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Sample records for brain perfusion abnormalities

  1. Brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

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    Piga, M.; Serra, A.; Loi, G.L.; Satta, L. [University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy); Deiana, L.; Liberto, M. Di; Mariotti, S. [University of Cagliari, Endocrinology - Department of Medical Sciences ' ' M. Aresu' ' , Cagliari (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    Brain perfusion abnormalities have recently been demonstrated by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in rare cases of severe Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) encephalopathy; moreover, some degree of subtle central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been hypothesised in HT, but no direct evidence has been provided so far. The aim of this study was to assess cortical brain perfusion in patients with euthyroid HT without any clinical evidence of CNS involvement by means of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Sixteen adult patients with HT entered this study following informed consent. The diagnosis was based on the coexistence of high titres of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies and diffuse hypoechogenicity of the thyroid on ultrasound in association with normal circulating thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations. Nine consecutive adult patients with non-toxic nodular goitre (NTNG) and ten healthy subjects matched for age and sex were included as control groups. All patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Image assessment was both qualitative and semiquantitative. Semiquantitative analysis was performed by generation of four regions of interest (ROI) for each cerebral hemisphere - frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital - and one for each cerebellar hemisphere in order to evaluate cortical perfusion asymmetry. The Asymmetry Index (AI) was calculated to provide a measurement of both magnitude and direction of perfusion asymmetry. As assessed by visual examination, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD cerebral distribution was irregular and patchy in HT patients, hypoperfusion being more frequently found in frontal lobes. AI revealed abnormalities in 12/16 HT patients, in three of the nine NTNG patients and in none of the normal controls. A significant difference in the mean AI was found between patients with HT and both patients with NTNG (p<0.003) and normal controls (p<0.001), when only frontal lobes were considered. These results show the high prevalence of brain perfusion

  2. Affective psychosis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and brain perfusion abnormalities: case report

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    Loviselli Andrea

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently become evident that circulating thyroid antibodies are found in excess among patients suffering from mood disorders. Moreover, a manic episode associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis has recently been reported as the first case of bipolar disorder due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy. We report a case in which Hashimoto's thyroiditis was suspected to be involved in the deteriorating course of mood disorder and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms linking thyroid autoimmunity with psychopathology. Case presentation A 43-year-old woman, with a history of recurrent depression since the age of 31, developed manic, psychotic, and soft neurological symptoms across the last three years in concomitance with her first diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patient underwent a thorough medical and neurological workup. Circulating thyroperoxidase antibodies were highly elevated but thyroid function was adequately maintained with L-thyroxine substitution. EEG was normal and no other signs of current CNS inflammation were evidenced. However, brain magnetic resonance imaging evidenced several non-active lesions in the white matter from both hemispheres, suggestive of a non-specific past vasculitis. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography showed cortical perfusion asymmetry particularly between frontal lobes. Conclusion We hypothesize that abnormalities in cortical perfusion might represent a pathogenic link between thyroid autoimmunity and mood disorders, and that the rare cases of severe Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with mood disorder might be only the tip of an iceberg.

  3. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

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    Ward, T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Fleming, J S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S M A [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Kemp, P M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  4. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

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    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  5. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism,64 adult male healthy Spragne-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups,the false operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group).After surgical operation,the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation,while the other group did not.Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h,8 h,24 h and 3 d after surgical operation,respectively.The rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus was also detected by the PerifluxPF model laser Doppler flowmetry,and the expressions of c-fos or c-jun or Bcl-2 and Bax were also measured by immune histochemistry S-P method accordingly.Results showed that the rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group (P < 0.05).The learning indexes,error number (EN),day of reach standard and total reaction time (TRT) in the operation group,were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).However,the initiative evasion rate in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group.The study also found that the rCBF was relatively more,the indexes (EN,the day of reach standard and TRT) relatively fewer,but the initiative evasion rate and the memory keeping rate were relatively more.The positive expression and the average absorbency of Fos and Jun in the operation group were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).Furthermore,Bax and Bcl-2 positive cells were all increased over time in the operation group,and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the operation group was significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P<0.01).In conclusion,rCBF decrease can impair the learning and memory function in rats,which may be related to

  6. Cerebral perfusion changes in traumatic diffuse brain injury. IMP SPECT studies

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    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide

