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Sample records for brain regions implications

  1. Brain metabolite changes in subcortical regions after exposure to cuprizone for 6 weeks: potential implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Dai, Zhuozhi; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Haiyun; Wu, Renhua

    2015-01-01

    Cuprizone is a copper chelating agent able to selectively damage the white matter in the mouse brain. Recent studies have reported behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of schizophrenia symptoms. While associating white matter damage to the behavioral abnormalities, these previous studies did not rule out the possible impairment in neuronal functions in cuprizone-exposed mice. The aim of this study was to examine brain metabolites of the cuprizone-exposed mice by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The examined brain regions were the caudoputamen, midbrain, and thalamus; these subcortical regions showed different susceptibilities to cuprizone in terms of demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in previous studies. Young C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow without or with cuprizone (0.2 %) for 6 weeks. At the end, open-field and Y-maze tests were performed to measure the emotional and cognitive behaviors of the animals, followed by (1)H-MRS procedure to evaluate the brain metabolites. Cuprizone-exposure increased anxiety levels and impaired spatial working memory. The same treatment increased T2 signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudoputamen, but not in the thalamus. Cuprizone-exposure decreased the concentrations of NAA and NAA+NAAG in caudoputamen, but not in thalamus and midbrain. It decreased levels of Cr+PCr, GPC+PCh and myo-inositol in all the three brain regions. These results provided neurochemical evidence for the impairment in neuronal functions by cuprizone treatment. PMID:25347963

  2. Differential responsiveness of the right parahippocampal region to electrical stimulation in fixed human brains: Implications for historical surgical stimulation studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    If structure dictates function within the living human brain, then the persistence of specific responses to weak electric currents in fixed, deceased brains could reflect "hardwired" properties. Different key structures from the left and right hemispheres of brains that had been fixed for over 20years with ethanol-formalin-acetic acid were stimulated with either 1-Hz, 7-Hz, 10-Hz, 20-Hz, or 30-Hz, sine-wave, square-wave, or pulsed currents while needle-recorded quantitative electroencephalographic responses were obtained. Differential responses occurred only within the right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The right hippocampus displayed frequency-independent increases in gamma power relative to the left hemispheric homologue. The parahippocampal region responded exclusively to 7-Hz pulsed currents with wideband (8-30Hz) power. These profiles are consistent with dynamic connections associated with memory and consciousness and may partially explain the interactions resultant of pulse type and hemisphere for experiential elicitations during the golden age of surgical stimulations. The results also indicate that there may be an essential "hardwiring" within the human brain that is maintained for decades when it is fixed appropriately. PMID:27208828

  3. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  4. Effect of cocaine dependence on brain connections: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liangsuo; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Johns, Sade E; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence (CD) is associated with several cognitive deficits. Accumulating evidence, based on human and animal studies, has led to models for interpreting the neural basis of cognitive functions as interactions between functionally related brain regions. In this review, we focus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies using brain connectivity techniques as related to CD. The majority of these brain connectivity studies indicated that cocaine use is associated with altered brain connectivity between different structures, including cortical-striatal regions and default mode network. In cocaine users some of the altered brain connectivity measures are associated with behavioral performance, history of drug use, and treatment outcome. The implications of these brain connectivity findings to the treatment of CD and the pros and cons of the major brain connectivity techniques are discussed. Finally potential future directions in cocaine use disorder research using brain connectivity techniques are briefly described. PMID:26512421

  5. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  6. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren L Smith

    Full Text Available Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC. In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a

  7. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  8. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  9. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Panayotis K Thanos; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-...

  10. Human capital in European peripheral regions: Brain - Drain and Brain - Gain : policies on brain drain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CSTM,

    2004-01-01

    Policies on brain drain Many policies are related to the problem of brain drain and brain gain. For instance, every policy that makes a region more attractive to live in, will make a region a more attractive place for the highly educated to settle. In theory this can be everything ranging from infra

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in mice brain regions implicated in schizophrenia and antagonistic action of clozapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dai-ying; CAO Yue; ZHANG Lan; WANG Hai-feng; WU Ying-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in different brain regions of mice and antagonistic action of clozapine. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein. Results MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) acute administration produced a significant increase in the expression of c-Fos protein in the layers Ⅲ-Ⅳ of posterior cingulate and retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex, which was consistent with the previous reports. Moreover, we presented a new finding that MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) chronic administration for 8 days produced a significant increase of c-Fos protein expression in the PC/RS cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus of mice. Among that, c-Fos protein expression in the PC/ RS cortex of mice was most significant. Compared acute administration with chronic administration, we found that MK-801 chronic administration significantly increased the expression of c-Fos protein in the PC/ RS cortex, PFC and hypothalamus. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with clozapine significantly decreased the expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 acute and chronic administration. Conclusions Marked expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 is associated with neurotransmitters' change noted in our previous studies, and c-Fos protein, the marker of neuronal activation, might play an important role in the chronic pathophysiological process of schizophrenic model induced by NMDA receptor antagonist.

  12. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  13. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Maren L.; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R.; Howard C Becker; Miles, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive eth...

  14. Social cognition and brain morphology: implications for developmental brain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Lazar, Steven M; Boomer, K B; Mitchel, Aaron D; Michael, Andrew M; Moore, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.These findings extend the brain-behavior links observed in neurodevelopmental disorders to the normal distribution of traits in a healthy sample. PMID:24788335

  15. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  16. The Holographic Brain: Implications for Training Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James R.

    Without special training, most people predominantly process data in one of four ways. Few achieve a coveted whole brain state that integrates such important but separate brain functions as logic and intuition. With new training techniques that exploit the holographic properties of the brain, organizations may be able to tap powerful whole brain…

  17. MR imaging of regional late brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports, to complement current knowledge on brain development, late regional brain maturation assessed with quantitative MR imaging. Axial and coronal head spin-echo (SE) images were obtained in 60 healthy individuals aged 5--56 years, with a double-echo, flow compensated imaging sequence obtained with a 1.5-T Magnetom spectroscopy and imaging system. T2-weighted images were calculated from the intensity differences in SE images at echo times (TEs) of 15 and 90 msec (TR = 2.5 second). The mean T2 values were determined at 16 sites in each cerebral hemisphere. T2 values of the six frontal subcortical white matter (FSCWM) sites and of the internal capsule (IC) were evaluated. Mean T2 values in the IC decreased until age 10 years, whereas this decrease continued in the FSCWM past age 15 years before reaching a plateau. Differential age-dependent patterns of mean T2 values emerged between the six FSCWM sites. The spread of T2 values varied at different sites independent of the age of the individuals. T2- values have previously been shown to reflect the status of brain development. The authors' data on the six FSCWM sites and the IC extend these findings to specific substructures of the brain. Interindividual variations and technical issues are responsible for the observed spread of data

  18. Immune System to Brain Signaling: Neuropsychopharmacological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an explosion in our knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms by which the immune system can influence the brain and behavior. In the context of inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines can access the central nervous system and interact with a cytokine network in the brain to influence virtually every aspect of brain function relevant to behavior including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, and neurocircuits that regulate mood, motor activ...

  19. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The issue of this project is brain drain and brain gain in peripheral European regions. It focuses on the design, implementation and evaluation of actions to reduce brain drain and foster so-called brain gain. The action areas are the Twente region in the Netherlands; the Central Switzerland Cantons

  20. Ageing and diabetes: implications for brain function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Biessels, G.J.; Heide, L.P. van der; Kamal, A.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with moderate cognitive deficits and neurophysiological and structural changes in the brain, a condition that may be referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. Diabetes increases the risk of dementia, particularly in the elderly. The emerging view is that the diabetic br

  1. Age- and brain-region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides

    OpenAIRE

    Crivello, Natalia A.; Casseus, Sherley L.; Peterson, James W.; Smith, Donald E.; Sarah L. Booth

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of myelin sulfatides is a risk factor for cognitive decline with age. Vitamin K is present in high concentrations in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of sulfatide metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the age-related interrelation between dietary vitamin K and sulfatides in myelin fractions isolated from the brain regions of Fischer 344 male rats fed one of two dietary forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone or its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone for ...

  2. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Terayama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR. Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL/day caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days, β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  3. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  4. The quantum brain theory and implications

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, A

    1994-01-01

    While for the majority of physicists the problem of the deciphering of the brain code, the intelligence code, is a matter for future generations, the author boldly and forcefully disagrees. Breaking with the dogma of classical logic he develops in the form of the conversion postulate a concrete working hypothesis for the actual thought mechanism. The reader is invited on a fascinating mathematical journey to the very edges of modern scientific knowledge. From lepton and quark to mind, from cognition to a logic analogue of the Schrödinger equation, from Fibonacci numbers to logic quantum numb

  5. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  6. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...

  7. Imaging structural co-variance between human brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Giedd, Jay N.; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Brain structure varies between people in a markedly organized fashion. Communities of brain regions co-vary in their morphological properties. For example, cortical thickness in one region influences the thickness of structurally and functionally connected regions. Such networks of structural co-variance partially recapitulate the functional networks of healthy individuals and the foci of grey matter loss in neurodegenerative disease. This architecture is genetically heritable, is associated ...

  8. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  9. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  10. Localizing brain regions associated with female mate preference behavior in a swordtail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Y Wong

    Full Text Available Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybridization, we identify brain regions associated with mate preference in female Xiphophorus nigrensis, a swordtail species with a female choice mating system. We measure gene expression in 10 brain regions (linked to sexual behavior, reward, sensory integration or other processes and find significant correlations between female preference behavior and gene expression in two telencephalic areas associated with reward, learning and multi-sensory processing (medial and lateral zones of the dorsal telencephalon as well as an SBN region traditionally associated with sexual response (preoptic area. Network analysis shows that these brain regions may also be important in mate preference and that correlated patterns of neuroserpin expression between regions co-vary with differential compositions of the mate choice environment. Our results expand the emerging network for female preference from one that focused on sensory processing and midbrain sexual response centers to a more complex coordination involving forebrain areas that integrate primary sensory processing and reward.

  11. Decoding Brain States Based on Magnetoencephalography From Prespecified Cortical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyin; Li, Xin; Foldes, Stephen T; Wang, Wei; Collinger, Jennifer L; Weber, Douglas J; Bagić, Anto

    2016-01-01

    Brain state decoding based on whole-head MEG has been extensively studied over the past decade. Recent MEG applications pose an emerging need of decoding brain states based on MEG signals originating from prespecified cortical regions. Toward this goal, we propose a novel region-of-interest-constrained discriminant analysis algorithm (RDA) in this paper. RDA integrates linear classification and beamspace transformation into a unified framework by formulating a constrained optimization problem. Our experimental results based on human subjects demonstrate that RDA can efficiently extract the discriminant pattern from prespecified cortical regions to accurately distinguish different brain states.

  12. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  13. Cocaine disposition in discrete regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Davis, J M

    1993-05-01

    It has been proposed that various effects of psychoactive drugs on the central nervous system may be related to the capacity of the drug to selectively concentrate in specific regions of the brain. In rat brain, cocaine effects on striatal and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems show quantitative differences. However, the disposition of cocaine in various brain regions has not been reported. In the present studies we examined the cocaine concentrations over time in serum and discrete brain regions of the rat after single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. At different time points (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min) after i.p. injection of cocaine hydrochloride (10 mg kg-1, free base) the rats were decapitated and cocaine in serum and various brain regions was quantitated by a specific gas liquid chromatographic method. There was large inter-individual variability in different rats at each time-point. The disposition pattern of cocaine in rats after i.p. administration was similar to that observed in humans after intranasal administration. Initial absorption rate was rapid and, on average, the peak levels of cocaine were achieved in 10 min. The cocaine levels remained relatively high over the next 50 min indicating continual absorption, and then declined with a rate such that the levels 4 h after cocaine administration were undetectable in most of the animals. The overall changes in cocaine levels in various brain regions paralleled the serum concentrations. The area under the cocaine concentration-time curve (AUC) revealed more than three-fold differences in cocaine accumulation in various brain regions. This unequal disposition of cocaine may be responsible in part for differential biochemical effects in different brain regions. PMID:8499585

  14. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement brain drain gain instruments through a thorough analysis of processes. The implementation phase deals with the development, implementation and evaluation of instruments as well as the dissemination...

  15. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  16. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  17. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F.; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B.; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal co...

  18. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Frans H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a highe

  19. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement

  20. Regional Competitiveness and Its Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono Soebagyo; Triyono Triyono; Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify regional competitiveness in some areas of Central Java. Regional competitiveness became one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of local autonomy.Measurement of regional competitiveness has been mostly done through ranking as a benchmark the competitiveness of the region. Mapping regional competitiveness in Indonesia has been made to all counties and cities, which shows the competitiveness ranking of each region. Competitivenes...

  1. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  2. Regional Variation in Brain White Matter Diffusion Index Changes following Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Mohammad Nazem-Zadeh; Oliver E Lee; Schipper, Matthew J; Tsien, Christina I.; Theodore S Lawrence; Yue Cao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is little known about how brain white matter structures differ in their response to radiation, which may have implications for radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine regional variation in white matter changes following chemoradiotherapy. Methods Fourteen patients receiving two or three weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy (RT) ± chemotherapy underwent DTI pre-RT, at end-RT, and one month post-RT. Three diffusion indices w...

  3. Reorganization of the injured brain: Implications for studies of the neural substrate of cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper eMogensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for a neural substrate of cognitive processes, a frequently utilized method is the scrutiny of posttraumatic symptoms exhibited by individuals suffering focal injury to the brain. For instance, the presence or absence of conscious awareness within a particular domain may, combined with knowledge of which regions of the brain have been injured, provide important data in the search for neural correlates of consciousness. Like all studies addressing the consequences of brain injury, however, such research has to face the fact that in most cases, posttraumatic impairments are accompanied by a functional recovery during which symptoms are reduced or eliminated. The apparent contradiction between localization and recovery, respectively, of functions constitutes a problem to almost all aspects of cognitive neuroscience. Several lines of investigation indicate that although the brain remains highly plastic throughout life, the posttraumatic plasticity does not recreate a copy of the neural mechanisms lost to injury. Instead, the uninjured parts of the brain are functionally reorganized in a manner which – in spite of not recreating the basic information processing lost to injury – is able to allow a more or less complete return of the surface phenomena (including manifestations of consciousness originally impaired by the trauma. A novel model (the REF-model of these processes is presented – and some of its implications discussed relative to studies of the neural substrates of cognition and consciousness.

  4. Regional genome transcriptional response of adult mouse brain to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since normal brain function depends upon continuous oxygen delivery and short periods of hypoxia can precondition the brain against subsequent ischemia, this study examined the effects of brief hypoxia on the whole genome transcriptional response in adult mouse brain. Result Pronounced changes of gene expression occurred after 3 hours of hypoxia (8% O2 and after 1 hour of re-oxygenation in all brain regions. The hypoxia-responsive genes were predominantly up-regulated in hindbrain and predominantly down-regulated in forebrain - possibly to support hindbrain survival functions at the expense of forebrain cognitive functions. The up-regulated genes had a significant role in cell survival and involved both shared and unshared signaling pathways among different brain regions. Up-regulation of transcriptional signaling including hypoxia inducible factor, insulin growth factor (IGF, the vitamin D3 receptor/retinoid X nuclear receptor, and glucocorticoid signaling was common to many brain regions. However, many of the hypoxia-regulated target genes were specific for one or a few brain regions. Cerebellum, for example, had 1241 transcripts regulated by hypoxia only in cerebellum but not in hippocampus; and, 642 (54% had at least one hepatic nuclear receptor 4A (HNF4A binding site and 381 had at least two HNF4A binding sites in their promoters. The data point to HNF4A as a major hypoxia-responsive transcription factor in cerebellum in addition to its known role in regulating erythropoietin transcription. The genes unique to hindbrain may play critical roles in survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Differences of forebrain and hindbrain hypoxia-responsive genes may relate to suppression of forebrain cognitive functions and activation of hindbrain survival functions, which may coordinately mediate the neuroprotection afforded by hypoxia preconditioning.

  5. Brain regions involved in dispositional mindfulness during resting state and their relation with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness, and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. PMID:26360907

  6. STUDY OF REGIONAL STABILITY OF ECD DISTRIBUTION IN NORMAL BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培勇; 陈刚; 朱承谟

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in vivo stability of ethylenedylbis cysteine diethylester ( ECD ) brain SPECT. Methods Each of13 normal volunteers (31.2±11.8 years) has12 dynamic SPECT scans acquired in 60min 1h after an injection of 99mTc-ECD using a triple headed gamma camera equipped with ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Average counts per pixel were measured from frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital regions, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter. Regional ECD clearance rates, regional gray-to-white matter (G/W) ratios and the change of the G /W ratio were calculated. Results The average ECD clearance rate was 4.2%/h, ranged from 3.03%/h to 5.41%/h corresponding to white matter and occipital. There was no significant difference between regional ECD clearance rates. Regional G/W ratio was between 1.27 to 1.75. The G /W ratio of temporal lobe was lower than the occipital (P<0.05). The change of regional G /W ratio with time is slow. Cbnclusion Regional ECD distribution is stable in normal brain. ECD clearance from brain is slow and no significant regional difference.

  7. Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jacqueline Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This is the English version of Jacqueline D. Chang's June 2009 Masters Thesis, Politics of North Korean refugees and regional security implication. A Hangul translation version may be found here: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43808

  8. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  9. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nomi, Jason S.; Lucina Q. Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD...

  10. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  11. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  12. Regional brain stiffness changes across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Jones, David T; Jack, Clifford R; Glaser, Kevin J; Senjem, Matthew L; Manduca, Armando; Felmlee, Joel P; Carter, Rickey E; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique to noninvasively measure tissue stiffness. Currently well established for clinical use in the liver, MRE is increasingly being investigated to measure brain stiffness as a novel biomarker of a variety of neurological diseases. The purpose of this work was to apply a recently developed MRE pipeline to measure regional brain stiffness changes in human subjects across the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum, and to gain insights into the biological processes underlying those stiffness changes by correlating stiffness with existing biomarkers of AD. The results indicate that stiffness changes occur mostly in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, in accordance with the known topography of AD pathology. Furthermore, stiffness in those areas correlates with existing imaging biomarkers of AD including hippocampal volumes and amyloid PET. Additional analysis revealed preliminary but significant evidence that the relationship between brain stiffness and AD severity is nonlinear and non-monotonic. Given that similar relationships have been observed in functional MRI experiments, we used task-free fMRI data to test the hypothesis that brain stiffness was sensitive to structural changes associated with altered functional connectivity. The analysis revealed that brain stiffness is significantly and positively correlated with default mode network connectivity. Therefore, brain stiffness as measured by MRE has potential to provide new and essential insights into the temporal dynamics of AD, as well as the relationship between functional and structural plasticity as it relates to AD pathophysiology.

  13. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  14. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  15. Regional Brain Responses in Nulliparous Women to Emotional Infant Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Nicole Landi; Hedy Kober; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; W Einar Mencl; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infan...

  16. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  17. Optogenetics, sex, and violence in the brain: implications for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J

    2012-06-15

    Pathological aggression and the inability to control aggressive impulses takes a tremendous toll on society. Yet aggression is a normal component of the innate behavior repertoire of most vertebrate animal species as well as of many invertebrates. Progress in understanding the etiology of disorders of aggressive behavior, whether genetic or environmental in nature, therefore requires an understanding of the brain circuitry that controls normal aggression. Efforts to understand this circuitry at the level of specific neuronal populations have been constrained by the limited resolution of classical methodologies, such as electrical stimulation and electrolytic lesion. The availability of new, genetically based tools for mapping and manipulating neural circuits at the level of specific, genetically defined neuronal subtypes provides an opportunity to investigate the functional organization of aggression circuitry with cellular resolution. However, these technologies are optimally applied in the mouse, where there has been surprisingly little traditional work on the functional neuroanatomy of aggression. Here we discuss recent, initial efforts to apply optogenetics and other state-of-the-art methods to the dissection of aggression circuitry in the mouse. We find, surprisingly, that neurons necessary and sufficient for inter-male aggression are located within the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, a structure traditionally associated with reproductive behavior. These neurons are intermingled with neurons activated during male-female mating, with approximately 20% overlap between the populations. We discuss the significance of these findings with respect to neuroethological and neuroanatomical perspectives on the functional organization of innate behaviors and their potential implications for psychiatry.

  18. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  19. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G;

    2009-01-01

    healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared......-independent, reliable approach to delineating regions that can be identified only by functional imaging, here exemplified by the raphe nuclei. This approach can be used in future studies to create functional VOI maps based on neuroreceptor fingerprints retrieved through in vivo brain imaging Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6...

  20. DUF1220-Domain Copy Number Implicated in Human Brain-Size Pathology and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Laura J.; O’Bleness, Majesta S.; Davis, Jonathan M.; Dickens, C. Michael; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, J.G.; Jackson, Jay; Sikela, Megan; Raznahan, Armin; Giedd, Jay; Rapoport, Judith; Nagamani, Sandesh S.C.; Erez, Ayelet; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Sugalski, Rachel; Lupski, James R.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Cheung, Sau Wai; Sikela, James M.

    2012-01-01

    DUF1220 domains show the largest human-lineage-specific increase in copy number of any protein-coding region in the human genome and map primarily to 1q21, where deletions and reciprocal duplications have been associated with microcephaly and macrocephaly, respectively. Given these findings and the high correlation between DUF1220 copy number and brain size across primate lineages (R2 = 0.98; p = 1.8 × 10−6), DUF1220 sequences represent plausible candidates for underlying 1q21-associated brain-size pathologies. To investigate this possibility, we used specialized bioinformatics tools developed for scoring highly duplicated DUF1220 sequences to implement targeted 1q21 array comparative genomic hybridization on individuals (n = 42) with 1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly. We show that of all the 1q21 genes examined (n = 53), DUF1220 copy number shows the strongest association with brain size among individuals with 1q21-associated microcephaly, particularly with respect to the three evolutionarily conserved DUF1220 clades CON1(p = 0.0079), CON2 (p = 0.0134), and CON3 (p = 0.0116). Interestingly, all 1q21 DUF1220-encoding genes belonging to the NBPF family show significant correlations with frontal-occipital-circumference Z scores in the deletion group. In a similar survey of a nondisease population, we show that DUF1220 copy number exhibits the strongest correlation with brain gray-matter volume (CON1, p = 0.0246; and CON2, p = 0.0334). Notably, only DUF1220 sequences are consistently significant in both disease and nondisease populations. Taken together, these data strongly implicate the loss of DUF1220 copy number in the etiology of 1q21-associated microcephaly and support the view that DUF1220 domains function as general effectors of evolutionary, pathological, and normal variation in brain size. PMID:22901949

  1. Automatic segmentation of brain images: selection of region extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leiguang; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Mezrich, Reuben S.

    1991-07-01

    In automatically analyzing brain structures from a MR image, the choice of low level region extraction methods depends on the characteristics of both the target object and the surrounding anatomical structures in the image. The authors have experimented with local thresholding, global thresholding, and other techniques, using various types of MR images for extracting the major brian landmarks and different types of lesions. This paper describes specifically a local- binary thresholding method and a new global-multiple thresholding technique developed for MR image segmentation and analysis. The initial testing results on their segmentation performance are presented, followed by a comparative analysis of the two methods and their ability to extract different types of normal and abnormal brain structures -- the brain matter itself, tumors, regions of edema surrounding lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions, and the ventricles of the brain. The analysis and experimental results show that the global multiple thresholding techniques are more than adequate for extracting regions that correspond to the major brian structures, while local binary thresholding is helpful for more accurate delineation of small lesions such as those produced by MS, and for the precise refinement of lesion boundaries. The detection of other landmarks, such as the interhemispheric fissure, may require other techniques, such as line-fitting. These experiments have led to the formulation of a set of generic computer-based rules for selecting the appropriate segmentation packages for particular types of problems, based on which further development of an innovative knowledge- based, goal directed biomedical image analysis framework is being made. The system will carry out the selection automatically for a given specific analysis task.

  2. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  3. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A; Heap, Lucy A; Scott, Ethan K; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam's degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics. PMID:26108566

  4. Scattering of Sculpted Light in Intact Brain Tissue, with implications for Optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Bulle, Itia A.; Preece, Daryl; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heap, Lucy A.; Scott, Ethan K.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Optogenetics uses light to control and observe the activity of neurons, often using a focused laser beam. As brain tissue is a scattering medium, beams are distorted and spread with propagation through neural tissue, and the beam’s degradation has important implications in optogenetic experiments. To address this, we present an analysis of scattering and loss of intensity of focused laser beams at different depths within the brains of zebrafish larvae. Our experimental set-up uses a 488 nm laser and a spatial light modulator to focus a diffraction-limited spot of light within the brain. We use a combination of experimental measurements of back-scattered light in live larvae and computational modelling of the scattering to determine the spatial distribution of light. Modelling is performed using the Monte Carlo method, supported by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory in the single-scattering approximation. Scattering in areas rich in cell bodies is compared to that of regions of neuropil to identify the distinct and dramatic contributions that cell nuclei make to scattering. We demonstrate the feasibility of illuminating individual neurons, even in nucleus-rich areas, at depths beyond 100 μm using a spatial light modulator in combination with a standard laser and microscope optics.

  5. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    patterns of cortical differences using both surface area and thickness. In addition, correlation results implicate specific brain regions in levels of anxiety in WS, consistent with previous reports investigating general anxiety disorders in the general population.

  6. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    complex patterns of cortical differences using both surface area and thickness. In addition, correlation results implicate specific brain regions in levels of anxiety in WS, consistent with previous reports investigating general anxiety disorders in the general population.

  7. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  8. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  9. Brain-lung crosstalk: Implications for neurocritical care patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Major pulmonary disorders may occur after brain injuries as ventilator-associated pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or neurogenic pulmonary edema. They are key points for the management of brain-injured patients because respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation seem to be a risk factor for increased mortality, poor neurological outcome and longer intensive care unit or hospital length of stay. Brain and lung strongly interact via complex pathways from the brain to the lung b...

  10. Brain-Based Education: Its Pedagogical Implications and Research Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Chin, Yap Kueh

    2010-01-01

    The brain, being the organ of learning, must be understood if classrooms are to be places of meaningful learning. Understanding the brain has the potential to alter the foundation of education, transform traditional classrooms to interactive learning environments and promote better instructional approaches amongst teachers. Brain-based education…

  11. Theoretical Implications of Contemporary Brain Science for Japanese EFL Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, John Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in brain science show that adult native Japanese speakers utilize a different balance of language processing routes in the brain as compared to native English speakers. Biologically this represents the remarkable flexibility of the human brain to adapt universal human cognitive processes to fit the specific needs of linguistic and…

  12. Implications of Brain Research for Teaching Young Adolescents. What Research Says.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lucinda M.; Horch, Hadley Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes research findings related to brain maturation during the adolescent years and highlights implications for the middle level educator, focusing on the types of classroom activities most compatible with attention and memory. Examines possible gender differences in how adolescents learn, the effects of stress on the brain, and implications…

  13. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ

    1995-01-01

    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  14. Brain region-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms correlates with DNA methylation within Mecp2 regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Olson

    Full Text Available MeCP2 is a critical epigenetic regulator in brain and its abnormal expression or compromised function leads to a spectrum of neurological disorders including Rett Syndrome and autism. Altered expression of the two MeCP2 isoforms, MeCP2E1 and MeCP2E2 has been implicated in neurological complications. However, expression, regulation and functions of the two isoforms are largely uncharacterized. Previously, we showed the role of MeCP2E1 in neuronal maturation and reported MeCP2E1 as the major protein isoform in the adult mouse brain, embryonic neurons and astrocytes. Recently, we showed that DNA methylation at the regulatory elements (REs within the Mecp2 promoter and intron 1 impact the expression of Mecp2 isoforms in differentiating neural stem cells. This current study is aimed for a comparative analysis of temporal, regional and cell type-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms in the developing and adult mouse brain. MeCP2E2 displayed a later expression onset than MeCP2E1 during mouse brain development. In the adult female and male brain hippocampus, both MeCP2 isoforms were detected in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, MeCP2E1 expression was relatively uniform in different brain regions (olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum, whereas MeCP2E2 showed differential enrichment in these brain regions. Both MeCP2 isoforms showed relatively similar distribution in these brain regions, except for cerebellum. Lastly, a preferential correlation was observed between DNA methylation at specific CpG dinucleotides within the REs and Mecp2 isoform-specific expression in these brain regions. Taken together, we show that MeCP2 isoforms display differential expression patterns during brain development and in adult mouse brain regions. DNA methylation patterns at the Mecp2 REs may impact this differential expression of Mecp2/MeCP2 isoforms in brain regions. Our results significantly contribute

  15. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Stout, Julie C; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    connectivity loss targeting highly connected brain regions with high network traffic and low clustering of neighbouring regions. Our findings highlight the role of the rich club as a substrate for the structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington's disease and have broader implications for understanding the connection between molecular and systems level pathology in neurodegenerative disease.

  16. Interspecific allometry of the brain and brain regions in parrots (psittaciformes): comparisons with other birds and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Dean, Karen M; Nelson, John E

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding the evolution of the mammalian brain, relatively little is known of the patterns of evolutionary change in the avian brain. In particular, statements regarding which avian taxa have relatively larger brains and brain regions are based on small sample sizes and statistical analyses are generally lacking. We tested whether psittaciforms (parrots, cockatoos and lorikeets) have larger brains and forebrains than other birds using both conventional and phylogenetically based methods. In addition, we compared the psittaciforms to primates to determine if cognitive similarities between the two groups were reflected by similarities in brain and telencephalic volumes. Overall, psittaciforms have relatively larger brains and telencephala than most other non-passerine orders. No significant difference in relative brain or telencephalic volume was detected between psittaciforms and passerines. Comparisons of other brain region sizes between psittaciforms and other birds, however, exhibited conflicting results depending upon whether body mass or a brain volume remainder (total brain volume - brain region volume) was used as a scaling variable. When compared to primates, psittaciforms possessed similar relative brain and telencephalic volumes. The only exception to this was that in some analyses psittaciforms had significantly larger telencephala than primates of similar brain volume. The results therefore provide empirical evidence for previous claims that psittaciforms possess relatively large brains and telencephala. Despite the variability in the results, it is clear that psittaciforms tend to possess large brains and telencephala relative to non-passerines and are similar to primates in this regard. Although it could be suggested that this reflects the advanced cognitive abilities of psittaciforms, similar studies performed in corvids and other avian taxa will be required before this claim can be made with any certainty.

  17. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: From brain regions to brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  18. Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Chugani, Harry T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Sherwood, Chet C; Leonard, William R; Lange, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain's glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain-body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body's resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate.

  19. Real-time fMRI brain computer interfaces: self-regulation of single brain regions to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sergio; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Rana, Mohit; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of brain computer interfaces based on real-time fMRI (rtfMRI-BCI), the possibility of performing neurofeedback based on brain hemodynamics has become a reality. In the early stage of the development of this field, studies have focused on the volitional control of activity in circumscribed brain regions. However, based on the understanding that the brain functions by coordinated activity of spatially distributed regions, there have recently been further developments to incorporate real-time feedback of functional connectivity and spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. The present article reviews the principles of rtfMRI neurofeedback, its applications, benefits and limitations. A special emphasis is given to the discussion of novel developments that have enabled the use of this methodology to achieve self-regulation of the functional connectivity between different brain areas and of distributed brain networks, anticipating new and exciting applications for cognitive neuroscience and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: the functional implications of brain scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopak, K E

    2012-04-01

    It is a widely accepted view that neural development can reflect morphological adaptations and sensory specializations. The aim of this review is to give a broad overview of the current status of brain data available for cartilaginous fishes and examine how perspectives on allometric scaling of brain size across this group of fishes has changed within the last 50 years with the addition of new data and more rigorous statistical analyses. The current knowledge of neuroanatomy in cartilaginous fishes is reviewed and data on brain size (encephalization, n = 151) and interspecific variation in brain organization (n = 84) has been explored to ascertain scaling relationships across this clade. It is determined whether similar patterns of brain organization, termed cerebrotypes, exist in species that share certain lifestyle characteristics. Clear patterns of brain organization exist across cartilaginous fishes, irrespective of phylogenetic grouping and, although this study was not a functional analysis, it provides further evidence that chondrichthyan brain structures might have developed in conjunction with specific behaviours or enhanced cognitive capabilities. Larger brains, with well-developed telencephala and large, highly foliated cerebella are reported in species that occupy complex reef or oceanic habitats, potentially identifying a reef-associated cerebrotype. In contrast, benthic and benthopelagic demersal species comprise the group with the smallest brains, with a relatively reduced telencephalon and a smooth cerebellar corpus. There is also evidence herein of a bathyal cerebrotype; deep-sea benthopelagic sharks possess relatively small brains and show a clear relative hypertrophy of the medulla oblongata. Despite the patterns observed and documented, significant gaps in the literature have been highlighted. Brain mass data are only currently available on c. 16% of all chondrichthyan species, and only 8% of species have data available on their brain

  1. Identification of brain nuclei implicated in cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference: a behaviour dissociable from sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Mary Brown

    Full Text Available Relapse prevention represents the primary therapeutic challenge in the treatment of drug addiction. As with humans, drug-seeking behaviour can be precipitated in laboratory animals by exposure to a small dose of the drug (prime. The aim of this study was to identify brain nuclei implicated in the cocaine-primed reinstatement of a conditioned place preference (CPP. Thus, a group of mice were conditioned to cocaine, had this place preference extinguished and were then tested for primed reinstatement of the original place preference. There was no correlation between the extent of drug-seeking upon reinstatement and the extent of behavioural sensitization, the extent of original CPP or the extinction profile of mice, suggesting a dissociation of these components of addictive behaviour with a drug-primed reinstatement. Expression of the protein product of the neuronal activity marker c-fos was assessed in a number of brain regions of mice that exhibited reinstatement (R mice versus those which did not (NR mice. Reinstatement generally conferred greater Fos expression in cortical and limbic structures previously implicated in drug-seeking behaviour, though a number of regions not typically associated with drug-seeking were also activated. In addition, positive correlations were found between neural activation of a number of brain regions and reinstatement behaviour. The most significant result was the activation of the lateral habenula and its positive correlation with reinstatement behaviour. The findings of this study question the relationship between primed reinstatement of a previously extinguished place preference for cocaine and behavioural sensitization. They also implicate activation patterns of discrete brain nuclei as differentiators between reinstating and non-reinstating mice.

