of inquiry may hold potential for improving the effectiveness of NIBS-based interventions for clinical rehabilitation.

  16. Effects of neuroinflammation on the regenerative capacity of brain stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Isabella; Barlati, Sergio; Bosetti, Francesca

    2011-03-01

    In the adult brain, neurogenesis under physiological conditions occurs in the subventricular zone and in the dentate gyrus. Although the exact molecular mechanisms that regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation are largely unknown, several factors have been shown to affect neurogenesis. Decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been recognized as one of the mechanisms of age-related brain dysfunction. Furthermore, in pathological conditions of the central nervous system associated with neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines can affect the capacity of brain stem cells and alter neurogenesis. In this review, we summarize the state of the art on the effects of neuroinflammation on adult neurogenesis and discuss the use of the lipopolysaccharide-model to study the effects of inflammation and reactive-microglia on brain stem cells and neurogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the possible causes underlying reduced neurogenesis with normal aging and potential anti-inflammatory, pro-neurogenic interventions aimed at improving memory deficits in normal and pathological aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Effects of low dose radiation pretreatment on radiation injuried brain's free radicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fuqi; Wang Cheng; Xie Hong; Tian Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low dose radiation pretreatment on radiation in- juried brain's free radicle to provide some useful data of brain radiation injury protection. Methods: One hundred mGy was selected as the pretreatment does, 25 Gy was selected as the challenge does. Experiment rats were divided into three groups randomly, group one as simple group:the group irradiated without exposing to pre-irradiation; group two as 6 h-group: the group irradiated with LDR pretreatment 6 h before exposing to 25 Gy irradiation; group three as 24 h-group:the group irradiated with LDR pretreatment 24 h before 25 Gy irradiation. The observation was done 6 hour's after irradiation, the effect of LDR pretreatment on increasing activity of the superoxide dismutase(SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) after the brain tissue homogenate were detected. Results: Com- pared with the simple group, the group with LDR pretreatment showed increasing of SOD and decreasing of MDA at the 6th hour after 25Gy irradiation. In addition, there was no difference between the 6 h-group and the 24 h-group. Conclusion: LDR pretreatment can increase SOD and decrease MDA in some period. It could infer that the suitable LDR pretreatment could play a protective role in the brain radiation injury. (authors)

  18. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Hyperoxia-Induced Toxicity in the Neonatal Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sifringer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective agonist of α2-receptors with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine have been reported in various brain injury models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on neurodegeneration, oxidative stress markers, and inflammation following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. Six-day-old Wistar rats received different concentrations of dexmedetomidine (1, 5, or 10 µg/kg bodyweight and were exposed to 80% oxygen for 24 h. Sex-matched littermates kept in room air and injected with normal saline or dexmedetomidine served as controls. Dexmedetomidine pretreatment significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced neurodegeneration in different brain regions of the neonatal rat. In addition, dexmedetomidine restored the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio and attenuated the levels of malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, after exposure to high oxygen concentration. Moreover, administration of dexmedetomidine induced downregulation of IL-1β on mRNA and protein level in the developing rat brain. Dexmedetomidine provides protections against toxic oxygen induced neonatal brain injury which is likely associated with oxidative stress signaling and inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that dexmedetomidine may have a therapeutic potential since oxygen administration to neonates is sometimes inevitable.

  20. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMhillaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming the so called androgen anabolic steroids (AAS. These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, the off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combination of different steroids, and doses largely higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. Among the AAS abusers, the frequency of side effects is higher, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because the collection of data is very difficult due to reticent subjects and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in reward process, leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The aim of this review is to discuss what is present in literature in regard to steroid abuse and alteration of reward system in preclinical and clinical studies.

  1. SU-F-T-673: Effects of Cardiac Induced Brain Pulsations On Proton Minibeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagle, J; Marsh, S [University of Canterbury, Christchurch, Canterbury (New Zealand); Lee, E; Meyer, J [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of internal motion within the brain on spatially modulated proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMRT) for small animal research. Methods: The peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) is an essential dosimetric factor for pMRT. Motion of an animal brain caused by cardiac-induced pulsations (CIP) can impact dose deposition. For synchrotron generated high dose rate X-ray microbeams this effect is evaded due to the quasi-instantaneous delivery. By comparison, pMRT potentially suffers increased spread due to lower dose rates. However, for a given dose rate it is less susceptible to beam spread than microbeams, due to the spatial modulation being an order of magnitude larger. Monte Carlo simulations in TOPAS were used to model the beam spread for a 50.5MeV pMRT beam. Motion effects were simulated for a 50mm thick brass collimator with 0.3mm slit width and 1.0mm center-to-center spacing in a water phantom. The maximum motion in a rat brain due to CIP has been reported to be 0.06mm. Motion was simulated with a peak amplitude in the range 0–0.2mm. Results: The impact of 0.06mm peak motion was minimal and reduced the PVDR by about 1% at a depth of 10mm. For 0.2mm peak motion the PVDR was reduced by 16% at a depth of 10mm. Conclusion: For the pMRT beam the magnitude of cardiac-induced brain motion has minimal impact on the PVDR for the investigated collimator geometry. For more narrow beams the effect is likely to be larger. This indicates that delivery of pMRT to small animal brains should not be affected considerably by beamlines with linac compatible dose rates.

  2. Regional Brain Shrinkage over Two Years: Individual Differences and Effects of Pro-Inflammatory Genetic Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N.; Ghisletta, P.; Dahle, C.L.; Bender, A.R.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, P.; Daugherty, A.M.; Raz, N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N = 167, age 19-79 years at baseline; N = 90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the HC, CbH, In, OF, and the PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants mediated shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1βC-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFRC677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  3. The effect of spaceflight and microgravity on the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ombergen, Angelique; Demertzi, Athena; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Jeurissen, Ben; Sijbers, Jan; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Parizel, Paul M; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Sunaert, Stefan; Laureys, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L

    2017-10-01

    Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates. Previous space analogue studies and preliminary spaceflight studies have shown an involvement of the cerebellum, cortical sensorimotor, and somatosensory areas and the vestibular pathways. Extending this knowledge is crucial, especially in view of long-duration interplanetary missions (e.g., Mars missions) and space tourism. In addition, the acquired insight could be relevant for vestibular patients, patients with neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the elderly population, coping with multisensory deficit syndromes, immobilization, and inactivity.

  4. Effect of Piper betle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R; Rajendra Prasad, N; Pugalendi, K V

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Piper betle, a commonly used masticatory, has been examined in the brain of ethanol-administered Wistar rats. Brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation, and disturbances in antioxidant defense. Subsequent to the experimental induction of toxicity (i.e., the initial period of 30 days), aqueous P. betle extract was simultaneously administered in three different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days along with the daily dose of alcohol. P. betle coadministration resulted in significant reduction of lipid levels (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids) and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides. Further, antioxidants, like reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were increased in P. betle-coadministered rats. The higher dose of extract (300 mg kg(-1)) was more effective, and these results indicate the neuroprotective effect of P. betle in ethanol-treated rats.

  5. Effect of visual feedback on brain activation during motor tasks: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jeremy W; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of visual feedback and force level on the neural mechanisms responsible for the performance of a motor task. We used a voxel-wise fMRI approach to determine the effect of visual feedback (with and without) during a grip force task at 35% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction. Two areas (contralateral rostral premotor cortex and putamen) displayed an interaction between force and feedback conditions. When the main effect of feedback condition was analyzed, higher activation when visual feedback was available was found in 22 of the 24 active brain areas, while the two other regions (contralateral lingual gyrus and ipsilateral precuneus) showed greater levels of activity when no visual feedback was available. The results suggest that there is a potentially confounding influence of visual feedback on brain activation during a motor task, and for some regions, this is dependent on the level of force applied.

  6. The Aging Brain With HIV Infection: Effects of Alcoholism or Hepatitis C Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M. Zahr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As successfully treated individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected age, cognitive and health challenges of normal aging ensue, burdened by HIV, treatment side effects, and high prevalence comorbidities, notably, Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. In 2013, people over 55 years old accounted for 26% of the estimated number of people living with HIV (~1.2 million. The aging brain is increasingly vulnerable to endogenous and exogenous insult which, coupled with HIV infection and comorbid risk factors, can lead to additive or synergistic effects on cognitive and motor function. This paper reviews the literature on neuropsychological and in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI evaluation of the aging HIV brain, while also considering the effects of comorbidity for AUD and HCV.