    1997-05-01

    Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is characterized by axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which cause diffuse brain atrophy. We have investigated the time course of abnormalities in cerebral perfusion distribution in cases of DBI by using Iodine-123-IMP SPECT, and the relationship to the appearance of diffuse brain atrophy. SPECT scans were performed on eight patients with diffuse brain injury due to closed cranial trauma in acute and chronic stages. All patients showed abnormalities in cerebral perfusion with decreases in perfusion, even in non-depicted regions on MRI, and the affected areas varied throughout the period of observation. Diffuse brain atrophy appeared in all patients. In some patients, diffuse brain atrophy was observed at or just after the time when the maximum number of lesions on SPECT were seen. The abnormalities in cerebral perfusion in cases of DBI might therefore be related to axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which causes diffuse brain atrophy. (author)

  7. Pediatric hemiplegic migraine: susceptibility weighted and MR perfusion imaging abnormality

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    Altinok, Deniz; Agarwal, Ajay [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Ascadi, Gyula; Luat, Aimee; Tapos, Daniela [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Neurology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report on an 11-year-old girl suffering from a typical attack of hemiplegic migraine with characteristic abnormalities in perfusion MR and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings. The imaging abnormalities were resolved 48 h after the attack. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings correlated well with the MR perfusion, thus it can be used along with conventional MRI for evaluation of children with complex migraine attacks. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging might have a diagnostic role in assessing the vascular events in hemiplegic migraine. (orig.)

  8. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

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    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  9. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging evaluation in perfusion abnormalities of the cerebellum after supratentorial unilateral hyperacute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Liang; Yunjun Yang; Weijian Chen; Yuxia Duan; Hongqing Wang; Xiaotong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 10 patients with hyperacute cerebral infarction (≤ 6 hours) were retrospectively analyzed. Six patients exhibited perfusion defects on negative enhancement integral maps, four patients exhibited perfusion differences in pseudo-color on mean time to enhance maps, and three patients exhibited perfusion differences in pseudo-color on time to minimum maps. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion weighted imaging revealed a significant increase in region negative enhancement integral in the affected hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction. The results suggest that dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion weighted imaging can clearly detect perfusion abnormalities in the cerebellum after unilateral hyperacute cerebral infarction.

  10. Dynamic perfusion CT in brain tumors.

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    Yeung, Timothy Pok Chi; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Fainardi, Enrico; Macdonald, David; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) is an imaging technique for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of brain tumors by measuring blood flow, blood volume, and permeability-surface area product. These PCT parameters provide information complementary to histopathologic assessments and have been used for grading brain tumors, distinguishing high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, differentiating true progression from post-treatment effects, and predicting prognosis after treatments. In this review, the basic principles of PCT are described, and applications of PCT of brain tumors are discussed. The advantages and current challenges, along with possible solutions, of PCT are presented.

  11. Injury and repair in perinatal brain injury: Insights from non-invasive MR perfusion imaging.

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    Wintermark, Pia

    2015-03-01

    Injury to the developing brain remains an important complication in critically ill newborns, placing them at risk for future neurodevelopment impairments. Abnormal brain perfusion is often a key mechanism underlying neonatal brain injury. A better understanding of how alternations in brain perfusion can affect normal brain development will permit the development of therapeutic strategies that prevent and/or minimize brain injury and improve the neurodevelopmental outcome of these high-risk newborns. Recently, non-invasive MR perfusion imaging of the brain has been successfully applied to the neonatal brain, which is known to be smaller and have lower brain perfusion compared to older children and adults. This article will present an overview of the potential role of non-invasive perfusion imaging by MRI to study maturation, injury, and repair in perinatal brain injury and demonstrate why this perfusion sequence is an important addition to current neonatal imaging protocols, which already include different sequences to assess the anatomy and metabolism of the neonatal brain.