  2. Brain size of Homo floresiensis and its evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Daisuke; Kono, Reiko T; Kaifu, Yousuke

    2013-06-01

    The extremely small endocranial volume (ECV) of LB1, the type specimen of Homo floresiensis, poses a challenge in our understanding of human brain evolution. Some researchers hypothesize dramatic dwarfing of relative brain size from Homo erectus presumably without significant decrease in intellectual function, whereas others expect a lesser degree of brain diminution from a more primitive, small-brained form of hominin currently undocumented in eastern Asia. However, inconsistency in the published ECVs for LB1 (380-430 cc), unclear human intraspecific brain-body size scaling and other uncertainties have hampered elaborative modelling of its brain size reduction. In this study, we accurately determine the ECV of LB1 using high-resolution micro-CT scan. The ECV of LB1 thus measured, 426 cc, is larger than the commonly cited figure in previous studies (400 cc). Coupled with brain-body size correlation in Homo sapiens calculated based on a sample from 20 worldwide modern human populations, we construct new models of the brain size reduction in the evolution of H. floresiensis. The results show a more significant contribution of scaling effect than previously claimed. PMID:23595271

  3. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Implications for Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity allows the central nervous system to learn skills and remember information, to reorganize neuronal networks in response to environmental stimulation, and to recover from brain and spinal cord injuries. Neuronal plasticity is enhanced in the developing brain and it is usually adaptive and beneficial but can also be maladaptive…

  4. Resting state brain networks and their implications in neurodegenerative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, William S.; Yoo, Kwangsun; Kim, Jinho; Jeong, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Neurons are the basic units of the brain, and form network by connecting via synapses. So far, there have been limited ways to measure the brain networks. Recently, various imaging modalities are widely used for this purpose. In this paper, brain network mapping using resting state fMRI will be introduced with several applications including neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Parkinson's disease. The resting functional connectivity using intrinsic functional connectivity in mouse is useful since we can take advantage of perturbation or stimulation of certain nodes of the network. The study of brain connectivity will open a new era in understanding of brain and diseases thus will be an essential foundation for future research.

  5. Coherence in a simple network: Implication for brain function

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhen

    2000-01-01

    In a many body system, constituents interact with each other, forming a recursive pattern of interaction and giving rise to many interesting phenomena. Based upon concepts of the modern many body theory, a model for a generic many body system is developed. A novel approach is proposed to investigate the general features in such a system. An interesting phase transition in the system is found. Possible link to brain dynamics is discussed. It is shown how some of the basic brain processes, such...

  6. Phylogenetic origins of early alterations in brain region proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Sandoval, Alexis L; Striedter, Georg F

    2010-01-01

    Adult galliform birds (e.g. chickens) exhibit a relatively small telencephalon and a proportionately large optic tectum compared with parrots and songbirds. We previously examined the embryonic origins of these adult species differences and found that the optic tectum is larger in quail than in parakeets and songbirds at early stages of development, prior to tectal neurogenesis onset. The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportionately large presumptive tectum is a primitive condition within birds or a derived feature of quail and other galliform birds. To this end, we examined embryonic brains of several avian species (emus, parrots, songbirds, waterfowl, galliform birds), reptiles (3 lizard species, alligators, turtles) and a monotreme (platypuses). Brain region volumes were estimated from serial Nissl-stained sections. We found that the embryos of galliform birds and lizards exhibit a proportionally larger presumptive tectum than all the other examined species. The presumptive tectum of the platypus is unusually small. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the expanded embryonic tectum of lizards and galliform birds is a derived feature in both of these taxonomic groups.

  7. Blueberries and strawberries activate neuronal housekeeping in critical brain regions of stress-induced young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysfunctional autophagy, where accumulation of damaged or complex cellular components in neurons in response to sublethal cell stress has been implicated in an array of brain disorders. This phenomenon plays a pivotal role in aging, because of the increased vulnerability of the aging brain to incre...

  8. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing.

  9. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides perturb lymphocyte slow rolling on brain vascular endothelial cells: Implications for inflammatory demyelinating disease

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Clayton W.; Foster, Scott C.; Itakura, Asako; Matsumoto, Steven G.; Asari, Akira; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Sherman, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the central nervous system. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and its receptor, CD44, are implicated in the initiation and progression of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Digestion of hyaluronan tethered to brain vascular endothelial cells by a hyaluronidase blocks the slow rolling of lymphocytes along activated brain vascular ...

  10. Brain CB2 Receptors: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Roche

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although previously thought of as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, it is now accepted that the CB2 receptor is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, astrocytes and subpopulations of neurons. Expression of the CB2 receptor in the brain is significantly lower than that of the CB1 receptor. Conflicting findings have been reported on the neurological effects of pharmacological agents targeting the CB2 receptor under normal conditions. Under inflammatory conditions, CB2 receptor expression in the brain is enhanced and CB2 receptor agonists exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. These findings have prompted research into the CB2 receptor as a possible target for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammatory alterations are also associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and polymorphisms in the CB2 gene have been reported in depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. This review will examine the evidence to date for a role of brain CB2 receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Coherence in a simple network Implication for brain function

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Z

    2000-01-01

    In a many body system, constituents interact with each other, forming a recursive pattern of interaction and giving rise to many interesting phenomena. Based upon concepts of the modern many body theory, a model for a generic many body system is developed. A novel approach is proposed to investigate the general features in such a system. An interesting phase transition in the system is found. Possible link to brain dynamics is discussed. It is shown how some of the basic brain processes, such as learning and memory, find therein a natural explanation.

  12. Gender and environmental effects on regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Li, Y; Kline, A E; Dixon, C E; Zafonte, R D; Wagner, A K

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression have been reported in multiple brain regions acutely after traumatic brain injury, however neither injury nor post-injury environmental enrichment has been shown to affect hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in male rats chronically post-injury. Studies have demonstrated hormone-related neuroprotection for female rats after traumatic brain injury, and estrogen and exercise both influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Despite recent studies suggesting that exposure post-traumatic brain injury to environmental enrichment improves cognitive recovery in male rats, we have shown that environmental enrichment mediated improvements with spatial learning are gender specific and only positively affect males. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender and environmental enrichment on chronic post-injury cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. Sprague-Dawley male and cycling female rats were placed into environmental enrichment or standard housing after controlled cortical impact or sham surgery. Four weeks post-surgery, hippocampal and frontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were examined using Western blot. Results revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to injury for males (P=0.03). Environmental enrichment did not augment this effect. Neither environmental enrichment nor injury significantly affected cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for females. In the hippocampus ipsilateral to injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for both males and females was half (49% and 51% respectively) of that observed in shams housed in the standard environment. For injured males, there was a trend in this region for environmental enrichment to restore brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to sham values

  13. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. The implications of brain connectivity in the neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximo, Jose O; Cadena, Elyse J; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has been associated with atypical brain functioning. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) studies examining neural networks in autism have seen an exponential rise over the last decade. Such investigations have led to the characterization of autism as a distributed neural systems disorder. Studies have found widespread cortical underconnectivity, local overconnectivity, and mixed results suggesting disrupted brain connectivity as a potential neural signature of autism. In this review, we summarize the findings of previous fcMRI studies in autism with a detailed examination of their methodology, in order to better understand its potential and to delineate the pitfalls. We also address how a multimodal neuroimaging approach (incorporating different measures of brain connectivity) may help characterize the complex neurobiology of autism at a global level. Finally, we also address the potential of neuroimaging-based markers in assisting neuropsychological assessment of autism. The quest for a neural marker for autism is still ongoing, yet new findings suggest that aberrant brain connectivity may be a promising candidate.

  15. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors...

  16. Selenotranscriptomic Analyses Identify Signature Selenoproteins in Brain Regions in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Fan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Song-Fang; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Genes of selenoproteome have been increasingly implicated in various aspects of neurobiology and neurological disorders, but remain largely elusive in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the selenotranscriptome (24 selenoproteins in total) in five brain regions (cerebellum, substantia nigra, cortex, pons and hippocampus) by real time qPCR in a two-phase manner using a mouse model of chronic PD. A wide range of changes in selenotranscriptome was observed in a manner depending on selenoproteins and brain regions. While Selv mRNA was not detectable and Dio1& 3 mRNA levels were not affected, 1, 11 and 9 selenoproteins displayed patterns of increase only, decrease only, and mixed response, respectively, in these brain regions of PD mice. In particular, the mRNA expression of Gpx1-4 showed only a decreased trend in the PD mouse brains. In substantia nigra, levels of 17 selenoprotein mRNAs were significantly decreased whereas no selenoprotein was up-regulated in the PD mice. In contrast, the majority of selenotranscriptome did not change and a few selenoprotein mRNAs that respond displayed a mixed pattern of up- and down-regulation in cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and/or pons of the PD mice. Gpx4, Sep15, Selm, Sepw1, and Sepp1 mRNAs were most abundant across all these five brain regions. Our results showed differential responses of selenoproteins in various brain regions of the PD mouse model, providing critical selenotranscriptomic profiling for future functional investigation of individual selenoprotein in PD etiology. PMID:27656880

  17. Regional research priorities in brain and nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Goya, Rodolfo G; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Russell, Vivienne Ann; Xin, Yu

    2015-11-19

    The characteristics of neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries are unique and the burden that they have will be different from country to country. Many of the differences are explained by the wide variation in population demographics and size, poverty, conflict, culture, land area and quality, and genetics. Neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders that result from, or are worsened by, a lack of adequate nutrition and infectious disease still afflict much of sub-Saharan Africa, although disorders related to increasing longevity, such as stroke, are on the rise. In the Middle East and North Africa, major depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are a primary concern because of the conflict-ridden environment. Consanguinity is a serious concern that leads to the high prevalence of recessive disorders in the Middle East and North Africa and possibly other regions. The burden of these disorders in Latin American and Asian countries largely surrounds stroke and vascular disease, dementia and lifestyle factors that are influenced by genetics. Although much knowledge has been gained over the past 10 years, the epidemiology of the conditions in low- and middle-income countries still needs more research. Prevention and treatments could be better informed with more longitudinal studies of risk factors. Challenges and opportunities for ameliorating nervous-system disorders can benefit from both local and regional research collaborations. The lack of resources and infrastructure for health-care and related research, both in terms of personnel and equipment, along with the stigma associated with the physical or behavioural manifestations of some disorders have hampered progress in understanding the disease burden and improving brain health. Individual countries, and regions within countries, have specific needs in terms of research priorities. PMID:26580328

  18. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance.

  19. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Bryan J.; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI betw...

  20. Neurolinguistic Annotated Bibliography (Brain Research and Language Function) with Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wesley K.

    This bibliography presents annotations of 91 journal articles, books, chapters in books, and conference papers dating from 1967 to 1984 concerning neurolinguistics, language processing, and educational implications of brain research. The annotated bibliography includes eight items on neuroanatomy and language function; 20 items on neurolinguistics…

  1. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase deficiency in developing brain: Implications for brain tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bobola, Michael S.; Blank, A.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Silber, John R

    2007-01-01

    The DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a cardinal defense against the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of alkylating agents. We have reported evidence that absence of detectable MGMT activity (MGMT− phenotype) in human brain is a predisposing factor for primary brain tumors that affects ca. 12% of individuals [J.R. Silber, et. al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 6941–6946]. We report here that MGMT− phenotype in the brain of children and adults, and the...

  2. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melrose Joseph; Balu Deebika; Patil Sachin; Chan Christina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astrog...

  3. Circadian influences on dopamine circuits of the brain: regulation of striatal rhythms of clock gene expression and implications for psychopathology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwey, Michael; Dhir, Sabine; Amir, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clock proteins form an autoregulatory feedback loop that is central to the endogenous generation and transmission of daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. Increasingly, circadian rhythms in clock gene expression are being reported in diverse tissues and brain regions that lie outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in mammals. For many of these extra-SCN rhythms, however, the region-specific implications are still emerging. In order to gain important insights into the potential behavioral, physiological, and psychological relevance of these daily oscillations, researchers have begun to focus on describing the neurochemical, hormonal, metabolic, and epigenetic contributions to the regulation of these rhythms. This review will highlight important sites and sources of circadian control within dopaminergic and striatal circuitries of the brain and will discuss potential implications for psychopathology and disease . For example, rhythms in clock gene expression in the dorsal striatum are sensitive to changes in dopamine release, which has potential implications for Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Rhythms in the ventral striatum and limbic forebrain are sensitive to psychological and physical stressors, which may have implications for major depressive disorder. Collectively, a rich circadian tapestry has emerged that forces us to expand traditional views and to reconsider the psychopathological, behavioral, and physiological importance of these region-specific rhythms in brain areas that are not immediately linked with the regulation of circadian rhythms. PMID:27635233

  4. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  5. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. PMID:26364584

  6. Brain imaging and psychotherapy: methodological considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, David E J

    2008-11-01

    The development of psychotherapy has been based on psychological theories and clinical effects. However, an investigation of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychological interventions is also needed in order to improve indication and prognosis, inform the choice of parallel pharmacotherapy, provide outcome measures and potentially even aid the development of new treatment protocols. This neurobiological investigation can be informed by animal models, for example of learning and conditioning, but will essentially need the non-invasive techniques of functional neuroimaging in order to assess psychotherapy effects on patients' brains, which will be reviewed here. Most research so far has been conducted in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders and depression. Effects in OCD were particularly exciting in that both cognitive behavioural therapy and medication with a selective serotonin inhibitor led to a reduction in blood flow in the caudate nucleus. In phobia, brief courses of behavioural therapy produced marked reductions of paralimbic responses to offensive stimuli in line with the clinical improvement. Findings in depression are less consistent, with both increases and decreases in prefrontal metabolism being reported. However, they are important in pointing to different mechanisms for the clinical effects of pharmacotherapy (more "bottom up") and psychotherapy (more "top down"). For the future it would be desirable if the findings of psychotherapy changes to brain activation patterns were confirmed in larger groups with homogenous imaging protocols. Functional imaging has already made great contributions to the understanding of the neural correlates of psychopathology. For example, evidence converges to suggest that the subgenual cingulate is crucial for mood regulation. One current clinical application of these findings is deep brain stimulation in areas highlighted by such imaging studies. I will discuss their initial application in depression

  7. Brain expressed microRNAs implicated in schizophrenia etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Line; Lindow, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    Protein encoding genes have long been the major targets for research in schizophrenia genetics. However, with the identification of regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as important in brain development and function, miRNAs genes have emerged as candidates for schizophrenia-associated genetic factors....... Indeed, the growing understanding of the regulatory properties and pleiotropic effects that miRNA have on molecular and cellular mechanisms, suggests that alterations in the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets may contribute to phenotypic variation....

  8. The interneuron energy hypothesis: Implications for brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Fast-spiking, inhibitory interneurons - prototype is the parvalbumin-positive (PV+) basket cell - generate action potentials at high frequency and synchronize the activity of numerous excitatory principal neurons, such as pyramidal cells, during fast network oscillations by rhythmic inhibition. For this purpose, fast-spiking, PV+ interneurons have unique electrophysiological characteristics regarding action potential kinetics and ion conductances, which are associated with high energy expenditure. This is reflected in the neural ultrastructure by enrichment with mitochondria and cytochrome c oxidase, indicating the dependence on oxidative phosphorylation for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) generation. The high energy expenditure is most likely required for membrane ion transport in dendrites and the extensive axon arbor as well as for presynaptic release of neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Fast-spiking, PV+ interneurons are central for the emergence of gamma oscillations (30-100Hz) that provide a fundamental mechanism of complex information processing during sensory perception, motor behavior and memory formation in networks of the hippocampus and the neocortex. Conversely, shortage in glucose and oxygen supply (metabolic stress) and/or excessive formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (oxidative stress) may render these interneurons to be a vulnerable target. Dysfunction in fast-spiking, PV+ interneurons might set a low threshold for impairment of fast network oscillations and thus higher brain functions. This pathophysiological mechanism might be highly relevant for cerebral aging as well as various acute and chronic brain diseases, such as stroke, vascular cognitive impairment, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:26284893

  9. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  10. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  11. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  12. Traumatic brain injury alters methionine metabolism: implications for pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K Dash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid that is obtained from the diet. In addition to its requirement for protein biosynthesis, methionine is metabolized to generate metabolites that play key roles in a number of cellular functions. Metabolism of methionine via the transmethylation pathway generates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM that serves as the principal methyl (-CH3 donor for DNA and histone methyltransferases to regulate epigenetic changes in gene expression. SAM is also required for methylation of other cellular proteins that serve various functions and phosphatidylcholine synthesis that participate in cellular signaling.. Under conditions of oxidative stress, homocysteine (which is derived from SAM enters the transsulfuration pathway to generate glutathione, an important cytoprotective molecule against oxidative damage. As both experimental and clinical studies have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI alters DNA and histone methylation and causes oxidative stress, we examined if TBI alters the plasma levels of methionine and its metabolites in human patients. Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n = 20 and patients with mild TBI (GCS > 12; n = 20 or severe TBI (GCS < 8; n = 20 within the first 24 hours of injury. The levels of methionine and its metabolites in the plasma samples were analyzed by either liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS. Severe TBI decreased the levels of methionine, SAM, betaine and 2-methylglycine as compared to healthy volunteers, indicating a decrease in metabolism through the transmethylation cycle. In addition, precursors for the generation of glutathione, cysteine and glycine were also found to be decreased as were intermediate metabolites of the gamma-glutamyl cycle (gamma-glutamyl amino acids and 5-oxoproline. Mild TBI also decreased the levels of methionine, α-ketobutyrate, 2 hydroxybutyrate and glycine, albeit to lesser

  13. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  14. GABAergic Neuronal Precursor Grafting: Implications in Brain Regeneration and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alvarez Dolado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neurological disorders are caused by a dysfunction of the GABAergic system that impairs or either stimulates its inhibitory action over its neuronal targets. Pharmacological drugs have generally been proved very effective in restoring its normal function, but their lack of any sort of spatial or cell type specificity has created some limitations in their use. In the last decades, cell-based therapies using GABAergic neuronal grafts have emerged as a promising treatment, since they may restore the lost equilibrium by cellular replacement of the missing/altered inhibitory neurons or modulating the hyperactive excitatory system. In particular, the discovery that embryonic ganglionic eminence-derived GABAergic precursors are able to disperse and integrate in large areas of the host tissue after grafting has provided a strong rationale for exploiting their use for the treatment of diseased brains. GABAergic neuronal transplantation not only is efficacious to restore normal GABAergic activities but can also trigger or sustain high neuronal plasticity by promoting the general reorganization of local neuronal circuits adding new synaptic connections. These results cast new light on dynamics and plasticity of adult neuronal assemblies and their associated functions disclosing new therapeutic opportunities for the near future.

  15. Ipsilateral motor pathways after stroke: implications for noninvasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynley V Bradnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In humans the two cerebral hemispheres have essential roles in controlling the upper limb. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the potential importance of ipsilateral descending pathways for functional recovery after stroke, and the use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS protocols of the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1. Conventionally NBS is used to suppress contralesional M1, and to attenuate transcallosal inhibition onto the ipsilesional M1. There has been little consideration of the fact that contralesional M1 suppression may also reduce excitability of ipsilateral descending pathways that may be important for paretic upper limb control for some patients. One such ipsilateral pathway is the cortico-reticulo-propriospinal pathway (CRPP. In this review we outline a neurophysiological model to explain how contralesional M1 may gain control of the paretic arm via the CRPP. We conclude that the relative importance of the CRPP for motor control in individual patients must be considered before using NBS to suppress contralesional M1. Neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical assessments can assist this decision making and facilitate the translation of NBS into the clinical setting.

  16. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides. PMID:19901817

  17. Automatic detection of the hippocampal region associated with Alzheimer's disease from microscopic images of mice brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaidhani, Tahseen; Hawkes, Cheryl; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is primarily associated with memory and spatial navigation. It is one of the first brain regions to be damaged when a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Recent research in this field has focussed on the assessment of damage to different blood vessels within the hippocampal region from a high throughput brain microscopic images. The ultimate aim of our research is the creation of an automatic system to count and classify different blood vessels such as capillaries, veins, and arteries in the hippocampus region. This work should provide biologists with efficient and accurate tools in their investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. Locating the boundary of the Region of Interest in the hippocampus from microscopic images of mice brain is the first essential stage towards developing such a system. This task benefits from the variation in colour channels and texture between the two sides of the hippocampus and the boundary region. Accordingly, the developed initial step of our research to locating the hippocampus edge uses a colour-based segmentation of the brain image followed by Hough transforms on the colour channel that isolate the hippocampus region. The output is then used to split the brain image into two sides of the detected section of the boundary: the inside region and the outside region. Experimental results on a sufficiently number of microscopic images demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed solution.

  18. Brain region specific mitophagy capacity could contribute to selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Claus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD is histologically well defined by its characteristic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Remarkably, divergent PD-related mutations can generate comparable brain region specific pathologies. This indicates that some intrinsic region-specificity respecting differential neuron vulnerability exists, which codetermines the disease progression. To gain insight into the pathomechanism of PD, we investigated protein expression and protein oxidation patterns of three different brain regions in a PD mouse model, the PINK1 knockout mice (PINK1-KO, in comparison to wild type control mice. The dysfunction of PINK1 presumably affects mitochondrial turnover by disturbing mitochondrial autophagic pathways. The three brain regions investigated are the midbrain, which is the location of substantia nigra; striatum, the major efferent region of substantia nigra; and cerebral cortex, which is more distal to PD pathology. In all three regions, mitochondrial proteins responsible for energy metabolism and membrane potential were significantly altered in the PINK1-KO mice, but with very different region specific accents in terms of up/down-regulations. This suggests that disturbed mitophagy presumably induced by PINK1 knockout has heterogeneous impacts on different brain regions. Specifically, the midbrain tissue seems to be most severely hit by defective mitochondrial turnover, whereas cortex and striatum could compensate for mitophagy nonfunction by feedback stimulation of other catabolic programs. In addition, cerebral cortex tissues showed the mildest level of protein oxidation in both PINK1-KO and wild type mice, indicating either a better oxidative protection or less reactive oxygen species (ROS pressure in this brain region. Ultra-structural histological examination in normal mouse brain revealed higher incidences of mitophagy vacuoles in cerebral cortex than in striatum and substantia

  19. Modulation of Intercellular Calcium Signaling by Melatonin, in Avian and Mammalian Astrocytes, is Brain Region Specific

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Jennifer L.; Earnest, Barbara J.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Calcium waves among glial cells impact many central nervous system functions, including neural integration and brain metabolism. Here, we have characterized the modulatory effects of melatonin, a pineal neurohormone that mediates circadian and seasonal processes, on glial calcium waves derived from different brain regions and species. Diencephalic and telencephalic astrocytes, from both chick and mouse brains, expressed melatonin receptor proteins. Further, using the calcium-sensitive dye Flu...

  20. The Effects of Cocaine on Regional Brain Glucose Metabolism Is Attenuated in Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; Benveniste, Helene; WANG, GENE JACK; Volkow, Nora D.

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine’s ability to block the dopamine transporter (DAT) is crucial for its reinforcing effects. However the brain functional consequences of DAT blockade by cocaine are less clear since they are confounded by its concomitant blockade of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. To separate the dopaminergic from the non-dopaminergic effects of cocaine on brain function we compared the regional brain metabolic responses to cocaine between dopamine transporter deficient (DAT−/−) mice with tha...

  1. Intra- and interhemispheric connectivity between face-selective regions in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed a number of regions in the human brain that respond to faces. However, the way these regions interact is a matter of current debate. The aim of this study was to use functional MRI to define face-selective regions in the human brain and then determine how these regions interact in a large population of subjects (n = 72). We found consistent face selectivity in the core face regions of the occipital and temporal lobes: the fusiform face area (FFA), occipital ...

  2. Evolutionary and developmental implications of asymmetric brain folding in a large primate pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution, and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of Papio baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population-level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function. PMID:26813679

  3. Pubertal hormones modulate the addition of new cells to sexually dimorphic brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Eman I.; Zehr, Julia L.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Lorenz, Betty H.; Doncarlos, Lydia L.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    New cells, including neurons, arise in several brain regions during puberty in rats. Sex differences in pubertal addition of cells coincide with adult sexual dimorphisms: for each region, the sex that gains more cells during puberty has a larger volume in adulthood. Removing gonadal hormones before puberty eliminates these sex differences, indicating that gonadal steroids direct the addition of new cells during puberty to maintain and accentuate sexual dimorphisms in the adult brain.

  4. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D; Flora, S J S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water is a wide spread and worldwide problem particularly in India and Bangladesh. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for arsenic toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was planned 1) to evaluate if chronic exposure to arsenic leads to oxidative stress in blood and brain - parts of male Wistar rats and 2) to evaluate which brain region of the exposed animals was more sensitive to oxidative injury. Male Wistar rats were exposed to arsenic (50A ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water) for 10A months. The brain was dissected into five major parts, pons medulla, corpus striatum, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. A number of biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress were studied in blood and different brain regions. Single-strand DNA damage using comet assay was also assessed in lymphocytes. We observed a significant increase in blood and brain ROS levels accompanied by the depletion of GSH/GSSG ratio and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in different brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats. Chronic arsenic exposure also caused significant single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes as depicted by comet with a tail in arsenic-exposed cells compared with the control cells. On the basis of results, we concluded that the cortex region of the brain was more sensitive to oxidative injury compared with the other regions studied. The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes.

  5. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  6. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  7. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melrose Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astroglia from two different rat brain regions, cortex (region affected in AD and cerebellum (unaffected region, were treated with 0.2 mM of palmitic acid. The conditioned media were then transferred to the cortical neurons to study the possible effects on the two main, AD-associated protein abnormalities, viz. BACE1 upregulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The conditioned media from palmitic-acid treated cortical astroglia, but not the cerebellar astroglia, significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated tau and BACE1 in cortical neurons as compared to controls (47 ± 7% and 45 ± 4%, respectively. Conclusion The present data provide an experimental explanation for the region-specific damage observed in AD brain; higher fatty acid-metabolizing capacity of cortical astroglia as compared to cerebellar astroglia, may play a causal role in increasing vulnerability of cortex in AD, while sparing cerebellum.

  8. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  9. Chronic P-glycoprotein inhibition increases the brain concentration of escitalopram: potential implications for treating depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fionn E; Moloney, Gerard M; Scott, Karen A; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2015-12-01

    Recent preclinical studies have revealed a functionally important role for the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier in limiting brain levels and thus antidepressant-like activity of certain antidepressant drugs. Specifically, acute administration of P-gp inhibitors, such as verapamil and cyclosporin A (CsA), has been shown to augment brain concentrations and functional activity of the antidepressant escitalopram in rodents. However, depression is a chronic disorder and current treatments require prolonged administration to elicit their full therapeutic effect. Thus, it is important to investigate whether acute findings in relation to P-gp inhibition translate to chronic paradigms. To this end, the present study investigates whether chronic treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the antidepressant escitalopram results in enhanced brain distribution and antidepressant-like effects of escitalopram. Verapamil (10 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) and escitalopram (0.1 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) were administered once daily for 22 days. On the final day of treatment, brain regions and plasma were collected for analysis of cortical and plasma escitalopram concentrations, and to determine the hippocampal expression of genes previously reported to be altered by chronic antidepressant treatment. Verapamil treatment resulted in a greater than twofold increase in brain levels of escitalopram, without altering plasma levels. Neither gene expression analysis nor behavioral testing revealed an augmentation of responses to escitalopram treatment due to verapamil administration. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that P-gp inhibition can yield elevated brain concentrations of an antidepressant after chronic treatment. The functional relevance of these increased brain levels requires further elaboration. PMID:27022464

  10. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A New Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, William C; Blackman, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become the signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI on society are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various mechanisms, including impacts caused by the blast, have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. Through the use of hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. This mechanism has implications for the diagnosis of TBI in soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  11. Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-14

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  12. Altered regional brain volumes in elderly carriers of a risk variant for drug abuse in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussotte, Florence F; Jahanshad, Neda; Hibar, Derrek P; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors mediate the rewarding effects of many drugs of abuse. In humans, several polymorphisms in DRD2, the gene encoding these receptors, increase our genetic risk for developing addictive disorders. Here, we examined one of the most frequently studied candidate variant for addiction in DRD2 for association with brain structure. We tested whether this variant showed associations with regional brain volumes across two independent elderly cohorts, totaling 1,032 subjects. We first examined a large sample of 738 elderly participants with neuroimaging and genetic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1). We hypothesized that this addiction-related polymorphism would be associated with structural brain differences in regions previously implicated in familial vulnerability for drug dependence. Then, we assessed the generalizability of our findings by testing this polymorphism in a non-overlapping replication sample of 294 elderly subjects from a continuation of the first ADNI project (ADNI2) to minimize the risk of reporting false positive results. In both cohorts, the minor allele-previously linked with increased risk for addiction-was associated with larger volumes in various brain regions implicated in reward processing. These findings suggest that neuroanatomical phenotypes associated with familial vulnerability for drug dependence may be partially mediated by DRD2 genotype.

  13. New insight in expression, transport, and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Implications in brainrelated diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki; Adachi; Tadahiro; Numakawa; Misty; Richards; Shingo; Nakajima; Hiroshi; Kunugi

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) attracts increasing attention from both research and clinical fields because of its important functions in the central nervous system. An adequate amount of BDNF is critical to develop and maintain normal neuronal circuits in the brain. Given that loss of BDNF function has beenreported in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases, understanding basic properties of BDNF and associated intracellular processes is imperative. In this review, we revisit the gene structure, transcription, translation, transport and secretion mechanisms of BDNF. We also introduce implications of BDNF in several brain-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, depression and schizophrenia.

  14. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  15. Scaffolding of Fyn Kinase to the NMDA Receptor Determines Brain Region Sensitivity to Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Yaka, Rami; Phamluong, Khanhky; Ron, Dorit

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) abuse is a major societal problem. Although ethanol is a structurally simple, diffusible molecule, its sites of action are surprisingly selective, and the molecular mechanisms underlying specificity in ethanol actions are not understood. The NMDA receptor channel is one of the main targets for ethanol in the brain. We report here that the brain region-specific compartmentalization of Fyn kinase determines NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol. We demonstrate that, in the hipp...

  16. Metabolic abnormalities in lobar and subcortical brain regions of abstinent polysubstance users: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Abé, C.; Mon, A.; Hoefer, ME; Durazzo, TC; Pennington, DL; Schmidt, TP; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups: 1-monthabstinent alcohol-dependent PSU, 1-month-abstinent individuals dependent on alcohol alone (ALC) and light drinking controls (...

  17. Segmentation of Tumor Region in MRI Images of Brain using Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwini Gade; Rekha Vig; Vaishali Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an efficient detection of brain tumor from cerebral MRI images. The methodology consists of two steps: enhancement and segmentation. To improve the quality of images and limit the risk of distinct regions fusion in the segmentation phase an enhancement process is applied. We applied mathematical morphology to increase the contrast in MRI images and to segment MRI images. Some of experimental results on brain images show the feasibility and the performance of the proposed...

  18. Segmentation of Tumor Region in MRI Images of Brain using Mathematical Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Gade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient detection of brain tumor from cerebral MRI images. The methodology consists of two steps: enhancement and segmentation. To improve the quality of images and limit the risk of distinct regions fusion in the segmentation phase an enhancement process is applied. We applied mathematical morphology to increase the contrast in MRI images and to segment MRI images. Some of experimental results on brain images show the feasibility and the performance of the proposed approach.