  7. Brain tumor radiosurgery. Current status and strategies to enhance the effect of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niranjan, A.; Lunsford, L.D.; Gobbel, G.T.; Kondziolka, D.; Maitz, A.; Flickinger, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    First, the current status of brain tumor radiosurgery is reviewed, and radiosurgery for brain tumors, including benign tumors, malignant tumors, primary glial tumors, and metastatic tumors, is described. Rapid developments in neuroimaging, stereotactic techniques, and robotic technology in the last decade have contributed to improved results and wider applications of radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has become the preferred management modality for many intracranial tumors, including schwannomas, meningiomas, and metastatic tumors. Although radiosurgery provides survival benefits in patients with diffuse malignant brain tumors, cure is still not possible. Microscopic tumor infiltration into surrounding normal tissue is the main cause of recurrence. Additional strategies are needed to specifically target tumor cells. Next, strategies to enhance the effect of radiosurgery are reviewed. Whereas the long-term clinical results of radiosurgery have established its role in the treatment of benign tumors, additional strategies are needed to improve cell killing in malignant brain tumors and to protect normal surrounding brain. The first strategy included the use of various agents to protect normal brain while delivering a high dose to the tumor cells, but finding an effective radioprotective agent has been problematic. Pentobarbital and 21-aminosteroid (21-AS) are presented as examples. The second strategy for radiation protection aimed at the repair of radiation-induced damage to the normal brain. The cause of radiation-induced breakdown of normal tissue is unclear. The white matter and the cerebral vasculature appear to be particularly susceptible to radiation. Oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells may be critical targets of radiation. The authors hypothesize that radiation-induced damage to these cell types can be repaired by neural stem cells. They also describe the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and neural stem cells as a means of enhancing the effect of

  8. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bidirectional Effects of Mother-Young Contact on the Maternal and Neonatal Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Melo, Angel I

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive plasticity occurs intensely during the early postnatal period through processes like proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination and apoptosis. Exposure to particular stimuli during this critical period has long-lasting effects on cognition, stress reactivity and behavior. Maternal care is the main source of social, sensory and chemical stimulation to the young and is, therefore, critical to "fine-tune" the offspring's neural development. Mothers providing a low quantity or quality of stimulation produce offspring that will exhibit reduced cognitive performance, impaired social affiliation and increased agonistic behaviors. Transgenerational transmission of such traits occurs epigenetically, i.e., through mechanisms like DNA methylation and post-translational modification of nucleosomal histones, processes that silence or increase gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence. Reciprocally, providing maternal care profoundly affects the behavior, learning, memory and fine neuroanatomy of the adult female. Such effects are in many cases permanent and sometimes they involve the hormones of pregnancy and lactation. The above evidence supports the idea that the mother-young dyad exerts profound and permanent effects on the brains of both adult and developing organisms, respectively. Effects on the latter can be explained by the neural developmental processes taking place during the early postnatal period. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms mediating the plasticity of the adult maternal brain. The bidirectional effects that mother and young exert on each other's brains exemplify a remarkable plasticity of this organ for organizing itself and provide an immense source of variability for adaptation and evolution in mammals.

  10. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; MacDonald, E J; Scheinin, M; Smith, T K

    2008-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a poly-meric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Forty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based diets up to wk 6, formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant, and the concentrations were 2.2 and 3.3 mg/kg of feed during starter and grower phases, respectively. Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and metabolites analyzed included norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P effects on the concentrations of neurotransmitters and metabolites in hypothalamus and cortex. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys. Supplementation with GMA partially inhibited these effects.

  11. Effects of Spaceflight on Astronaut Brain Structure as Indicated on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donna R; Albrecht, Moritz H; Collins, Heather R; Asemani, Davud; Chatterjee, A Rano; Spampinato, M Vittoria; Zhu, Xun; Chimowitz, Marc I; Antonucci, Michael U

    2017-11-02

    There is limited information regarding the effects of spaceflight on the anatomical configuration of the brain and on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare images of 18 astronauts' brains before and after missions of long duration, involving stays on the International Space Station, and of 16 astronauts' brains before and after missions of short duration, involving participation in the Space Shuttle Program. Images were interpreted by readers who were unaware of the flight duration. We also generated paired preflight and postflight MRI cine clips derived from high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of 12 astronauts after long-duration flights and from 6 astronauts after short-duration flights in order to assess the extent of narrowing of CSF spaces and the displacement of brain structures. We also compared preflight ventricular volumes with postflight ventricular volumes by means of an automated analysis of T 1 -weighted MRIs. The main prespecified analyses focused on the change in the volume of the central sulcus, the change in the volume of CSF spaces at the vertex, and vertical displacement of the brain. Narrowing of the central sulcus occurred in 17 of 18 astronauts after long-duration flights (mean flight time, 164.8 days) and in 3 of 16 astronauts after short-duration flights (mean flight time, 13.6 days) (P<0.001). Cine clips from a subgroup of astronauts showed an upward shift of the brain after all long-duration flights (12 astronauts) but not after short-duration flights (6 astronauts) and narrowing of CSF spaces at the vertex after all long-duration flights (12 astronauts) and in 1 of 6 astronauts after short-duration flights. Three astronauts in the long-duration group had optic-disk edema, and all 3 had narrowing of the central sulcus. A cine clip was available for 1 of these 3 astronauts, and the cine clip showed upward shift of the brain. Narrowing of the central sulcus, upward shift of the brain

  12. Anti-ischemic effect of curcumin in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pradeep K; Khanna, Vinay K; Ali, Mohd M; Khan, Mohd Y; Srimal, Rikhab C

    2008-06-01

    Turmeric has been in use since ancient times as a condiment and due to its medicinal properties. Curcumin, the yellow colouring principle in turmeric, is polyphenolic and major active constituent. Besides anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and anticarcinogenic activities, curcumin also possesses strong antioxidant property. In view of the novel combination of properties, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin was studied in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Rats were subjected to 2 h of focal ischemia followed by 72 h of reperfusion. They were pre-treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg, po) for 5 days prior to MCAO and for another 3 days after MCAO. The parameters studied were behavioural, biochemical and histological. Treatment with curcumin could significantly improve neurobehavioral performance compared to untreated ischemic rats as judged by its effect on rota-rod performance and grid walking. A significant inhibition in lipid peroxidation and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex was observed following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats as compared to MCAO group. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats. Histologically, a reduction in the infarct area from 33% to 24% was observed in MCAO rats treated with curcumin. The study demonstrates the protective efficacy of curcumin in rat MCAO model.

  13. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticles across the blood-brain tumor barrier into malignant glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kamal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective transvascular delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics across the blood-brain tumor barrier of malignant gliomas remains a challenge. This is due to our limited understanding of nanoparticle properties in relation to the physiologic size of pores within the blood-brain tumor barrier. Polyamidoamine dendrimers are particularly small multigenerational nanoparticles with uniform sizes within each generation. Dendrimer sizes increase by only 1 to 2 nm with each successive generation. Using functionalized polyamidoamine dendrimer generations 1 through 8, we investigated how nanoparticle size influences particle accumulation within malignant glioma cells. Methods Magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging probes were conjugated to the dendrimer terminal amines. Functionalized dendrimers were administered intravenously to rodents with orthotopically grown malignant gliomas. Transvascular transport and accumulation of the nanoparticles in brain tumor tissue was measured in vivo with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Localization of the nanoparticles within glioma cells was confirmed ex vivo with fluorescence imaging. Results We found that the intravenously administered functionalized dendrimers less than approximately 11.7 to 11.9 nm in diameter were able to traverse pores of the blood-brain tumor barrier of RG-2 malignant gliomas, while larger ones could not. Of the permeable functionalized dendrimer generations, those that possessed long blood half-lives could accumulate within glioma cells. Conclusion The therapeutically relevant upper limit of blood-brain tumor barrier pore size is approximately 11.7 to 11.9 nm. Therefore, effective transvascular drug delivery into malignant glioma cells can be accomplished by using nanoparticles that are smaller than 11.7 to 11.9 nm in diameter and possess long blood half-lives.

  15. The beneficial effects of l-cysteine on brain antioxidants of rats affected by sodium valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, R Z; El-Shenawy, N S

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively. All the groups were treated orally by gastric tube for 30 successive days. Some antioxidant parameters were determined. Brain tissue (cerebral cortex) of SV-treated animals showed an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in activity of enzymatic antioxidant and total antioxidant levels. Histopathological examination of cerebral cortex of SV rats showed astrocytic swelling, inflammation, and necrosis. After 4 weeks of the combination treatment of SV and LC daily, results showed significant improvement in the activity of cathepsin marker enzymes and restored the structure of the brain. LC was able to ameliorate oxidative stress deficits observed in SV rats. LC decreased LPO level and was also able to restore the activity of antioxidant enzymes as well as structural deficits observed in the brain of SV animals. The protective effect of LC in SV-treated rats is mediated through attenuation of oxidative stress, suggesting a therapeutic role for LC in individuals treated with SV.