  12. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

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    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  13. Repair of abnormal perfusion foci in idiopathic epilepsy patients under long-term antiepileptic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Wang; Siyu Zhao; Yaqing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizure control and the disappearance of epileptiform discharge are not indicative of the absence of abnormal perfusion foci.Perfusion abnormalities are a major cause of epileptic discharge, and the existence of abnormal perfusion foci implies possible relapse.Very little is known about perfusion abnormality repair in epilepsy.The present study selected 43 cases of idiopathic epilepsy under antiepileptic drug control for an average of 24 months.Comparisons between interictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT)images and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) pre- and post-treatment showed that cases of normal SPECT increased by 48% (12/25) following treatment, with a total number of 15 reduced foci (36%, 15/41).Perfusion foci, i.e., region of interest, were altered following treatment.These changes included:normal to abnormal in 3 cases (7%, 3/43; 2 hyperperfusion and 1 hypoperfusion); abnormal to normal in 14 cases (32%, 14/43; 10 pre-treatment hypoperfusion and 4 hyperperfusion); abnormal to abnormal in 7 cases (16%, 7/43; hyperperfusion to hypoperfusion in 5 cases, hypoperfusion to hyperperfusion in 2 cases).Long-term EEG revealed in an increase in the number of normal cases by 20 (40%, 20/39), and there were 25 fewer cases with epileptiform discharges (66%, 25/38).These findings demonstrate that long-term control of anti-epileptic drugs partially repaired cerebral perfusion abnormalities and reduced epileptiform discharges in idiopathic epilepsy.

  14. Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner

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    Jai Jai Shiva Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography perfusion (CTP has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which whole brain CTP is especially useful.

  15. Brain/language relationships identified with diffusion and perfusion MRI: Clinical applications in neurology and neurosurgery.

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    Hillis, Argye E

    2005-12-01

    Diffusion and perfusion MRI have contributed to stroke management by identifying patients with tissue "at risk" for further damage in acute stroke. However, the potential usefulness of these imaging modalities, along with diffusion tensor imaging, can be expanded by using these imaging techniques with concurrent assessment of language and other cognitive skills to identify the specific cognitive deficits that are associated with diffusion and perfusion abnormalities in particular brain regions. This paper illustrates how this combined behavioral and imaging methodology can yield information that is useful for predicting specific positive effects of intervention to restore blood flow in hypoperfused regions of brain identified with perfusion MRI, and for predicting negative effects of resection of particular brain regions or fiber bundles. Such data allow decisions about neurological and neurosurgical interventions to be based on specific risks and benefits in terms of functional consequences.

  16. Normal language in abnormal brains.

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    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-02-27

    There is little doubt that, in the adult, specific brain lesions cause specific language deficits. Yet, brain localizations of linguistic functions are made problematic by several reported cases of normal language in spite of major brain anomalies, mostly, but not exclusively, occurring early in life. The signal cases are hydrocephaly, spina bifida and hemispherectomy. These cases are discussed and possible solutions are suggested: namely a vast redundancy of neurons and/or the role of microtubules as neuron-internal processors and key factors in signaling and guiding the growth and reconfiguration of the brain.

  17. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

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    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  18. Tall gastrodis tuber combined with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in focal epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Wang; Zhenyu Fan; Yongqin Zhang; Yuxia Yang; Yaqing Liu; Xiaoli Dang; Wenjun Song; Yinping Wu; Jiang Ye

    2013-01-01

    One hundred patients with focal epilepsy were recruited for the present study and their seizures controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The patients then orally received a capsule of tall gastrodis tuber powder, a traditional Chinese drug, and underwent single photon emission computed tomography, long-term electroencephalogram, and CT/MRI. Blood drug levels were monitored throughout the study. Before treatment with tall gastrodis tuber, 35 of the 100 cases had abnormal CT/MRI scans; 79 cases had abnormal single photon emission computed tomography images; 86 cases had abnormal electroencephalogram; and a total of 146 abnormal perfusion foci were observed across the 100 subjects. After treatment, the number of patients with normal single photon emission computed tomography images increased by 12; normal electroencephalogram was observed in an additional 27 cases and the number of patients with epileptiform discharge decreased by 29 (34% of 86); the total number of abnormal perfusion foci decreased by 52 (36%) and changes in abnormal foci were visible in 65 patients. These changes indicate that the administration of tall gastrodis tuber in combination with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in patients with focal epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that traditional Chinese drugs can repair abnormal perfusion foci and, as such, are a promising new pathway in the treatment of focal epilepsy.

  19. Mean transit time image - a new method of analyzing brain perfusion studies

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    Szabo, Z.; Ritzl, F.