  19. Brain regional differences in CB1 receptor adaptation and regulation of transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenka, M.F.; Selley, D.E.; Sim-Selley, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed throughout the brain and mediate the central effects of cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana. Repeated THC administration produces tolerance to cannabinoid-mediated effects, although the magnitude of tolerance varies by effect. Consistent with this observation, CB1R desensitization and downregulation, as well induction of immediate early genes (IEGs), varies by brain region. Zif268...

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  1. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  2. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION AND SEGREGATION OF BRAIN MRI IMAGES INTO IMAGES CAPTURED WITH RESPECT TO VENTRICULAR REGION AND EYE-BALL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arunkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI images of the brain are used for detection of various brain diseases including tumor. In such cases, classification of MRI images captured with respect to ventricular and eye ball regions helps in automated location and classification of such diseases. The methods employed in the paper can segregate the given MRI images of brain into images of brain captured with respect to ventricular region and images of brain captured with respect to eye ball region. First, the given MRI image of brain is segmented using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which is an optimized algorithm for MRI image segmentation. The algorithm proposed in the paper is then applied on the segmented image. The algorithm detects whether the image consist of a ventricular region or an eye ball region and classifies it accordingly.

  3. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  4. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  5. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Chen [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, Diagnostic Imaging, 52621, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad [Tel Aviv University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  6. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  7. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters ( Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression.

  8. Differential production of reactive oxygen species in distinct brain regions of hypoglycemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Alvarado, Leticia; Montiel, Teresa; Massieu, Lourdes

    2014-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of insulin therapy in patients suffering from type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Severe hypoglycemia leading to coma (isoelectricity) induces massive neuronal death in vulnerable brain regions such as the hippocampus, the striatum and the cerebral cortex. It has been suggested that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is involved in hypoglycemic brain damage, and that ROS generation is stimulated by glucose reintroduction (GR) after the hypoglycemic coma. However, the distribution of ROS in discrete brain regions has not been studied in detail. Using the oxidation sensitive marker dihydroethidium (DHE) we have investigated the distribution of ROS in different regions of the mouse brain during prolonged severe hypoglycemia without isoelectricity, as well as the effect of GR on ROS levels. Results show that ROS generation increases in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex and the striatum after prolonged severe hypoglycemia before the coma. The hippocampus showed the largest increases in ROS levels. GR further stimulated ROS production in the hippocampus and the striatum while in the cerebral cortex, only the somatosensory and parietal areas were significantly affected by GR. Results suggest that ROS are differentially produced during the hypoglycemic insult and that a different response to GR is present among distinct brain regions.

  9. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  10. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Huai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network.

  11. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek

    Full Text Available Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY, nucleus accumbens (NAC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000 at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600. Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%. All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.

  12. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  13. Regional differences in actomyosin contraction shape the primary vesicles in the embryonic chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early embryo, the brain initially forms as a relatively straight, cylindrical epithelial tube composed of neural stem cells. The brain tube then divides into three primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain), as well as a series of bulges (rhombomeres) in the hindbrain. The boundaries between these subdivisions have been well studied as regions of differential gene expression, but the morphogenetic mechanisms that generate these constrictions are not well understood. Here, we show that regional variations in actomyosin-based contractility play a major role in vesicle formation in the embryonic chicken brain. In particular, boundaries did not form in brains exposed to the nonmuscle myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin, whereas increasing contractile force using calyculin or ATP deepened boundaries considerably. Tissue staining showed that contraction likely occurs at the inner part of the wall, as F-actin and phosphorylated myosin are concentrated at the apical side. However, relatively little actin and myosin was found in rhombomere boundaries. To determine the specific physical mechanisms that drive vesicle formation, we developed a finite-element model for the brain tube. Regional apical contraction was simulated in the model, with contractile anisotropy and strength estimated from contractile protein distributions and measurements of cell shapes. The model shows that a combination of circumferential contraction in the boundary regions and relatively isotropic contraction between boundaries can generate realistic morphologies for the primary vesicles. In contrast, rhombomere formation likely involves longitudinal contraction between boundaries. Further simulations suggest that these different mechanisms are dictated by regional differences in initial morphology and the need to withstand cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This study provides a new understanding of early brain morphogenesis. (paper)

  14. State fragility and its regional implications for peace and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    of the Cold war left a security void, and the fragility, and in some instances collapse, of the state structures resulted in new state formations and new conflicts, both intra- and inter-state in nature. However, conflicts and security challenges in East Africa are due to amongst other things porous borders......, fragile states and bad governance regional in nature, and cannot be solved by the individual states alone. Regional institutions have been in a weak position dealing with these challenges, and attempts have been to strengthen the capacity of these regional institutions. This paper investigates...... the attempts setting up regional security institutions in the Greater Horn of Africa and asks if fragile states are capable of creating strong security institutions and effectively handling regional peace and security challenges?  ...

  15. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  16. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  17. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity.

  18. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. PMID:27056328

  19. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Salpietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by

  20. Regional variation in brain white matter diffusion index changes following chemoradiotherapy: a prospective study using tract-based spatial statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Chapman

    Full Text Available There is little known about how brain white matter structures differ in their response to radiation, which may have implications for radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine regional variation in white matter changes following chemoradiotherapy.Fourteen patients receiving two or three weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy (RT ± chemotherapy underwent DTI pre-RT, at end-RT, and one month post-RT. Three diffusion indices were measured: fractional anisotropy (FA, radial diffusivity (RD, and axial diffusivity (AD. We determined significant individual voxel changes of diffusion indices using tract-based spatial statistics, and mean changes of the indices within fourteen white matter structures of interest.Voxels of significant FA decreases and RD increases were seen in all structures (p<0.05, with the largest changes (20-50% in the fornix, cingula, and corpus callosum. There were highly significant between-structure differences in pre-RT to end-RT mean FA changes (p<0.001. The inferior cingula had a mean FA decrease from pre-RT to end-RT significantly greater than 11 of the 13 other structures (p<0.00385.Brain white matter structures varied greatly in their response to chemoradiotherapy as measured by DTI changes. Changes in FA and RD related to white matter demyelination were prominent in the cingula and fornix, structures relevant to radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. Future research should evaluate DTI as a predictive biomarker of brain chemoradiotherapy adverse effects.

  1. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  2. Regional and international implications of the Iranian nuclear crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iran is distinguished in the Middle East and the world by its geopolitical situation, qualified Middle Empire of the crossed worlds, which are all among the most active zones of the planet on the geopolitical and strategic plans. It undergoes on the one hand, region-al influences and inevitably in return acts in-depth on economic, strategic, diplomatic and cultural reality of its regional space made up of the three wholes: Central Asia, The Middle East, Persian Gulf open on the Indian Ocean. In addition, the singularity of its national policy, that tries to make move back the Anglo-Saxon impregnation of re-modelling the Middle East and the containment of the regional powers. (author)

  3. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  4. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  5. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  6. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cereb...

  7. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  8. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  9. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response. PMID:26038158

  10. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  11. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  12. Implications and Competitiveness of Regions on Regional Development of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryono Soebagiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional Competitiveness be one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of regional autonomy. Based on the results of the efficiency analysis found 11 areas of the city and district have the efficiency and 4 districts do not have the efficiency. Regional Competitiveness in Central Java based Comparative Advantage and Competitive known regions that have a high comparative and competitive advantages consist of 4 areas. Regional Mapping Based on Efficiency and Productivity Local known areas that have high efficiency and productivity which consists of 4 areas. Based Competitive Advantage Regional Productivity is high and not found. Under the Regional Competitiveness and Regional Productivity high was not found. Based on Comparative Advantage and Regional Development area there are 4 high. Based Competitive Advantage and Regional Development of high there are 2 areas. Based on Regional Productivity and Regional Development of high there are 2 counties and cities

  13. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  14. SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent & Implications in Atmospheric Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    and quantify regional diurnal warming from the experimental MSG/SEVIRI hourly SST fields, for the period 2006-2012. ii) To investigate the impact of the increased SST temporal resolution in the atmospheric model WRF, in terms of modeled 10-m winds and surface heat fluxes. Withing this context, 3 main tasks...... regional diurnal warming over the SEVIRI disk, a SEVIRI derived reference field representative of the well mixed night-time conditions is required. Different methodologies are tested and the results are validated against SEVIRI pre-dawn SSTs and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys....

  15. Arab regional systems of innovation: characteristics and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to discuss the systems of innovation in the Arab region. We explain that the two common characteristics of poor Arab regional systems of innovation is apparent from both the poor subsystems of education, S&T and R&D and ICT institutions across the Arab countries and the heavy concentration of R&D activities within both public and universities sectors and v...

  16. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  17. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  18. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.; Talazko, J.;

    2006-01-01

    The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse da...... and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.......The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse...... damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used...

  19. Regional Variations in Brain Gyrification Are Associated with General Cognitive Ability in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Carrasco, Jessica; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2016-05-23

    Searching for a neurobiological understanding of human intellectual capabilities has long occupied those very capabilities. Brain gyrification, or folding of the cortex, is as highly evolved and variable a characteristic in humans as is intelligence. Indeed, gyrification scales with brain size, and relationships between brain size and intelligence have been demonstrated in humans [1-3]. However, gyrification shows a large degree of variability that is independent from brain size [4-6], suggesting that the former may independently contribute to cognitive abilities and thus supporting a direct investigation of this parameter in the context of intelligence. Moreover, uncovering the regional pattern of such an association could offer insights into evolutionary and neural mechanisms. We tested for this brain-behavior relationship in two separate, independently collected, large cohorts-440 healthy adults and 662 healthy children-using high-resolution structural neuroimaging and comprehensive neuropsychometric batteries. In both samples, general cognitive ability was significantly associated (pFDR distribution that was nearly identical in both samples (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.80). This neuroanatomical pattern is consistent with an existing, well-known proposal, the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence [7], and is also consistent with research in comparative evolutionary biology showing rapid neocortical expansion of these regions in humans relative to other species. These data provide a framework for understanding the neurobiology of human cognitive abilities and suggest a potential neurocellular association. PMID:27133866

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  1. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    Full Text Available The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2[(15O]-PET (positron emission tomography in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control.

  2. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  3. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Huai Chen; Zhi-Jian Yao; Jiao-Long Qin; Rui Yan; Ling-Ling Hua; Qing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD).Moreover,the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear.This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients.Methods:The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls.The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed,and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory.Results:Compared with the healthy controls,the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology,but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found.Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions.Conclusions:All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients,including an impaired capability of local information processing,reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions.Thus,these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network.

  4. TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansey Malú G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF as an immune mediator has long been appreciated but its function in the brain is still unclear. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 is expressed in most cell types, and can be activated by binding of either soluble TNF (solTNF or transmembrane TNF (tmTNF, with a preference for solTNF; whereas TNFR2 is expressed primarily by microglia and endothelial cells and is preferentially activated by tmTNF. Elevation of solTNF is a hallmark of acute and chronic neuroinflammation as well as a number of neurodegenerative conditions including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's (AD, Parkinson's (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS. The presence of this potent inflammatory factor at sites of injury implicates it as a mediator of neuronal damage and disease pathogenesis, making TNF an attractive target for therapeutic development to treat acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. However, new and old observations from animal models and clinical trials reviewed here suggest solTNF and tmTNF exert different functions under normal and pathological conditions in the CNS. A potential role for TNF in synaptic scaling and hippocampal neurogenesis demonstrated by recent studies suggest additional in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted to delineate the distinct functions of the two TNF ligands in different parts of the brain prior to large-scale development of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS. If inactivation of TNF-dependent inflammation in the brain is warranted by additional pre-clinical studies, selective targeting of TNFR1-mediated signaling while sparing TNFR2 activation may lessen adverse effects of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS.

  5. Device-based brain stimulation to augment fear extinction: implications for PTSD treatment and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marie-France; Camprodon, Joan A; Dougherty, Darin D; Milad, Mohammed R

    2014-04-01

    Conditioned fear acquisition and extinction paradigms have been widely used both in animals and humans to examine the neurobiology of emotional memory. Studies have also shown that patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit deficient extinction recall along with dysfunctional activation of the fear extinction network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. A great deal of overlap exists between this fear extinction network and brain regions associated with symptom severity in PTSD. This suggests that the neural nodes of fear extinction could be targeted to reduce behavioral deficits that may subsequently translate into symptom improvement. In this article, we discuss potential applications of brain stimulation and neuromodulation methods, which, combined with a mechanistic understanding of the neurobiology of fear extinction, could be used to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and develop novel therapeutic tools. To this end, we discuss the following stimulation approaches: deep-brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. We propose new translational research avenues that, from a systems neuroscience perspective, aim to expand our understanding of circuit dynamics and fear processing toward the practical development of clinical tools, to be used alone or in combination with behavioral therapies.

  6. Device-based brain stimulation to augment fear extinction: implications for PTSD treatment and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marie-France; Camprodon, Joan A; Dougherty, Darin D; Milad, Mohammed R

    2014-04-01

    Conditioned fear acquisition and extinction paradigms have been widely used both in animals and humans to examine the neurobiology of emotional memory. Studies have also shown that patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit deficient extinction recall along with dysfunctional activation of the fear extinction network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. A great deal of overlap exists between this fear extinction network and brain regions associated with symptom severity in PTSD. This suggests that the neural nodes of fear extinction could be targeted to reduce behavioral deficits that may subsequently translate into symptom improvement. In this article, we discuss potential applications of brain stimulation and neuromodulation methods, which, combined with a mechanistic understanding of the neurobiology of fear extinction, could be used to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and develop novel therapeutic tools. To this end, we discuss the following stimulation approaches: deep-brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. We propose new translational research avenues that, from a systems neuroscience perspective, aim to expand our understanding of circuit dynamics and fear processing toward the practical development of clinical tools, to be used alone or in combination with behavioral therapies. PMID:24634247

  7. Implications of Special Regions to Conducting Human Activities on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.; Hipkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    A MEPAG Science Analysis Group (SAG) has undertaken an analysis of Special Regions (SR) on Mars—regions where indigenous martian life could exist or where Earth microbes, if introduced, could survive and reproduce. The SR-SAG has considered the impact of SR on future human activities on the martian surface. Human exploration requires access to in-situ resources, some of which may be found in SR. Water and oxygen for ISRU are found in the atmosphere, surface/near-surface ice, hydrated minerals, and perchlorates. Water ice is most abundant at latitudes poleward of ~60 degrees, but polar darkness, cold temperatures, and CO2 degassing present hazards to human operations in these regions. Accessible water is more limited toward the equator, though temperature and solar energy conditions become more favorable. The possible presence of liquid water in Recurring Slope Lineae and active gullies leads to their treatment as SR. Fuel for surface operations and propellants for crew ascent could be manufactured from the martian atmosphere and surface materials, but dust in the atmosphere may clog ISRU equipment and perchlorate is toxic to humans. Power may be produced from solar or nuclear energy. Reliance on solar energy limits operations to the equatorial zone where easily accessible ice resources are limited. Nuclear power allows surface operations at a range of latitudes, but waste heat could convert some non-SR into SR. Radiation shielding is necessary for long-term human operations on Mars and could be obtained by deposition of regolith or by water storage in tanks or as ice around habitats, or the use of underground habitats. SR-SAG recognizes that it will be impossible for all human-associated processes and operations to be conducted within entirely closed systems. Protocols need to be established so (1) human missions to Mars will not contaminate SR nor be contaminated by materials from them, and (2) human activities on Mars will avoid converting areas into SR.

  8. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines in young rats following chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubas, T.C.; Stevenson, A.; Singhal, R.L.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    An examination was made of neurochemical changes that occur in discrete brain regions of rats that have been chronically exposed to low levels of lead from birth, in order to provide further information on the involvement of brain biogenic amines in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to lead and alterations in the brain levels of various putative neurotransmitters. However, changes in the functional activity of the neurotransmitter may not be adequately reflected in the change of its steady-state levels or may occur even in the absence of any changes in the actual concentrations. Lead may influence central neurotransmitter function by affecting one or several of the processes involved in the synthesis, release and/or disposition of biogenic amines.

  9. Gene expression profiles in rat brain disclose CNS signature genes and regional patterns of functional specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breilid Harald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian brain is divided into distinct regions with structural and neurophysiological differences. As a result, gene expression is likely to vary between regions in relation to their cellular composition and neuronal function. In order to improve our knowledge and understanding of regional patterns of gene expression in the CNS, we have generated a global map of gene expression in selected regions of the adult rat brain (frontomedial-, temporal- and occipital cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum; both right and left sides as well as in three major non-neural tissues (spleen, liver and kidney using the Applied Biosystems Rat Genome Survey Microarray. Results By unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we found that the transcriptome within a region was highly conserved among individual rats and that there were no systematic differences between the two hemispheres (right versus left side. Further, we identified distinct sets of genes showing significant regional enrichment. Functional annotation of each of these gene sets clearly reflected several important physiological features of the region in question, including synaptic transmission within the cortex, neurogenesis in hippocampus and G-protein-mediated signalling in striatum. In addition, we were able to reveal potentially new regional features, such as mRNA transcription- and neurogenesis-annotated activities in cerebellum and differential use of glutamate signalling between regions. Finally, we determined a set of 'CNS-signature' genes that uncover characteristics of several common neuronal processes in the CNS, with marked over-representation of specific features of synaptic transmission, ion transport and cell communication, as well as numerous novel unclassified genes. Conclusion We have generated a global map of gene expression in the rat brain and used this to determine functional processes and pathways that have a regional preference or ubiquitous

  10. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... and regression analysis are firstly conducted to identify the regional emissions patterns. The regional disparity and inequity is further analyzed with Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient approach. Analytical results verify the regional cluster effects and the emissions' sensitivity to the economic and industrial...... and an environmental inequity. Regional oriented mitigation strategies are required to balance regional disparity, so as to realize the industrial emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle....

  11. Empathic control through coordinated interaction of amygdala, theory of mind and extended pain matrix brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G; Jacoby, Nir; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Brain regions in the "pain matrix", can be activated by observing or reading about others in physical pain. In previous research, we found that reading stories about others' emotional suffering, by contrast, recruits a different group of brain regions mostly associated with thinking about others' minds. In the current study, we examined the neural circuits responsible for deliberately regulating empathic responses to others' pain and suffering. In Study 1, a sample of college-aged participants (n=18) read stories about physically painful and emotionally distressing events during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while either actively empathizing with the main character or trying to remain objective. In Study 2, the same experiment was performed with professional social workers, who are chronically exposed to human suffering (n=21). Across both studies activity in the amygdala was associated with empathic regulation towards others' emotional pain, but not their physical pain. In addition, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis and Granger causal modeling (GCM) showed that amygdala activity while reading about others' emotional pain was preceded by and positively coupled with activity in the theory of mind brain regions, and followed by and negatively coupled with activity in regions associated with physical pain and bodily sensations. Previous work has shown that the amygdala is critically involved in the deliberate control of self-focused distress - the current results extend the central importance of amygdala activity to the control of other-focused empathy, but only when considering others' emotional pain. PMID:25913703

  12. Functional MRI Preprocessing in Lesioned Brains: Manual Versus Automated Region of Interest Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Rogalsky, Corianne; Sheng, Tong; Liu, Brent; Damasio, Hanna; Winstein, Carolee J; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa S

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has significant potential in the study and treatment of neurological disorders and stroke. Region of interest (ROI) analysis in such studies allows for testing of strong a priori clinical hypotheses with improved statistical power. A commonly used automated approach to ROI analysis is to spatially normalize each participant's structural brain image to a template brain image and define ROIs using an atlas. However, in studies of individuals with structural brain lesions, such as stroke, the gold standard approach may be to manually hand-draw ROIs on each participant's non-normalized structural brain image. Automated approaches to ROI analysis are faster and more standardized, yet are susceptible to preprocessing error (e.g., normalization error) that can be greater in lesioned brains. The manual approach to ROI analysis has high demand for time and expertise, but may provide a more accurate estimate of brain response. In this study, commonly used automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis were directly compared by reanalyzing data from a previously published hypothesis-driven cognitive fMRI study, involving individuals with stroke. The ROI evaluated is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. Significant differences were identified in task-related effect size and percent-activated voxels in this ROI between the automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis. Task interactions, however, were consistent across ROI analysis approaches. These findings support the use of automated approaches to ROI analysis in studies of lesioned brains, provided they employ a task interaction design.

  13. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  14. China–Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Its Regional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Myanmar is among the world’s oldest oil-producing countries, Chinese oil and gas companies did not start their oil and gas exploration projects there until recently. The most recent and significant China–Myanmar energy cooperation project is the oil and gas pipelines which got started in 2009. This paper will discuss the reasons and driving forces for this pipeline project and its broader objectives, and testify whether pipelines can deepen regional economic integration and strengthen bilateral relations. This paper concludes by saying that China might use the China–Myanmar pipeline construction as an opportunity to play a more constructive role in Myanmar’s domestic reforms, thus improving its image in Southeast Asia and strengthening its relations with Myanmar.

  15. Spatiotemporal 16p11.2 protein network implicates cortical late mid-fetal brain development and KCTD13-Cul3-RhoA pathway in psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan Ning; Corominas, Roser; Lemmens, Irma; Yang, Xinping; Tavernier, Jan; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Sebat, Jonathan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M

    2015-02-18

    The psychiatric disorders autism and schizophrenia have a strong genetic component, and copy number variants (CNVs) are firmly implicated. Recurrent deletions and duplications of chromosome 16p11.2 confer a high risk for both diseases, but the pathways disrupted by this CNV are poorly defined. Here we investigate the dynamics of the 16p11.2 network by integrating physical interactions of 16p11.2 proteins with spatiotemporal gene expression from the developing human brain. We observe profound changes in protein interaction networks throughout different stages of brain development and/or in different brain regions. We identify the late mid-fetal period of cortical development as most critical for establishing the connectivity of 16p11.2 proteins with their co-expressed partners. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulation of the KCTD13-Cul3-RhoA pathway in layer 4 of the inner cortical plate is crucial for controlling brain size and connectivity and that its dysregulation by de novo mutations may be a potential determinant of 16p11.2 CNV deletion and duplication phenotypes.

  16. Brain imaging studies of the cocaine addict: Implications for reinforcement and addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1995-07-01

    These studies document dopaminergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. They also suggest a regulatory role of Dopamine (DA) in frontal metabolism. The correlation of striatal D{sub 2} receptor availability with metabolism was strongest for orbital frontal cortex (OFC) cingulate and prefrontal cortices. In cocaine abusers tested during early withdrawal (<1 week) the OFC was found to be hypermetabolic and metabolism in OFC and prefrontal cortices were found to be significantly associated with cocaine craving . Thus, we postulate that repeated and intermittent DA stimulation, as seen during a cocaine binge, activates the prefrontal and OFC cortices increasing the drive to compulsively self-administer cocaine. During cocaine discontinuation and protracted withdrawal and with decreased DA stimulation, these frontal cortical regions become hyponietabolic. Dopaminergic stimulation by a DA-enhancing drug and/or environmental conditioning will reactivate these frontal regions resetting the compulsion to self-administer cocaine and the inability to terminate this behavior. The pharmacokionetic studies with [11C]cocaine are consistent with behavioral and pharmacological studies in animals as well as in vitro studies which have revealed that while the mechanisms for cocaine`s reinforcing properties are complex, they partly involve the brain`s dopamine system and also highlight the importance of cocaine`s pharmacokinetic on its unique reinforcing properties.

  17. COCAINE-ASSOCIATED ODOR CUE RE-EXPOSURE INCREASES BLOOD OXYGENATION LEVEL DEPENDENT SIGNAL IN MEMORY AND REWARD REGIONS OF THE MATERNAL RAT BRAIN*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Martha K.; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cue triggered relapse during the postpartum period can negatively impact maternal care. Given the high reward value of pups in maternal rats, we designed an fMRI experiment to test whether offspring presence reduces the neural response to a cocaine associated olfactory cue. METHODS Cocaine conditioned place preference was carried out before pregnancy in the presence of two distinct odors that were paired with cocaine or saline (+Cue and −Cue). The BOLD response to +Cue and −Cue was measured in dams on postpartum days 2–4. Odor cues were delivered to dams in the absence and then the presence of pups. RESULTS Our data indicate that several limbic and cognitive regions of the maternal rat brain show a greater BOLD signal response to a +Cue versus −Cue. These include dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, parietal cortex, habenula, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum and the mediodorsal and the anterior thalamic nucleus. Of the aforementioned brain regions, only the parietal cortex of cocaine treated dams showed a significant modulatory effect of pup presence. In this area of the cortex, cocaine exposed maternal rats showed a greater BOLD activation in response to the +Cue in the presence than in the absence of pups. CONCLUSIONS Specific regions of the cocaine exposed maternal rat brain are strongly reactive to drug associated cues. The regions implicated in cue reactivity have been previously reported in clinical imaging work, and previous work supports their role in various motivational and cognitive functions. PMID:24183499

  18. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. PMID:26808776

  19. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important ...

  20. Effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam on neurotransmitters in brain regions after microsphere embolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Miyake, Keiko; Takagi, Kaori; Tadokoro, Mina; Takagi, Norio; Oshikawa, Sayuri

    1997-01-01

    The effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam, a novel nootropic drug, on neurotransmitters of brain regions were examined in rats with microsphere embolism-induced cerebral ischaemia.Cerebral ischaemia was induced by administration of 900 microspheres (48 μm) into the internal carotid artery. The rats with stroke-like symptoms were treated p.o. with 30 mg kg−1 nebracetam twice daily. The levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in ...

  1. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearr...

  2. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  3. Hindbrain regional growth in preterm newborns and its impairment in relation to brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hosung; Gano, Dawn; Ho, Mai-Lan; Guo, Xiaoyue M; Unzueta, Alisa; Hess, Christopher; Ferriero, Donna M; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, A James

    2016-02-01

    Premature birth globally affects about 11.1% of all newborns and is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disability in surviving infants. Histology has suggested that hindbrain subdivisions grow differentially, especially in the third trimester. Prematurity-related brain injuries occurring in this period may selectively affect more rapidly developing areas of hindbrain, thus accompanying region-specific impairments in growth and ultimately neurodevelopmental deficits. The current study aimed to quantify regional growth of the cerebellum and the brainstem in preterm neonates (n = 65 with individually multiple scans). We probed associations of the regional volumes with severity of brain injury. In neonates with no imaging evidence of injury, our analysis using a mixed-effect linear model showed faster growth in the pons and the lateral convexity of anterior/posterior cerebellar lobes. Different patterns of growth impairment were found in relation to early cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage (P explaining different mechanisms through which neurogenesis is disrupted. The pattern of cerebellar growth identified in our study agreed excellently with details of cerebellar morphogenesis in perinatal development, which has only been observed in histological data. Our proposed analytic framework may provide predictive imaging biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome, enabling early identification and treatment of high-risk patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:678-688, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26589992

  4. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  5. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-04-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology.

  6. The practices of do-it-yourself brain stimulation: implications for ethical considerations and regulatory proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Scientists and neuroethicists have recently drawn attention to the ethical and regulatory issues surrounding the do-it-yourself (DIY) brain stimulation community, which comprises individuals stimulating their own brains with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for self-improvement. However, to date, existing regulatory proposals and ethical discussions have been put forth without engaging those involved in the DIY tDCS community or attempting to understand the nature of their practices. I argue that to better contend with the growing ethical and safety concerns surrounding DIY tDCS, we need to understand the practices of the community. This study presents the results of a preliminary inquiry into the DIY tDCS community, with a focus on knowledge that is formed, shared and appropriated within it. I show that when making or acquiring a device, DIYers (as some members call themselves) produce a body of knowledge that is completely separate from that of the scientific community, and share it via online forums, blogs, videos and personal communications. However, when applying tDCS, DIYers draw heavily on existing scientific knowledge, posting links to academic journal articles and scientific resources and adopting the standardised electrode placement system used by scientists. Some DIYers co-opt scientific knowledge and modify it by creating their own manuals and guides based on published papers. Finally, I explore how DIYers cope with the methodological limitations inherent in self-experimentation. I conclude by discussing how a deeper understanding of the practices of DIY tDCS has important regulatory and ethical implications. PMID:26324456

  7. Blockade of brain angiotensin II AT1 receptors ameliorates stress, anxiety, brain inflammation and ischemia: Therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Juan M; Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Benicky, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Poor adaptation to stress, alterations in cerebrovascular function and excessive brain inflammation play critical roles in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological disorders such as major depression, schizophrenia, post traumatic stress disorder, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases and traumatic brain injury. Treatment for these highly prevalent and devastating conditions is at present very limited and many times inefficient, and the search for novel therapeutic options is of major importance. Recently, attention has been focused on the role of a brain regulatory peptide, Angiotensin II, and in the translational value of the blockade of its physiological AT(1) receptors. In addition to its well-known cardiovascular effects, Angiotensin II, through AT(1) receptor stimulation, is a pleiotropic brain modulatory factor involved in the control of the reaction to stress, in the regulation of cerebrovascular flow and the response to inflammation. Excessive brain AT(1) receptor activity is associated with exaggerated sympathetic and hormonal response to stress, vulnerability to cerebrovascular ischemia and brain inflammation, processes leading to neuronal injury. In animal models, inhibition of brain AT(1) receptor activity with systemically administered Angiotensin II receptor blockers is neuroprotective; it reduces exaggerated stress responses and anxiety, prevents stress-induced gastric ulcerations, decreases vulnerability to ischemia and stroke, reverses chronic cerebrovascular inflammation, and reduces acute inflammatory responses produced by bacterial endotoxin. These effects protect neurons from injury and contribute to increase the lifespan. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are compounds with a good margin of safety widely used in the treatment of hypertension and their anti-inflammatory and vascular protective effects contribute to reduce renal and cardiovascular failure. Inhibition of brain AT(1) receptors in humans is also neuroprotective

  8. Selective normalisation of regional brain bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in the mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Jennifer T; Lehmann, Rebecca J; Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fuller, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a glycerophospholipid highly enriched in the lysosomal network and elevated in lysosomal diseases. To correct this elevation, BMP synthesis was manipulated by dietary fatty acid supplementation and the impact on subregional brain BMP and pathology assessed in the mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler syndrome (HS)). There was widespread elevation of BMP in HS mice across all six sub-regions - brain stem, cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and the sub-cortex - with 22:6/22:6 the most abundant species. Linoleic acid normalised total BMP in all regions except the cortex and cerebellum, although there were differences in fatty acid species; the major finding a decrease in 22:6- and a concomitant increase in 22:5-containing species. A battery of behaviour assessments showed that in the water cross maze both HS and wild type mice performed less well on the linoleic acid diet, and that both HS and wild type mice on the linoleic acid diet performed similarly and better in the exploratory open field test. This may be a consequence of differential subregional BMP composition in the brain. The effects of high fat and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid enriched diets were generally unremarkable. Although major pathologies were not completely abrogated, much of the neurobehavioural testing was confounded by skeletal pathology that did not resolve. This is the first detailed characterisation of subregional brain BMP species informing on the ability to manipulate this phospholipid in the brain, and as such, may hold promise as an adjunct therapy not only for HS but also for other lysosomal diseases. PMID:26710715

  9. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  12. Major trade trends in East Asia : what are their implications for regional cooperation and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Francis; Yeats, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    This study's empirical findings have positive implications for further efforts to expand East Asian regional trade and cooperation initiatives. Since the mid-1980s regional intra-trade has grown at a rate roughly double that of world trade, and at a rate far higher than the intra-trade of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) member countries or the European Union. Evidence based ...

  13. [Regional health and autonomy conferences (CRSAs): the implications for medical democracy at a regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devictor, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    The HPST law seeks to reorganize the governance of healthcare at a regional level and to maintain the existence of regional health conferences, now known as regional health and autonomy conferences (CRSAs). The purpose of this article is to examine the new duties attributed to the CRSAs and to consider the various issues raised by their practice. The article also provides an analysis of the preconditions required for the successful implementation of medical democracy at a regional level, ie.: the involvement of the CRSAs in the assessment of regional healthcare policies, the mobilization of funds, the composition of the CRSAs (including the full range of healthcare areas), the importance of providing adequate support for territorial conferences, and the elaboration of a communicative space for fostering exchanges between CRSAs.