  16. Effect of rs1344706 in the ZNF804A gene on the brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongying Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ZNF804A rs1344706 (A/C was the first SNP that reached genome-wide significance for schizophrenia. Recent studies have linked rs1344706 to functional connectivity among specific brain regions. However, no study thus far has examined the role of this SNP in the entire functional connectome. In this study, we used degree centrality to test the role of rs1344706 in the whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectome during the resting state. 52 schizophrenia patients and 128 healthy controls were included in the final analysis. In our whole-brain analysis, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype × diagnosis at the precuneus (PCU (cluster size = 52 voxels, peak voxel MNI coordinates: x = 9, y = −69, z = 63, F = 32.57, FWE corrected P < 0.001. When we subdivided the degree centrality network according to anatomical distance, the whole-brain analysis also found a significant interaction effect of genotype × diagnosis at the PCU with the same peak in the short-range degree centrality network (cluster size = 72 voxels, F = 37.29, FWE corrected P < 0.001. No significant result was found in the long-range degree centrality network. Our results elucidated the contribution of rs1344706 to functional connectivity within the brain network, and may have important implications for our understanding of this risk gene's role in functional dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.

  17. Effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Georgina; Ahmed-Leitao, Fatima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Cherner, Mariana; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    A wide spectrum of neurocognitive deficits characterises HIV infection in adults. HIV infection is additionally associated with morphological brain abnormalities affecting neural substrates that subserve neurocognitive function. Early life stress (ELS) also has a direct influence on brain morphology. However, the combined impact of ELS and HIV on brain structure and neurocognitive function has not been examined in an all-female sample with advanced HIV disease. The present study examined the effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function. Structural data were acquired using a 3T Magnetom MRI scanner, and a battery of neurocognitive tests was administered to 124 women: HIV-positive with ELS (n = 32), HIV-positive without ELS (n = 30), HIV-negative with ELS (n = 31) and HIV-negative without ELS (n = 31). Results revealed significant group volumetric differences for right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral hippocampi, corpus callosum, left and right caudate and left and right putamen. Mean regional volumes were lowest in HIV-positive women with ELS compared to all other groups. Although causality cannot be inferred, findings also suggest that alterations in the left frontal lobe, right ACC, left hippocampus, corpus callosum, left and right amygdala and left caudate may be associated with poorer neurocognitive performance in the domains of processing speed, attention/working memory, abstraction/executive functions, motor skills, learning and language/fluency with these effects more pronounced in women living with both HIV and childhood trauma. This study highlights the potential contributory role of childhood trauma to brain alterations and neurocognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals.

  18. Late radiation effects in the dog brain: correlation of MRI and histological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benczik, Judit; Tenhunen, Mikko; Snellman, Marjatta; Joensuu, Heikki; Faerkkilae, Markus; Joensuu, Raimo; Abo Ramadan, Usama; Kallio, Merja; Gritz, Boris de; Morris, Gerard M.; Hopewell, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the correlation between sequential changes in the brain of dogs after irradiation, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with the eventual appearance of histological lesions. Histology was performed 77-115 weeks after irradiation. Materials and methods: Groups of five beagle dogs were irradiated to the brain with single doses of 10, 12, 14 or 16 Gy of 6 MV photons, at the 100% iso-dose. Sequential MRIs were taken to detect changes in the brain for 77-115 weeks after irradiation. Dose-effect relationships were established for changes in the brain as detected by MRI, computerized tomography (CT), gross morphology and histology. The doses that caused a specified response in 50% of the animals (ED 50 ±SE) were calculated from these dose-effect relationships for each endpoint. Results: The ED 50 values (±SE) for focal and diffuse changes on T2-weighted MR images were 11.0±1.1 and 10.8±0.9 Gy, respectively. The ED 50 values (±SE) for contrast enhancement on T1-weighted MR images and on CT were 13.4±0.6 and 13.0±0.6 Gy, respectively. It was 11.4±0.6 Gy for any type of histological lesion (haemorrhage, reactive change or glial scar) 77-115 weeks after irradiation. For a macroscopic lesion the ED 50 (±SE) value was 13.0±1.1 Gy. Conclusions: The presence of focal or diffuse changes on T2-weighted MR images was the best indicator for the eventual appearance of any type of histological lesion in the dog brain after irradiation with single doses of photons. The ED 50 for any histological lesion did not differ significantly from the ED 50 for a focal (P>0.35) or diffuse (P=0.3) change on T2-weighted MR images

  19. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

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    Halina Baran*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3, respiratory control index (RC and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM or succinate (10 mM and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM or in the absence, as control. Kynurenic and anthranilic acids significantly reduced RC values of heart mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Xanthurenic acid significantly reduced RC values of brain mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Furthermore, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid decreased RC values of brain, liver and heart mitochondria using glutamate/malate. In the presence of succinate, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid affected RC values of brain mitochondria, whereas in liver and heart mitochondria only 3-hydroxykynurenine lowered RC values significantly. Furthermore, lowered ADP/oxygen ratios were observed in brain mitochondria in the presence of succinate with 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and to a lesser extent with glutamate/malate. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid significantly lowered the ADP/oxygen ratio in heart mitochondria exposed to glutamate/malate, while in the liver mitochondria only a mild reduction was found. Tests of the influence of L-tryptophan and its metabolites on complex I in liver mitochondria showed that only 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and L-kynurenine led to a significant acceleration of NADH-driven complex I activities. The data indicate that L-tryptophan metabolites had different effects on brain, liver

  20. Effect of clinical information in brain CT scan interpretation : a blinded double crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhianpour, M.; Janghorbani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Errors and variations in interpretation can happen in clinical imaging. Few studies have examined the biased effect of clinical information on reporting of brain CT scans. In a blinded double crossover design, we studied whether three radiologists were biased by clinical information when making CT scan diagnosis of the brain. Three consultant radiologists in three rounds with at least a one month interval assessed 100 consecutive cases of brain CT scan. In the first round, clinical information was not available and 100 films without clinical information were given to radiologists. In the second round, the same 100 films were given and true clinical information was available. In the third round, the same 100 films were given and false clinical information was allocated. In 180 cases (60%) the evaluation resulted in the same diagnosis on all three occasions (95% confidence interval (CI): 54.5, 65.5), whereas 120(40%; 95% CI:34.5, 45.5) sets were evaluated differently. 48 cases (16%; 95% CI:11.9,20.1) had discordant evaluation with true and 33 (11%; 95% CI:7.5, 14.5) with false clinical information. Discordance without and with true and false clinical information was 39 (13%; 95% CI:9.2, 16.8). Correct clinical information improves the brain CT report, while the report became less accurate false clinical information was allocated. These results indicate that radiologists are biased by clinical information when reporting brian CT scans

  1. Antidiabetic and Neuroprotective Effects of Trigonella Foenum-graecum Seed Powder in Diabetic Rat Brain

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    P. Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder (TSP has been reported to have hypoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic action. The objective of the study was to examine the antidiabetic and neuroprotective role of TSP in hyperglycemiainduced alterations in blood glucose, insulin levels and activities of membrane linked enzymes (Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, calcium (Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in the diabetic rat brain. Female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were made diabetic by a single injection of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight, diabetic rats were given 2 IU insulin, per day with 5% TSP in the diet for three weeks. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in diabetic brain. The increased lipid peroxidation following chronic hyperglycemia was accompanied with a significant increase in the neurolipofuscin deposition and Ca2+ levels with decreased activities of membrane linked ATPases and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic brain. A decrease in synaptosomal membrane fluidity may influence the activity of membrane linked enzymes in diabetes. The present study showed that TSP treatment can reverse the hyperglycemia induced changes to normal levels in diabetic rat brain. TSP administration amended effect of hyperglycemia on alterations in lipid peroxidation, restoring membrane fluidity, activities of membrane bound and antioxidant enzymes, thereby ameliorating the diabetic complications.

  2. Watching TV news as a memory task -- brain activation and age effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frings Lars

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging studies which investigate brain activity underlying declarative memory processes typically use artificial, unimodal laboratory stimuli. In contrast, we developed a paradigm which much more closely approximates real-life situations of information encoding. Methods In this study, we tested whether ecologically valid stimuli - clips of a TV news show - are apt to assess memory-related fMRI activation in healthy participants across a wide age range (22-70 years. We contrasted brain responses during natural stimulation (TV news video clips with a control condition (scrambled versions of the same clips with reversed audio tracks. After scanning, free recall performance was assessed. Results The memory task evoked robust activation of a left-lateralized network, including primarily lateral temporal cortex, frontal cortex, as well as the left hippocampus. Further analyses revealed that - when controlling for performance effects - older age was associated with greater activation of left temporal and right frontal cortex. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of assessing brain activity underlying declarative memory using a natural stimulation paradigm with high ecological validity. The preliminary result of greater brain activation with increasing age might reflect an attempt to compensate for decreasing episodic memory capacity associated with aging.