    1983-05-01

    Point-by-point calculation of the mean transit time based on gamma fit was used to analyze brain perfusion studies in a vertex view. The algorithm and preliminary results in normal brain and in different stages of cerebral perfusion abnormality (ischemia, stroke, migraine, tumor, abscess) are demonstrated. In contrast to the traditional methods using fixed, a priori defined regions of interest this type of mapping of the relative regions cerebral perfusion shows more clearly the irregular outlines of the disturbance. Right to left activity ratios in the arterial part of the time-activity curves showed significant correlation with the mean transit time ratios (Q/sub 1/=1.185-0.192 Qsub(a), n=38, r=0.716, P<0.001).

  20. Brain perfusion asymmetry in patients with oral somatic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Katagiri, Ayano; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Sakuma, Tomomi; Sako, Emi; Sato, Yusuke; Toriihara, Akira; Uezato, Akihito; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishikawa, Toru; Motomura, Haruhiko; Toyofuku, Akira

    2013-06-01

    Oral cenesthopathy is a somatic delusion or hallucination involving the oral area and is categorized as a delusional disorder, somatic type. The pathophysiology of this intractable condition remains obscure. In this study, we clarified the pathophysiology of oral cenesthopathy by evaluating regional brain perfusion. We performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer in 16 subjects (cenesthopathy:control = 8:8). The SPECT images were visually assessed qualitatively, and quantitative analyses were also performed using a three-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template. The visual assessment revealed a right > left perfusion asymmetry in broad areas of the brain among the patients. The quantitative analysis confirmed that the regional cerebral blood flow values on the right side were significantly larger than those on the left side for most areas of the brain in the patients. A comparison of the R/(R + L) ratios in both groups confirmed the significant brain perfusion asymmetry between the two sides in the callosomarginal, precentral, and temporal regions in the patients. Qualitative evaluation of the SPECT images revealed right > left brain perfusion asymmetry in broad regions of the brain. Moreover, the quantitative analyses confirmed the perfusion asymmetry between the two sides in the frontal and temporal areas. Those may provide the key for elucidation of the pathophysiology of oral cenesthopathy.

  1. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribolsi, Michele; Zafiris J Daskalakis; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imagin...

  2. Basal hyperaemia is the primary abnormality of perfusion in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Bang, Lia Evi;

    2015-01-01

    hyperperfusion. Our aim was to examine abnormalities of perfusion in TTC, and we hypothesized that basal hyperperfusion is the primary perfusion abnormality in the acute state. METHOD AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with TTC due to (i) acute onset of symptoms, (ii) typical apical ballooning......, (iii) absence of significant coronary disease, and (iv) complete remission on 4-month follow-up. The patients underwent coronary angiography (CAG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and (13)NH3/(82)Rb positron emission tomography (PET) in the acute state and-except CAG......-on follow-up. Patients initially had severe heart failure, mid/apical oedema but no infarction, and a rise in cardiac biomarkers. On initial perfusion PET imaging, eight patients appeared to have normal, whereas 17 patients had impaired LV perfusion. In the latter, flow in the basal region was increased...

  3. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress {sup 99m}Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest {sup 123}I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and {sup 123}I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in {sup 123}I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by {sup 123}I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  4. Tissue-specific sparse deconvolution for brain CT perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruogu; Jiang, Haodi; Huang, Junzhou

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing perfusion maps in low-dose computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for cerebrovascular disease diagnosis is a challenging task, especially for low-contrast tissue categories where infarct core and ischemic penumbra usually occur. Sparse perfusion deconvolution has been recently proposed to effectively improve the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of low-dose perfusion CT by extracting the complementary information from the high-dose perfusion maps to restore the low-dose using a joint spatio-temporal model. However the low-contrast tissue classes where infarct core and ischemic penumbra are likely to occur in cerebral perfusion CT tend to be over-smoothed, leading to loss of essential biomarkers. In this paper, we propose a tissue-specific sparse deconvolution approach to preserve the subtle perfusion information in the low-contrast tissue classes. We first build tissue-specific dictionaries from segmentations of high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning, and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation for block-wise tissue segments on the low-dose CTP data. Extensive validation on clinical datasets of patients with cerebrovascular disease demonstrates the superior performance of our proposed method compared to state-of-art, and potentially improve diagnostic accuracy by increasing the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissues in the brain.