  14. [Regional health and autonomy conferences (CRSAs): the implications for medical democracy at a regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devictor, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    The HPST law seeks to reorganize the governance of healthcare at a regional level and to maintain the existence of regional health conferences, now known as regional health and autonomy conferences (CRSAs). The purpose of this article is to examine the new duties attributed to the CRSAs and to consider the various issues raised by their practice. The article also provides an analysis of the preconditions required for the successful implementation of medical democracy at a regional level, ie.: the involvement of the CRSAs in the assessment of regional healthcare policies, the mobilization of funds, the composition of the CRSAs (including the full range of healthcare areas), the importance of providing adequate support for territorial conferences, and the elaboration of a communicative space for fostering exchanges between CRSAs. PMID:20441629

  15. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE m

  16. Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-02-01

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development. PMID:26584866

  17. Expression of glutamatergic genes in healthy humans across 16 brain regions; altered expression in the hippocampus after chronic exposure to alcohol or cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, M-A; Rosser, A A; Zhou, Z; Mash, D C; Yuan, Q; Goldman, D

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed global patterns of expression in genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamatergic genes) in healthy human adult brain before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus. RNA-Seq data from 'BrainSpan' was obtained across 16 brain regions from nine control adults. We also generated RNA-Seq data from postmortem hippocampus from eight alcoholics, eight cocaine addicts and eight controls. Expression analyses were undertaken of 28 genes encoding glutamate ionotropic (AMPA, kainate, NMDA) and metabotropic receptor subunits, together with glutamate transporters. The expression of each gene was fairly consistent across the brain with the exception of the cerebellum, the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus and the striatum. GRIN1, encoding the essential NMDA subunit, had the highest expression across all brain regions. Six factors accounted for 84% of the variance in global gene expression. GRIN2B (encoding GluN2B), was up-regulated in both alcoholics and cocaine addicts (FDR corrected P = 0.008). Alcoholics showed up-regulation of three genes relative to controls and cocaine addicts: GRIA4 (encoding GluA4), GRIK3 (GluR7) and GRM4 (mGluR4). Expression of both GRM3 (mGluR3) and GRIN2D (GluN2D) was up-regulated in alcoholics and down-regulated in cocaine addicts relative to controls. Glutamatergic genes are moderately to highly expressed throughout the brain. Six factors explain nearly all the variance in global gene expression. At least in the hippocampus, chronic alcohol use largely up-regulates glutamatergic genes. The NMDA GluN2B receptor subunit might be implicated in a common pathway to addiction, possibly in conjunction with the GABAB1 receptor subunit. PMID:25262781

  18. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  19. Heterogeneity of Regional Brain Atrophy Patterns Associated with Distinct Progression Rates in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soo Byun

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify and characterize subtypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD exhibiting different patterns of regional brain atrophy on MRI using age- and gender-specific norms of regional brain volumes. AD subjects included in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study were classified into subtypes based on standardized values (Z-scores of hippocampal and regional cortical volumes on MRI with reference to age- and gender-specific norms obtained from 222 cognitively normal (CN subjects. Baseline and longitudinal changes of clinical characteristics over 2 years were compared across subtypes. Whole-brain-level gray matter (GM atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of the subtypes were also investigated. Of 163 AD subjects, 58.9% were classified as the "both impaired" subtype with the typical hippocampal and cortical atrophy pattern, whereas 41.1% were classified as the subtypes with atypical atrophy patterns: "hippocampal atrophy only" (19.0%, "cortical atrophy only" (11.7%, and "both spared" (10.4%. Voxel-based morphometric analysis demonstrated whole-brain-level differences in overall GM atrophy across the subtypes. These subtypes showed different progression rates over 2 years; and all subtypes had significantly lower CSF amyloid-β 1-42 levels compared to CN. In conclusion, we identified four AD subtypes exhibiting heterogeneous atrophy patterns on MRI with different progression rates after controlling the effects of aging and gender on atrophy with normative information. CSF biomarker analysis suggests the presence of Aβ neuropathology irrespective of subtypes. Such heterogeneity of MRI-based neuronal injury biomarker and related heterogeneous progression patterns should be considered in clinical trials and practice with AD patients.

  20. BLOCKADE OF BRAIN ANGIOTENSIN II AT1 RECEPTORS AMELIORATES STRESS, ANXIETY, BRAIN INFLAMMATION AND ISCHEMIA: THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Juan M.; Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; BENICKY, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Poor adaptation to stress, alterations in cerebrovascular function and excessive brain inflammation play critical roles in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological disorders such as major depression, schizophrenia, post traumatic stress disorder, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases and traumatic brain injury. Treatment for these highly prevalent and devastating conditions is at present very limited and many times inefficient, and the search for novel therapeutic options is of...

  1. Biogenic Amines in Microdissected Brain Regions of Drosophila melanogaster Measured with Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography – Electrochemical Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklinski, Nicholas J.; Berglund, E. Carina; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with electrochemical detection has been used to quantify biogenic amines in microdissected Drosophila melanogaster brains and brain regions. The effects of pigment from the relatively large fly eyes on the separation have been examined to find that the red pigment from the compound eye masks much of the signal from biogenic amines. The brains of white mutant flies, which have characteristically low pigment in the eyes, have a significantly simplified sep...

  2. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg−1 wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg−1 ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p −1 ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were highest in the temporal lobe of beluga whales. • Selenium and mercury concentrations were strongly correlated. • Total mercury concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age

  3. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Sonja K; Stern, Gary A; Wang, Feiyue; Lemes, Marcos; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mgkg(-1) ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p<0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p<0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. PMID:23624002

  4. Traumatic brain injury and the Americans with Disabilities Act: implications for the social work profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Portia L; Cecka, Dale Margolin

    2014-07-01

    The practice of social work has been greatly affected by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). Title I of the statute prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities, including the increasing number of workers who are returning to work after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article examines the extent to which the ADA protects those with TBI from being harassed, being denied reasonable workplace accommodations, or suffering other adverse actions related to perceived discrimination. To do so, it relies on judicial decisions from U.S. federal courts involving alleged workplace discrimination of this population. Implications for social work practice are noted with the intent of increasing ADA awareness among professionals providing services to people who meet the criteria for disability under the ADA as well as to those persons who do not. The authors hope to encourage social workers to rely on case law analysis as a mechanism to provide further evidence of the systematic problems faced by people with TBI and thus increase their visibility.

  5. Neuroscience and awareness in the dying human brain: Implications for organ donation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Consciousness has 2 components: wakefulness (arousal) and awareness (perception of the self and the external environment). Functional neuroimaging has identified 2 distinctive functional networks that mediate external awareness of the surrounding environment and internal awareness of the self. Recent studies suggest that awareness is not always associated with wakefulness. There is little clinical research that has specifically focused on determining awareness in the dying phase, after the cessation of systemic circulation. Pana et al (J Crit Care, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.04.001) concluded from a retrospective analysis of published human and animal studies that the cessation of clinical brain function and spontaneous electroencephalography activity occurred within 30 seconds of circulatory arrest. They inferred from this that a 5-minute period of cessation of circulation constitutes a valid indicator that awareness has ceased. This aligns with the 5-minute no-touch time after the loss of arterial pulse, the current circulatory standard of death determination in non-heart-beating organ donation. We argue that the capacity for awareness may not be irreversibly lost after a relatively brief period of cessation of systemic circulation, and outline empirical data in support of the claim that awareness without wakefulness may be present. Obviously, if correct, this will have practical and ethical implications on organ donation practices. PMID:27288623

  6. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Britta K; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W

    2011-01-30

    Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images from 16 healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the 8-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared with a waiting list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared with the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking.

  7. The maternal brain under stress: Consequences for adaptive peripartum plasticity and its potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David A; Hillerer, Katharina M

    2016-04-01

    The peripartum period represents a time during which all mammalian species undergo substantial physiological and behavioural changes, which prepare the female for the demands of motherhood. In addition to behavioural and physiological alterations, numerous brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory bulb, medial amygdala and hippocampus are subject to substantial peripartum-associated neuronal, dendritic and synaptic plasticity. These changes, which are temporally- and spatially-distinct, are strongly influenced by gonadal and adrenal hormones, such as estrogen and cortisol/corticosterone, which undergo dramatic fluctuations across this period. In this review, we describe our current knowledge regarding these plasticity changes and describe how stress affects such normal adaptations. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms potentially underlying these neuronal, dendritic and synaptic changes and their functional relevance for the mother and her offspring. PMID:26828151

  8. Genome-wide coexpression of steroid receptors in the mouse brain: Identifying signaling pathways and functionally coordinated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Weert, Lisa T C M; Mol, Isabel M; Sips, Hetty C M; van den Heuvel, José K; Datson, Nicole A; Visser, Jenny A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Meijer, Onno C

    2016-03-01

    Steroid receptors are pleiotropic transcription factors that coordinate adaptation to different physiological states. An important target organ is the brain, but even though their effects are well studied in specific regions, brain-wide steroid receptor targets and mediators remain largely unknown due to the complexity of the brain. Here, we tested the idea that novel aspects of steroid action can be identified through spatial correlation of steroid receptors with genome-wide mRNA expression across different regions in the mouse brain. First, we observed significant coexpression of six nuclear receptors (NRs) [androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), glucocorticoid receptor (Gr), mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr), and progesterone receptor (Pgr)] with sets of steroid target genes that were identified in single brain regions. These coexpression relationships were also present in distinct other brain regions, suggestive of as yet unidentified coordinate regulation of brain regions by, for example, glucocorticoids and estrogens. Second, coexpression of a set of 62 known NR coregulators and the six steroid receptors in 12 nonoverlapping mouse brain regions revealed selective downstream pathways, such as Pak6 as a mediator for the effects of Ar and Gr on dopaminergic transmission. Third, Magel2 and Irs4 were identified and validated as strongly responsive targets to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol in the mouse hypothalamus. The brain- and genome-wide correlations of mRNA expression levels of six steroid receptors that we provide constitute a rich resource for further predictions and understanding of brain modulation by steroid hormones. PMID:26811448

  9. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  10. Characterization of monoaminergic systems in brain regions of prematurely ageing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Monica; Hernanz, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Guayerbas, Noelia; Fernández, Beatriz; Viveros, Maria Paz

    2003-07-01

    We have previously shown that differences in life span among members of Swiss mouse populations appear to be related to their exploration of a T-maze, with a slow exploration ("slow mice") being linked to increased levels of emotionality/anxiety, an impaired immune function and a shorter life span. Thus, we proposed the slow mice as prematurely ageing mice (PAM). We have now compared the monoaminergic systems of the PAM and of the non-prematurely ageing mice (NPAM), in discrete brain regions. PAM had decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels in all the brain regions analysed, whereas the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG)/NA ratios were not significantly modified. PAM also showed decreased serotonine (5-HT) levels in hypothalamus, striatum and midbrain, as well as increased 5-hydroxyindol-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratios in hypothalamus and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) content was lower in PAM in most regions, whereas the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA and homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios were either increased or unchanged depending on the region analysed. In most cases, the differences between PAM and NPAM involved both sexes. One exception was the hypothalamus where the differences only affected the male mice. The neurochemical alterations found in PAM resemble some changes reported for aged animals and are related with their behavioural features.

  11. Action sentences activate sensory motor regions in the brain independently of their status of reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Manuel; León, Inmaculada; Hernández, Juan A; Valdés, Mitchell; Padrón, Iván; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-07-01

    Some studies have reported that understanding concrete action-related words and sentences elicits activations of motor areas in the brain. The present fMRI study goes one step further by testing whether this is also the case for comprehension of nonfactual statements. Three linguistic structures were used (factuals, counterfactuals, and negations), referring either to actions or, as a control condition, to visual events. The results showed that action sentences elicited stronger activations than visual sentences in the SMA, extending to the primary motor area, as well as in regions generally associated with the planning and understanding of actions (left superior temporal gyrus, left and right supramarginal gyri). Also, we found stronger activations for action sentences than for visual sentences in the extrastriate body area, a region involved in the visual processing of human body movements. These action-related effects occurred not only in factuals but also in negations and counterfactuals, suggesting that brain regions involved in action understanding and planning are activated by default even when the actions are described as hypothetical or as not happening. Moreover, some of these regions overlapped with those activated during the observation of action videos, indicating that the act of understanding action language and that of observing real actions share neural networks. These results support the claim that embodied representations of linguistic meaning are important even in abstract linguistic contexts.

  12. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D.; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J.; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Page, Grier P.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ...

  13. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  14. Pain facilitation brain regions activated by nalbuphine are revealed by pharmacological fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gear

    Full Text Available Nalbuphine, an agonist-antagonist kappa-opioid, produces brief analgesia followed by enhanced pain/hyperalgesia in male postsurgical patients. However, it produces profound analgesia without pain enhancement when co-administration with low dose naloxone. To examine the effect of nalbuphine or nalbuphine plus naloxone on activity in brain regions that may explain these differences, we employed pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI in a double blind cross-over study with 13 healthy male volunteers. In separate imaging sessions subjects were administered nalbuphine (5 mg/70 kg preceded by either saline (Sal-Nalb or naloxone 0.4 mg (Nalox-Nalb. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation maps followed by contrast and connectivity analyses revealed marked differences. Sal-Nalb produced significantly increased activity in 60 brain regions and decreased activity in 9; in contrast, Nalox-Nalb activated only 14 regions and deactivated only 3. Nalbuphine, like morphine in a previous study, attenuated activity in the inferior orbital cortex, and, like noxious stimulation, increased activity in temporal cortex, insula, pulvinar, caudate, and pons. Co-administration/pretreatment of naloxone selectively blocked activity in pulvinar, pons and posterior insula. Nalbuphine induced functional connectivity between caudate and regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, insular, middle cingulate cortices, and putamen; naloxone co-admistration reduced all connectivity to non-significant levels, and, like phMRI measures of morphine, increased activation in other areas (e.g., putamen. Naloxone pretreatment to nalbuphine produced changes in brain activity possess characteristics of both analgesia and algesia; naloxone selectively blocks activity in areas associated with algesia. Given these findings, we suggest that nalbuphine interacts with a pain salience system, which can modulate perceived pain intensity.

  15. Seasonal and regional differences in gene expression in the brain of a hibernating mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schwartz

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel

  16. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-08-25

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 μM r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness.

  17. Shared brain activity for aesthetic and moral judgments: implications for the Beauty-is-Good stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The Beauty-is-Good stereotype refers to the assumption that attractive people possess sociably desirable personalities and higher moral standards. The existence of this bias suggests that the neural mechanisms for judging facial attractiveness and moral goodness overlap. To investigate this idea, we scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they made attractiveness judgments about faces and goodness judgments about hypothetical actions. Activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex increased as a function of both attractiveness and goodness ratings, whereas activity in the insular cortex decreased with both attractiveness and goodness ratings. Within each of these regions, the activations elicited by attractiveness and goodness judgments were strongly correlated with each other, supporting the idea of similar contributions of each region to both judgments. Moreover, activations in orbitofrontal and insular cortices were negatively correlated with each other, suggesting an opposing relationship between these regions during attractiveness and goodness judgments. These findings have implications for understanding the neural mechanisms of the Beauty-is-Good stereotype. PMID:20231177

  18. Shared brain activity for aesthetic and moral judgments: implications for the Beauty-is-Good stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The Beauty-is-Good stereotype refers to the assumption that attractive people possess sociably desirable personalities and higher moral standards. The existence of this bias suggests that the neural mechanisms for judging facial attractiveness and moral goodness overlap. To investigate this idea, we scanned participants with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they made attractiveness judgments about faces and goodness judgments about hypothetical actions. Activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex increased as a function of both attractiveness and goodness ratings, whereas activity in the insular cortex decreased with both attractiveness and goodness ratings. Within each of these regions, the activations elicited by attractiveness and goodness judgments were strongly correlated with each other, supporting the idea of similar contributions of each region to both judgments. Moreover, activations in orbitofrontal and insular cortices were negatively correlated with each other, suggesting an opposing relationship between these regions during attractiveness and goodness judgments. These findings have implications for understanding the neural mechanisms of the Beauty-is-Good stereotype.

  19. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-06-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5-10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0-3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage. PMID:26006171

  20. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja;

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  1. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  2. Regional brain changes occurring during disobedience to "experts" in financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y M Suen

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that individuals follow "Expert" advice, even when flawed and offers no advantage, and sometimes leads to disadvantages. The neurobiology underlying this is uncertain, and in particular there is an incomplete understanding of which brain regions are most involved when individuals chose to disobey an expert. To study this we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI differences during an investment game where subjects received differentially credible investment advice. Participants (n = 42; 32 males played an investment game, in which they could Buy or Not Buy a sequence of stocks. The better they did, the more money they made. Participants received either "Expert" advice or "Peer" advice. Those receiving Expert advice were told the advice came from a certified financial "Expert". Those receiving Peer Advice were told the advice was that of the student administering the scans, who deliberately dressed and acted casually. Both streams of advice were predetermined and identical. The advice was scripted to be helpful initially, but progressively worse as the task continued, becoming 100% wrong by the end of the task. Subjects receiving Expert Advice followed the advice significantly longer on average, even though this was progressively worse advice. Thus, following Expert advice had poorer consequences for individuals, but this did not dissuade them from continuing to follow the advice. In contrast, when subjects disobeyed Expert advice they exhibited significant anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and superior frontal gyrus activation relative to those disobeying Peer advice. These findings may suggest that in subjects who defy authority, or believe they are doing so (in this case by disobeying an "Expert" there is increased activation of these two brain regions. This may have relevance to several areas of behavior, and the potential role of these two brain regions in regard to disobedience behavior requires further

  3. In vivo electroporation to physiologically identified deep brain regions in postnatal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Nami; Kawasaki, Kazuha; Satoh, Takemasa; Hata, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic manipulation is widely used to research the central nervous system (CNS). The manipulation of molecular expression in a small number of neurons permits the detailed investigation of the role of specific molecules on the function and morphology of the neurons. Electroporation is a broadly used technique for gene transfer in the CNS. However, the targeting of gene transfer using electroporation in postnatal animals was restricted to the cortex, hippocampus, or the region facing the ventricle in previous reports. Electroporation targeting of deep brain structures, such as the thalamus, has been difficult. We introduce a novel electroporation technique that enables gene transfer to a physiologically identified deep brain region using a glass pipette. We recorded neural activity in young-adult mice to identify the location of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, using a glass pipette electrode containing the plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The location of the LGN was confirmed by monitoring visual responses, and the plasmid solution was pressure-injected into the recording site. Voltage pulses were delivered through the glass pipette electrode. Several EGFP-labeled somata and dendrites were observed in the LGN after a few weeks, and labeled axons were found in the visual cortex. The EGFP-expressing structures were observed in detail sufficient to reconstruct their morphology in three dimensions. We further confirmed the applicability of this technique in cats. This method should be useful for the transfer of various genes into cells in physiologically identified brain regions in rodents and gyrencephalic mammals.

  4. Brain imaging studies of the cocaine addict: Implications for reinforcement and addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies document dopaminergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. They also suggest a regulatory role of Dopamine (DA) in frontal metabolism. The correlation of striatal D2 receptor availability with metabolism was strongest for orbital frontal cortex (OFC) cingulate and prefrontal cortices. In cocaine abusers tested during early withdrawal (<1 week) the OFC was found to be hypermetabolic and metabolism in OFC and prefrontal cortices were found to be significantly associated with cocaine craving . Thus, we postulate that repeated and intermittent DA stimulation, as seen during a cocaine binge, activates the prefrontal and OFC cortices increasing the drive to compulsively self-administer cocaine. During cocaine discontinuation and protracted withdrawal and with decreased DA stimulation, these frontal cortical regions become hyponietabolic. Dopaminergic stimulation by a DA-enhancing drug and/or environmental conditioning will reactivate these frontal regions resetting the compulsion to self-administer cocaine and the inability to terminate this behavior. The pharmacokionetic studies with [11C]cocaine are consistent with behavioral and pharmacological studies in animals as well as in vitro studies which have revealed that while the mechanisms for cocaine's reinforcing properties are complex, they partly involve the brain's dopamine system and also highlight the importance of cocaine's pharmacokinetic on its unique reinforcing properties

  5. IL-1alpha induces angiogenesis in brain endothelial cells in vitro: implications for brain angiogenesis after acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeron, Kathleen; Aihara, Takuma; Redondo-Castro, Elena; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Bix, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a major contributor to neuronal injury and is associated with poor outcome after acute brain injury such as stroke. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is a critical regulator of cerebrovascular inflammation after ischemic injury, mainly through action of both of its isoforms, IL-1α and IL-1β, at the brain endothelium. In contrast, the differential action of these ligands on endothelial activation and post-stroke angiogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that IL-1α is chronically elevated in the brain after experimental stroke suggesting that it is present during post-stroke angiogenic periods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-1α is a potent mediator of endothelial activation and inducer of angiogenic markers in endothelial cells in vitro. Using brain endothelial cell lines, we found that IL-1α was significantly more potent than IL-1β at inducing endothelial cell activation, as measured by expression of the pro-angiogenic chemokine CXCL-1. IL-1α also induced strong expression of the angiogenic mediator IL-6 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-1α induced significant proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, and promoted formation of tube-like structures that are established key hallmarks of angiogenesis in vitro. Finally, all of those responses were blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). In conclusion, our data highlights a potential new role for IL-1 in brain repair mechanisms and identifies IL-1α as a potential new therapy to promote post-stroke angiogenesis. Inflammation is a major contributor to neuronal injury and is associated with poor outcome after neurotrauma. We demonstrate that cytokine IL-1α is chronically elevated in the brain after experimental stroke suggesting that it is present chronically post-stroke. We demonstrate that IL-1α is a potent mediator of endothelial activation and inducer of angiogenic markers in endothelial cells. Our data highlights a new

  6. Alterations in the level of OFQ/N-IR in rat brain regions by cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfy, Kabirullah; Lam, Hoa; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, into the lateral ventricles or VTA blocked cocaine sensitization. In the present study, we determined the effect of acute and chronic cocaine treatment on the level of endogenous OFQ/N in rat brain regions. Male Sprague Dawley rats were tested for motor activity in response to saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) injection once daily for three consecutive...

  7. Ultra-slow frequency bands reflecting potential coherence between neocortical brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Y-T; Wang, Y; Jung, T P; Huang, M; Cheng, C K; Mandell, A J

    2015-03-19

    Recent studies of electromagnetic ultra-slow waves (⩽0.1Hz) have suggested that they play a role in the integration of otherwise disassociated brain regions supporting vital functions (Ackermann and Borbely, 1997; Picchioni et al., 2010; Knyazev, 2012; Le Bon et al., 2012). We emphasize this spectral domain in probing sensor coherence issues raised by these studies using Hilbert phase coherences in the human MEG. In addition, we ask: will temporal-spatial phase coherence in regional brain oscillations obtained from the ultraslow spectral bands of multi-channel magnetoencephalograms (MEG) differentiate resting, "task-free" MEG records of normal control and schizophrenic subjects? The goal of the study is a comparison of the relative persistence of intra-regional phase locking values (PLVs), among 10, region-defined, sensors in examined in the resting multichannel, MEG records as a function of spectral frequency bands and diagnostic category. The following comparison of Hilbert-transform-engendered relative phases of each designated spectral band was made using their pair-wise PLVs. This indicated the proportion of shared cycle time in which the phase relations between the index location and reference leads were maintained. Leave one out, bootstrapping of the PLVs via a support vector machine (SVM), classified clinical status with 97.3% accuracy. It was generally the case that spectral bands ⩽1.0Hz generated the highest values of the PLVs and discriminated best between control and patient populations. We conclude that PLV analysis of the oscillatory patterns of MEG recordings in the ultraslow frequency bands suggest their functional significance in intra-regional signal coherence and provide a higher rate of classification of patients and normal subjects than the other spectral domains examined. PMID:25592429

  8. Brain activation regions in schizophrenia patients performing the game piece memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Huifang Yin; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Shuqiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Go, a traditional Chinese chess-like game, requires many unknown functions of the brain including attention, imaging, problem solving and processing of spatial working memory. To date, it remains uncertain whether the intellectual activities required to play Go are related to the frontal lobe.OBJECTIVE: To investigate various patterns of brain region activity while schizophrenic patients and normal subjects engaged in memorizing piece placement in the Chinese game of Go. Spatial working memory was measured in order to validate whether the prefrontal lobe participates in this memory process.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Non-randomized, concurrent control trial was performed at Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between May and December 2004.PARTICIPANTS: A total of nine Chinese schizophrenic patients with no brain or bodily diseases and not undergoing electroshock treatment, who were in accordance with the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, as well as thirteen healthy staffs and students with matched age, sex, and education were included. Patients and control subjects had no neurological disorders or mental retardation. In addition, all participants were right-handed.METHODS: The cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging was a block design experiment. Both groups were asked to remember the placement of pieces in the Chinese game of Go on a computer screen. A brain activation map was analyzed in SPM99.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain responses were compared with regard to activation region size, volume, and asymmetry indices.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the reaction time was significantly delayed in schizophrenics performing the working memory task (P < 0.05). When performing the tasks, normal subjects showed significant activation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal lobe with left dominance; the asymmetry indices were: frontal lobe, +0.32; temporal lobe, -0.58; parietal lobe, 0.41 ; and occipital lobe, -0.34. On

  9. Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment Induces Brain Region-Specific Upregulation of Genes Associated with BDNF-Induced Long-Term Potentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nordheim Alme

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence implicate BDNF in the pathogenesis of stress-induced depression and the delayed efficacy of antidepressant drugs. Antidepressant-induced upregulation of BDNF signaling is thought to promote adaptive neuronal plasticity through effects on gene expression, but the effector genes downstream of BDNF has not been identified. Local infusion of BDNF into the dentate gyrus induces a long-term potentiation (BDNF-LTP of synaptic transmission that requires upregulation of the immediate early gene Arc. Recently, we identified five genes (neuritin, Narp, TIEG1, Carp, and Arl4d that are coupregulated with Arc during BDNF-LTP. Here, we examined the expression of these genes in the dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper, and prefrontal cortex after antidepressant treatment. We show that chronic, but not acute, fluoxetine administration leads to upregulation of these BDNF-LTP-associated genes in a brain region-specific pattern. These findings link chronic effects of antidepressant treatment to molecular mechanisms underlying BDNF-induced synaptic plasticity.

  10. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces brain region-specific upregulation of genes associated with BDNF-induced long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alme, Maria Nordheim; Wibrand, Karin; Dagestad, Grethe; Bramham, Clive R

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate BDNF in the pathogenesis of stress-induced depression and the delayed efficacy of antidepressant drugs. Antidepressant-induced upregulation of BDNF signaling is thought to promote adaptive neuronal plasticity through effects on gene expression, but the effector genes downstream of BDNF has not been identified. Local infusion of BDNF into the dentate gyrus induces a long-term potentiation (BDNF-LTP) of synaptic transmission that requires upregulation of the immediate early gene Arc. Recently, we identified five genes (neuritin, Narp, TIEG1, Carp, and Arl4d) that are coupregulated with Arc during BDNF-LTP. Here, we examined the expression of these genes in the dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper, and prefrontal cortex after antidepressant treatment. We show that chronic, but not acute, fluoxetine administration leads to upregulation of these BDNF-LTP-associated genes in a brain region-specific pattern. These findings link chronic effects of antidepressant treatment to molecular mechanisms underlying BDNF-induced synaptic plasticity. PMID:18301726

  11. An Enterprising Approach to Regional Growth: Implications for Policy and the Role of VET--Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, Steve; Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2007-01-01

    "An Enterprising Approach to Regional Growth: Implications for Policy and the Role of Vocational Education and Training" explores patterns of regional economic growth in Australia over the period 1984 to 2002 with the aim of identifying the drivers of variation in regional growth; the research also aimed to identify regional opportunities and the…

  12. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  13. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions.

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    Butler, Julie M; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and -ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during territorial

  14. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  15. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

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    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Neurotransmitter mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens septi and related regions in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.

    1981-06-30

    The investigation compares the localization of different transmitter candidates, particularly the amino acide ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glutamate (GLU), in limbic and basal ganglia regions in the rat brain. In particular, the characteristics of nucleus accumbens septi have been studied in some detail. GABA neurons have been found in nucleus accumbens, and GABA projections from this nucleus have been identified in restricted basal forebrain and mesencephalic regions. GLU projections from the neo- or allocortex have been found to terminate in nucleus accumbens and other forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei. Neurotransmitters in local neurons have been identified in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, septum and caudatoputamen by means of local kainic acid injections, while neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus have been studied after systemic treatment of newborn animals with monosodium glutamate. The results are discussed as a basis for a better understanding of limbic-basal ganglia interactions.

  17. Pro-region engineering for improved yeast display and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-03-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms. PMID:26580314

  18. TROUBLING TIMES-THE GFC AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL PERFORMANCE. PART TWO: AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Stimson

    2013-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) was a profound exogenous shock which has had profound impacts the performance of national economies and the regions within them. The differential outcomes are vast. In many parts of the world there is evidence of what is being referred to as the ‘two-speed’ economy - or even a ‘multi-speed’ - economy. This has implications for regional economic development theory in which, over the last two to three decades, there has been an increasing emphasis on endogenous...

  19. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

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    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  20. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  1. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine vs. social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai K; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction. PMID:23015784

  2. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine versus social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana eEl Rawas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex - nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction.

  3. Specific effects of punishment on amino acids turnover in discrete rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T; Dworkin, S I; Co, C; Smith, J E

    1988-11-01

    Specific effects of punishment on the turnover rates of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 14 brain regions were investigated in rats exposed to punishment. Two yoked controls were also used in an attempt to separate the nonspecific effects of response rate, reinforcement density and direct effects of punisher (foot shock). Punished and unpunished littermate rats had similar response rates, and the reinforcement density was almost identical for both groups. A third group (yoked-shock rats) received food and shock independent of responding whenever these were given to the punished rats. When compared to the unpunished rats, the punishment increased the turnover rates of the three amino acids in all brain regions examined except GABA turnover in the caudate-putamen and preoptic-diagonal band. The majority of these changes by the punishment were similar to the effects of the yoked-shock (yoked-shock versus unpunished), although the magnitude of increase by the punishment was mostly larger than that by the yoked-shock. Six changes by the punishment (increase in the turnover rates of Asp in the thalamus, Glu in the hypothalamus and GABA in the cingulate cortex, entorhinal-subicular cortex, dentate gyrus and hypothalamus) appeared to be the specific effects of punishment since the yoked-shock did not affect these parameters. These results suggest that the punishment caused a hyperexcitation of the amino acidergic neurons in the limbic systems, particularly those in Papez's circuit. PMID:3251236

  4. Brain region and activity-dependent properties of M for calibrated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Christina Y; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Wang, Helen; Juchem, Christoph; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-01-15

    Calibrated fMRI extracts changes in oxidative energy demanded by neural activity based on hemodynamic and metabolic dependencies of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. This procedure requires the parameter M, which is determined from the dynamic range of the BOLD signal between deoxyhemoglobin (paramagnetic) and oxyhemoglobin (diamagnetic). Since it is unclear if the range of M-values in human calibrated fMRI is due to regional/state differences, we conducted a 9.4T study to measure M-values across brain regions in deep (α-chloralose) and light (medetomidine) anesthetized rats, as verified by electrophysiology. Because BOLD signal is captured differentially by gradient-echo (R2*) and spin-echo (R2) relaxation rates, we measured M-values by the product of the fMRI echo time and R2' (i.e., the reversible magnetic susceptibility component), which is given by the absolute difference between R2* and R2. While R2' mapping was shown to be dependent on the k-space sampling method used, at nominal spatial resolutions achieved at high magnetic field of 9.4T the M-values were quite homogenous across cortical gray matter. However cortical M-values varied in relation to neural activity between brain states. The findings from this study could improve precision of future calibrated fMRI studies by focusing on the global uniformity of M-values in gray matter across different resting activity levels. PMID:26529646

  5. Brain, mind and machine: what are the implications of deep brain stimulation for perceptions of personal identity, agency and free will?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsman, Nir; Glannon, Walter

    2013-11-01

    Brain implants, such as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), which are designed to improve motor, mood and behavioural pathology, present unique challenges to our understanding of identity, agency and free will. This is because these devices can have visible effects on persons' physical and psychological properties yet are essentially undetectable when operating correctly. They can supplement and compensate for one's inherent abilities and faculties when they are compromised by neuropsychiatric disorders. Further, unlike talk therapy or pharmacological treatments, patients need not 'do' anything for the treatment to take effect. If one accepts, as we argue here, that brain implants are unique among implantable types of devices, then this can have significant implications for what it means to persist as the same person and be the source of one's thoughts and actions. By examining two of the most common indications for DBS in current use, namely in the motor (Parkinson's Disease) and psychiatric (Major Depression) domains, we further argue that although DBS, as it is currently applied, does not necessarily represent a unique threat to personal identity and agency per se, it introduces an unprecedented 'third party' into the debate on these concepts. In this way, DBS can be used as a tool to begin probing, both conceptually and empirically, some of philosophy's most perennial metaphysical questions.

  6. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9{+-}4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7{+-} 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder.

  7. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  8. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  9. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  10. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  11. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Sonja K., E-mail: ostertag@unbc.ca [Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Stern, Gary A., E-mail: Gary.Stern@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wang, Feiyue, E-mail: feiyue.wang@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Lemes, Marcos, E-mail: Marcos.lemes@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, 1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg{sup −1} wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg{sup −1} ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p < 0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg{sup −1} ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights:

  12. Brain circuits implicated in psychogenic paralysis in conversion disorders and hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, P

    2014-10-01

    Conversion disorders are defined as neurological symptoms arising without organic damage to the nervous system, presumably in relation to various emotional stress factors, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the mechanisms responsible for their production remain poorly understood. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from conversion disorders in both motor and non-motor (e.g. somatosensory, visual) domains. Several studies have also compared brain activation patterns in conversion to those observed during hypnosis, where similar functional losses can be evoked by suggestion. The current review summarizes these recent results and the main neurobiological hypotheses proposed to account for conversion symptoms, in particular motor deficits. An emerging model points to an important role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), precuneus, and perhaps other limbic structures (including amygdala), all frequently found to be hyperactivated in conversion disorders in parallel to impaired recruitment of primary motor and/or sensory pathways at the cortical or subcortical (basal ganglia) level. These findings are only partly shared with hypnosis, where increases in precuneus predominate, together with activation of attentional control systems, but without any activation of VMPFC. Both VMPFC and precuneus are key regions for access to internal representations about the self, integrating information from memory and imagery with affective relevance (in VMPFC) and sensory or agency representations (in precuneus). It is therefore postulated that conversion deficits might result from an alteration of conscious sensorimotor functions and self-awareness under the influence of affective and sensory representations generated in these regions, which might promote certain patterns of behaviors in response to self-relevant emotional states.