  3. The early effects in the brain after irradiation with carbon ions using mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Saori; Ohba, Yoshihito; Uzawa, Akiko; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Koike, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hirayama, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated both early and late effects in the brain after irradiation with carbon ions using mice. The irradiation dose was set at level known to produce vascular change followed by necrosis, which appeared the late period after irradiation with 30 Gy. The whole of brain was irradiated, excluding eyes and brain stem. The mice irradiated with single dose of 30 Gy showed deficit in short-term working memory assessed at 36 hr after irradiation, whereas mice receiving carbon irradiation showed no deficit in long-term reference memory. At 16 weeks after irradiation, the irradiated mice showed marked learning impairment compared with age-matched controls and the irradiated mice showed substantial impairment of working memory. Histopathological observation revealed no abnormal finding in the irradiated brain at 36 hr after irradiation, although irradiated mice showed marked neuronal degeneration at the hippocampus within CA1 to CA3 layers at 16 weeks after irradiation. In the irradiated group, neuronal cells in the hippocampal CA1-3 areas were reduced by 30-49%. These results suggest that although irradiation-induced hippocampal degeneration is associated with learning disability, cognitive deficits may also be detected on the early stage, not associated with hippocampal degeneration. (author)

  4. Positive effects of neurofeedback on autism symptoms correlate with brain activation during imitation and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datko, Michael; Pineda, Jaime A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2018-03-01

    Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training (NFT), an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior. We examined the effects of ≥ 20 h of sensorimotor mu-rhythm-based NFT in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a matched control group of typically developing children (ages 8-17). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging imitation and observation task, the ASD group showed increased activation in regions of the human mirror neuron system following the NFT, as part of a significant interaction between group (ASD vs. controls) and training (pre- vs. post-training). These changes were positively correlated with behavioral improvements in the ASD participants, indicating that mu-rhythm NFT may be beneficial to individuals with ASD. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  7. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 (micro)m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm 2 ). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 ± 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 ± 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca 2+ increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 ± 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 ± 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  8. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on neuroinflammation response in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissa, Intissar; Guezguez, Sabrine; Ezzi, Lobna; Chakroun, Sana; Sallem, Amira; Kerkeni, Emna; Elghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Mehdi, Meriem; Cheikh, Hassen Ben; Haouas, Zohra

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used for their whiteness and opacity in several applications such as food colorants, drug additives, biomedical ceramic, and implanted biomaterials. Research on the neurobiological response to orally administered TiO 2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we investigate the effects of anatase TiO 2 NPs on the brain of Wistar rats after oral intake. After daily intragastric administration of anatase TiO 2 NPs (5-10 nm) at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 60 days, the coefficient of the brain, acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, the level of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were assessed to quantify the brain damage. The results showed that high-dose anatase TiO 2 NPs could induce a downregulated level of AChE activities and showed an increase in plasmatic IL-6 level as compared to the control group accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease inter-doses, associated to an increase in the cerebral IL-6 level as a response to a local inflammation in brain. Furthermore, we observed elevated levels of immunoreactivity to GFAP in rat cerebral cortex. We concluded that oral intake of anatase TiO 2 NPs can induce neuroinflammation and could be neurotoxic and hazardous to health.

  9. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2010-09-08

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  10. The effect of cytidine-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on brain lipid changes during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Medio, G.E.; Trovarelli, G.; Piccinin, G.L.; Porcellati, G.

    1984-01-01

    Lipid synthesis has been tested in vivo in different brain areas of 12-month-old male rats. Cortex, striatum, brainstem, and subcortex of brain have been examined. The cerebellum was discarded. Mixtures of (2- 3 H)glycerol and (Me- 14 C)choline were injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain as lipid precursors, and their incorporation into total lipid, water-soluble intermediates and choline-containing phospholipids was examined 1 hr after isotope injection. In another series of experiments cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) was injected intraventricularly to the aged rats 10 min before sacrifice with a simultaneous injection, and radioactivity assays were performed as above. Distribution of radioactivity content of CDP-choline among brain areas 10 min after its administration showed a noticeable enrichment of the nucleotide and water-soluble-related compounds in the examined areas, but to a lesser degree in the cerebral cortex. The incorporation of labelled glycerol, which is severely depressed in aged rats in all four areas [Gaiti et al, 1982, 1983], was increased only in the cortex, and apparently decreased in the other areas. This last result is probably due to a dilution effect brought about by the administered cold CDP-choline upon the ( 14 C)-containing water-soluble metabolites. As a consequence, the ( 3 H)/( 14 C) ratio in total lipid and in isolated phosphatidylcholine and choline plasmalogen increased after CDP-choline treatment

  11. Structural and functional effects of social isolation on the hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of frustration on brain activation pattern in subjects with different temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBierzynska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session, the subjects underwent two weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response (GSR and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  13. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  14. Effective brain network analysis with resting-state EEG data: a comparison between heroin abstinent and non-addicted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Dong, Qunxi; Hao, Yanrong; Zhao, Qinglin; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Fang

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neuro-electrophysiological tools have been widely used in heroin addiction studies. Previous studies indicated that chronic heroin abuse would result in abnormal functional organization of the brain, while few heroin addiction studies have applied the effective connectivity tool to analyze the brain functional system (BFS) alterations induced by heroin abuse. The present study aims to identify the abnormality of resting-state heroin abstinent BFS using source decomposition and effective connectivity tools. Approach. The resting-state electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were acquired from 15 male heroin abstinent (HA) subjects and 14 male non-addicted (NA) controls. Multivariate autoregressive models combined independent component analysis (MVARICA) was applied for blind source decomposition. Generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC) was applied for effective brain connectivity analysis. Effective brain networks of both HA and NA groups were constructed. The two groups of effective cortical networks were compared by the bootstrap method. Abnormal causal interactions between decomposed source regions were estimated in the 1-45 Hz frequency domain. Main results. This work suggested: (a) there were clear effective network alterations in heroin abstinent subject groups; (b) the parietal region was a dominant hub of the abnormally weaker causal pathways, and the left occipital region was a dominant hub of the abnormally stronger causal pathways. Significance. These findings provide direct evidence that chronic heroin abuse induces brain functional abnormalities. The potential value of combining effective connectivity analysis and brain source decomposition methods in exploring brain alterations of heroin addicts is also implied.

  15. The effect of a single dose of multivitamin and mineral combinations with and without guaraná on functional brain activity during a continuous performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; Camfield, David A; Maggini, Silvia; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Relatively few studies have explored the possibility of acute cognitive effects of multivitamin ingestion. This report explores the acute brain electrophysiological changes associated with multivitamin and mineral supplementation, with and without guaraná, using the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP). Based on the known SSVEP correlates of A-X continuous performance task (CPT) performance, and sensitivity to acute psychopharmacological manipulations, the A-X CPT was adopted as a task paradigm to explore treatment-related neurophysiological changes in attentional processing. Twenty healthy non-smoking adults aged 21-39 years (mean age = 28.35 years, SD = 5.52) took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced crossover design study. The study demonstrated both transient and tonic changes in the SSVEP response during completion of the A-X CPT following multivitamin and mineral treatment both with and without guaraná. Transient changes in SSVEP response in prefrontal regions were observed after a single dose of a multivitamin and mineral preparation indicative of enhanced activity within brain regions engaged by the attentional demands of the task. This pattern of change in frontal regions was correlated with improved behavioural performance after treatment with the multivitamin and mineral combination. Where tonic shifts in SSVEP response were investigated, multivitamin and mineral treatment was associated with a pattern of increased inhibition across posterior regions, with enhanced excitatory processing in prefrontal regions. In contrast, multivitamin and mineral treatment with additional guaraná showed a tonic shift towards greater excitatory processes after a single treatment, consistent with the caffeine content of this treatment. While preliminary in nature, these findings suggest a single multivitamin/mineral dose is sufficient to impact on functional brain activity in task-related brain regions.

  16. The effects of poverty on childhood brain development: the mediating effect of caregiving and stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan; Belden, Andy; Botteron, Kelly; Marrus, Natasha; Harms, Michael P; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Barch, Deanna

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was conducted at an academic research unit at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development in preschool children who participated in neuroimaging at school age were used to investigate the effects of poverty on brain development. Children were assessed annually for 3 to 6 years prior to the time of a magnetic resonance imaging scan, during which they were evaluated on psychosocial, behavioral, and other developmental dimensions. Preschoolers included in the study were 3 to 6 years of age and were recruited from primary care and day care sites in the St Louis metropolitan area; they were annually assessed behaviorally for 5 to 10 years. Healthy preschoolers and those with clinical symptoms of depression participated in neuroimaging at school age/early adolescence. EXPOSURE Household poverty as measured by the income-to-needs ratio. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Brain volumes of children's white matter and cortical gray matter, as well as hippocampus and amygdala volumes, obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Mediators of interest were caregiver support/hostility measured observationally during the preschool period and stressful life events measured prospectively. RESULTS Poverty was associated with smaller white and cortical gray matter and hippocampal and amygdala volumes. The effects of poverty on hippocampal volume were mediated by caregiving support/hostility on the left and right, as well as stressful life events on the left. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The finding that exposure to poverty in early childhood materially impacts brain

  17. Cyclohexane, a potential drug of abuse with pernicious effects for the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eGonzalez-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse.