  5. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: eric.guedj@ap-hm.fr; Taieb, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Cammilleri, Serge [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Lussato, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Niboyet, Jean [Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Clinique La Phoceanne, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). All brain SPECT were performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic

  6. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  7. Comparison of heterogeneity quantification algorithms for brain SPECT perfusion images

    OpenAIRE

    Modzelewski, Romain; Janvresse, Elise; De La Rue, Thierry; Vera, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Several algorithms from the literature were compared with the original random walk (RW) algorithm for brain perfusion heterogeneity quantification purposes. Algorithms are compared on a set of 210 brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simulations and 40 patient exams. Methods Five algorithms were tested on numerical phantoms. The numerical anthropomorphic Zubal head phantom was used to generate 42 (6 × 7) different brain SPECT simulations. Seven diffuse cortical ...

  8. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  9. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...... is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack...

  10. Demonstration of cerebral perfusion abnormalities in moyamoya disease using susceptibility perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.M.; Laitt, R.D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Li, K.L.; Jackson, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Sherrington, C.R.; Talbot, P. [Department of Neurology, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    We describe the use of diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion MRI using a contrast-medium bolus in the preoperative investigation for young man presenting with a cerebral ischaemic episode as a manifestation of moyamoya disease. (orig.) With 6 figs., 21 refs.

  11. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Eric; Taïeb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; de Laforte, Catherine; Niboyet, Jean; Mundler, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 ( ppain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain-processing recovery under treatment.

  12. Multislice CT brain image registration for perfusion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhong Min; Pohlman, Scott; Chandra, Shalabh

    2002-04-01

    During the last several years perfusion CT techniques have been developed as an effective technique for clinically evaluating cerebral hemodynamics. Perfusion CT techniques are capable of measurings functional parameters such as tissue perfusion, blood flow, blood volume, and mean transit time and are commonly used to evaluate stroke patients. However, the quality of functional images of the brain frequently suffers from patient head motion. Because the time window for an effective treatment of stroke patient is narrow, a fast motion correction is required. The purpose of the paper is to present a fast and accurate registration technique for motion correction of multi-slice CT and to demonstrate the effects of the registration on perfusion calculation.

  13. Modelling Brain Temperature and Perfusion for Cerebral Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Stephen; Valluri, Prashant; Marshall, Ian; Andrews, Peter; Harris, Bridget; Thrippleton, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Brain temperature relies heavily on two aspects: i) blood perfusion and porous heat transport through tissue and ii) blood flow and heat transfer through embedded arterial and venous vasculature. Moreover brain temperature cannot be measured directly unless highly invasive surgical procedures are used. A 3D two-phase fluid-porous model for mapping flow and temperature in brain is presented with arterial and venous vessels extracted from MRI scans. Heat generation through metabolism is also included. The model is robust and reveals flow and temperature maps in unprecedented 3D detail. However, the Karmen-Kozeny parameters of the porous (tissue) phase need to be optimised for expected perfusion profiles. In order to optimise the K-K parameters a reduced order two-phase model is developed where 1D vessels are created with a tree generation algorithm embedded inside a 3D porous domain. Results reveal that blood perfusion is a strong function of the porosity distribution in the tissue. We present a qualitative comparison between the simulated perfusion maps and those obtained clinically. We also present results studying the effect of scalp cooling on core brain temperature and preliminary results agree with those observed clinically.

  14. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  15. Abnormal asymmetry of brain connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia.

  16. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a drastic improvement in brain perfusion by antiplatelet therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Dept. of Radiology, Saga Medical School (Japan); Matsui, Makoto; Kuroda, Yasuo [Dept. of Neurology, Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) with repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral infarcts and ischemic changes in the cerebral white matter. Cerebral angiographies showed no abnormalities. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) brain SPECT showed multiple decreased perfusion areas, which were more extensive than the lesions demonstrated on MRI. After treatment with an antiplatelet agent, the patient subsequently recovered from the TIAs. Although no interval changes were observed by MRI after therapy, follow-up Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a marked improvement in brain perfusion. This is the first imaging report of remarkable post-therapy improvement in brain perfusion in APS cases. (orig.)