  13. Imaging Vascular Disease and Amyloid in the Aging Brain: Implications for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) are well known risk factors for Alzheimer’ disease. These vascular risk factors lead to vascular brain injuries, which also increase the likelihood of dementia. The advent of amyloid PET imaging has helped establish that vascular risk factors also lead to Alzheimer’s disease via pathways that are independent from vascular brain injuries, at least, when vascular brain injuries are measured as white matter lesions and infarcts...

  14. Opiate sensitization induces FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortical, striatal and amygdala brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary B Kaplan

    Full Text Available Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1, consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc, motor outputs (CPU, and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA and stress pathways (CNA.

  15. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  16. Gorilla and Orangutan Brains Conform to the Primate Cellular Scaling Rules: Implications for Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    Gorillas and orangutans are primates at least as large as humans, but their brains amount to about one third of the size of the human brain. This discrepancy has been used as evidence that the human brain is about 3 times larger than it should be for a primate species of its body size. In contrast to the view that the human brain is special in its size, we have suggested that it is the great apes that might have evolved bodies that are unusually large, on the basis of our recent finding that ...

  17. Modeling Regional Groundwater Implications of Biofuel Crop Production in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    In response to a growing call for renewable sources of energy that do not compete directly with food resources, the use of second-generation 'cellulosic' biofuel feedstocks has gained much attention in recent years. The push to advance the technologies that would make such a transformation possible is motivated by the United States Renewable Fuel Standard mandate to produce 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, an increase of 334 percent from 2009. Many different crops, including maize, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar have shown promise as cellulosic feedstocks, and in an attempt to supply the needed biomass to meet the 2022 mandate, production of these crops have been on the rise. Yet little is known about the sustainability of large-scale conversion of land to cellulosic biofuel crop production; more research is needed to understand the effects that these crops will have on the quality and quantity of groundwater. This study presents a model scale-up approach to address three questions: What are the hydrologic and nutrient demands of the primary biofuel crops? Which biofuel crops are more water efficient in terms of demand verses energy produced? What are the types and availabilities of land to expand production of these biofuel crops? To answer these questions, we apply a point-based crop dynamics model in combination with a regional-scale hydrologic model, parameterized using stream discharge and chemistry data collected from two representative watersheds in Wisconsin. Approximately 17 stream sites in each watershed are selected for data collection for model parameterization, including stream discharge, nutrient concentrations, and basic chemical characteristics. We then use the System Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) model, which predicts crop growth under varying soil and climate conditions, to drive vegetation dynamics and groundwater transport of nutrients within the Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model (ILHM). ILHM predictions of stream

  18. Automatic Region-Based Brain Classification of MRI-T1 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Sepideh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Karimian, Alireza; Mitsukira, Yasue; Hematian, Amirshahram

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of medical images is a challenging problem with several still not totally solved issues, such as noise interference and image artifacts. Region-based and histogram-based segmentation methods have been widely used in image segmentation. Problems arise when we use these methods, such as the selection of a suitable threshold value for the histogram-based method and the over-segmentation followed by the time-consuming merge processing in the region-based algorithm. To provide an efficient approach that not only produce better results, but also maintain low computational complexity, a new region dividing based technique is developed for image segmentation, which combines the advantages of both regions-based and histogram-based methods. The proposed method is applied to the challenging applications: Gray matter (GM), White matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) segmentation in brain MR Images. The method is evaluated on both simulated and real data, and compared with other segmentation techniques. The obtained results have demonstrated its improved performance and robustness. PMID:27096925

  19. Frequency specificity of regional homogeneity in the resting-state human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    Full Text Available Resting state-fMRI studies have found that the inter-areal correlations in cortical networks concentrate within ultra-low frequencies (0.01-0.04 Hz while long-distance connections within subcortical networks distribute over a wider frequency range (0.01-0.14 Hz. However, the frequency characteristics of regional homogeneity (ReHo in different areas are still unclear. To examine the ReHo properties in different frequency bands, a data-driven method, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD, was adopted to decompose the time series of each voxel into several components with distinct frequency bands. ReHo values in each of the components were then calculated. Our results showed that ReHo in cortical areas were higher and more frequency-dependent than those in the subcortical regions. BOLD oscillations of 0.02-0.04 Hz mainly contributed to the cortical ReHo, whereas the ReHo in limbic areas involved a wider frequency range and were dominated by higher-frequency BOLD oscillations (>0.08 Hz. The frequency characteristics of ReHo are distinct between different parts of the striatum, with the frequency band of 0.04-0.1 Hz contributing the most to ReHo in caudate nucleus, and oscillations lower than 0.02 Hz contributing more to ReHo in putamen. The distinct frequency-specific ReHo properties of different brain areas may arise from the assorted cytoarchitecture or synaptic types in these areas. Our work may advance the understanding of the neural-physiological basis of local BOLD activities and the functional specificity of different brain regions.

  20. Evolutionary development of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid composition and regulation: an open research field with implications for brain development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, David; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, including behaviour. The central nervous system is one of the most intriguing systems in complex metazoans, as it controls all body and mind functions. Its failure is responsible for a number of severe and largely incurable diseases, including neurological and neurodegenerative ones. Moreover, the evolution of the nervous system is thought to be a critical step in the adaptive radiation of vertebrates. Brain formation is initiated early during development. Most embryological, genetic and evolutionary studies have focused on brain neurogenesis and regionalisation, including the formation and function of organising centres, and the comparison of homolog gene expression and function among model organisms from different taxa. The architecture of the vertebrate brain primordium also reveals the existence of connected internal cavities, the cephalic vesicles, which in fetuses and adults become the ventricular system of the brain. During embryonic and fetal development, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with a complex, protein-rich fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, CSF has not been widely analysed from either an embryological or evolutionary perspective. Recently, it has been demonstrated in higher vertebrates that embryonic cerebrospinal fluid has key functions in delivering diffusible signals and nutrients to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. Moreover, it has been shown that the composition and homeostasis of CSF are tightly controlled in a time-dependent manner from the closure of the anterior neuropore, just before the initiation of primary neurogenesis, up to the formation of functional choroid plexuses. In

  1. Evolutionary development of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid composition and regulation: an open research field with implications for brain development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, David; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2016-03-15

    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, including behaviour. The central nervous system is one of the most intriguing systems in complex metazoans, as it controls all body and mind functions. Its failure is responsible for a number of severe and largely incurable diseases, including neurological and neurodegenerative ones. Moreover, the evolution of the nervous system is thought to be a critical step in the adaptive radiation of vertebrates. Brain formation is initiated early during development. Most embryological, genetic and evolutionary studies have focused on brain neurogenesis and regionalisation, including the formation and function of organising centres, and the comparison of homolog gene expression and function among model organisms from different taxa. The architecture of the vertebrate brain primordium also reveals the existence of connected internal cavities, the cephalic vesicles, which in fetuses and adults become the ventricular system of the brain. During embryonic and fetal development, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with a complex, protein-rich fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, CSF has not been widely analysed from either an embryological or evolutionary perspective. Recently, it has been demonstrated in higher vertebrates that embryonic cerebrospinal fluid has key functions in delivering diffusible signals and nutrients to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. Moreover, it has been shown that the composition and homeostasis of CSF are tightly controlled in a time-dependent manner from the closure of the anterior neuropore, just before the initiation of primary neurogenesis, up to the formation of functional choroid plexuses. In

  2. Automatic segmentation of different-sized leukoaraiosis regions in brain MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Kunieda, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ando, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Asano, Takahiko; Kato, Hiroki; Iwama, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-03-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of death in Japan. Therefore, a screening system for the early detection of asymptomatic brain diseases is widely used. In this screening system, leukoaraiosis is often detected in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The quantitative analysis of leukoaraiosis is important because its presence and extension is associated with an increased risk of severe stroke. However, thus far, the diagnosis of leukoaraiosis has generally been limited to subjective judgments by radiologists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for the segmentation of leukoaraiosis, and provide an objective measurement of the lesion volume. Our database comprised of T1- and T2-weighted images obtained from 73 patients. The locations of leukoaraiosis regions were determined by an experienced neuroradiologist. We first segment cerebral parenchymal regions in T1-weighted images by using a region growing technique. For determining the initial candidate regions for leukoaraiosis, the k-means clustering of pixel values in the T1- and T2-weighted images was applied to the segmented cerebral region. For the elimination of false positives (FPs), we determined features such as the location, size, and circularity from each of the initial candidates. Finally, rule-based schemes and a quadratic discriminant analysis with these features were employed for distinguishing between the leukoaraiosis regions and the FPs. The results indicated that the sensitivity for the detection of leukoaraiosis was 100% with 5.84 FPs per image. Our computerized scheme can be useful in assisting radiologists for the quantitative analysis of leukoaraiosis in T1- and T2-weighted images.

  3. The Union of Shortest Path Trees of Functional Brain Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, J.; Tewarie, P.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2015-01-01

    Communication between brain regions is still insufficiently understood. Applying concepts from network science has shown to be successful in gaining insight in the functioning of the brain. Recent work has implicated that especially shortest paths in the structural brain network seem to play a major

  4. MeCP2 and the enigmatic organization of brain chromatin. Implications for depression and cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausió, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a highly abundant chromosomal protein within the brain. It is hence not surprising that perturbations in its genome-wide distribution, and at particular loci within this tissue, can result in widespread neurological disorders that transcend the early implications of this protein in Rett syndrome (RTT). Yet, the details of its role and involvement in chromatin organization are still poorly understood. This paper focuses on what is known to date about all of this with special emphasis on the relation to different epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation, histone acetylation/ubiquitination, MeCP2 phosphorylation and miRNA). We showcase all of the above in two particular important neurological functional alterations in the brain: depression (major depressive disorder [MDD]) and cocaine addiction, both of which affect the MeCP2 homeostasis and result in significant changes in the overall levels of these epigenetic marks. PMID:27213019

  5. Young Children's Changing Conceptualizations of Brain Function: Implications for Teaching Neuroscience in Early Elementary Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J.; Comalli, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Two exploratory studies explored young children's views of brain function and whether these views can be modified through exposure to a brief classroom intervention. In Study 1, children aged 4-13 years reported that the brain is used for "thinking," although older children were more likely than younger children to also endorse…

  6. Imaging of Cells and Nanoparticles : Implications for Drug Delivery to the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanov, Katica; Zuhorn, Inge S.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; de Vries, Erik F. J.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of central nervous system drugs is to obtain therapeutic effective drug concentrations inside the brain. Many potentially effective drugs have never reached clinical application because of poor brain penetration. Currently, devices are being developed that may im

  7. Brain Research: Environment and Emotions. Implications for Teaching Information Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Betty J.

    2004-01-01

    Library media specialists need to embrace brain research and implement its findings into the teaching of information literary skills. Research in the past two decades has used imaging techniques to allow the study of brain functions when listening to music versus composing a song or when recalling a noun or verb. Imaging allows researchers to look…

  8. Animal Research on Effects of Experience on Brain and Behavior: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This article first considers how plasticity of the brain in response to differential experience was discovered in research with laboratory rats around 1960. Animal research soon followed on effects of enriched experience as therapy for brain dysfunction. Relations between animal research and some human therapies are considered. (Contains…

  9. An acute dose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid alters gene expression in multiple mouse brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, B J; Saini, U T; Robinson, B L; Ali, S F; Patterson, T A

    2010-10-13

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is normally found in the brain in low concentrations and may function as a neurotransmitter, although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated. GHB has been used as a general anesthetic and is currently used to treat narcolepsy and alcoholism. Recreational use of GHB is primarily as a "club drug" and a "date rape drug," due to its amnesic effects. For this study, the hypothesis was that behavioral and neurochemical alterations may parallel gene expression changes in the brain after GHB administration. Adult male C57/B6N mice (n=5/group) were administered a single dose of 500 mg/kg GHB (i.p.) and were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 h after treatment. Control mice were administered saline. Brains were removed and regionally dissected on ice. Total RNA from the hippocampus, cortex and striatum was extracted, amplified and labeled. Gene expression was evaluated using Agilent whole mouse genome 4x44K oligonucleotide microarrays. Microarray data were analyzed by ArrayTrack and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using P or = 1.7 as the criteria for significance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that samples from each time point clustered into distinct treatment groups with respect to sacrifice time. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was used to identify involved pathways. The results show that GHB induces gene expression alterations in hundreds of genes in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum, and the number of affected genes increases throughout a 4-h time course. Many of these DEGs are involved in neurological disease, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

  10. Regional Susceptibility to Domoic Acid in Primary Astrocyte Cells Cultured from the Brain Stem and Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid is a marine biotoxin associated with harmful algal blooms and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in marine animals and humans. It is also an excitatory amino acid analog to glutamate and kainic acid which acts through glutamate receptors eliciting a very rapid and potent neurotoxic response. The hippocampus, among other brain regions, has been identified as a specific target site having high sensitivity to DOM toxicity. Histopathology evidence indicates that in addition to neurons, the astrocytes were also injured. Electron microscopy data reported in this study further supports the light microscopy findings. Furthermore, the effect of DOM was confirmed by culturing primary astrocytes from the hippocampus and the brain stem and subsequently exposing them to domoic acid. The RNA was extracted and used for biomarker analysis. The biomarker analysis was done for the early response genes including c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Hsp-72; specific marker for the astrocytes- GFAP and the glutamate receptors including GluR 2, NMDAR 1, NMDAR 2A and B. Although, the astrocyte-GFAP and c-fos were not affected, c-jun and GluR 2 were down-regulated. The microarray analysis revealed that the chemokines / cytokines, tyrosine kinases (Trk, and apoptotic genes were altered. The chemokines that were up-regulated included - IL1-a, IL-1B, IL-6, the small inducible cytokine, interferon protein IP-10, CXC chemokine LIX, and IGF binding proteins. The Bax, Bcl-2, Trk A and Trk B were all downregulated. Interestingly, only the hippocampal astrocytes were affected. Our findings suggest that astrocytes may present a possible target for pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of amnesic shellfish poisoning and for other brain pathologies involving excitotoxicity

  11. Quality control parameters on a large dataset of regionally dissected human control brains for whole genome expression studies

    OpenAIRE

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Imran, Sabaena; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John

    2011-01-01

    We are building an open-access database of regional human brain expression designed to allow the genome-wide assessment of genetic variability on expression. Array and RNA sequencing technologies make assessment of genome-wide expression possible. Human brain tissue is a challenging source for this work because it can only be obtained several and variable hours post-mortem and after varying agonal states. These variables alter RNA integrity in a complex manner. In this report, we assess the e...

  12. Region-Specific Genetic Alterations in the Aging Hippocampus: Implications for Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna eBurger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline in both humans and animals and of all brain regions, the hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to senescence. Age-related spatial learning deficits result from alterations in hippocampal connectivity and plasticity. These changes are differentially expressed in each of the hippocampal fields known as cornu ammonis 1 (CA1, cornu ammonis 3 (CA3, and the dentate gyrus. Each sub-region displays varying degrees of susceptibility to aging. For example, the CA1 region is particularly susceptible in Alzheimer’s disease while the CA3 region shows vulnerability to stress and glucocorticoids. Further, in animals, aging is the main factor associated with the decline in adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This review discusses the relationship between region-specific hippocampal connectivity, morphology, and gene expression alterations and the cognitive deficits associated with senescence. In particular, data are reviewed that illustrate how the molecular changes observed in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions are associated with age-related learning deficits. This topic is of importance because increased understanding of how gene expression patterns reflect individual differences in cognitive performance is critical to the process of identifying new and clinically-useful biomarkers for cognitive aging.

  13. Patterns of distant brain recurrences after radiosurgery alone for newly diagnosed brain metastases: Implications for salvage therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Single modality radiosurgery (RS) is an established treatment option for patients with brain metastases (BM) with the aim of achieving optimal local control while avoiding toxicity from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Published studies generally lack detailed data on distant brain recurrence (DBR) rates and characteristics. This study describes the patterns of DBR and consequences for salvage treatment in a group of patients treated with RS alone for 1–3 BM. Materials and methods: Between 2002 and 2012, 443 patients were treated with RS alone in doses ranging 15–24 Gy in 1–3 fractions. Patient selection for RS was performed using triple dose gadolinium-enhanced MRI scans, obtained with slice distance of 2 mm (until 2008), 1.5 mm (2008–2012), and of 1 mm (from 2012). During follow-up, a DBR was observed in 147 patients, but in 20 of these patients (14%) these “new lesions” could retrospectively be seen on the planning MRI scan. These missed metastases had a median size of 2 mm, and in order to study real DBR patterns, these patients were excluded from analysis. Results: Actuarial DBR rates at 6, 12 and 24 months in the remaining 423 patients were 21%, 41% and 54%, respectively, with a median time to DBR of 5.6 months. In 42% of DBR, a single new lesion was seen, in 70% there were ⩽3 new lesions. Median diameter of the DBR was 6 mm; 97% of lesions were ⩽30 mm. Salvage therapy was delivered in 82% of DBR patients, consisting of WBRT (46%), repeated RS (27%), or systemic treatment (9%). A RPA classification system (DBR-RPA), based on WHO performance status and interval between initial RS and diagnosis of DBR, was developed to estimate life expectancy after the development of DBR, which can be used to guide salvage therapy. Conclusions: In this study of patients treated with RS alone, only 25% of treated patients needed salvage treatment for DBR, and ultimately only 18% of all patients underwent WBRT at any time during follow-up. A three

  14. Region-specific changes in brain diffusivity in fetal isolated mild ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Institute for Research in Military Medicine, The Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, The Dr. Pinchas Bornstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, Tel Aviv (Israel); Katorza, Eldad [Sheba Medical Center, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bercovitz, Ronen; Bergman, Dafi; Greenberg, Gahl; Hoffmann, Chen [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the impact of symmetric and asymmetric isolated mild ventriculomegaly (IMVM, atrial width 10-15 mm) on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in fetal brain areas. Sixty-seven sequential fetal head magnetic resonance imaging scans (feMRI) of VM cases performed between 2009 and 2014 were compared to 38 normal feMRI scans matched for gestational age (controls). Ultrasound- and MRI-proven IMVM cases were divided into asymmetrical (AVM, ≥2 mm difference in atrial width), symmetrical (SVM, <2 mm difference in atrial width), and asymmetrical IMVM with one normal-sized ventricle (AV1norm). ADC values were significantly elevated in the basal ganglia (BG) of the SVM and AV1norm groups compared to controls (p < 0.004 and p < 0.013, respectively). High diffusivity was constantly detected in the BG ipsilateral to the enlarged atria relative to the normal-sized atria in the AV1norm group (p < 0.03). Frontal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM and SVM groups (p < 0.003 and p < 0.003 vs. controls). Temporal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM group (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is associated with distinct ADC value changes in different brain regions. This phenomenon could reflect the pathophysiology associated with different IMVM patterns. (orig.)

  15. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  16. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  17. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning.

  18. Expression of Bcl-2 in adult human brain regions with special reference to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Javoy-Agid, F; Herrero, M T; Strada, O; Boissiere, F; Hibner, U; Agid, Y

    1997-07-01

    The expression of the protooncogene bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis in various cells, was examined in the adult human brain. Several experimental criteria were used to verify its presence; mRNA was analyzed by northern blot with parallel experiments in mouse tissues, by RNase protection, and by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Bcl-2 protein was detected by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Two bcl-2 mRNA species were identified in the human brain. The pattern of distribution of bcl-2 mRNA at the cellular level showed labeling in neurons but not glia. The in situ hybridization signal was stronger in the pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and in the cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert than in the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum. Both melanized and nonmelanized neurons were labeled in the substantia nigra. In the striatum, bcl-2 mRNA was detected in some but not all neurons. In the regions examined for Bcl-2 protein, the expression pattern correlated with the mRNA results. In patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, quantification of bcl-2 mRNA in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and substantia nigra, respectively, showed that the expression was unaltered compared with controls, raising the possibility that the expression of other components of apoptosis is modulated.

  19. Brain regions associated with Anhedonia in healthy adults: a PET correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Chul; Chun, Ji Won; Kim, Jae Jin; Park, Hae Jeong; Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Jeong Ho [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Anhedonia has been proposed to be the result of a basic neurophysiologic dysfunction and a vulnerability marker that precede and contribute to the liability of developing schizophrenia. We hypothesized that anhedonia, as a construct reflecting the decreased capacity to experience pleasure, should be associated with decreased positive hedonic affect trait. This study examined the relationship between anhedonia and positive hedonic affect trait and searched for the brain regions which correlate with anhedonia in normal subjects. Using {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan, we investigated the brain activity of twenty one subjects during resting state. Questionnaires were administrated after the scan in order to assess the self-rated individual differences in physical/social anhedonia and positive/negative affect traits. Negative correlation between physical anhedonia score and positive affect trait score was significant (Pearson coefficient=-0.440, {rho} <0.05). The subjects' physical and social anhedonia scores showed positive correlation with metabolic rates in the cerebellum and negative correlation with metabolic rates in the inferior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, the positive affect trait score positively correlated with various areas, most prominent with the inferior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that neural substrates, such as the inferior temporal gyrus and prefrontal-cerebellar circuit, which dysfunction has been proposed to be involved with the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, may also play a significant role in the liability of affective deficits like anhedonia.

  20. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions. PMID:27539656

  1. Resting-state, functional MRI on regional homogeneity changes of brain in the heavy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of self-awareness in the heavy smokers (HS) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) combined with resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty HS and 31 healthy non-smokers (NS) matched for age and sex underwent a 3.0 T resting-state fMRI. The data were post-processed by SPM 5 and then the ReHo values were calculated by REST software. The ReHo values between the two groups were compared by two-sample t-test. The brain map with significant difference of ReHo value was obtained. Results: Compared with that in NS group, the regions with decreased ReHo value included the bilateral precuneus, superior frontal gyrus,medial prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus in HS group. The regions of increased ReHo value included the bilateral insula, parahippocampal gyrus, white matter of parietal lobe, pons, left inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, thalamus, inferior orbital gyrus, white matter of temporal-frontal lobe, and cerebellum. The difference was more obvious in the left hemisphere. Conclusions: In HS, abnormal ReHo on a resting state which reflects network of smoking addiction. This method may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of self-awareness in HS. (authors)

  2. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status.

  3. MT-Stabilizer, Dictyostatin, Exhibits Prolonged Brain Retention and Activity: Potential Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Inclusions comprising the microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein, tau, are found within neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and related neurodegenerative disorders that are broadly referred to as tauopathies. The sequestration of tau into inclusions is believed to cause a loss of tau function, such that MT structure and function are compromised, leading to neuronal damage. Recent data reveal that the brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing agent, epothilone D (EpoD), improves cognitive function and decreases both neuron loss and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy. There is thus a need to identify additional MT-stabilizing compounds with blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slow brain clearance, as observed with EpoD. We report here that the MT-stabilizing natural product, dictyostatin, crosses the BBB in mice and has extended brain retention. Moreover, a single administration of dictyostatin to mice causes prolonged stabilization of MTs in the brain. In contrast, the structurally related MT-stabilizer, discodermolide, shows significantly less brain exposure. Thus, dictyostatin merits further investigation as a potential tauopathy therapeutic. PMID:24900764

  4. MT-Stabilizer, Dictyostatin, Exhibits Prolonged Brain Retention and Activity: Potential Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunden, Kurt R; Gardner, Nicola M; James, Michael J; Yao, Yuemang; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Paterson, Ian; Ballatore, Carlo; Smith, Amos B

    2013-09-12

    Inclusions comprising the microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein, tau, are found within neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders that are broadly referred to as tauopathies. The sequestration of tau into inclusions is believed to cause a loss of tau function, such that MT structure and function are compromised, leading to neuronal damage. Recent data reveal that the brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing agent, epothilone D (EpoD), improves cognitive function and decreases both neuron loss and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy. There is thus a need to identify additional MT-stabilizing compounds with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slow brain clearance, as observed with EpoD. We report here that the MT-stabilizing natural product, dictyostatin, crosses the BBB in mice and has extended brain retention. Moreover, a single administration of dictyostatin to mice causes prolonged stabilization of MTs in the brain. In contrast, the structurally related MT-stabilizer, discodermolide, shows significantly less brain exposure. Thus, dictyostatin merits further investigation as a potential tauopathy therapeutic.

  5. Adaptive changes of rhythmic EEG oscillations in space implications for brain-machine interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheron, G; Cebolla, A M; Petieau, M; Bengoetxea, A; Palmero-Soler, E; Leroy, A; Dan, B

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic development of brain machine interfaces has enhanced the use of human brain signals conveying mental action for controlling external actuators. This chapter will outline current evidences that the rhythmic electroencephalographic activity of the brain is sensitive to microgravity environment. Experiments performed in the International Space Station have shown significant changes in the power of the astronauts' alpha and mu oscillations in resting condition, and other adaptive modifications in the beta and gamma frequency range during the immersion in virtual navigation. In this context, the dynamic aspects of the resting or default condition of the awaken brain, the influence of the "top-down" dynamics, and the possibility to use a more constrained configuration by a new somatosensory-evoked potential (gating approach) are discussed in the sense of future uses of brain computing interface in space mission. Although, the state of the art of the noninvasive BCI approach clearly demonstrates their ability and the great expectance in the field of rehabilitation for the restoration of defective communication between the brain and external world, their future application in space mission urgently needs a better understanding of brain neurophysiology, in particular in aspects related to neural network rhythmicity in microgravity. PMID:19607999

  6. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  7. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  8. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1997-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Beziehungen zwischen den rCBF-Werten von verschiedenen Hirnregionen bei noch nie

  9. The birth of new neurons in the maternal brain: Hormonal regulation and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Benedetta; Sabihi, Sara

    2016-04-01

    The maternal brain is remarkably plastic and exhibits multifaceted neural modifications. Neurogenesis has emerged as one of the mechanisms by which the maternal brain exhibits plasticity. This review highlights what is currently known about peripartum-associated changes in adult neurogenesis and the underlying hormonal mechanisms. We also consider the functional consequences of neurogenesis in the peripartum brain and extent to which this process may play a role in maternal care, cognitive function and postpartum mood. Finally, while most work investigating the effects of parenting on adult neurogenesis has focused on mothers, a few studies have examined fathers and these results are also discussed. PMID:26969795

  10. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Maksimow

    Full Text Available Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC. Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA, deep sedation (SED, loss (LOC and return of consciousness (ROC by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus. The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004 in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040 in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003. However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly

  11. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  12. The financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the regional electricity companies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews some of the financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the electricity distribution and supply sector in England and Wales, specifically the transformation of the Electricity Area Boards into the 12 Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). It considers the factors influencing the setting of post-privatization price control factors; the capital restructuring of the RECs; the valuation placed by the Secretary of State for Energy on each company at flotation, and market reaction to this as shown in subsequent changes in share price; and changes in the information provided in the RECs' accounts over the privatization period. (Author)

  13. The financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the regional electricity companies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, L. (Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Accountancy)

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the electricity distribution and supply sector in England and Wales, specifically the transformation of the Electricity Area Boards into the 12 Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). It considers the factors influencing the setting of post-privatization price control factors; the capital restructuring of the RECs; the valuation placed by the Secretary of State for Energy on each company at flotation, and market reaction to this as shown in subsequent changes in share price; and changes in the information provided in the RECs' accounts over the privatization period. (Author)

  14. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  15. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Mayumi eNishi; Noriko eHorii-Hayashi; Takayo eSasagawa

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not ...

  16. Mechanisms of Brain Aging Regulation by Insulin: Implications for Neurodegeneration in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schuh, Artur F.; Rieder, Carlos M.; Rizzi, Liara; Chaves, Márcia; Roriz-Cruz, Matheus

    2011-01-01

    Insulin and IGF seem to be important players in modulating brain aging. Neurons share more similarities with islet cells than any other human cell type. Insulin and insulin receptors are diffusely found in the brain, especially so in the hippocampus. Caloric restriction decreases insulin resistance, and it is the only proven mechanism to expand lifespan. Conversely, insulin resistance increases with age, obesity, and sedentarism, all of which have been shown to be risk factors for late-onset ...

  17. Regional blood flow in brain and peripheral tissues during acute experimental arterial subdural bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlin, J R; Zwetnow, N N; Hall, C

    1993-01-01

    The effects of a large intracranial arterial subdural bleeding on regional blood flow in the brain (rCBF) and in other body organs were studied, using a porcine model. The bleeding was produced by leading blood through a catheter from the abdominal aorta via an electronic drop recorder into the subdural compartment (SDC) over the left cerebral hemisphere. Pressures in the right lateral cerebral ventricle and in the cisterna magna were recorded along with 15 other vital parameters. Measurements of rCBF were carried out using radioactive microspheres 1) before the start of bleeding, 2) during the early bleeding phase, and 3) during the late bleeding phase. When the bleeding was initiated, the intracranial pressures rose within one minute to a level approximately 40 mmHg below the systemic arterial pressure, whilst the latter usually decreased 30-40 mmHg. In the subsequent early bleeding phase the cerebral perfusion pressure and the bleeding pressure fluctuated at a level of approximately 40 mmHg for several minutes. In the late bleeding phase, the perfusion pressure decreased maximally, even when a Cushing reaction was activated. During the early bleeding phase the changes in rCBF varied between the cerebral regions. However, the mean flow remained largely constant in the presence of a decreasing cerebrovascular resistance, indicating that autoregulation of CBF was intact. Concomitantly, cardiac output and heart rate decreased, whilst regional blood flow in extracerebral organs tended to increase, possibly due to an intracranial effect on the autonomic nervous system. In the late bleeding phase, rCBF was critically reduced in all regions, in spite of a marked rise in systemic arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8372718

  18. Sedation and Regional Anesthesia for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present the conscious sedation and the regional anesthesia technique, consisting of scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block, used in our institution for patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. The study included 26 consecutive patients. A standardized anesthesia protocol was used and clinical data were collected prospectively. Results. Conscious sedation and regional anesthesia were used in all cases. The dexmedetomidine loading dose was 1 μg kg−1 and mean infusion rate was 0.26 μg kg−1 h−1 (0.21 [mean total dexmedetomidine dose: 154.68 μg (64.65]. Propofol was used to facilitate regional anesthesia. Mean propofol dose was 1.68 mg kg (0.84 [mean total propofol dose: 117.72 mg (59.11]. Scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block were used for regional anesthesia. Anesthesia related complications were minor. Postoperative pain was evaluated; mean visual analog scale pain scores were 0 at the postoperative 1st and 6th hours and 4 at the 12th and 24th hours. Values are mean (standard deviation. Conclusions. Dexmedetomidine sedation along with scalp block and SCPB provides good surgical conditions and pain relief and does not interfere with neurophysiologic testing during DBS for PD. During DBS the SCPB may be beneficial for patients with osteoarthritic cervical pain. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01789385.

  19. Diverse antidepressants increase CDP-diacylglycerol production and phosphatidylinositide resynthesis in depression-relevant regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undieh Ashiwel S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depression is a serious mood disorder affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. While the etiopathology of depression remains obscure, antidepressant medications increase synaptic levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions associated with the disease. Monoamine transmitters activate multiple signaling cascades some of which have been investigated as potential mediators of depression or antidepressant drug action. However, the diacylglycerol arm of phosphoinositide signaling cascades has not been systematically investigated, even though downstream targets of this cascade have been implicated in depression. With the ultimate goal of uncovering the primary postsynaptic actions that may initiate cellular antidepressive signaling, we have examined the antidepressant-induced production of CDP-diacylglycerol which is both a product of diacylglycerol phosphorylation and a precursor for the synthesis of physiologically critical glycerophospholipids such as the phosphatidylinositides. For this, drug effects on [3H]cytidine-labeled CDP-diacylglycerol and [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositides were measured in response to the tricyclics desipramine and imipramine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine, the atypical antidepressants maprotiline and nomifensine, and several monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Results Multiple compounds from each antidepressant category significantly stimulated [3H]CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation in cerebrocortical, hippocampal, and striatal tissues, and also enhanced the resynthesis of inositol phospholipids. Conversely, various antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and non-antidepressant psychotropic agents failed to significantly induce CDP-diacylglycerol or phosphoinositide synthesis. Drug-induced CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation was independent of lithium and only partially dependent on phosphoinositide hydrolysis, thus indicating that antidepressants

  20. Combined glutamate and glutamine levels in pain-processing brain regions are associated with individual pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Schweizer, Lauren M; Witte, Vanessa; Harris, Richard E; Bingel, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity. The Glx levels were measured using point-resolved spectroscopy at 3 T, within a network of pain-associated brain regions comprising the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, the mid-cingulate cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the thalamus. GABA levels were measured using GABA-edited spectroscopy (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) within the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the mid-cingulate cortex. Glx and/or GABA levels correlated positively across all brain regions. Gender, weekly alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Glx and/or GABA levels. A linear regression analysis including all these factors indicated that Glx levels pooled across pain-related brain regions were positively associated with pain sensitivity, whereas no appreciable relationship with GABA was found. In sum, we show that the levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its precursor glutamine across pain-related brain regions are positively correlated with individual pain sensitivity. Future studies will have to determine whether our findings also apply to clinical populations. PMID:27649042

  1. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking.