  18. Acute effects of organotins on brain, liver and kidney in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, R.S.; Kaur, G.; Srivastava, R.C.; Srivastava, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of dioctyltin oxide (DOTO) tricyclohexyltin hydroxide (TCHTOH) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO) were examined on some enzymic activities in liver and kidney and biogenic amines level in brain of rats at 24 hours after single subcutaneous administration (25 ..mu..mole/100 g B. Wt.). All the organotin compounds produced a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase and adenosin triphosphatase and decrease in monoamine oxidase in both liver and kidney. DOTO and TCHTOH were more effective in impairing the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in liver. Concentrations of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine were found to be significantly decreased in brain however, acetylcholine concentration remained unaltered. These results suggest that organotin compounds DOTO and TCHTOH are more toxic to rats than TBTO. 30 references, 3 tables.

  19. The effects of hypoglycemic and alcoholic coma on the blood-brain barrier permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Hatice; Seker, Fatma Burcu; Oztas, Baria

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, the effects of hypoglycemic coma and alcoholic coma on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability have been compared. Female adult Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g were divided into three groups: Control group (n=8), Alcoholic Coma Group (n=18), and Hypoglycemic Coma group (n=12). The animals went into coma approximately 3-4 hours after insulin administration and 3-5 minutes after alcohol administration. Evans blue (4mL/kg) was injected intravenously as BBB tracer. It was observed that the alcoholic coma did not significantly increase the BBB permeability in any of the brain regions when compared to control group. Changes in BBB permeability were significantly increased by the hypoglycemic coma in comparison to the control group values (pcoma have different effects on the BBB permeability depending on the energy metabolism. PMID:21619558

  20. Investigating the Effects of Brain Respiration on Children’s Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K. Leigh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Building on the increasing number of programs designed to enhance brain development, a program developed in Korea, Brain Respiration, was adapted to a school in Nevada. Classes were offered twice weekly to a class of fourth and fifth grade students with control group classes assessed in the same school. Self-report surveys, teacher observations, and standardized reading and math scores were used to determine effects of the program on the students. Some differences were found in the pretest for the survey and the observation, with control groups scoring higher. There were differences in some post-test scores, with treatment group children scoring higher when differences did occur. There also were differences in the reading and math scores, with control groups scoring higher than the overall treatment group, but not higher when compared to those actively participating in the program. Such differences are discussed as well as other issues possibly influencing the effects.

  1. Long-lasting masculinizing effects of postnatal androgens on myelin governed by the brain androgen receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Charly; Degerny, Cindy; Hussain, Rashad; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Tourpin, Sophie; Habert, René; Schumacher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood. A key role of the brain AR in establishing the sexual phenotype of myelin was demonstrated by its conditional deletion. Our results uncover a new persistent effect of postnatal AR signaling, with implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and sex differences in multiple sclerosis. PMID:29107990

  2. Synapses of the rat end brain in response to flight effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.V.; Tikhonchuk, V.S.; Ushakov, I.B.; Fedorov, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, synapses of different structures of the rat end brain related to cognitive and motor acts (sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus) as well as memory and behavior (hippocampus) were examined. Rats were exposed to ionizing radiation, superhigh frequency, hypoxia, hyperoxia, vibration and acceleration (applied separately or in combination) which have been traditionally in the focus of space and aviation medicine. Brain internuronal junctions were found to be very sensitive to the above effects, particularly ionizing radiation and hypoxia. Conversely, synapses were shown to be highly resistant to short-term hyperoxia and electromagnetic radiation. When combined effects were used, response of interneuronal junctions depended on the irradiation dose and order of application of radiation and other flight factors

  3. Effects of Aging and Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Supplementation on Brain Arginine Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalmah Mazlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism is involved in the aging and neurodegenerative processes. This study sought to determine the effects of age and vitamin E supplementation in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on brain arginine metabolism. Male Wistar rats at ages of 3 and 21 months were supplemented with TRF orally for 3 months prior to the dissection of tissue from five brain regions. The tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its nine downstream metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found age-related alterations in L-arginine metabolites in the chemical- and region-specific manners. Moreover, TRF supplementation reversed age-associated changes in arginine metabolites in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Multiple regression analysis revealed a number of significant neurochemical-behavioral correlations, indicating the beneficial effects of TRF supplementation on memory and motor function.

  4. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This ch...

  5. The Effects on Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Rat Brain Tissues of Lead Nitrate and Mercury Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Suna; Karaboduk, Hatice; Apaydın, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lead nitrate and mercury chloride in brain tissues of Wistar rats. Mercury chloride (0.02 mg/kg bw) and lead nitrate (45 mg/kg bw) were administered orally for 28 days rats. The mercury chloride and lead nitrate treated animals were exhibited a significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutation peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increasing of malondialdehyde levels. In our present study mercury c...

  6. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... studies suggested an inverse relationship between the peripheral BDNF level and habitual physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to confirm the findings from the observational studies....

  7. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), but the studie...

  8. [Regulatory effect of Erbao granules on brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Du, Y; Wang, S

    2000-10-01

    To study the regulatory effect of Erbao granules (EBG) on central and peripheral brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia. Juvenile rat model of anorexia was established by imitating the major cause of infantile anorexia and treated with EBG. The cholocystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentration in hypothalamus, antrum pyloricum and peripheral blood were examined by radioimmunoassay. CCK-8 concentration in hypothalamus and plasma in the model rats increased (P anorexia model.

  9. Gender Differences in the Effect of Tobacco Use on Brain Phosphocreatine Levels in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Kondo, Douglas G.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; McGlade, Erin C.; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of tobacco smoking has been observed in methamphetamine users, but there have been no in vivo brain neurochemistry studies addressing gender effects of tobacco smoking in methamphetamine users. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety in females. There is increasing evidence that selective analogues of nicotine, a principal active component of tobacco smoking, may improve depression and cognitive performance in animals and humans. Objectives To investigate the effects of tobacco smoking and gender on brain phosphocreatine (PCr) levels, a marker of brain energy metabolism reported to be reduced in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methods Thirty female and twenty-seven male methamphetamine-dependent subjects were evaluated with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to measure PCr levels within the pregenual anterior cingulate, which has been implicated in methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Results Analysis of covariance revealed that there were statistically significant slope (PCr versus lifetime amount of tobacco smoking) differences between female and male methamphetamine-dependent subjects (p=0.03). In females, there was also a statistically significant interaction between lifetime amounts of tobacco smoking and methamphetamine in regard to PCr levels (p=0.01), which suggests that tobacco smoking may have a more significant positive impact on brain PCr levels in heavy, as opposed to light to moderate, methamphetamine-dependent females. Conclusion These results indicate that tobacco smoking has gender-specific effects in terms of increased anterior cingulate high energy PCr levels in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Cigarette smoking in methamphetamine-dependent women, particularly those with heavy methamphetamine use, may have a potentially protective effect upon neuronal metabolism. PMID:25871447

  10. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Speech Performance in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Skodda, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported to be successful in relieving the core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and motor fluctuations in the more advanced stages of the disease. However, data on the effects of DBS on speech performance are inconsistent. While there are some series of patients documenting that speech function was relatively unaffected by DBS of the nucleus subthalamicus (STN), other investigators reported on improvements of distinct parameters of oral control...

  11. Vagally mediated effects of brain stem dopamine on gastric tone and phasic contractions of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, L; Toti, L; Bove, C; Travagli, R A

    2017-11-01

    Dopamine (DA)-containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e., motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. With the use of microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were 1 ) assess the gastric effects of brain stem DA application, 2 ) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, 3 ) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated. Dopamine microinjection in the DVC decreased gastric tone and motility in both corpus and antrum in 29 of 34 rats, and the effects were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy and fourth ventricular treatment with the selective DA2 receptor antagonist L741,626 but not by application of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist atropine attenuated the inhibition of corpus and antrum tone in response to DA microinjection in the DVC. Conversely, systemic administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester did not alter the DA-induced decrease in gastric tone and motility. Our data provide evidence of a dopaminergic modulation of a brain stem vagal neurocircuit that controls gastric tone and motility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dopamine administration in the brain stem decreases gastric tone and phasic contractions. The gastric effects of dopamine are mediated via dopamine 2 receptors on neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated via inhibition of the postganglionic cholinergic pathway. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tact...