  17. Perfusion imaging with computed tomography: brain and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K.A. [Div. of Clinical and Lab. Investigation, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-10

    The availability of rapid imaging with multidetector CT systems and commercial analysis software has made perfusion imaging with CT an everyday technique, not only for the brain but also for other body organs. Perfusion imaging is usually performed as an adjunct to a conventional CT examination and is therefore particularly appropriate when a conventional CT is part of routine clinical protocols. The derived values are reproducible and have been validated against a range of reference techniques. Within neuroradiology, perfusion CT has attracted interest in the assessment of acute stroke but can also be used to assess secondary injury in head trauma and as an adjunct to CT angiography to evaluate cerebral spasm in subarachnoid haemorrhage. Within oncology, perfusion CT provides an imaging correlate for tumour vascularity that can be used to discriminate benign and malignant lesions, as an indicator of tumour aggressiveness, to reveal occult tumour and improve the delineation of tumours during radiotherapy planning, and as a functional assessment of tumour response to therapy. By exploiting the ability of CT systems to quantify contrast enhancement. CT perfusion imaging uses contrast media to assess vascular physiology and so improve diagnosis, prognosis, treatment selection and therapy monitoring. (orig.)

  18. A 4D CT digital phantom of an individual human brain for perfusion analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniesing, R.; Brune, C.; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Brain perfusion is of key importance to assess brain function. Modern CT scanners can acquire perfusion maps of the cerebral parenchyma in vivo at submillimeter resolution. These perfusion maps give insights into the hemodynamics of the cerebral parenchyma and are critical for example for treatment

  19. Research on Perfusion CT in Rabbit Brain Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Bon Chul; Kwak, Byung Kook; Jung, Ji Sung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the vascular characteristics of tumors and normal tissue using perfusion CT in the rabbit brain tumor model. The VX2 carcinoma concentration of 1 x 10{sup 7} cells/ml(0.1 ml) was implanted in the brain of nine New Zealand white rabbits (weight: 2.4 kg-3.0 kg, mean: 2.6 kg). The perfusion CT was scanned when the tumors were grown up to 5 mm. The tumor volume and perfusion value were quantitatively analyzed by using commercial workstation (advantage windows workstation, AW, version 4.2, GE, USA). The mean volume of implanted tumors was 316{+-}181 mm{sup 3}, and the biggest and smallest volumes of tumor were 497 mm{sup 3} and 195 mm{sup 3}, respectively. All the implanted tumors in rabbits are single-nodular tumors, and intracranial metastasis was not observed. In the perfusion CT, cerebral blood volume (CBV) were 74.40{+-}9.63, 16.8{+-}0.64, 15.24{+-}3.23 ml/100g in the tumor core, ipsilateral normal brain, and contralateral normal brain, respectively (p{<=}0.05). In the cerebral blood flow (CBF), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p{<=}0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (962.91{+-}75.96 vs. 357.82{+-}12.82 vs. 323.19{+-}83.24 ml/100g/min). In the mean transit time (MTT), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p{<=}0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (4.37{+-}0.19 vs. 3.02{+-}0.41 vs. 2.86{+-}0.22 sec). In the permeability surface (PS), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (47.23{+-}25.44 vs. 14.54{+-}1.60 vs. 6.81{+-}4.20 ml/100g/min)(p{<=}0.05). In the time to peak (TTP) were no significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains. In the positive enhancement integral (PEI), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and

  20. Resting brain perfusion and selected vascular risk factors in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both cerebral hypoperfusion and vascular risk factors have been implicated in early aging of the brain and the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the current knowledge of the importance of cardiovascular health on resting brain perfusion is limited. The aim...... of the present study was to elucidate the relation between brain perfusion variability and risk factors of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in healthy aged subjects. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects aged 50-75 years old were included. Mean global brain perfusion was measured using magnetic...... resonance phase contrast mapping and regional brain perfusion by use of arterial spin labeling. RESULTS: Mean global brain perfusion was inversely correlated with caffeine and hematocrit, and positively with end-tidal PCO2. Furthermore, the mean global brain perfusion was inversely correlated...