  2. Methylphenidate remediates error-preceding activation of the default mode brain regions in cocaine addicted individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuskey, David; Luo, Xi; Zhang, Sheng; Morgan, Peter T.; Abdelghany, Osama; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2013-01-01

    Many previous studies suggest the potential of psychostimulants in improving cognitive functioning. Our earlier pharmacological brain imaging study showed that intravenous methylphenidate (MPH) improves inhibitory control by altering cortico-striato-thalamic activations in cocaine dependent (CD) individuals. Here we provide additional evidence for the effects of MPH in restoring cerebral activations during cognitive performance. Ten CD individuals performed a stop signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in two sessions, in which either MPH (0.5 mg/Kg BW) or saline was administered intravenously. In the SST, a frequent go signal instructs participants to make a speeded response and a less frequent stop signal instructs them to withhold the response. Our previous work described increased activation of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex – regions of the default mode network (DMN) – before participants committed a stop error in healthy control but not CD individuals (Bednarski et al., 2011). The current results showed that, compared to saline, MPH restored error-preceding activations of DMN regions in CD individuals. The extent of the changes in precuneus activity was correlated with MPH-elicited increase in systolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that the influence of MPH on cerebral activations may extend beyond cognitive control and provide additional evidence warranting future studies to investigate the neural mechanisms and physiological markers of the efficacy of agonist therapy in cocaine dependence. PMID:23973363

  3. MicroRNAs and fetal brain development: Implications for ethanol teratology during the second trimester period of neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh eMiranda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a stereotypic cluster of fetal craniofacial, cardiovascular, skeletal and neurological deficits that are collectively termed the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Fetal ethanol exposure is a leading non-genetic cause of mental retardation. Mechanisms underlying the etiology of ethanol teratology are varied and complex. This review will focus on the developing brain as an important and vulnerable ethanol target. Near the end of the first trimester, and during the second trimester, fetal neural stem cells (NSCs produce most of the neurons of the adult brain, and ethanol has been shown to influence NSC renewal and maturation. We will discuss the neural developmental and teratological implications of the biogenesis and function of microRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that control the expression of gene networks by translation repression. A small but growing body of research has identified ethanol-sensitive miRNAs at different stages of NSC and brain maturation. While many microRNAs appear to be vulnerable to ethanol at specific developmental stages, a few, like the miR-9 family, appear to exhibit broad vulnerability to ethanol across multiple stages of NSC differentiation. An assessment of the regulation and function of these miRNAs provides important clues about the mechanisms that underlie fetal vulnerability to alterations in the maternal-fetal environment and yields insights into the genesis of FASD.

  4. Burkholderia pseudomallei penetrates the brain via destruction of the olfactory and trigeminal nerves: implications for the pathogenesis of neurological melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, James A; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Dando, Samantha J; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Horton, Rachel E; Batzloff, Michael; Owen, Suzzanne J; Holt, Stephanie; Peak, Ian R; Ulett, Glen C; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R

    2014-01-01

    we have investigated the ability of the bacteria to migrate along nerves that innervate the nasal cavity and enter the frontal region of the brain by using a mouse model of infection. By generating a mutant strain of B. pseudomallei which is unable to survive in the blood, we show that the bacteria rapidly penetrate the cranial cavity using the olfactory (smell) nerve and the trigeminal (sensory) nerve that line the nasal cavity. PMID:24736221

  5. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  6. Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations located in eloquent regions of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javalkar Vijayakumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment strategy for selected group of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the obliteration rates, complications, and patient outcomes after Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs located in eloquent regions of the brain with an emphasis on neurological morbidity. Materials and Methods : Between 2000 and December 2005, 37 patients with AVMs in eloquent locations (sensory, motor, speech, visual cortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem underwent stereotactic radiosurgery. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of these patients to asses the outcomes. Of the 37 patients, only two patients had prior embolization. Three underwent prospective staged volume radiosurgery. Two patients needed redo-radiosurgery for residual AVM. Mean target volume was 9.1 cc. Three lesions had nidus volume more than 20 cc. Average marginal dose was 18.75 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-60 months. 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months. Results : A total of 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months, thus available for evaluation of angiographic obliteration rates. Complete angiographic obliteration was documented in seven patients (46.7%. Four patients experienced hemorrhage during the latency period. One patient who had subsequent hemorrhage on follow-up developed worsening of neurological deficit. One patient developed significant sensory symptoms which resolved after steroids. No additional clinical deterioration related to treatment was noted in rest of the patients. Conclusions : AVMs located in eloquent and in deep locations can be treated safely with stereotactic radiosurgery with acceptable obliteration rates and minimal morbidity.

  7. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George;

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired ......, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum and corona radiata. This indicates that the long-term atrophy is attributable to consequences of traumatic axonal injury. Despite progressive atrophy, remarkable clinical improvement occurred in most patients....

  8. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool.

  9. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool. PMID:26216589

  10. Global safe anaesthesia and surgery initiatives: implications for anaesthesia in the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M G; Wake, P B; Morriss, W W; Cargill, P D; McDougall, R J

    2016-05-01

    In 2015 three major events occurred for global anaesthesia and surgery. In January, the World Bank published Disease Control Priorities 3rd edition (DCP 3rd edition). This volume, Essential Surgery, highlighted the cost effective role of anaesthesia and surgery in global health. In April, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery released its report "Global Surgery 2030: Evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development". The report focuses on five key areas to promote change including: access to timely surgery, surgical workforce and procedural capability, surgical volume, data collection such as perioperative mortality rate, and financial protection. In May, the 68th World Health Assembly (WHA) voted in favour of Resolution A68/31: Strengthening emergency and essential surgical and anaesthesia care as a component of universal health coverage. The resolution was passed unanimously and it is the first time that surgery and anaesthesia have received such prominence at WHA level. These three events all have profound implications for the provision and access of safe anaesthesia and surgery in the Pacific region in the next 15 years. This article considers some of the regional factors that affect these five key areas, especially with regard to anaesthetic specialist workforce density in different parts of the region. There are many challenges to improve anaesthesia access, safety, and workforce density in the Pacific region. Future efforts, initiatives and support will help address these problems. PMID:27246944

  11. Heterogeneity in expression of functional ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors in astrocytes across brain regions: insights from the thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Höft, Simon; Griemsmann, Stephanie; Seifert, Gerald; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes may express ionotropic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which allow them to sense and to respond to neuronal activity. However, so far the properties of astrocytes have been studied only in a few brain regions. Here, we provide the first detailed receptor analysis of astrocytes in the murine ventrobasal thalamus and compare the properties with those in other regions. To improve voltage-clamp control and avoid indirect effects during drug applications, freshly...

  12. Brain regions involved in processing facial identity and expression are differentially selective for surface and edge information

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Although different brain regions are widely considered to be involved in the recognition of facial identity and expression, it remains unclear how these regions process different properties of the visual image. Here, we ask how surface-based reflectance information and edge-based shape cues contribute to the perception and neural representation of facial identity and expression. Contrast-reversal was used to generate images in which normal contrast relationships across the surface of the imag...

  13. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Reka Albert; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Frank Gerard Hillary

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landma...

  14. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landm...

  15. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals region specific metabolic responses to SIV infection in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Chan-Gyu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS studies of HIV-infected humans have demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities that vary by brain region, but the causes are poorly understood. Metabolic changes in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and white matter in 18 SIV-infected macaques were investigated using MRS during the first month of infection. Results Changes in the N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI, creatine (Cr and glutamine/glutamate (Glx resonances were quantified both in absolute terms and relative to the creatine resonance. Most abnormalities were observed at the time of peak viremia, 2 weeks post infection (wpi. At that time point, significant decreases in NAA and NAA/Cr, reflecting neuronal injury, were observed only in the frontal cortex. Cr was significantly elevated only in the white matter. Changes in Cho and Cho/Cr were similar across the brain regions, increasing at 2 wpi, and falling below baseline levels at 4 wpi. MI and MI/Cr levels were increased across all brain regions. Conclusion These data best support the hypothesis that different brain regions have variable intrinsic vulnerabilities to neuronal injury caused by the AIDS virus.

  16. Where in the Brain Is Depression?

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Mayur; Altinay, Murat; Malone, Donald A; Anand, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder is a serious medical illness which is responsible for considerable morbidity and disability. Despite decades of research, the neural basis for depression is still incompletely understood. In this review, evidence from neuroimaging, neuropsychiatric and brain stimulations studies are explored to answer the question regarding the localization of depression in the brain. Neuroimaging studies indicate that although many regions of the brain have been repeatedly implicate...

  17. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  18. Vitamins and nutrients as primary treatments in experimental brain injury: Clinical implications for nutraceutical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Peterson, Todd C; Martens, Kris M; Hoane, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    With the numerous failures of pharmaceuticals to treat traumatic brain injury in humans, more researchers have become interested in combination therapies. This is largely due to the multimodal nature of damage from injury, which causes excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, edema, neuroinflammation and cell death. Polydrug treatments have the potential to target multiple aspects of the secondary injury cascade, while many previous therapies focused on one particular aspect. Of specific note are vitamins, minerals and nutrients that can be utilized to supplement other therapies. Many of these have low toxicity, are already FDA approved and have minimal interactions with other drugs, making them attractive targets for therapeutics. Over the past 20 years, interest in supplementation and supraphysiologic dosing of nutrients for brain injury has increased and indeed many vitamins and nutrients now have a considerable body of the literature backing their use. Here, we review several of the prominent therapies in the category of nutraceutical treatment for brain injury in experimental models, including vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B9, C, D, E), herbs and traditional medicines (ginseng, Gingko biloba), flavonoids, and other nutrients (magnesium, zinc, carnitine, omega-3 fatty acids). While there is still much work to be done, several of these have strong potential for clinical therapies, particularly with regard to polydrug regimens. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26723564

  19. Traumatic brain injury increases levels of miR-21 in extracellular vesicles: implications for neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily B; Hochfelder, Colleen G; Lamberty, Benjamin G; Meays, Brittney M; Morsey, Brenda M; Kelso, Matthew L; Fox, Howard S; Yelamanchili, Sowmya V

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health concern and effective treatment strategies remain elusive. Understanding the complex multicellular response to TBI may provide new avenues for intervention. In the context of TBI, cell-cell communication is critical. One relatively unexplored form of cell-cell communication in TBI is extracellular vesicles (EVs). These membrane-bound vesicles can carry many different types of cargo between cells. Recently, miRNA in EVs have been shown to mediate neuroinflammation and neuronal injury. To explore the role of EV-associated miRNA in TBI, we isolated EVs from the brain of injured mice and controls, purified RNA from brain EVs, and performed miRNA sequencing. We found that the expression of miR-212 decreased, while miR-21, miR-146, miR-7a, and miR-7b were significantly increased with injury, with miR-21 showing the largest change between conditions. The expression of miR-21 in the brain was primarily localized to neurons near the lesion site. Interestingly, adjacent to these miR-21-expressing neurons were activated microglia. The concurrent increase in miR-21 in EVs with the elevation of miR-21 in neurons, suggests that miR-21 is secreted from neurons as potential EV cargo. Thus, this study reveals a new potential mechanism of cell-cell communication not previously described in TBI. PMID:27516962

  20. Brain activity in advantageous and disadvantageous situations: implications for reward/punishment sensitivity in different situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study modeled win and lose trials in a simple gambling task to examine the effect of entire win-lose situations (WIN, LOSS, or TIE on single win/lose trials and related neural underpinnings. METHODS: The behavior responses and brain activities of 17 participants were recorded by an MRI scanner while they performed a gambling task. Different conditions were compared to determine the effect of the task on the behavior and brain activity of the participants. Correlations between brain activity and behavior were calculated to support the imaging results. RESULTS: In win trials, LOSS caused less intense posterior cingulate activity than TIE. In lose trials, LOSS caused more intense activity in the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral insula cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex than WIN and TIE. CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of the participants in win trials showed great similarity among different win-lose situations. However, the brain activity and behavior responses of the participants in lose trials indicated that they experienced stronger negative emotion in LOSS. The participants also showed an increased desire to win in LOSS than in WIN or TIE conditions.

  1. Principles of Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity: Implications for Rehabilitation after Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reviews 10 principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity and considerations in applying them to the damaged brain. Method: Neuroscience research using a variety of models of learning, neurological disease, and trauma are reviewed from the perspective of basic neuroscientists but in a manner intended to be useful for the…

  2. Brain tumor delineation based on CT and MR imaging. Implications for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Wijrdeman, H K; Struikmans, H; Witkamp, T; Moerland, M A

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact MRI may have on radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumors. The authors analyzed differences in size and position of treatment fields as indicated by three observers (two radiotherapists and one neuroradiologist) using CT or MR based radiotherapy planning proced

  3. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26590911

  4. Blood-Brain Barrier Abnormalities Caused by HIV-1 gp120: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Louboutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120 as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120, an experimental model of ongoing production of gp120] disrupted the BBB, and led to leakage of vascular contents. Gp120 was directly toxic to brain endothelial cells. Abnormalities of the BBB reflect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. These target laminin and attack the tight junctions between endothelial cells and BBB basal laminae. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated following gp120-injection. Gp120 reduced laminin and tight junction proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS activate MMPs. Injecting gp120 induced lipid peroxidation. Gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes protected against gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. NMDA upregulates the proform of MMP-9. Using the NMDA receptor (NMDAR-1 inhibitor, memantine, we observed partial protection from gp120-induced BBB injury. Thus, (1 HIV-envelope gp120 disrupts the BBB; (2 this occurs via lesions in brain microvessels, MMP activation and degradation of vascular basement membrane and vascular tight junctions; (3 NMDAR-1 activation plays a role in this BBB injury; and (4 antioxidant gene delivery as well as NMDAR-1 antagonists may protect the BBB.

  5. Tryptophan as an evolutionarily conserved signal to brain serotonin : Molecular evidence and psychiatric implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, Sascha; Kema, Ido P.; Bosker, Fokko; Haavik, Jan; Korf, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The role of serotonin (5-HT) in psychopathology has been investigated for decades. Among others, symptoms of depression, panic, aggression and suicidality have been associated with serotonergic dysfunction. Here we summarize the evidence that low brain 5-HT signals a metabolic imbalance that is evol

  6. Age-related changes in brain support cells: Implications for stroke severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabji, Farida; Bake, Shameena; Lewis, Danielle K

    2013-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of adult disability and the fourth leading cause of mortality in the US. Stroke disproportionately occurs among the elderly, where the disease is more likely to be fatal or lead to long-term supportive care. Animal models, where the ischemic insult can be controlled more precisely, also confirm that aged animals sustain more severe strokes as compared to young animals. Furthermore, the neuroprotection usually seen in younger females when compared to young males is not observed in older females. The preclinical literature thus provides a valuable resource for understanding why the aging brain is more susceptible to severe infarction. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that stroke severity in the aging brain may be associated with reduced functional capacity of critical support cells. Specifically, we focus on astrocytes, that are critical for detoxification of the brain microenvironment and endothelial cells, which play a crucial role in maintaining the blood brain barrier. In view of the sex difference in stroke severity, this review also discusses studies of middle-aged acyclic females as well as the effects of the estrogen on astrocytes and endothelial cells.

  7. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P. Klosinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  8. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  9. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  10. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  11. Sub-chronic iron overload triggers oxidative stress development in rat brain: implications for cell protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloni, Natacha E; Perazzo, Juan C; Fernandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2016-02-01

    This work was aimed to test the hypothesis that sub-chronic administration of iron-dextran (Fe-dextran) (six doses of 50 mg Fe-dextran/kg) to rats triggers a transient oxidative stress in brain and mechanisms of cellular antioxidant defence. After 2 h of administration of the 6th dose, a significant increase of total Fe, the labile Fe pool (LIP), the lipid radical (LR(•))/α-tocopherol (α-T) content ratio were observed, as compared to values in control brain homogenates. The ascorbyl radical (A(•))/ascorbate (AH(-)) content ratio and the oxidation rate of 2',7'-dichlorodihidrofluorescein (DCFH-DA) were significantly higher in Fe-dextran treated rats, as compared to values in brain from control rats after 4 h treatment. An increase in both catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed at 8 and 1-2 h, respectively. No significant changes were detected in the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels in nuclear extracts from rat brains after 1-8 h of Fe-dextran administration. After 2 h of Fe administration Fe concentration in cortex, striatum and hippocampus was significantly increased as compared to the same areas from control animals. Both, CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased in cortex after Fe administration over control values, without changes in striatum and hippocampus. Taken as a whole, sub-chronic Fe administration enhances the steady state concentration of Fe in the brain LIP that favors the settlement of an initial oxidative stress condition, both at hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments, resulting in cellular protection evidenced by antioxidant enzyme upregulation. PMID:26677163

  12. Cerebral Metabolism Following Traumatic Brain Injury: New Discoveries with Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Brooks

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Because it is the product of glycolysis and main substrate for mitochondrial respiration, lactate is the central metabolic intermediate in cerebral energy substrate delivery. Our recent studies on healthy controls and patients following TBI using [6,6-2H2]glucose and [3-13C]lactate, along with cerebral blood flow and arterial-venous (jugular bulb difference measurements for oxygen, metabolite levels, isotopic enrichments and 13CO2 show a massive and previously unrecognized mobilization of lactate from corporeal (muscle, skin and other glycogen reserves in TBI patients who were studied 5.72.2 days after injury at which time brain oxygen consumption and glucose uptake (CMRO2 and CMRgluc, respectively were depressed. By tracking the incorporation of the 13C from lactate tracer we found that gluconeogenesis (GNG from lactate accounted for 67.1%, of whole-body glucose appearance rate (Ra in TBI, which was compared to 15.2% in healthy, well-nourished controls. Simultaneous cerebral exchange measurements showed that fractional lactate extraction (FExlac, 12.5% was undiminished following TBI, and as in controls close to 100% of lactate taken up was oxidized in TBI. Hence, 68% of the carbohydrate energy (CHO = glucose + lactate taken up and used by the injured brain came from lactate, either directly by vascular delivery of lactate (9%, or indirectly by GNG from lactate and its contribution to CMRgluc (59%. By comparison, lactate contributed 25% of the CHO energy taken up by brains of healthy postabsorptive control subjects, either directly (12%, or indirectly (13%. As such, a Lactate Shuttle mechanism makes substrate available, both directly and indirectly for the body and brain in healthy individuals and TBI patients. Because CMRlac was maintained, whereas CMRgluc was suppressed following TBI, our recent results support use of exogenous lactate-containing formulations as means to augment nutritive support to the injured brain.

  13. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  14. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  15. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl's causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC(*)) provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity) among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g., measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation) can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  16. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eChicharro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl’s causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC* provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g. measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  17. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  18. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  19. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation.

  20. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  1. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2015-05-05

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  2. Specific effects of punishment on biogenic monoamine turnover in discrete rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T; Dworkin, S I; Co, C; Smith, J E

    1988-06-28

    Specific effects of punishment on the turnover rates of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in brain regions were investigated in rats exposed to punishment. Two yoked controls were also used in an attempt to separate the non-specific effects of response rate, reinforcement density and direct effects of punisher (foot shock). Punished and unpunished littermate rats had similar response rates, and the reinforcement density was almost identical for both groups. A third group (yoked-shock rats) received food and shock independent of responding whenever these were given to the punished rats. When compared to the unpunished rats, changes in the monoamine turnover rates resulting from the punishment were similar to the effects of yoked-shock with respect to the direction of action in most cases (13 out of 17 changes). These changes may be related to non-specific effects of the shock. Four changes by the punishment were determined to be specific effects of the punishment since the yoked-shock had no effect or changed the turnover to the opposite direction. Among these, increase in 5-HT turnover rate in the frontal cortex (greater than 7-fold) was the largest change. These results and reported effects of drugs which act on serotonergic systems on the punished behavior suggest that the increase in 5-HT neuronal activity in the frontal cortex is involved in the behavioral suppression induced by the punishment. PMID:3409023

  3. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  4. CLINICAL STUDY OF ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA REGION IN BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingrui; Liu Mingshun; Gu Lanjie; Mei Fengjun

    2000-01-01

    Department of Neurology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital. Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To study features and clinical usage of ischemic penumbra region(IPR) in brain electrical activity mapping(BEAM).BACKGROUND To explore the functional improvement index of IPR untraumaticly. METH0DS 69 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into two groups according to different therapeutic time window--early treatment group( 32 cases, treatment in 12 hours)and contral group (37 cases, treatment in 12-72 hours).They were analysed in BEAM pre-and post-treatment Results: BEAM showed that the power of infarcted core was decreased and IPR became smaller in slow waves significantly after treatment in early treatment group and this change was in good agreement with improvement of clinical functions and SPECT DISCUSSION The key to treat acute cerebral infarction was to improve functions of IPR as 8oos as possible, BEAM could show the location and size of IPR. CONCLUSION BEAM was one of important index in evaluating the function of IPR.

  5. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  6. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Li Wang, Yin Chen, Ying Yao, Yu Pan, Yi Sun Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD.Materials and methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep (NS, and the other was after SD. ALFF was used to assess local brain features. The mean ALFF-signal values of the different brain areas were evaluated to investigate relationships with clinical features and were analyzed with a receiver-operating characteristic curve.Results: Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed a lower response-accuracy rate, longer response time, and higher lapse rate. Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed higher ALFF area in the right cuneus and lower ALFF area in the right lentiform nucleus, right claustrum, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. ALFF differences in regional brain areas showed high sensitivity and specificity. In the SD group, mean ALFF of the right claustrum showed a significant positive correlation with accuracy rate (r=0.687, P=0.013 and a negative correlation with lapse rate (r=-0.706, P=0.01. Mean ALFF of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with response time (r=0.675, P=0.016.Conclusion: SD disturbed the regional brain activity of the default-mode network, its anticorrelated “task-positive” network, and the advanced cognitive function brain areas. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging

  7. Alterations in catecholamine turnover in specific regions of the rat brain following acute exposure to nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Kugel, G; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on steady-state concentrations and turnover rates of catecholamines in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, brain stem, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord were determined in rats. Animals were exposed for 2 h to either 60% N2O or air. Immediately following exposure, all animals were injected intraperitoneally with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alphaMPT), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postinjection. Brain catecholamine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Results indicate that N2O exposure significantly elevates steady-state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus and striatum yet decreases amine levels in the brain stem region. Steady-state levels of dopamine (DA) were not significantly altered in any region of the CNS by N2O exposure. Acute exposure to N2O also resulted in significant decreases in the turnover rate of NE in the brain stem, yet it increased turnover of this amine in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and striatum. Acute exposure to N2O resulted in a decreased turnover rate of DA in the hippocampus and striatum. In contrast, N2O appears to increase DA turnover in the olfactory bulb. These results indicate that acute exposure to N2O in rats causes region-specific alterations in steady-state levels and turnover rates of DA and NE within the central nervous system.

  8. Selectionist models of perceptual and motor systems and implications for functionalist theories of brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeke, George N.; Sporns, Olaf

    1990-06-01

    Functionalism is at present widely accepted as a working basis for cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This view holds that psychological phenomena can be adequately described in terms of functional processes carried out in the brain, and that these processes can be understood independently of the detailed structure and mode of development of the brain. In the functionalist view, the brain is analogous to a computer; both can properly be described at the level of symbolic representations and algorithms. However, an analysis of the structure, development, and evolution of the brain makes it highly unlikely that it could be a Turing machine or that brain algorithms could be either acquired by experience in the world or transmitted between generations. An alternative view is that the brain is a selective system in which two different domains of stochastic variation, the world and neural repertoires, become mapped onto each other in an individual, historical manner. Neural systems capable of such mapping can generalize and can deal with novelty in an open-ended environment. Several models have been constructed to test these ideas, including automata of a new kind that can recognize and associate patterns of sensory input by selective mechanisms. In an approach called synthetic neural modelling, the environment, the phenotype, and the nervous system of such an automaton are integrated into a single computer model. One example is Darwin III, a sessile “creature” with an eye and a multi-jointed arm having a sense of touch; its environment consists of simple shapes moving on a featureless background; its nervous system consists of some 50 000 cells of 50 different kinds connected by about 620 000 synaptic junctions. Darwin III can be trained to track moving objects with its eye, to reach out and touch objects with its arm, to categorize objects according to combinations of visual and tactile cues, and to respond in a positive or negative way to such objects

  9. Regional medicine use in the Rhine basin and its implication on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R. W.; Houtman, C. J.; van de Giesen, N. C.; de Jong, S. A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Do Germans use more painkillers than the French? Pharmaceuticals used in our Western society form an important group of contaminants found in the river Rhine. As this river is the drinking water source for millions of Europeans, methods to investigate relations between drug use and their penetration in the watercycle are of great importance. An analysis is presented relating medicine residue in the river Rhine to the number of people living in its watershed. An extensive measuring campaign was carried out, sampling river Rhine at 42 locations from its source to the start of its delta (Dutch-German border). The samples were analyzed for 40 common pharmaceuticals. Using discharge data, digital elevation models and demographic data from Eurostat, the relation between total load of drug residue and population was analyzed. Results show regional differences in drug use as well as implications for (down)stream water quality concerning contamination with pharmaceuticals.

  10. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

    2002-04-01

    Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence. PMID:11929723

  11. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Rajtmajer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity. Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks. These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP, which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity. To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  12. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  13. Implications of immune-to-brain communication for sickness and pain

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    This review presents a view of hyperalgesia and allodynia not typical of the field as a whole. That is, exaggerated pain is presented as one of many natural consequences of peripheral infection and injury. The constellation of changes that results from such immune challenges is called the sickness response. This sickness response results from immune-to-brain communication initiated by proinflammatory cytokines released by activated immune cells. In response to signals ...

  14. Cystamine metabolism and brain transport properties: clinical implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Mélanie; Gibrat, Claire; Ouellet, Mélissa; Rouillard, Claude; Calon, Frédéric; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2010-09-01

    Cystamine has shown significant neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Cysteamine, its FDA-approved reduced form, is scheduled to be tested for clinical efficacy in HD patients. Here, we studied the key cystamine metabolites, namely cysteamine, hypotaurine and taurine, as well as cysteine, in order to identify which one is more distinctively responsible for the neuroprotective action of cystamine. After a single administration of cystamine (10, 50 or 200 mg/kg), naïve mice were perfused with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1, 3, 12, 24 or 48 h post-injection and brain and plasma samples were analyzed by two distinct HPLC methods. Although plasma levels remained under the detection threshold, significant increases in cysteamine brain levels were detected with the 50 and 200 mg/kg doses in mice perfused 1 and 3 h following cystamine injection. To further assess cysteamine as the candidate molecule for pre-clinical and clinical trials in PD, we evaluated its capacity to cross the blood brain barrier. Using an in situ cerebral perfusion technique, we determined that the brain transport coefficient (Clup) of cysteamine (259 μM) was 0.15 ± 0.02 μL/g/s and was increased up to 0.34 ± 0.07 μL/g/s when co-perfused in the presence of cysteine. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cysteamine is the neuroactive metabolite of cystamine and may further support its therapeutic use in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in HD and PD. PMID:20569301

  15. Implications of MMP9 for Blood Brain Barrier Disruption and Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Renée J Turner; Sharp, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9 levels following stroke, with such perturbations associated with disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB), increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, and worsened outcome. Despite this, controversy remains as to which cells release MMP-9 at the normal and pathological BBB, with even less clarity in the context of stroke. This may be further complicated by the influence of tissue plasminogen...

  16. The role of microglia in brain maintenance: implications for Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derecki, Noël C; Cronk, James C; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    The role of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) pathology has been studied extensively, and more recently, examination of microglia in the healthy brain has yielded important insights into their many functions. It was long assumed that microglia were essentially quiescent cells, unless provoked into activation, which was considered a hallmark of disease. More recently, however, it has become increasingly clear that they are extraordinarily dynamic cells, constantly sampling their environment and adjusting to exquisitely delicate stimuli. Along these lines, our laboratory has identified a new and unexpected role for microglial phagocytosis - or lack thereof - in the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutation of the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein (MECP)2. We have shown that specific expression of wild type Mecp2 in myeloid cells of Mecp2-null mice is sufficient to arrest major symptoms associated with this devastating disease. This beneficial effect, however, is abolished if phagocytic activity of microglia is inhibited. Here, we discuss microglial origins, the role of microglia in brain development and maintenance, and the phenomenon of microglial augmentation by myeloid progenitor cells in the adult brain. Finally, we address in some detail the beneficial roles of microglia as clinical targets in Rett syndrome and other neurological disorders.

  17. Foxp2 regulates gene networks implicated in neurite outgrowth in the developing brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja C Vernes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Forkhead-box protein P2 is a transcription factor that has been associated with intriguing aspects of cognitive function in humans, non-human mammals, and song-learning birds. Heterozygous mutations of the human FOXP2 gene cause a monogenic speech and language disorder. Reduced functional dosage of the mouse version (Foxp2 causes deficient cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity and impairs motor-skill learning. Moreover, the songbird orthologue appears critically important for vocal learning. Across diverse vertebrate species, this well-conserved transcription factor is highly expressed in the developing and adult central nervous system. Very little is known about the mechanisms regulated by Foxp2 during brain development. We used an integrated functional genomics strategy to robustly define Foxp2-dependent pathways, both direct and indirect targets, in the embryonic brain. Specifically, we performed genome-wide in vivo ChIP-chip screens for Foxp2-binding and thereby identified a set of 264 high-confidence neural targets under strict, empirically derived significance thresholds. The findings, coupled to expression profiling and in situ hybridization of brain tissue from wild-type and mutant mouse embryos, strongly highlighted gene networks linked to neurite development. We followed up our genomics data with functional experiments, showing that Foxp2 impacts on neurite outgrowth in primary neurons and in neuronal cell models. Our data indicate that Foxp2 modulates neuronal network formation, by directly and indirectly regulating mRNAs involved in the development and plasticity of neuronal connections.

  18. Morphine induces expression of platelet-derived growth factor in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: implication for vascular permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Wen

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy, complications of HIV-1 infection with concurrent drug abuse are an emerging problem. Morphine, often abused by HIV-infected patients, is known to accelerate neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection. Detailed molecular mechanisms of morphine action however, remain poorly understood. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, primarily due to its potent mitogenic and permeability effects. Whether morphine exposure results in enhanced vascular permeability in brain endothelial cells, likely via induction of PDGF, remains to be established. In the present study, we demonstrated morphine-mediated induction of PDGF-BB in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, an effect that was abrogated by the opioid receptor antagonist-naltrexone. Pharmacological blockade (cell signaling and loss-of-function (Egr-1 approaches demonstrated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and the downstream transcription factor Egr-1 respectively, in morphine-mediated induction of PDGF-BB. Functional significance of increased PDGF-BB manifested as increased breach of the endothelial barrier as evidenced by decreased expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in an in vitro model system. Understanding the regulation of PDGF expression may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for intervention of morphine-mediated neuroinflammation.