  13. Detection of Normal Aging Effects on Human Brain Metabolite Concentrations and Microstructure with Whole-Brain MR Spectroscopic Imaging and Quantitative MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylers, V V; Maudsley, A A; Bronzlik, P; Dellani, P R; Lanfermann, H; Ding, X-Q

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of age-related physiological changes in the human brain is a prerequisite to identify neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this study whole-brain (1)H-MRS was used in combination with quantitative MR imaging to study the effects of normal aging on healthy human brain metabolites and microstructure. Sixty healthy volunteers, 21-70 years of age, were studied. Brain maps of the metabolites NAA, creatine and phosphocreatine, and Cho and the tissue irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation times T2 and T2' were derived from the datasets. The relative metabolite concentrations and the values of relaxation times were measured with ROIs placed within the frontal and parietal WM, centrum semiovale, splenium of the corpus callosum, hand motor area, occipital GM, putamen, thalamus, pons ventral/dorsal, and cerebellar white matter and posterior lobe. Linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Aging resulted in decreased NAA concentrations in the occipital GM, putamen, splenium of the corpus callosum, and pons ventral and decreased creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations in the pons dorsal and putamen. Cho concentrations did not change significantly in selected brain regions. T2 increased in the cerebellar white matter and decreased in the splenium of the corpus callosum with aging, while the T2' decreased in the occipital GM, hand motor area, and putamen, and increased in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Correlations were found between NAA concentrations and T2' in the occipital GM and putamen and between creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations and T2' in the putamen. The effects of normal aging on brain metabolites and microstructure are region-dependent. Correlations between both processes are evident in the gray matter. The obtained data could be used as references for future studies on patients. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Selective depletion of microglial progranulin in mice is not sufficient to cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis or neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkau, Terri L; Kosior, Natalia; de Asis, Kathleen; Connolly, Colúm; Leavitt, Blair R

    2017-11-17

    Progranulin deficiency due to heterozygous null mutations in the GRN gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), while homozygous loss-of-function GRN mutations are thought to be a rare cause of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Aged progranulin-knockout (Grn-null) mice display highly exaggerated lipofuscinosis, microgliosis, and astrogliosis, as well as mild cell loss in specific brain regions. In the brain, progranulin is predominantly expressed in neurons and microglia, and previously, we demonstrated that neuronal-specific depletion of progranulin does not recapitulate the neuropathological phenotype of Grn-null mice. In this study, we evaluated whether selective depletion of progranulin expression in myeloid-lineage cells, including microglia, causes NCL-like neuropathology or neuroinflammation in mice. We generated mice with progranulin depleted in myeloid-lineage cells by crossing mice homozygous for a floxed progranulin allele to mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the LyzM promotor (Lyz-cKO). Progranulin expression was reduced by approximately 50-70% in isolated microglia compared to WT levels. Lyz-cKO mice aged to 12 months did not display any increase in lipofuscin deposition, microgliosis, or astrogliosis in the four brain regions examined, though increases were observed for many of these measures in Grn-null animals. To evaluate the functional effect of reduced progranulin expression in isolated microglia, primary cultures were stimulated with controlled standard endotoxin and cytokine release was measured. While Grn-null microglia display a hyper-inflammatory phenotype, Lyz-cKO and WT microglia secreted similar levels of inflammatory cytokines. We conclude that progranulin expression from either microglia or neurons is sufficient to prevent the development of NCL-like neuropathology in mice. Furthermore, microglia that are deficient for progranulin expression but isolated from a progranulin

  15. Assessing the direct effects of deep brain stimulation using embedded axon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Steinmetz, Peter N.

    2007-06-01

    To better understand the spatial extent of the direct effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on neurons, we implemented a geometrically realistic finite element electrical model incorporating anisotropic and inhomogenous conductivities. The model included the subthalamic nucleus (STN), substantia nigra (SN), zona incerta (ZI), fields of Forel H2 (FF), internal capsule (IC) and Medtronic 3387/3389 electrode. To quantify the effects of stimulation, we extended previous studies by using multi-compartment axon models with geometry and orientation consistent with anatomical features of the brain regions of interest. Simulation of axonal firing produced a map of relative changes in axonal activation. Voltage-controlled stimulation, with clinically typical parameters at the dorso-lateral STN, caused axon activation up to 4 mm from the target. This activation occurred within the FF, IC, SN and ZI with current intensities close to the average injected during DBS (3 mA). A sensitivity analysis of model parameters (fiber size, fiber orientation, degree of inhomogeneity, degree of anisotropy, electrode configuration) revealed that the FF and IC were consistently activated. Direct activation of axons outside the STN suggests that other brain regions may be involved in the beneficial effects of DBS when treating Parkinsonian symptoms.

  16. The effect of astaxanthin on the aging rat brain: gender-related differences in modulating inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Marta; Giannubilo, Stefano R; Giorgetti, Belinda; Solazzi, Moreno; Turi, Angelo; Casoli, Tiziana; Ciavattini, Andrea; Fattorettia, Patrizia

    2016-01-30

    Astaxanthin (Ax) is a ketocarotenoid of the xanthophyll family with activities such as antioxidation, preservation of the integrity of cell membranes and protection of the redox state and functional integrity of mitochondria. The aim of this study was to investigate potential gender-related differences in the effect of Ax on the aging rat brain. In females, interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) was significantly lower in treated rats in both cerebral areas, and in the cerebellum, treated animals also had significantly higher IL10. In males, no differences were found in the cerebellum, but in the hippocampus, IL1β and IL10 were significantly higher in treated rats. These are the first results to show gender-related differences in the effect of Ax on the aging brain, emphasizing the necessity to carefully analyze female and male peculiarities when the anti-aging potentialities of this ketocarotenoid are evaluated. The observations lead to the hypothesis that Ax exerts different anti-inflammatory effects in female and male brains. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Sex-related differences in effects of progesterone following neonatal hypoxic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Won, Soonmi; Geddes, Rastafa I; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G

    2015-06-01

    There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Progesterone is known to be effective in treating traumatic brain injury in adult animals but its effects in neonatal brains have not been reported. Brain injuries were induced by a unilateral common carotid artery ligation plus hypoxia exposure. Progesterone was administered immediately after hypoxia and daily for 5 days at 8 mg/kg, followed by a tapered dose for two days. At six weeks post-injury, lesion size and inflammatory factors were evaluated. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male animals, but not females, showed significant long-term tissue protection compared to vehicle, suggesting an important sex difference in neuroprotection. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male rats had fewer activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus compared to controls. The rats were tested for neurological reflexes, motor asymmetry, and cognitive performance at multiple time points. The injured animals exhibited few detectable motor deficits, suggesting a high level of age- and injury-related neuroplasticity. There were substantial sex differences on several behavioral tests, indicating that immature males and females should be analyzed separately. Progesterone-treated animals showed modest beneficial effects in both sexes compared to vehicle-treated injured animals. Sham animals given progesterone did not behave differently from vehicle-treated sham animals on any measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Citric acid effects on brain and liver oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Youness, Eman R; Mohammed, Nadia A; Morsy, Safaa M Youssef; Omara, Enayat A; Sleem, Amany A

    2014-05-01

    Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1-2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1-2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1-2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation.

  20. Protective effects of edaravone on the radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats following whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingzhu; Tian Ye; Bao Shiyao; Bao Huan; Zhan Zhilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of the oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the cortex following whole brain irradiation and the effects of the neotype free radical scavenger, edaravone on radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats. Methods: 120 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham- irradiation group, irradiation group and edaravone group. The model of whole-brain irradiation was established with exposure of the whole brain of the rats to 4 MeV X-rays with a single-dose of 10 Gy. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with edaravone at 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg. Tissue microarray of irradiation-induced brain injury in rats was constructed. The expression of A2BS, oligodendrocyte market 4(O4) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the cortex was examined by tissue microarray technology and immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were counted. Results: Compared with the sham-irradiation group, the number of A2BS-positive cells increased and the number of O4, CNPase-positive cells decreased significantly at certain time in the irradiation group(P<0.05). Compared with irradiation group, A2BS-positive cells decreased significantly after edaravone treatment, while O4-positive cells and CNPase-positive cells increased significantly (P<0.05, or P<0.01). Conclusions: The number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cortex of rats increased reactively following whole brain irradiation and changed with time. Edaravone played a protective role in oligodendrocyte ischemic reaction in a dose-dependent manner. (authors)