  19. Enrichment of risk SNPs in regulatory regions implicate diverse tissues in Parkinson’s disease etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Simon G.; Pierce, Steven; Brundin, Patrik; Brundin, Lena; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) revealed at least 26 risk loci, with associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in non-coding DNA having unknown functions in risk. In order to explore in which cell types these SNPs (and their correlated surrogates at r2 ≥ 0.8) could alter cellular function, we assessed their location overlap with histone modification regions that indicate transcription regulation in 77 diverse cell types. We found statistically significant enrichment of risk SNPs at 12 loci in active enhancers or promoters. We investigated 4 risk loci in depth that were most significantly enriched (−logeP > 14) and contained 8 putative enhancers in the different cell types. These enriched loci, along with eQTL associations, were unexpectedly present in non-neuronal cell types. These included lymphocytes, mesendoderm, liver- and fat-cells, indicating that cell types outside the brain are involved in the genetic predisposition to PD. Annotating regulatory risk regions within specific cell types may unravel new putative risk mechanisms and molecular pathways that contribute to PD development. PMID:27461410

  20. Populations of High-Luminosity Density-Bounded HII Regions in Spiral Galaxies? Evidence and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, J. E.; Rozas, M.; Zurita, A.; Watson, R. A.; Knapen, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence that the H II regions of high luminosity in disk galaxies may be density bounded, so that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by their exciting OB stars escape from the regions. The key piece of evidence is the presence, in the Ha luminosity functions (LFs) of the populations of H iI regions, of glitches, local sharp peaks at an apparently invariant luminosity, defined as the Stromgren luminosity Lstr), LH(sub alpha) = Lstr = 10(sup 38.6) (+/- 10(sup 0.1)) erg/ s (no other peaks are found in any of the LFs) accompanying a steepening of slope for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr This behavior is readily explicable via a physical model whose basic premises are: (a) the transition at LH(sub alpha) = Lstr marks a change from essentially ionization bounding at low luminosities to density bounding at higher values, (b) for this to occur the law relating stellar mass in massive star-forming clouds to the mass of the placental cloud must be such that the ionizing photon flux produced within the cloud is a function which rises more steeply than the mass of the cloud. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis of this transition is also presented: measurements of the central surface brightnesses of H II regions for LH(sub alpha) less than Lstr are proportional to L(sup 1/3, sub H(sub alpha)), expected for ionization bounding, but show a sharp trend to a steeper dependence for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr, and the observed relation between the internal turbulence velocity parameter, sigma, and the luminosity, L, at high luminosities, can be well explained if these regions are density bounded. If confirmed, the density-bounding hypothesis would have a number of interesting implications. It would imply that the density-bounded regions were the main sources of the photons which ionize the diffuse gas in disk galaxies. Our estimates, based on the hypothesis, indicate that these regions emit sufficient Lyman continuum not only to

  1. Regional difference of radiosensitivity of neural cells in the fetal brain of mice on day 13 of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant Slc: ICR mice were exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation at a dose of 12.5 R or 25 R on day 13 of gestation. After irradiation, fetuses were obtained from mothers at 1- or 3-hour intervals and coronal histological sections were made. Pyknotic cells were counted in the ventricular zone of brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb. In the 25 R group, peak incidences of pyknotic cells in brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb were 13.2 %, 6.9 % and 2.2 %, respectively. In the 12.5 R group, these were 6.0 %, 3.2 % and 1.7 %, respectively. This result indicates that neural cells in the ventricular zone of brain mantle are the most radiosensitive among the cerebral regions examined in day-13 mouse fetuses. (author)

  2. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  3. Association analysis of the extended MHC region in celiac disease implicates multiple independent susceptibility loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ahn

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disease caused by sensitivity to the dietary protein gluten. Forty loci have been implicated in the disease. All disease loci have been characterized as low-penetrance, with the exception of the high-risk genotypes in the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes, which are necessary but not sufficient to cause the disease. The very strong effects from the known HLA loci and the genetically complex nature of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC have precluded a thorough investigation of the region. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that additional celiac disease loci exist within the extended MHC (xMHC. A set of 1898 SNPs was analyzed for association across the 7.6 Mb xMHC region in 1668 confirmed celiac disease cases and 517 unaffected controls. Conditional recursive partitioning was used to create an informative indicator of the known HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 high-risk genotypes that was included in the association analysis to account for their effects. A linkage disequilibrium-based grouping procedure was utilized to estimate the number of independent celiac disease loci present in the xMHC after accounting for the known effects. There was significant statistical evidence for four new independent celiac disease loci within the classic MHC region. This study is the first comprehensive association analysis of the xMHC in celiac disease that specifically accounts for the known HLA disease genotypes and the genetic complexity of the region.

  4. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  5. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  6. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M.; Harrison, Scott H.; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay foundations to further explore the links among obesity, behaviors, and brain iron alteration. PMID:27493939

  7. Intra-Amniotic LPS Induced Region-Specific Changes in Presynaptic Bouton Densities in the Ovine Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Chorioamnionitis has been associated with increased risk for fetal brain damage. Although, it is now accepted that synaptic dysfunction might be responsible for functional deficits, synaptic densities/numbers after a fetal inflammatory challenge have not been studied in different regions yet. Therefore, we tested in this study the hypothesis that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused profound changes in synaptic densities in different regions of the fetal sheep brain. Material and Methods. Chorioamnionitis was induced by a 10 mg intra-amniotic LPS injection at two different exposure intervals. The fetal brain was studied at 125 days of gestation (term = 150 days either 2 (LPS2D group or 14 days (LPS14D group after LPS or saline injection (control group. Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the presynaptic density in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, entorhinal cortex, and piriforme cortex, in the nucleus caudatus and putamen and in CA1/2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results. There was a significant reduction in presynaptic bouton densities in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex and in layers 2-3 of the entorhinal and the somatosensory cortex, in the nucleus caudate and putamen and the CA1/2 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the LPS2D compared to control animals. Only in the motor cortex and putamen, the presynaptic density was significantly decreased in the LPS14 D compared to the control group. No changes were found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the piriforme cortex. Conclusion. We demonstrated that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused a decreased density in presynaptic boutons in different areas in the fetal brain. These synaptic changes seemed to be region-specific, with some regions being more affected than others, and seemed to be transient in some regions.

  8. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  9. Sustained spatial attention to vibrotactile stimulation in the flutter range: relevant brain regions and their interaction.

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    Dominique Goltz

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI, mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition. In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range

  10. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus. PMID:27393312

  11. Sex- and brain region-specific acceleration of β-amyloidogenesis following behavioral stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Devi Latha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that complex interactions between multiple environmental factors and genetic factors are implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Importantly, recent evidence reveals that expression and activity levels of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, which initiates amyloid-β (Aβ production, are elevated in AD brains. In this study, we investigated a molecular mechanism by which sex and stress interactions may accelerate β-amyloidogenesis and contribute to sporadic AD. Results We applied 5-day restraint stress (6 h/day to the male and female 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD at the pre-pathological stage of disease, which showed little amyloid deposition under non-stressed control conditions. Exposure to the relatively brief behavioral stress increased levels of neurotoxic Aβ42 peptides, the β-secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99 and plaque burden in the hippocampus of female 5XFAD mice but not in that of male 5XFAD mice. In contrast, significant changes in the parameters of β-amyloidosis were not observed in the cerebral cortex of stressed male or female 5XFAD mice. We found that this sex- and brain region-specific acceleration of β-amyloidosis was accounted for by elevations in BACE1 and APP levels in response to adverse stress. Furthermore, not only BACE1 mRNA but also phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (a proposed mediator of the post-transcriptional upregulation of BACE1 was elevated in the hippocampus of stressed female 5XFAD mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that the higher prevalence of sporadic AD in women may be attributable to the vulnerability of female brains (especially, the hippocampus to stressful events, which alter APP processing to favor the β-amyloidogenesis through the transcriptional and translational upregulation of BACE1 combined with elevations in its substrate APP.

  12. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  13. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

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    Kun Hua

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like

  14. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  15. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  16. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  17. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  18. Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: Implications for creative awareness

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    Petr eBob

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the dream scenery in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, art and scientific discoveries.

  19. Synapsin I (protein I) in different brain regions in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and in multiinfarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synapsin I (Protein I), a neuron-specfic phosphoprotein enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals, has been used as a quantitative marker for the density of nerve terminals in five brain regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, mesencephalon and putamen) from patients who had suffered from Alzheimer disease/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT), from patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and from agematched controls. Samples were obtained at autopsy. Lower levels of Synapsin I were observed in the hippocampus of patients with AD/SDAT but not with MID. There were no significant differences in Synapsin I levels between patients and controls in any of the other four brain regions examined. (Author)

  20. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Structure-Function Relationship with Implication in Neural Development and Brain Disorders

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    Speranta Avram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are extracellular matrix components that contain two structural parts with distinct functions: a protein core and glycosaminoglycan (GAG side chains. CSPGs are known to be involved in important cell processes like cell adhesion and growth, receptor binding, or cell migration. It is recognized that the presence of CSPGs is critical in neuronal growth mechanisms including axon guidance following injury of nervous system components such as spinal cord and brain. CSPGs are upregulated in the central nervous system after injury and participate in the inhibition of axon regeneration mainly through their GAG side chains. Recently, it was shown that some CSPGs members like aggrecan, versican, and neurocan were strongly involved in brain disorders like bipolar disorder (BD, schizophrenia, and ADHD. In this paper, we present the chemical structure-biological functions relationship of CSPGs, both in health state and in genetic disorders, addressing methods represented by genome-wide and crystallographic data as well as molecular modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship.

  1. Neurodegeneration of lateral habenula efferent fibers after intermittent cocaine administration: implications for deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Elad; Friedman, Alexander; Croitoru, Ofri; Sudai, Einav; Ben-Moshe, Hila; Redlus, Lior; Sasson, Efrat; Blumenfeld-Katzir, Tamar; Assaf, Yaniv; Yadid, Gal

    2013-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging technique for effective, non-pharmacological intervention in the course of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Several brain targets have been suggested as suitable for DBS treatment of drug addiction. Previously, we showed that DBS of the lateral habenula (LHb) can reduce cocaine intake, facilitate extinction and attenuate drug-induced relapse in rats trained to self-administrate cocaine. Herein, we demonstrated that cocaine self-administration dose-dependently decreased connectivity between the LHb and midbrain, as shown by neurodegeneration of the main LHb efferent fiber, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). FR degeneration, in turn, may have caused lack of response to LHb stimulation in rats trained to self-administer high-dose cocaine (1.5 mg/kg; i.v.). Furthermore, we show that the micro-structural changes caused by cocaine can be non-invasively detected using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Detection of cocaine-induced alterations in FR anatomy can aid the selection of potential responders to LHb stimulation for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:23891640

  2. The lateralization of intrinsic networks in the aging brain implicates the effects of cognitive training

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    Cheng eLuo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of function is an important organization of human brain. The distribution of intrinsic networks in the resting brain is strongly related to the cognitive function, gender and age. In this study, the longitudinal design with one year duration was used to evaluate the cognitive training effects on the lateralization of intrinsic networks among healthy older adults. The subjects were divided into two groups randomly: one with multi-domain cognitive training in three month, the other as a wait-list control group. Resting state fMRI data were acquired before training and one year after training. We analyzed the functional lateralization in ten common resting state fMRI networks. We observed statically significant training effects on the lateralization of two important RSNs related to high-level cognition: right- and left- frontoparietal networks. Especially, the lateralization of left-frontoparietal network were retained well in training group, but decreased in control group. The increased lateralization with aging was observed on the cerebellum network, in which the lateralization was significantly increased in control group although the same change tendency was observed in training group. These findings indicate that the lateralization of the high-level cognitive intrinsic networks is sensitive to the multi-domain cognitive training. This study provides a neuroimaging evidence to support that the cognitive training should have advantages to the cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  3. Clinical implications of brain atrophy by computed tomography in patients with age-related dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to clarify the clinical significance of brain atrophy by computed tomography in age-related dementia. Eighty elderly patients with clinical diagnosis of presenile or senile dementia whose mental states were assessed clinically and by several psychometric test were studied by computed tomography. Patients with suspected cerebrovascular disorders and normal pressure hydrocephalus were excluded. Three tomographic sections through anterior and posterior horns and cella media of lateral ventricles and cortex with intracranial space of 60 - 80 cm2 were evaluated. CSF spaces (%) were measured as an index of brain atrophy. The measurement of CSF spaces (%) was carried out by the computerized planimetric method to avoid visual definition of ventricular borders. In this study, CSF spaces comprised ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Hasegawa's dementia scale, Bender-Gestalt test and Kohs' block design test were employed for the cognitive assessment of the subjects. In two sections through lateral ventricles, significant correlations were obtained between CSF spaces (%) and scores of Hasegawa's dementia scale and Kohs' block design test. Scores of Bender-Gestalt test did not correlate with CSF spaces (%) in these two sections. In the section through cortex, no correlation were found between CSF spaces (%) and scores of any psychometric test. Also, no positive correlations were obtained between age and CSF spaces (%) in the three sections. (author)

  4. Spatio-temporal 16p11.2 protein network implicates cortical late mid-fetal brain development and KCTD13-Cul3-RhoA pathway in psychiatric diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan Ning; Corominas, Roser; Lemmens, Irma; Yang, Xinping; Tavernier, Jan; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc; Sebat, Jonathan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Psychiatric disorders autism and schizophrenia have a strong genetic component, and copy number variants (CNVs) are firmly implicated. Recurrent deletions and duplications of chromosome 16p11.2 confer high risk for both diseases, but the pathways disrupted by this CNV are poorly defined. Here we investigate the dynamics of 16p11.2 network by integrating physical interactions of 16p11.2 proteins with spatio-temporal gene expression from developing human brain. We observe profound changes in protein interaction networks throughout different stages of brain development and/or in different brain regions. We identify late mid-fetal period of cortical development as most critical for establishing connectivity of 16p11.2 proteins with their co-expressed partners. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulation of KCTD13-Cul3-RhoA pathway in layer four of inner cortical plate is crucial for controlling brain size and connectivity, and its dysregulation by the de novo mutations may be a potential determinant of 16p11.2 CNV deletion and duplication phenotypes. PMID:25695269

  5. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  6. Induction of brain region-specific forms of obesity by agouti.

    OpenAIRE

    Kas, M. J. H.; Tiesjema, B; Dijk, G. van; Garner, KM; Barsh, GS; ter Brake, O; Verhaagen, J.; Adan, RAH

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin ( MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expression was induced after local injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral particles in selected brain nuclei of adult rats. Agouti expression in the paraventricular nucleus, a hypothalamic reg...

  7. Developmental and Regional Patterns of GAP-43 Immunoreactivity in a Metamorphosing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Tanyu, Leslie H.; Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Brown, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth-associated protein-43 is typically expressed at high levels in the nervous system during development. In adult animals, its expression is lower, but still observable in brain areas showing structural or functional plasticity. We examined patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the brain of the bullfrog, an animal whose nervous system undergoes considerable reorganization across metamorphic development and retains a strong capacity for plasticity in adulthood. Immunolabeling was mostly d...

  8. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain

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    Wang Kate

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM, present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP, derived from a specific source (diesel engine, and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Results Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-κB and (AP-1 was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI. Conclusions Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution

  9. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1 H-MR spectroscopy

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    Minati Ludovico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification.

  10. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  12. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  13. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A.; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Brunner, Robert L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Susan M. Resnick

    2011-01-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years, however it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural MRI was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine l...

  14. Perceptions of communicative competence after traumatic brain injury: implications for ecologically-driven intervention targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Michael; Allen, Elizabeth M; Prelock, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between non-verbal behaviours and perceptions of the communication abilities of an individual with anomia secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-four university students studying Communication Sciences and Disorders were randomly assigned to watch or listen to six short clips of an individual with TBI engaged in conversation. Participants rated the individual on communication parameters from a modified version of the Pragmatic Protocol and four other dependent measures of communicative competence. A significant positive correlation was identified between perceptions of gestures and ratings of overall communicative competence, and between perceptions of hand and arm movements and ratings of overall communicative competence. Participant raters who viewed the individual's movements as inappropriate also rated her overall communication abilities less favourably. This finding highlights individuality in perception of communication competence and the importance of assessing communication partners' perceptions in a client's environment to determine socially relevant treatment goals.

  15. Implications of MMP9 for Blood Brain Barrier Disruption And Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Jade Turner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, specifically MMP-9 levels following stroke, with such perturbations associated with disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB, increased risk of hemorrhagic complications and worsened outcome. Despite this, controversy remains as to which cells release MMP-9 at the normal and pathological BBB, with even less clarity in the context of stroke. This may be further complicated by the influence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA treatment. The aim of the present review is to examine the relationship between neutrophils, MMP-9 and tPA following ischemic stroke to elucidate which cells are responsible for the increases in MMP-9 and resultant barrier changes and hemorrhage observed following stroke.

  16. Implications of MMP9 for Blood Brain Barrier Disruption and Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Renée J.; Sharp, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9 levels following stroke, with such perturbations associated with disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB), increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, and worsened outcome. Despite this, controversy remains as to which cells release MMP-9 at the normal and pathological BBB, with even less clarity in the context of stroke. This may be further complicated by the influence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. The aim of the present review is to examine the relationship between neutrophils, MMP-9 and tPA following ischemic stroke to elucidate which cells are responsible for the increases in MMP-9 and resultant barrier changes and hemorrhage observed following stroke. PMID:26973468

  17. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language- and memory-related demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training.

  18. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  19. Criticism in the Self, Brain, Relationships, and Social Structure: Implications for Psychodynamic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan

    2016-01-01

    An integrative-psychodynamic theory of criticism in self and relationships is presented (Shahar, 2015). My theoretical starting point is the tension between Authenticity (A; our inherited potential, tantamount to Winnicott's True Self) and Self-Knowledge (SK; what we [think] we know about ourselves). Self-criticism, a formidable dimension of vulnerability to a wide array of psychopathologies, is construed as a distorted form of self-knowledge, reducing internal confusion at the expense of widening the gap between A and SK. Amalgamated by a genetic and neuroanatomic makeup, criticism of the self quickly translates into criticism-based interpersonal exchanges across the life span, culminating in an Axis of Criticism (ACRIM). A psychodynamic-integrative psychotherapy of malignant criticism in self and relationships is described. The article is concluded with some broad reflections on the implication of this work to the theory development and therapeutic action. PMID:27603804

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  1. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs

  2. Brain metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region and cerebellum in autism: an {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, H.; Harada, M.; Hisaoka, S.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima City (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Histological abnormalities of the brain in autism have been investigated extensively. We studied metabolites in the hippocampusamygdala (HA) region and cerebellum. We examined the right HA region and left cerebellar hemisphere of 27 autistic patients 2-18 years old, 21 boys and 6 girls and 10 normal children 6-14 years old, 4 boys and 6 girls, using the STEAM sequence. This sequence was used to minimise the influence of relaxation times. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was significantly lower (P=0.042) in autistic patients than in normal children (9.37 and 10.95 mM, respectively). There was no significant difference in other metabolites. The correlation coefficient (r value) of NAA between the HA region and cerebellum was 0.616. The decreased NAA concentration may be due to neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. The NAA concentration in the HA region and cerebellum may be related, because of neuronal circuits or networks. (orig.)

  3. Brain metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region and cerebellum in autism: an 1H-MR spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological abnormalities of the brain in autism have been investigated extensively. We studied metabolites in the hippocampusamygdala (HA) region and cerebellum. We examined the right HA region and left cerebellar hemisphere of 27 autistic patients 2-18 years old, 21 boys and 6 girls and 10 normal children 6-14 years old, 4 boys and 6 girls, using the STEAM sequence. This sequence was used to minimise the influence of relaxation times. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was significantly lower (P=0.042) in autistic patients than in normal children (9.37 and 10.95 mM, respectively). There was no significant difference in other metabolites. The correlation coefficient (r value) of NAA between the HA region and cerebellum was 0.616. The decreased NAA concentration may be due to neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. The NAA concentration in the HA region and cerebellum may be related, because of neuronal circuits or networks. (orig.)

  4. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  5. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  6. International Comparison and Implications of Agricultural Development in Foreign Low Latitude Plateau Regions for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Yan; YANG; Rui; CHEN; Wei; WU; Ziyun; PENG; Liangzheng; CHEN; Xuelin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced.Then,experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed,including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development,application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil,trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico,and Argentina,Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to developing modern agriculture relying on science and technology and paying close attention to resource conservation and environmental protection.Combining natural and social resource characteristics of Yunnan plateau agriculture,pertinent implications and recommendations for modern agricultural development in Yunnan are put forward.Specifically,these include strengthening agricultural sci-tech research and development,and extension and application;transforming agricultural development model;enhancing agricultural resource conservation and environmental protection;accelerating developing mountain organic ecological agriculture and autumn agriculture;reinforcing urban and rural integration to develop plateau characteristic agriculture on the basis of local actual conditions.

  7. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    antibody-linked enzymatic staining procedure, whereas mRNAs for mu- or delta-opioid receptors were detected with radioactive probes. These experiments revealed that in the septal region mainly mu-opioid receptors were expressed by neurons positive for ChAT mRNA, whereas in the rat striatum the expression of delta-opioid receptors prevailed in those neurons. We conclude that in the septal area of the rat brain, in contrast to the rat striatum and hippocampus, both presynaptic mu- and delta-opioid receptors modulate the evoked release of ACh. Whether presynaptic mu- and delta-opioid receptors occur on the same or on different septal cells or axon terminals remains to be clarified. PMID:10935530

  8. [Oxidative phosphorylation in different regions of the rat brain following morphine administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Iu I; Ivkov, N N; Matiushin, A I

    1976-01-01

    The influence exercised by morphine in a dose of 20 mg/kg, introduced intraperitoneally, and also in concentrations of 10(-3) and 10(-5) "in vitro" on the parameters of oxidative phosphorylation of the brain cortex and stem of rats was studied. Morphine, used in a concentration of 10(-3), is shown to speed up the substrates oxidation rate. During the first days of its administration the narcotic analgetic inhibited oxidation of mitochondia released from the brain stem, and, once habituation to the narcotic had developed, the inhibition ceased to be effective. In "in vivo" experiments and in vitro tests the effect of phosphorylation remained unchanged. The data obtained suggest that with developing habituation in regard to morphine the functions of the brain stem and cortex mitochondria do not undergo any substantial changes. PMID:1024831

  9. An Overview of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Implications for Excitotoxic Vulnerability in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Murray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the nature and function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampal formation and the consequences of changes in its expression. The paper focuses on literature describing the role of BDNF in hippocampal development and neuroplasticity. BDNF expression is highly sensitive to developmental and environmental factors, and increased BDNF signaling enhances neurogenesis, neurite sprouting, electrophysiological activity, and other processes reflective of a general enhancement of hippocampal function. Such increases in activity may mediate beneficial effects such as enhanced learning and memory. However, the increased activity also comes at a cost: BDNF plasticity renders the hippocampus more vulnerable to hyperexcitability and/or excitotoxic damage. Exercise dramatically increases hippocampal BDNF levels and produces behavioral effects consistent with this phenomenon. In analyzing the literature regarding exercise-induced regulation of BDNF, this paper provides a theoretical model for how the potentially deleterious consequences of BDNF plasticity may be modulated by other endogenous factors. The peptide galanin may play such a role by regulating hippocampal excitability.

  10. Neutrotoxic effects of fructose administration in rat brain: implications for fructosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A. Macongonde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fructose accumulates in tissue and body fluids of patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, a disorder caused by the deficiency of aldolase B. We investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the biochemical profile and on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the cerebral cortex of young rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of NaCl (0.9 %; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. Twelve or 24 h after the administration, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortices were isolated. Peripheral blood (to obtain the serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF from the animals were also collected. It was observed that albumin levels were decreased and cholesterol levels were increased in CSF of animals 12 h after the administration of fructose. In addition, serum lactate levels were increased 12 h after the administration, as compared to control group. Furthermore, malate dehydrogenase activity was increased in cerebral cortex from treated group 24 h after the administration of this carbohydrate. Herein we demonstrate that fructose administration alters biochemical parameters in CSF and serum and bioenergetics parameters in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate a possible role of fructose on brain alterations found in HFI patients.

  11. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: implications for memory consolidation in sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Caroline L.; Malinowski, Josie E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory (AM) activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography). They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualizing those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of AM to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of AM during sleep. PMID:26191010

  12. Neuroimaging assessment of early and late neurobiological sequelae of traumatic brain injury: implications for CTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eSundman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI has been increasingly accepted as a major external risk factor for neurodegenerative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence indicates that the resultant chronic neurobiological sequelae following head trauma may, at least in part, contribute to a pathologically distinct disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE. The clinical manifestation of CTE is variable, but the symptoms of this progressive disease include impaired memory and cognition, affective disorders (i.e., impulsivity, aggression, depression, suicidality, etc., and diminished motor control. Notably, mounting evidence suggests that the pathology contributing to CTE may be caused by repetitive exposure to subconcussive hits to the head, even in those with no history of a clinically evident head injury. Given the millions of athletes and military personnel with potential exposure to repetitive subconcussive insults and TBI, CTE represents an important public health issue. However, the incidence rates and pathological mechanisms are still largely unknown, primarily due to the fact that there is no in vivo diagnostic tool. The primary objective of this manuscript is to address this limitation and discuss potential neuroimaging modalities that may be capable of diagnosing CTE in vivo through the detection of tau and other known pathological features. Additionally, we will discuss the challenges of TBI research, outline the known pathology of CTE (with an emphasis on Tau, review current neuroimaging modalities to assess the potential routes for in vivo diagnosis, and discuss the future directions of CTE research.

  13. Recovery mechanisms of somatosensory function in stroke patients: implications of brain imaging studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2013-01-01

    Somatosensory dysfunction is associated with a high incidence of functional impairment and safety in patients with stroke.With developments in brain mapping techniques,many studies have addressed the recovery of various functions in such patients.However,relatively little is known about the mechanisms of recovery of somatosensory function.Based on the previous human studies,a review of 11 relevant studies on the mechanisms underlying the recovery of somatosensory function in stroke patients was conducted based on the following topics:(1) recovery of an injured somatosensory pathway,(2) peri-lesional reorganization,(3) contribution of the unaffected somatosensory cortex,(4) contribution of the secondary somatosensory cortex,and (5)mechanisms of recovery in patients with thalamic lesions.We believe that further studies in this field using combinations of diffusion tensor imaging,functional neuroimaging,and magnetoencephalography are needed.In addition,the clinical significance,critical period,and facilitatory strategies for each recovery mechanism should be clarified.

  14. Neutrotoxic effects of fructose administration in rat brain: implications for fructosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macongonde, Ernesto A; Costa, Naithan L F; Ferreira, Bruna K; Biella, Mairis S; Frederico, Marisa J S; Oliveira, Marcos R de; Ávila Júnior, Silvio; Silva, Fátima R M B; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F

    2015-08-01

    Fructose accumulates in tissue and body fluids of patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), a disorder caused by the deficiency of aldolase B. We investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the biochemical profile and on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the cerebral cortex of young rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of NaCl (0.9 %; control group) or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group). Twelve or 24 h after the administration, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortices were isolated. Peripheral blood (to obtain the serum) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from the animals were also collected. It was observed that albumin levels were decreased and cholesterol levels were increased in CSF of animals 12 h after the administration of fructose. In addition, serum lactate levels were increased 12 h after the administration, as compared to control group. Furthermore, malate dehydrogenase activity was increased in cerebral cortex from treated group 24 h after the administration of this carbohydrate. Herein we demonstrate that fructose administration alters biochemical parameters in CSF and serum and bioenergetics parameters in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate a possible role of fructose on brain alterations found in HFI patients.

  15. Analysis of Alzheimer's disease severity across brain regions by topological analysis of gene co-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weixiong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving variations in the transcriptome of many genes. AD does not affect all brain regions simultaneously. Identifying the differences among the affected regions may shed more light onto the disease progression. We developed a novel method involving the differential topology of gene coexpression networks to understand the association among affected regions and disease severity. Methods We analysed microarray data of four regions - entorhinal cortex (EC, hippocampus (HIP, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and middle temporal gyrus (MTG from AD affected and normal subjects. A coexpression network was built for each region and the topological overlap between them was examined. Genes with zero topological overlap between two region-specific networks were used to characterise the differences between the two regions. Results and conclusion Results indicate that MTG shows early AD pathology compared to the other regions. We postulate that if the MTG gets affected later in the disease, post-mortem analyses of individuals with end-stage AD will show signs of early AD in the MTG, while the EC, HIP and PCC will have severe pathology. Such knowledge is useful for data collection in clinical studies where sample selection is a limiting factor as well as highlighting the underlying biology of disease progression.

  16. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589

  17. Assessing Quantitative Changes in Intrinsic Thalamic Networks in Blast and Nonblast Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Mechanisms of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Dominic E; Bellgowan, Julie F; Oakes, Terrence R; French, Louis M; Nadar, Sreenivasan R; Sham, Elyssa B; Liu, Wei; Riedy, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    In the global war on terror, the increased use of improvised explosive devices has resulted in increased incidence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Diagnosing mTBI is both challenging and controversial due to heterogeneity of injury location, trauma intensity, transient symptoms, and absence of focal biomarkers on standard clinical imaging modalities. The goal of this study is to identify a brain biomarker that is sensitive to mTBI injury. Research suggests the thalamus may be sensitive to changes induced by mTBI. A significant number of connections to and from various brain regions converge at the thalamus. In addition, the thalamus is involved in information processing, integration, and regulation of specific behaviors and mood. In this study, changes in task-free thalamic networks as quantified by graph theory measures in mTBI blast (N = 186), mTBI nonblast (N = 80), and controls (N = 21) were compared. Results show that the blast mTBI group had significant hyper-connectivity compared with the controls and nonblast mTBI group. However, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), the blast mTBI group was not different from the controls, but the nonblast mTBI group showed significant hypo-connectivity. The results suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of injury related to mTBI as reflected in the architecture of the thalamic networks. However, the effect of PTSS and its relationship to mTBI is difficult to distinguish and warrants more research.

  18. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions: a Granger causality analysis of autobiographic memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self-awareness. Autobiographic memory retrieval of previous personal judgments of visually presented words was used as stimuli. It is demonstrated that the prestimulus condition is characterized by causal, recurrent oscillations which are maximal in the lower gamma range. When retrieving previous judgments of visually presented adjectives, this activity is dramatically increased during the stimulus task as ascertained by Granger causality analysis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal interaction between higher order, modality non-specific brain regions, exemplified in a network of autobiographical memory retrieval.

  19. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  20. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  1. Water Resources Implications of Cellulosic Biofuel Production at a Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. F.; Schoenholtz, S. H.; Nettles, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent increases in oil prices, a strong national interest in greater energy independence, and a concern for the role of fossil fuels in global climate change, have led to a dramatic expansion in use of alternative renewable energy sources in the U.S. The U.S. government has mandated production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, of which 16 billion gallons are required to be cellulosic biofuels. Production of cellulosic biomass offers a promising alternative to corn-based systems because large-scale production of corn-based ethanol often requires irrigation and is associated with increased erosion, excess sediment export, and enhanced leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although cultivation of switchgrass using standard agricultural practices is one option being considered for production of cellulosic biomass, intercropping cellulosic biofuel crops within managed forests could provide feedstock without primary land use change or the water quality impacts associated with annual crops. Catchlight Energy LLC is examining the feasibility and sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern U.S. Ongoing research is determining efficient operational techniques and information needed to evaluate effects of these practices on water resources in small watershed-scale (~25 ha) studies. Three sets of four to five sub-watersheds are fully instrumented and currently collecting calibration data in North Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi. These watershed studies will provide detailed information to understand processes and guide management decisions. However, environmental implications of cellulosic systems need to be examined at a regional scale. We used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based hydrologic model, to examine water quantity effects of various land use change scenarios ranging from switchgrass intercropping a small percentage of managed pine forest land to conversion of all managed

  2. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Boadu, Frederick

    2004-04-01

    Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that enhancing the habitat by augmenting water flow costs $109-1427 per acre-foot and that regional water development would be accelerated by the more extreme possibilities under the Habitat Conservation Plan. The findings also indicate that a water market would improve regional welfare and lower water development but worsen environmental attributes.

  3. [From brain imaging to good teaching? implicating from neuroscience for research on learning and instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Christa; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, in particular attention deficit disorder or specific learning disorders like developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, affect academic performance and learning at school. Recent advances in neuroscientific research have incited an intensive debate both in the general public and in the field of educational and instructional science as well as to whether and to what extent these new findings in the field of neuroscience might be of importance for school-related learning and instruction. In this review, we first summarize neuroscientific findings related to the development of attention, working memory and executive functions in typically developing children and then evaluate their relevance for school-related learning. We present an overview of neuroimaging studies of specific learning disabilities such as developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, and critically discuss their practical implications for educational and teaching practice, teacher training, early diagnosis as well as prevention and disorder-specific therapy. We conclude that the new interdisciplinary field of neuroeducation cannot be expected to provide direct innovative educational applications (e.g., teaching methods). Rather, the future potential of neuroscience lies in creating a deeper understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms and pathomechanisms of learning processes and learning disorders. PMID:25005903

  4. [From brain imaging to good teaching? implicating from neuroscience for research on learning and instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Christa; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, in particular attention deficit disorder or specific learning disorders like developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, affect academic performance and learning at school. Recent advances in neuroscientific research have incited an intensive debate both in the general public and in the field of educational and instructional science as well as to whether and to what extent these new findings in the field of neuroscience might be of importance for school-related learning and instruction. In this review, we first summarize neuroscientific findings related to the development of attention, working memory and executive functions in typically developing children and then evaluate their relevance for school-related learning. We present an overview of neuroimaging studies of specific learning disabilities such as developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, and critically discuss their practical implications for educational and teaching practice, teacher training, early diagnosis as well as prevention and disorder-specific therapy. We conclude that the new interdisciplinary field of neuroeducation cannot be expected to provide direct innovative educational applications (e.g., teaching methods). Rather, the future potential of neuroscience lies in creating a deeper understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms and pathomechanisms of learning processes and learning disorders.

  5. In vivo changes in microglial activation and amyloid deposits in brain regions with hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, Masamichi; Mori, Norio; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yagi, Shunsuke; Ouchi, Yasuomi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Laboratory of Human Imaging Research, Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yoshikawa, Etsuji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Kanazawa University, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugihara, Genichi; Suda, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ueki, Takatoshi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) is known as a pathological substance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is assumed to coexist with a degree of activated microglia in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether these two events occur in parallel with characteristic hypometabolism in AD in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the in vivo relationship between A{beta} accumulation and neuroinflammation in those specific brain regions in early AD. Eleven nootropic drug-naive AD patients underwent a series of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements with [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195, [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG and a battery of cognitive tests within the same day. The binding potentials (BPs) of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 were directly compared with those of [{sup 11}C]PIB in the brain regions with reduced glucose metabolism. BPs of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB were significantly higher in the parietotemporal regions of AD patients than in ten healthy controls. In AD patients, there was a negative correlation between dementia score and [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 BPs, but not [{sup 11}C]PIB, in the limbic, precuneus and prefrontal regions. Direct comparisons showed a significant negative correlation between [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB BPs in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p < 0.05, corrected) that manifested the most severe reduction in [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. A lack of coupling between microglial activation and amyloid deposits may indicate that A{beta} accumulation shown by [{sup 11}C]PIB is not always the primary cause of microglial activation, but rather the negative correlation present in the PCC suggests that microglia can show higher activation during the production of A{beta} in early AD. (orig.)

  6. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. METHODOLOGY: Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. CONCLUSIONS: Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. SIGNIFICANCE: Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  7. Induction of brain region-specific forms of obesity by Agouti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, M.J.H.; Tiesjema, B; van Dijk, G; Garner, KM; Barsh, GS; Ter Brake, O; Verhaagen, J; Adan, RAH

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin ( MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expre

  8. Induction of brain-region-specific forms of obesity by agouti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Tiesjema, Birgitte; van Dijk, Gertjan; Garner, Keith M; Barsh, Gregory S; ter Brake, Olivier; Verhaagen, Joost; Adan, Roger A H

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin (MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expres

  9. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  10. Regional localization of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.

    1978-01-01

    Halopemide is a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the neuroleptics of the butyrophenone type, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile. The concentration of halopemide in the rat brain is about 10 times less than that of R 29800, its chemical congener and of spiperone,

  11. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...

  12. Language system organization in a quadrilingual with a brain tumor: Implications for understanding of the language network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Japardi, Kevin; Frew, Andrew; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2016-06-01

    In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language. PMID:27143224

  13. Electroacupuncture decreases excessive alcohol consumption involving reduction of FosB/ΔFosB levels in reward-related brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for alcohol abuse, a major public health problem in the U.S. and worldwide. There are only three FDA-approved drugs for treatment of alcohol abuse (naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfuram. On average these drugs yield only moderate success in reducing long-term alcohol consumption. Electroacupuncture has been shown to alleviate various drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Although previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture reduced alcohol consumption, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors implicated in neural plasticity in drug addiction; a connection between electroacupuncture's treatment of alcohol abuse and the Fos family has not been established. In this study, we trained rats to drink large quantities of ethanol in a modified intermittent access two-bottle choice drinking procedure. When rats achieved a stable baseline of ethanol consumption, electroacupuncture (100 Hz or 2 Hz, 30 min each day was administered at Zusanli (ST36 for 6 consecutive days. The level of FosB/ΔFosB in reward-related brain regions was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We found that the intake of and preference for ethanol in rats under 100 Hz, but not 2 Hz electroacupuncture regiment were sharply reduced. The reduction was maintained for at least 72 hours after the termination of electroacupuncture treatment. Conversely, 100 Hz electroacupuncture did not alter the intake of and preference for the natural rewarding agent sucrose. Additionally, FosB/ΔFosB levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatal region and the posterior region of ventral tegmental area were increased following excessive ethanol consumption, but were reduced after six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture. Thus, this study demonstrates that six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture treatment effectively reduces ethanol consumption and preference in rats that chronically drink excessive amount of

  14. Simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell cultures and in sub-regions of guinea pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt; Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe a validated chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell culture and in sub-regions of the guinea pig brain. Electrochemical...

  15. The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eRezaie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD and typical readers (N=40, NI. Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties.

  16. Association between the Levels of Biogenic Amines and Superoxide Anion Production in Brain Regions of Rats after Subchronic Exposure to TCDD

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, James P.; Masters, Karilane; Sarver, Jeffrey G.; Hassoun, Ezdihar A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of TCDD on the distribution of biogenic amines and production of superoxide anion (SA) in different brain regions of rats have been studied after subchronic exposure. Groups of females Sprague-Dawley rats were administered daily dose of 46 ng TCDD/kg/day (treated groups), or the vehicle used to dissolve TCDD (control group), for 90 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the exposure period and their brains were dissected into different regions including, hippocampus (H), cer...

  17. CARBARYL EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF ADOLESCENT AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. Understanding age-related susceptibility is crucial in assessing the human health risks of chemicals. Growing evidence implicates as in carbamate toxicity in addition to cholinesterase-inhibit...

  18. Region-selective effects of long-term lithium and carbamazepine administration on cyclic AMP levels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lithium and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder is well established. Althougt a number of biochemical effects have been found, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic actions have not been elucidated nor are the target regions in the brain identified. Taken into account the important role of the cyclic AMP second messenger system in the regulation of neuronal exitability and the indications of its involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder, we have focused on the drug effects on cyclic AMP levels. The objectives of this investigation were to measure the effects on basal cyclic AMP levels, and to locate target regions within the rat brain after long-term administration of lithium and carbamazepine. Drug treatments were carried out for a period of 28 days. After either drug treatment the cyclic AMP level was increased 3-4 times in frontal cortex but unchanged in hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala and in cerebellum. In neostratum the cyclic AMP level was decreased to about 30% after treatment with lithium. We suggest the common region-selective effect, observed for both drugs in frontal cortex, to be essential for the therapeutic actions of lithium and carbamazepine. (au)

  19. Cocaine alters dendritic spine density in cortical and subcortical brain regions of the postpartum and virgin female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurt, Maya; Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris; Friedman, Eitan; Luine, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy induces profound neural and behavioral deficits in both mother and offspring. The present study was designed to compare the effects of cocaine exposure on spine density of postpartum and virgin female rat brains. Timed, pregnant, primiparous rats were injected with either cocaine (30 mg/kg) or saline, once daily, from gestational day 8–20. Twenty four hours after giving birth, dam brains were processed for Golgi-impregnation. Since cocaine effects in female rats have not been determined, virgin females were also injected with the same dose of cocaine or saline for 12 days and sacrificed 24h after the last injection for comparison. Pregnant rats had significantly greater spine density in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) and lower spine density in CA1 than virgin females independent of cocaine treatment. Cocaine significantly increased dendritic spine density on the apical branch of pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, 15%), both apical (13%) and basal (14.8%) branches of CA1 and cells in the MeA (28%) of pregnant rats. In the MPOA, cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in dendritic spine density (14%) in pregnant rats. In virgin females, cocaine had fewer effects but did increase dendritic spine density on both branches of CA1 neurons and in the MeA. The present study is the first to demonstrate that spine density differs between pregnant and virgin females and that pregnancy makes the brain more vulnerable to cocaine, which has important clinical implications. PMID:21480383

  20. Decrease in circulating tryptophan availability to the brain after acute ethanol consumption by normal volunteers: implications for alcohol-induced aggressive behaviour and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, A A; Morgan, C J; Lovett, J W; Bradley, D M; Thomas, R

    1995-10-01

    Acute ethanol consumption by fasting male volunteers decreases circulating trytophan (Trp) concentration and availability to the brain as determined by the ratio of (Trp) to the sum of its five competitors ([Trp]/[CAA]ratio). These effects of alcohol are specific to Trp, because levels of the 5 competitors are not increased. The decrease in circulating (Trp) is not associated with altered binding to albumin and may therefore be due to enhancement of hepatic Trp pyrrolase activity. It is suggested that, under these conditions brain serotonin synthesis is likely to be impaired and that, as a consequence, a possible strong depletion of brain serotonin in susceptible individuals may induce aggressive behaviour after alcohol consumption. The possible implications of these findings in the relationship between alcohol and depression are also briefly discussed.

  1. Word classes in the brain: implications of linguistic typology for cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David

    2014-09-01

    Although recent research on the neural substrates of word classes has generated some valuable findings, significant progress has been hindered by insufficient attention to theoretical issues involving the nature of the lexical phenomena under investigation. This paper shows how insights from linguistic typology can provide cognitive neuroscientists with well-motivated guidelines for interpreting the extant data and charting a future course. At the outset, a fundamental distinction is made between universal and language-particular aspects of word classes. Regarding universals, prototypical nouns involve reference to objects, and their meanings rely primarily on the ventral temporal lobes, which represent the shape features of entities; in contrast, prototypical verbs involve predication of actions, and their meanings rely primarily on posterior middle temporal regions and frontoparietal regions, which represent the visual motion features and somatomotor features of events. Some researchers maintain that focusing on object nouns and action verbs is inappropriate because it conflates the semantic and grammatical properties of each word class. However, this criticism not only ignores the importance of the universal prototypes, but also mistakenly assumes that there are straightforward morphological and/or syntactic criteria for identifying nouns and verbs in particular languages. In fact, at the level of individual languages, the classic method of distributional analysis leads to a proliferation of constructionally based entity-denoting and event-denoting word classes with mismatching memberships, and all of this variation must be taken seriously, not only by linguists, but also by cognitive neuroscientists. Many of these word classes involve remarkably close correspondences between grammar and meaning and hence are highly relevant to the neurobiology of conceptual knowledge, but so far hardly any of them have been investigated from a neurolinguistic perspective. PMID

  2. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oberto; P. Gaglioti; G. Oggè; E. Olearo; Pace, C.; T. Trodos; G.L. Panattoni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD), with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ag...

  3. A common gene expression signature in Huntington’s disease patient brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Neueder, Andreas; Bates, Gillian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression data provide invaluable insights into disease mechanisms. In Huntington’s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a tri-nucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, extensive transcriptional dysregulation has been reported. Conventional dysregulation analysis has shown that e.g. in the caudate nucleus of the post mortem HD brain the gene expression level of about a third of all genes was altered. Owing to this large number of dysregulated genes, t...

  4. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Y; Cai FQ; Zhong YL; Huang X; Zhang Y; Hu PH; Pei CG; Zhou FQ; Zeng XJ

    2015-01-01

    Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo) in brain...

  5. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation.

  6. TRANSVERSALITY, TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER NETWORKS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS: THE CASE OF REGIONAL INNOVATION POLICIES IN TUSCANY REGION (SDP 2000-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele Fabbri; Luciana Lazzeretti

    2011-01-01

    Recently at the European level the theme of innovation has been further fostered with the Smart Specialization Strategy underlined within the COM(2010) 553 “Regional policy contributing to smart growth in Europe 2020†. The aim of this study is to investigate the co-evolutive dynamics of the technological transfer processes at regional level, and in particular the issue of transversality and bases of knowledge between networks according to an evolutionary perspective. Transversality is ana...

  7. Differential activation and tyrosine hydroxylase distribution in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain brain regions in response to cognitive performance in Indian house crows exposed to abrupt light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufique, S K Tahajjul; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    Disruption of the cyclic feature of the day-night environment can cause negative effects on daily activity and advanced brain functions such as learning, memory and decision-making behaviour. These functions in songbirds, including corvids, involve the hippocampus, pallium and midbrain, as revealed by ZENK (a neuronal activation marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions. TH is rate-limiting marker enzyme of the biosynthesis of dopamine, widely implicated in learning and memory. Here, we measured ZENK and TH immunoreactivity in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain regions in response to cognitive performance (learning-memory retrieval) tests in Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to constant light environment (LL) with controls on 12h light:12h darkness. Along with the decay of circadian rhythm in activity behaviour, LL caused a significant decline in the cognitive performance. There was also a decrease under LL in the activity of neurons in the hippocampus, medial and central caudal nidopallium, and hyperpallium apicale, which are widely distributed with TH-immunoreactive fibres. Further, under LL, TH- immunoreactive neurons were reduced in number in midbrain dopamine synthesis sites, the venteral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), with a negative correlation of co-localized ZENK/TH- immunoreactive cells on errors during the association tasks. These results show decreased activity of learning and memory neural systems, and underscore the role of dopamine in reduced cognitive performance of diurnal corvids with disrupted circadian rhythms under an abrupt light environment. PMID:27478138

  8. Summated chemotherapy dose-intensity versus loco-regional response in locally advanced breast cancer: Its possible implications

    OpenAIRE

    Datta N; Rajkumar A; Basu R

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Summated dose-intensity (SDI) of chemotherapy regimen could influence the outcome in malignancies. AIMS : To evaluate the implication of SDI and identify key drugs for loco-regional response in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Settings and design: This retrospective study was based on audit of records of LABC patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). MATERIAL AND METHODS : Actual unit dose-intensity (UDI) of each drug and corresponding SDI of every doxorubi...

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  10. In situ wave phenomena in the upstream and downstream regions of interplanetary shocks: Implications for type 2 burst theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Vinas, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The results are presented of in situ waves observed by the Ulyssess unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) in the upstream and downstream regions of a large number of interplanetary shocks. The Langmuir waves which are the most essential ingredients for the type 2 radio emission are observed only in the upstream regions of a limited number of shocks. On the other hand, the ion-acoustic-like waves (0.5 to 5 kHz) are observed near most of the interplanetary shocks. Implications of observations made for the electron acceleration mechanisms at the collisionless shocks and for type 2 burst theories are presented.

  11. Troubling Times-The GFC and its Implications for Regional Performance. Part One: The United States And Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Stimson

    2012-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) was a profound exogenous shock which has had profound impacts the performance of national economies and the regions within them. The differential outcomes are vast. In many parts of the world there is evidence of what is being referred to as the ‘two-speed’ economy - or even a ‘multi-speed’ - economy. This has implications for regional economic development theory in which, over the last two to three decades, there has been an increasing emphasis on endogenous...

  12. B7-H1 shapes T-cell–mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction and regional encephalitogenicity in spontaneous CNS autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Luisa; Kuzmanov, Ivan; Hucke, Stephanie; Gross, Catharina C.; Posevitz, Vilmos; Dreykluft, Angela; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Janoschka, Claudia; Lindner, Maren; Herold, Martin; Schwab, Nicholas; Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Kurts, Christian; Meuth, Sven G.; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that determine lesion localization or phenotype variation in multiple sclerosis are mostly unidentified. Although transmigration of activated encephalitogenic T cells across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the disease pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity, the consequences on brain endothelial barrier integrity upon interaction with such T cells and subsequent lesion formation and distribution are largely unknown. We made use of a transgenic spontaneous mouse model of CNS autoimmunity characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions confined to optic nerves and spinal cord (OSE mice). Genetic ablation of a single immune-regulatory molecule in this model [i.e., B7-homolog 1 (B7-H1, PD-L1)] not only significantly increased incidence of spontaneous CNS autoimmunity and aggravated disease course, especially in the later stages of disease, but also importantly resulted in encephalitogenic T-cell infiltration and lesion formation in normally unaffected brain regions, such as the cerebrum and cerebellum. Interestingly, B7-H1 ablation on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cells, but not on antigen-presenting cells, amplified T-cell effector functions, such as IFN-γ and granzyme B production. Therefore, these T cells were rendered more capable of eliciting cell contact-dependent brain endothelial cell dysfunction and increased barrier permeability in an in vitro model of the BBB. Our findings suggest that a single immune-regulatory molecule on T cells can be ultimately responsible for localized BBB breakdown, and thus substantial changes in lesion topography in the context of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27671636

  13. Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain hippocampal region: three-dimensional delineations based on magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonigsen, Lisa J; Lillehaug, Sveinung; Bjaalie, Jan G; Witter, Menno P; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2015-03-01

    Atlases of the rat brain are widely used as reference for orientation, planning of experiments, and as tools for assigning location to experimental data. Improved quality and use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other tomographical imaging techniques in rats have allowed the development of new three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric brain atlas templates. The rat hippocampal region is a commonly used model for basic research on memory and learning, and for preclinical investigations of brain disease. The region features a complex anatomical organization with multiple subdivisions that can be identified on the basis of specific cytoarchitectonic or chemoarchitectonic criteria. We here investigate the extent to which it is possible to identify boundaries of divisions of the hippocampal region on the basis of high-resolution MRI contrast. We present the boundaries of 13 divisions, identified and delineated based on multiple types of image contrast observed in the recently published Waxholm Space MRI/DTI template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain (Papp et al., Neuroimage 97:374-386, 2014). The new detailed delineations of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region (Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain, v2.0) are shared via the INCF Software Center (http://software.incf.org/), where also the MRI/DTI reference template is available. The present update of the Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain is intended to facilitate interpretation, analysis, and integration of experimental data from this anatomically complex region.

  14. Transferring cognitive tasks between brain imaging modalities: implications for task design and results interpretation in FMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warbrick, Tracy; Reske, Martina; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    As cognitive neuroscience methods develop, established experimental tasks are used with emerging brain imaging modalities. Here transferring a paradigm (the visual oddball task) with a long history of behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment is considered. The aims of this paper are to briefly describe fMRI and when its use is appropriate in cognitive neuroscience; illustrate how task design can influence the results of an fMRI experiment, particularly when that task is borrowed from another imaging modality; explain the practical aspects of performing an fMRI experiment. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task results in different patterns of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. The nature of the fMRI BOLD measure means that many brain regions are found to be active in a particular task. Determining the functions of these areas of activation is very much dependent on task design and analysis. The complex nature of many fMRI tasks means that the details of the task and its requirements need careful consideration when interpreting data. The data show that this is particularly important in those tasks relying on a motor response as well as cognitive elements and that covert and overt responses should be considered where possible. Furthermore, the data show that transferring an EEG paradigm to an fMRI experiment needs careful consideration and it cannot be assumed that the same paradigm will work equally well across imaging modalities. It is therefore recommended that the design of an fMRI study is pilot tested behaviorally to establish the effects of interest and then pilot tested in the fMRI environment to ensure appropriate design, implementation and analysis for the effects of interest. PMID:25285453

  15. Image-Guided Focused Ultrasound-Mediated Regional Brain Stimulation in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Lee, Stephanie D; Park, Michael Y; Foley, Lori; Purcell-Estabrook, Erin; Kim, Hyungmin; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has largely been carried out in small animals. In the present study, we applied stimulatory focused ultrasound transcranially to the primary sensorimotor (SM1) and visual (V1) brain areas in sheep (Dorset, all female, n = 8), under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging, and examined the electrophysiologic responses. By use of a 250-kHz focused ultrasound transducer, the area was sonicated in pulsed mode (tone-burst duration of 1 ms, duty cycle of 50%) for 300 ms. The acoustic intensity at the focal target was varied up to a spatial peak pulse-average intensity (Isppa) of 14.3 W/cm(2). Sonication of SM1 elicited electromyographic responses from the contralateral hind leg, whereas stimulation of V1 generated electroencephalographic potentials. These responses were detected only above a certain acoustic intensity, and the threshold intensity, as well as the degree of responses, varied among sheep. Post-sonication animal behavior was normal, but minor microhemorrhages were observed from the V1 areas exposed to highly repetitive sonication (every second for ≥500 times for electroencephalographic measurements, Isppa = 6.6-10.5 W/cm(2), mechanical index = 0.9-1.2). Our results suggest the potential translational utility of focused ultrasound as a new brain stimulation modality, yet also call for caution in the use of an excessive number of sonications. PMID:26525652

  16. Regional brain stem atrophy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by anatomical MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jubault

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dysfunction of dopaminergic dependent cortico-basal ganglia loops and diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms (tremors and/or rigidity and bradykinesia. Post-mortem studies tend to show that the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra constitutes an intermediate step in a broader neurodegenerative process rather than a unique feature of Parkinson's disease, as a consistent pattern of progression would exist, originating from the medulla oblongata/pontine tegmentum. To date, neuroimaging techniques have been unable to characterize the pre-symptomatic stages of PD. However, if such a regular neurodegenerative pattern were to exist, consistent damages would be found in the brain stem, even at early stages of the disease. We recruited 23 PD patients at Hoenn and Yahr stages I to II of the disease and 18 healthy controls (HC matched for age. T1-weighted anatomical scans were acquired (MPRAGE, 1 mm3 resolution and analyzed using an optimized VBM protocol to detect white and grey matter volume reduction without spatial a priori. When the HC group was compared to the PD group, a single cluster exhibited statistical difference (p<0.05 corrected for false detection rate, 4287 mm3 in the brain stem, between the pons and the medulla oblongata. The present study provides in-vivo evidence that brain stem damage may be the first identifiable stage of PD neuropathology, and that the identification of this consistent damage along with other factors could help with earlier diagnosis in the future. This damage could also explain some non-motor symptoms in PD that often precede diagnosis, such as autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders.

  17. Netrin-5 is highly expressed in neurogenic regions of the adult brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eYamagishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian netrin family proteins are involved in targeting of axons, neuronal migration, and angiogenesis and act as repulsive and attractive guidance molecules. Netrin-5 is a new member of the netrin family with homology to the C345C domain of netrin-1. Unlike other netrin proteins, murine netrin-5 consists of two EGF motifs of the laminin V domain (LE and the C345C domain, but lacks the N-terminal laminin VI domain and one of the three LE motifs. We generated a specific antibody against netrin-5 to investigate its expression pattern in the rodent adult brain. Strong netrin-5 expression was observed in the olfactory bulb, rostral migrate stream (RMS, the subventricular zone (SVZ, and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, where neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain. In the SVZ and RMS, netrin-5 expression was observed in Mash1-positive transit-amplifying cells and in Doublecortin (DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes. In the olfactory bulb, netrin-5 expression was maintained in neuroblasts, but its level was decreased in NeuN-positive mature neurons. In the hippocampal SGZ, netrin-5 was observed in Mash1-positive cells and in DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes, suggesting that netrin-5 expression occurs from type 2a to type 3 cells. These data suggest that netrin-5 is produced by both transit-amplifying cells and neuroblasts to control neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  18. Lsamp is implicated in the regulation of emotional and social behavior by use of alternative promoters in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Mari-Anne; Lilleväli, Kersti; Heinla, Indrek; Luuk, Hendrik; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kongi, Karina; Vanaveski, Taavi; Tekko, Triin; Innos, Jürgen; Vasar, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) is a neural cell adhesion molecule involved in neurite formation and outgrowth. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the distribution of alternatively transcribed Lsamp isoforms in the mouse brain and its implications on the regulation of behavior. Limbic system-associated membrane protein 1b transcript was visualized by using a mouse strain expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of Lsamp 1b promoter. The distribution of Lsamp 1a transcript and summarized expression of the Lsamp transcripts was investigated by non-radioactive in situ RNA hybridization analysis. Cross-validation was performed by using radioactive in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study correlations between the expression of Lsamp isoforms and behavioral parameters. The expression pattern of two promoters differs remarkably from the developmental initiation at embryonic day 12.5. Limbic system-associated membrane protein 1a promoter is active in "classic" limbic structures where the hippocampus and amygdaloid area display the highest expression. Promoter 1b is mostly active in the thalamic sensory nuclei and cortical sensory areas, but also in areas that regulate stress and arousal. Higher levels of Lsamp 1a transcript had significant correlations with all of the measures indicating higher trait anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test. Limbic system-associated membrane protein transcript levels in the hippocampus and ventral striatum correlated with behavioral parameters in the social interaction test. The data are in line with decreased anxiety and alterations in social behavior in Lsamp-deficient mice. We propose that Lsamp is involved in emotional and social operating systems by complex regulation of two alternative promoters.

  19. Water Quality and Quantity Implications of Biofuel Intercropping at a Regional Scale (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. F.; Schoenholtz, S. H.; Nettles, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of a strong national interest in greater energy independence and concern for the role of fossil fuels in global climate change, the importance of biofuels as an alternative renewable energy source has developed rapidly. The U.S. government has mandated production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, which compromises 15 % of U.S. liquid transportation fuels. Large-scale production of corn-based ethanol often requires irrigation and is associated with erosion, excess sediment export, and leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. Production of cellulosic biomass offers a promising alternative to corn-based systems. Although cultivation of switchgrass using standard agricultural practices is one option being considered for production of cellulosic biomass, intercropping cellulosic biofuel crops within managed forests could provide feedstock without primary land use change or the water quality impacts associated with annual crops. Catchlight Energy LLC is examining the feasibility and sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern US. While ongoing research is determining efficient operational techniques, information needed to evaluate the effects of these practices on water resources, such as field-scale evapotranspiration rates, nutrient cycling, and soil erosion rates are being examined in a large watershed study. Three sets of four to five sub-watersheds are fully instrumented and currently collecting calibration data, with forest-based biofuel treatments to be installed in 2011 and 2012. These watershed studies will give us detailed information to understand processes and guide management decisions. However, environmental implications of these systems need to be examined at a regional scale. We used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based hydrologic model, to examine various scenarios ranging from switchgrass intercropping a small percentage of managed pine forest land to conversion of

  20. Stratigraphic thermohistory and its implications for regional geoevolution in the Tarim Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen vitrinite reflectance profiles from the Tarim Basin,NW China,show that the vitrinite reflectance profiles of individual wells follow a faulted and dislocated dual-stage pattern in the eastern section of the Tazhong Uplift and in the Tabei Uplift.Vitrinite reflectance values in these profiles change sharply at the unconformity beneath the Lower Carboniferous Bachu or Upper Devonian Donghetang Formations,where the overlying Triassic to Carboniferous strata are still in a mature phase within the "liquid oil window".However,the underlying Lower Paleozoic reached the overmature phase beyond the "liquid oil window" towards the end of the Silurian,or in the Early Devonian at the latest.Whereas the vitrinite reflectance profiles are attributed to a continuous,single-stage pattern in the western section of the Tazhong Uplift,in which the Lower Paleozoic is also in an overmature phase,their overmaturity would have been achieved relatively late in geological time.The stratigraphic thermohistory has the following implications to regional geoevolution:(1) The overmature Lower Ordovician to Cambrian strata in the eastern section of the Tazhong Uplift and in the Tabei Uplift,as well as in the Manjiaer Depression,could not have acted as the source kitchen for normal oil(so-called black oil);(2) The dissimilarity in vitrinite reflectance profiles between the eastern and western sections of the Tazhong Uplift reveals Early Paleozoic paleotectonic features,i.e.,lower at the east and higher at the west,whereas recent tectonic features formed since the Late Paleozoic are in reverse,i.e.,higher in the east and lower at the west;(3) Reconstruction of the denuded thickness of sediments overlying the Lower Ordovician strata suggests reconsideration on the paleotectonic features in the Tarim Basin;(4) Based on the sustained duration of the "liquid oil window" for overmature source beds,it is predicted that the Suntuoguole Lower Uplift between the Awati and Manjiaer Depressions is a

  1. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver;

    2013-01-01

    EDC mixtures on gene expression in developing brain. Amix (8 anti-androgenic chemicals), Emix (4 estrogenic chemicals) and Tmix (Amix + Emix + paracetamol recently identified as anti-androgenic) were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestational day 7 until weaning, at doses corresponding...... of individual mRNAs demonstrated treatment- and sex-dependent differences between MPO and VMH. Effects were dose-dependent. Prominent are effects on the expression of genes involved in excitatory glutamatergic synapse formation and function. These data indicate that effects of complex EDC mixtures on developing...

  2. A comparative antibody analysis of Pannexin1 expression in four rat brain regions reveals varying subcellular localizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C Cone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide-field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on

  3. Geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf region and the implication for the archaeology of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Adrian G.; Goudie, Andrew S.

    2008-10-01

    During the Late Quaternary, the climate of Arabia has fluctuated between periods of higher rainfall and fluvial activity, dominated by the influence of the Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) and drier/arid conditions under the influence of the westerlies. This has left a rich legacy of landforms from which temporal and spatial patterns of environmental change are reconstructed. The coastal desert region of the southeastern Arabian Gulf has been a focal point for human settlement since ~ 8000 cal yr BP. The region is strategically located on an important trade route between two 'cradles of civilization', namely, Mesopotamia and the Indus. Changes in the evolution and modification of this landscape under varying climatic conditions have influenced humans living in and exploiting this landscape for food and water, raw materials and trade routes. In this study, geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations are integrated to provide a framework of environmental change for the Late Glacial and early-mid Holocene periods against which the archaeology of the area can be set. The Late Glacial and earliest Holocene was characterised by intense aridity and accumulation of mega linear dunes driven by the Shamal winds. In the Arabian Gulf region, this continued into the earliest part of the Holocene, whilst southern Arabia was under the influence of the IOM. The monsoon rains migrated into the Gulf region between 8500-6000 cal BP. During this time, semi-nomadic herders occupied this region and grazing their animals in a landscape covered with C3 savanna grassland. The Neolithic peoples also practised hunting and fishing and the collection of shellfish was an important activity. Pottery shows links with Mesopotamia at this time. From 6000 cal BP the IOM retreated south and rainfall was derived from winterly westerly sources. Under drier conditions a switch occurred to a sparser cover of C4 grasses. From 4500 cal BP the climate became much drier with the development of stronger

  4. Mechanism of noradrenaline-induced stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity in the rat brain: implications on REM sleep deprivation-induced increase in brain excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Sudhuman; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique phenomenon expressed in all higher forms of animals. Its quantity varies in different species and with ageing; it is also affected in several psycho-somatic disorders. Several lines of studies showed that after REM sleep loss, the levels of noradrenaline (NA) increase in the brain. The NA in the brain modulates neuronal Na-K ATPase activity, which helps maintaining the brain excitability status. The detailed mechanism of increase in NA level after REM sleep loss and the effect of NA on stimulation of Na-K ATPase in the neurons have been discussed. The findings have been reviewed and discussed with an aim to understand the role of REM sleep in maintaining brain excitability status.

  5. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sawiak

    Full Text Available Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala. Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Gambling for self, friends, and antagonists: differential contributions of affective and social brain regions on adolescent reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Peper, Jiska S; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-10-15

    Adolescence is a time of increasing emotional arousal, sensation-seeking and risk-taking, especially in the context of peers. Recent neuroscientific studies have pinpointed to the role of the ventral striatum as a brain region which is particularly sensitive to reward, and to 'social brain' regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the precuneus, and the temporal parietal junction, as being particularly responsive to social contexts. However, no study to date has examined adolescents' sensitivity to reward across different social contexts. In this study we examined 249 participants between the ages 8 and 25, on a monetary reward-processing task. Participants could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and a disliked peer. Winning for self resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in neural activation in the ventral striatum, whereas winning for a disliked peer resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in the mPFC. Our findings reveal that ventral striatum and mPFC hypersensitivity in adolescence is dependent on social context. Taken together, these results suggest that increased risk-taking and sensation seeking observed in adolescence might not be purely related to hyperactivity of the ventral striatum, but that these behaviors are probably strongly related to the social context in which they occur.

  8. Region-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain of mice following chronic nicotine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2015-07-23

    Nicotine addiction is considered to be the main preventable cause of death worldwide. While growing evidence indicates that the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin can modulate the addictive properties of several abused drugs, the regulation of the oxytocinergic system following nicotine administration has so far received little attention. Here, we examined the effects of long-term nicotine or saline administration on the central oxytocinergic system using [(125)I]OVTA autoradiographic binding in mouse brain. Male, 7-week old C57BL6J mice were treated with either nicotine (7.8 mg/kg daily; rate of 0.5 μl per hour) or saline for a period of 14-days via osmotic minipumps. Chronic nicotine administration induced a marked region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala, a brain region involved in stress and emotional regulation. These results provide direct evidence for nicotine-induced neuroadaptations in the oxytocinergic system, which may be involved in the modulation of nicotine-seeking as well as emotional consequence of chronic drug use. PMID:26037668

  9. Region-specific vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat brain after status epilepticus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Chen; Hu Guo; Guo Zheng; Zhong-Nan Shi

    2013-12-01

    We sought to clarify the involvement and the intra-cerebral distribution variability of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative molecule related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death signalling pathways, in neuronal death resulting from status epilepticus in rats. The expression patterns of CHOP and glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, a good marker of ER stress, were assessed by Western blotting, real-time PCR, Hoechst and immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum on a status epilepticus (SE) model. Double-fluorescent staining of CHOP and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method were performed to clarify the involvement of CHOP in cell death. SE resulted in a time-dependent increase in the expression of GRP78 and CHOP. The expression of GRP78 protein was increased at 3, 6 and 12 h after SE and no brain region variability was found. The expression of CHOP protein was also increased, reached its peak at 24 h and remained high at 48 h. CHOP protein expression, however, showed brain region variability with highest expression noted in the hippocampus followed by the striatum, and lowest in the cortex. The up-regulation of CHOP occurring at the transcriptional level was demonstrated by real-time PCR. Double fluorescence showed that CHOP expression strongly correlated with neurons undergoing apoptosis. The results indicated that SE compromises the function of the ER and that the hippocampus is more vulnerable than the cortex and the striatum.