  1. Protective effects of edaravone on the radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats following whole brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yingzhu, Chen; Ye, Tian; Shiyao, Bao; Huan, Bao; Zhilin, Zhan [The Second Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou Univ., Suzhou (China)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To investigate the changes of the oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the cortex following whole brain irradiation and the effects of the neotype free radical scavenger, edaravone on radiation response of oligodendrocyte in rats. Methods: 120 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham- irradiation group, irradiation group and edaravone group. The model of whole-brain irradiation was established with exposure of the whole brain of the rats to 4 MeV X-rays with a single-dose of 10 Gy. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with edaravone at 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg. Tissue microarray of irradiation-induced brain injury in rats was constructed. The expression of A2BS, oligodendrocyte market 4(O4) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'- phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the cortex was examined by tissue microarray technology and immunohistochemistry. The positive cells were counted. Results: Compared with the sham-irradiation group, the number of A2BS-positive cells increased and the number of O4, CNPase-positive cells decreased significantly at certain time in the irradiation group(P<0.05). Compared with irradiation group, A2BS-positive cells decreased significantly after edaravone treatment, while O4-positive cells and CNPase-positive cells increased significantly (P<0.05, or P<0.01). Conclusions: The number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cortex of rats increased reactively following whole brain irradiation and changed with time. Edaravone played a protective role in oligodendrocyte ischemic reaction in a dose-dependent manner. (authors)

  2. The effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nadine Servaas

    Full Text Available Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders and depression. High neurotic individuals tend to be more self-critical and are overly sensitive to criticism by others. Hence, we used a novel resting-state paradigm to investigate the effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism. Forty-eight participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R to assess neuroticism. Next, we recorded resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI during two sessions. We manipulated the second session before scanning by presenting three standardized critical remarks through headphones, in which the subject was urged to please lie still in the scanner. A seed-based functional connectivity method and subsequent clustering were used to analyse the resting state data. Based on the reviewed literature related to criticism, we selected brain regions associated with self-reflective processing and stress-regulation as regions of interest. The findings showed enhanced functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in emotion processing and social cognition during the processing of criticism. Concurrently, functional connectivity was reduced between these clusters and brain structures related to the default mode network and higher-order cognitive control. Furthermore, individuals scoring higher on neuroticism showed altered functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in the appraisal, expression and regulation of negative emotions. These results may suggest that the criticized person is attempting to understand the beliefs, perceptions and feelings of the critic in order to facilitate flexible and adaptive social behavior. Furthermore, multiple aspects of emotion processing were found to be affected in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during

  3. Effect of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhavsky, B Ya; Lebedko, O A; Belolubskaya, D S

    2008-08-01

    The effects of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate were studied in the rat brain. Exposure of pregnant rats to lead nitrate during activation of free radical oxidation reduced activity of NADH- and NADPH-dehydrogenases in cortical neurons of their 40-day-old progeny, reduced the number of neurons in a visual field, increased the number of pathologically modified neurons, and stimulated rat motor activity in an elevated plus-maze. Two intraperitoneal injections of histochrome in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before and after lead citrate challenge attenuated the manifestations of oxidative stress and prevented the changes in some morphological and histochemical parameters of the brain, developing under the effect of lead exposure.

  4. Facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in man and the effect of moderate hypoglycaemia on cerebral glucose utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.; Widen, L.; Hellstrand, E.; Gutniak, M.; Grill, V.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of steady-state moderate hypoglycaemia on human brain homeostasis has been studied with positron emission tomography using D-glucose 11 C(ul) as tracer. To rule out any effects of insulin, the plasma insulin concentration was maintained at the same level under normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. Reduction of blood glucose by 55% increased the glucose clearance through the blood-brain barrier by 50% and reduced brain glucose consumption by 40%. Blood flow was not affected. The results are consistent with facilitated transport of glucose from blood to brain in humans. The maximal transport rate of glucose from blood to brain was found to be 62±19 (mean±SEM) μmol hg -1 min -1 , and the half-saturation constant was found to be 4.1±3.2 mM. (orig.)

  5. Effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism on crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Skandali, Nikolina; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2014-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is known to exert significant structural and functional changes to the developing central nervous system, and can lead to the establishment of serious mental retardation and neurological problems. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil-induced experimental hypothyroidism on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, at two time-points of their lives: at birth (day-1) and at 21 days of age (end of lactation). Under all studied experimental conditions, offspring brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was found to be significantly decreased due to maternal hypothyroidism, in contrast to the two studied adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities that were only found to be significantly altered right after birth (increased and decreased, respectively, following an exposure to gestational maternal hypothyroidism) and were restored to control levels by the end of lactation. As our findings regarding the pattern of effects that maternal hypothyroidism has on the above-mentioned crucial offspring brain enzyme activities are compared to those reported in the literature, several differences are revealed that could be attributed to both the mode of the experimental simulation approach followed as well as to the time-frames examined. These findings could provide the basis for a debate on the need of a more consistent experimental approach to hypothyroidism during neurodevelopment as well as for a further evaluation of the herein presented and discussed neurochemical (and, ultimately, neurodevelopmental) effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism, in a brain region-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal Pain in Very Preterm Infants: Long-Term Effects on Brain, Neurodevelopment and Pain Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Eckstein Grunau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of early life psychosocial adversity have received a great deal of attention, such as maternal separation in experimental animal models and abuse/neglect in young humans. More recently, long-term effects of the physical stress of repetitive procedural pain have begun to be addressed in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care. Preterm infants are more sensitive to pain and stress, which cannot be distinguished in neonates. The focus of this review is clinical studies of long-term effects of repeated procedural pain-related stress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in relation to brain development, neurodevelopment, programming of stress systems, and later pain sensitivity in infants born very preterm (24–32 weeks’ gestational age. Neonatal pain exposure has been quantified as the number of invasive and/or skin-breaking procedures during hospitalization in the NICU. Emerging studies provide convincing clinical evidence for an adverse impact of neonatal pain/stress in infants at a time of physiological immaturity, rapidly developing brain microstructure and networks, as well as programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Currently it appears that early pain/stress may influence the developing brain and thereby neurodevelopment and stress-sensitive behaviors, particularly in the most immature neonates. However, there is no evidence for greater prevalence of pain syndromes compared to children and adults born healthy at full term. In addressing associations between pain/stress and outcomes, careful consideration of confounding clinical factors related to prematurity is essential. The need for pain management for humanitarian care is widely advocated. Non-pharmacological interventions to help parents reduce their infant’s stress may be brain-protective.

  7. Ultrasound effects on brain-targeting mannosylated liposomes: in vitro and blood-brain barrier transport investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Delivering drugs to intracerebral regions can be accomplished by improving the capacity of transport through blood-brain barrier. Using sertraline as model drug for brain targeting, the current study aimed at modifying its liposomal vesicles with mannopyranoside. Box-Behnken design was employed to statistically optimize the ultrasound parameters, namely ultrasound amplitude, time, and temperature, for maximum mannosylation capacity, sertraline entrapment, and surface charge while minimizing vesicular size. Moreover, in vitro blood-brain barrier transport model was established to assess the transendothelial capacity of the optimized mannosylated vesicles. Results showed a dependence of vesicular size, mannosylation capacity, and sertraline entrapment on cavitation and bubble implosion events that were related to ultrasound power amplitude, temperature. However, short ultrasound duration was required to achieve >90% mannosylation with nanosized vesicles (ultrasound parameters of 65°C, 27%, and 59 seconds for ultrasound temperature, amplitude, and time were elucidated to produce 81.1%, 46.6 nm, and 77.6% sertraline entrapment, vesicular size, and mannosylation capacity, respectively. Moreover, the transendothelial ability was significantly increased by 2.5-fold by mannosylation through binding with glucose transporters. Hence, mannosylated liposomes processed by ultrasound could be a promising approach for manufacturing and scale-up of brain-targeting liposomes.

  8. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue; Exendin-4, on cognitive functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus; possible modulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor and brain Visfatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahed, O M; Tork, O M; Gamal El Din, M M; Rashed, L; Zickri, M

    2018-02-05

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before. Recent studies point to the possible neuro-protective mechanisms of glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue: Exendin-4 (Ex-4) in many cognitive disorders, but whether BDNF or Visfatin are involved or not in its neuro-protective mechanisms; is still unknown. to study the changes in cognitive functions in T2DM, either not treated or treated with Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue: Ex-4, and to identify the possible underlying mechanisms of these changes and whether BDNF and brain Visfatin are involved. A total of 36 adult male wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups; Control, Exendin-4 control, Diabetic and Exendin-4 treated groups. At the end of the study, Y-maze and open field tests were done the day before scarification to assess spatial working memory and locomotion, respectively. Fasting glucose and insulin, lipid profile and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the serum. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance was calculated. In the brain tissue, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, gene expression and protein levels of BDNF and Visfatin, area of degenerated neurons, area of glial cells and area % of synaptophysin immunoexpression were assessed. Compared with the control, the untreated diabetic rats showed insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and elevation of serum TNF-α. The brain tissue showed down-regulation of BDNF gene expression and reduction of its protein level, up-regulation of Visfatin gene expression and elevation

  9. Sufficient conditions for Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza optimization problems

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    Boltyanski V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Principle [2,13] is a well known necessary condition for optimality. This condition, generally, is not sufficient. In [3], the author proved that if there exists regular synthesis of trajectories, the Maximum Principle also is a sufficient condition for time-optimality. In this article, we generalize this result for Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza optimization problems.

  10. Effect of glycyrrhizin on traumatic brain injury in rats and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Xiangjin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizin (Gly as well as its effect on expression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, TBI group, and TBI+Gly group (n=36 per group. Rat TBI model was made by using the modified Feeney’s method. In TBI+Gly group, Gly was administered intravenously at a dosage of 10 mg/kg 30 min after TBI. At 24 h after TBI, motor function and brain water content were evaluated. Meanwhile, HMGB1/HMGB1 receptors including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE/nuclear factor- κB(NF- κB signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines in the injured brain tissues were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4 immunohistochemistry and apoptosis were analyzed. Results: Beam walking performance impairment and brain edema were significantly reduced in TBI+Gly group compared with TBI group; meanwhile, the over-expressions of HMGB1/HMGB1 receptors (TLR4 and RAGE/NF-κB DNA-binding activity and inflammatory cytokines were inhibited. The percentages of HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4- positive cells and apoptotic cells were respectively 58.37%±5.06%, 54.15%±4.65%, 65.50%± 4.83%, 52.02%± 4.63% in TBI group and 39.99%±4.99%, 34.87%±5.02%, 43.33%±4.54%, 37.84%±5.16% in TBI+Gly group (all P<0.01 compared with TBI group. Conclusion: Gly can reduce secondary brain injury and improve outcomes in rat following TBI by down-regulation of HMGB1/HMGB1 receptors (TLR4 and RAGE/NF-κB - mediated inflammatory responses in the injured rat brain.

  11. Action video gaming and the brain: fMRI effects without behavioral effects in visual and verbal cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlan, Fabio; Schubert, Juliane; Mayer, Rebecca; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we compared task performance together with brain activation in a visuospatial task (VST) and a letter detection task (LDT) between longtime action video gamers ( N  =   14) and nongamers ( N  =   14) in order to investigate possible effects of gaming on cognitive and brain abilities. Based on previous research, we expected advantages in performance for experienced action video gamers accompanied by less activation (due to higher efficiency) as measured by fMRI in the frontoparietal attention network. Contrary to these expectations, we did not find differences in overall task performance, nor in brain activation during the VST. We identified, however, a significantly different increase in the BOLD signal from a baseline task to the LDT in action video gamers compared with nongamers. This increased activation was evident in a number of frontoparietal regions including the left middle paracingulate cortex, the left superior frontal sulcus, the opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left and right posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, we found increased activation in the triangular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus in gamers relative to nongamers when activation during the LDT was compared with activation during the VST. In sum, the expected positive relation between action video game experience and cognitive performance could not be confirmed. Despite their comparable task performance, however, gamers and nongamers exhibited clear-cut differences in brain activation patterns presumably reflecting differences in neural engagement, especially during verbal cognitive tasks.

  12. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier as the primary effect of CNS irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, P; Gash, D M; Hansen, J T; Nelson, D F; Williams, J P

    1994-04-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to be unique in organ microcirculation due to the 'tight junctions' which exist between endothelial cells and, some argue, the additional functional components represented by the perivascular boundary of neuroglial cells; these selectively exclude proteins and drugs from the brain parenchyma. This study was designed to examine the effects of irradiation on the BBB and determine the impact of the altered pathophysiology on the production of central nervous system (CNS) late effects such as demyelination, gliosis and necrosis. Rats, irradiated at 60 Gy, were serially sacrificed at 2, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Magnetic resonance image analysis (MRI) was obtained prior to sacrifice with selected animals from each group. The remaining animals underwent horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) perfusion at the time of sacrifice. The serial studies showed a detectable disruption of the BBB at 2 weeks post-irradiation and this was manifested as discrete leakage; late injury seen at 24 weeks indicated diffuse vasculature leakage, severe loss of the capillary network, cortical atrophy and white matter necrosis. Reversal or repair of radiation injury was seen between 6 and 12 weeks, indicating a bimodal peak in events. Blood-brain barrier disruption is an early, readily recognizable pathophysiological event occurring after radiation injury, is detectable in vivo/in vitro by MRI and HRP studies, and appears to precede white matter necrosis. Dose response studies over a wide range of doses, utilizing both external and interstitial irradiation, are in progress along with correlative histopathologic and ultrastructural studies.

  13. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  14. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  15. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  16. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  17. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de

    2015-01-01

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin

  18. Effects of Soft Drinks on Resting State EEG and Brain-Computer Interface Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Mundahl, John; Streitz, Taylor; Maile, Kaitlin; Gulachek, Nicholas; He, Jeffrey; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery-based (MI based) brain-computer interface (BCI) using electroencephalography (EEG) allows users to directly control a computer or external device by modulating and decoding the brain waves. A variety of factors could potentially affect the performance of BCI such as the health status of subjects or the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of soft drinks and regular coffee on EEG signals under resting state and on the performance of MI based BCI. Twenty-six healthy human subjects participated in three or four BCI sessions with a resting period in each session. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar (Caffeine Free Coca-Cola), caffeine (Diet Coke), neither ingredient (Caffeine Free Diet Coke), or a regular coffee if there was a fourth session. The resting state spectral power in each condition was compared; the analysis showed that power in alpha and beta band after caffeine consumption were decreased substantially compared to control and sugar condition. Although the attenuation of powers in the frequency range used for the online BCI control signal was shown, group averaged BCI online performance after consuming caffeine was similar to those of other conditions. This work, for the first time, shows the effect of caffeine, sugar intake on the online BCI performance and resting state brain signal.

  19. The effect of steroids on experimental brain edema induced by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, M [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kakei, M

    1975-04-01

    In order to study the effect of steroids on brain edema, complicated by radiotherapy to brain tumors, an experiment was carried out in rats. Five thousand rads of cobalt-60 were irradiated to the head only of a rat, and 20 mg/kg of water-soluble prednine was given intraperitoneally. A single administration of the whole dose increased the amount of brain fluid to 79.35 +- 0.30 g/ 100 g wet wt.. This value was not significantly different from that of the rat which had received only the 5,000 rad irradiation. In a rat which received prednine in 6 divided doses at intervals of 4 hours, the fluid amount reached 78.33 +- 0.52 g/ 100 g wet wt. and was clearly lower than that of the rat which had been irradiated only, 79.51 +- 0.23 g/ 100 g wet wt. neither was the value significantly different from that of a normal rat which had not been exposed 78.72 +- 0.82 g/ 100 g wet wt.. Therefore, fractional administration of prednine was demonstrated to be effective.

  20. Effects of ebselen on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M; Altaş, M; Meydan, S; Nacar, E; Karcıoğlu, M; Ulutaş, K T; Serarslan, Y

    2014-10-01

    Interruption of blood flow may result in considerable tissue damage via ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Ebselen treatment in short-term global brain I/R injury in rats. The study was carried out on 27 Wistar-albino rats, divided into three groups including Sham group (n = 11), I/R group (n = 8) and I/R+Ebselen group (n = 8). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in I/R group in comparison with the Sham group and I/R+Ebselen group (p Ebselen (p Ebselen group when compared with Sham group (p Ebselen group when compared with Sham (p Ebselen showed morphological improvement. Ebselen has neuron-protective effects due to its antioxidant properties as shown by the decrease in MDA overproduction, increase in SOD activity and the histological improvement after administration of Ebselen to I/R in brain tissue.

  1. Effect of ethanol on γ-aminobutyric acid in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassanova, M.; Tursky, T.; Homerova, D.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on the level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, and glutamine was investigated using 14 C-labelled compounds. The level of GABA rose after both acute and chronic ethanol administration. In chronic experiments also the levels of glutamate, aspartate and glutamine were increased. In acute experiments the incorporation from glucose into the studied amino acids (neuronal compartment) increased, while in chronic experiments a decreasing trend was observed. In the glial compartment the incorporation increased only into glutamate and glutamine in acute experiments, while in chronic experiments a decreased incorporation into glutamine was recorded. The activities of three enzymes were studied in seven parts of the brain after acute ethanol administration. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase increased in the hypothalamus and brain cortex and decreased in the medulla oblongata. The activity of GABA transaminase did not change and the activity of glutamine synthetase decreased only in the hippocampus. In accordance with several other studies, the presented results show that ethanol interferes with the GABA system in the brain. It is suggested that the primary effect of ethanol is exerted on the cell membranes with preference for the regions