  1. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  2. Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kang, Young Kang [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: 62.9{+-}6.9 y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M: 15, F: 40, mean age: 61.4{+-}9.2 y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal

  3. Prevalence and predictors of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagjitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in a cohort of truly asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using myocardial perfusion imaging by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Secondly, we determined which clinical characteristics may predict an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study in this population. A total of 120 asymptomatic patients (mean age 53{+-}10 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and one or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging by means of adenosine {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi SPECT. Images were evaluated for the presence of perfusion abnormalities as well as other nonperfusion abnormalities that may indicate extensive ischaemia, including left ventricular dysfunction (defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%), transient ischaemic dilatation and adenosine-induced ST segment depression. Multivariable analysis was performed using a backward selection strategy to identify potential predictors for an abnormal stress myocardial perfusion study. Finally, all patients were followed up for 12 months to determine the occurrence of cardiovascular events: (1) cardiac death, (2) nonfatal myocardial infarction, (3) unstable angina requiring hospitalization, (4) revascularization, or (5) stroke. Of the 120 patients, 40 (33%) had an abnormal stress study, including myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 30 patients (25%). In 10 patients (8%), indicators of extensive (possibly balanced ischaemia) were observed in the absence of abnormal perfusion. The multivariable analysis identified current smoking, duration of diabetes and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio as independent predictors of an abnormal stress study. During a follow-up period of 12 months six patients (5%) had a cardiovascular event. The current study

  4. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV and grey matter volumes (GMV and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  5. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Cabrera-Gomez, José; Almaguer Melián, William; Giroud Benítez, José Luis; Rodríguez Rojas, Rafael; Bayard, Jorge Bosch; Galán, Lídice; Sánchez, Reinaldo Galvizu; Fuentes, Nancy Pavón; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO) is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV) and grey matter volumes (GMV) and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON) attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  6. Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Study in the Patients with Subacute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ming Lin

    Full Text Available This study uses a MRI technique, three-dimension pulse continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-PCASL, to measure the patient's cerebral blood flow (CBF at the subacute stage of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI in order to analyze the relationship between cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive deficits.To provide the relationship between cortical CBF and neuropsychological dysfunction for the subacute MTBI patients.After MTBI, perfusion MR imaging technique (3D-PCASL measures the CBF of MTBI patients (n = 23 within 1 month and that of normal controls (n = 22 to determine the quantity and location of perfusion defect. The correlation between CBF abnormalities and cognitive deficits was elucidated by combining the results of the neuropsychological tests of the patients.We observed a substantial reduction in CBF in the bilateral frontal and left occipital cortex as compared with the normal persons. In addition, there were correlation between post concussive symptoms (including dizziness and simulator sickness and CBF in the hypoperfused areas. The more severe symptom was correlated with higher CBF in bilateral frontal and left occipital lobes.First, this study determined that despite no significant abnormality detected on conventional CT and MRI studies, hypoperfusion was observed in MTBI group using 3D-PCASL technique in subacute stage, which suggested that this approach may increase sensitivity to MTBI. Second, the correlation between CBF and the severity of post concussive symptoms suggested that changes in cerebral hemodynamics may play a role in pathophysiology underlies the symptoms.

  7. Affective psychosis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and brain perfusion abnormalities: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Loviselli Andrea; Serra Alessandra; Cavolina Pina; Tamburini Giorgio; Bocchetta Alberto; Piga Mario

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It has recently become evident that circulating thyroid antibodies are found in excess among patients suffering from mood disorders. Moreover, a manic episode associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis has recently been reported as the first case of bipolar disorder due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy. We report a case in which Hashimoto's thyroiditis was suspected to be involved in the deteriorating course of mood disorder and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms linking th...

  8. Perfusion impairments in children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Sin, E. J.; Cheon, K. A.; Yoon, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, T. J. [Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed to reveal that severe disturbance of attachment relationship with primary care-giver can affect functional and anatomical brain development by measuring cerebral perfusion on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT and correlative MRI. We included 18 children aged 31 to 76 months who met the diagnostic criteria of RAD as defined in DSM-IV and ICD-10 and SSP and CARS. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT was performed using CERASPECT. MRI was performed in all patients. SPECT data were visually assessed. 15 of 18 children had abnormal perfusion on SPECT, revealing decreased perfusion of Lt.thalamus (7/15) and Rt.thalamus (3/15), and bilateral thalami (5/15). Perfusion of basal ganglia was decreased in 8 children. Decreased perfusion of Lt. parietal area was seen in 2. Whereas, all patients had normal MR findings. Perfusion abnormalities involving thalamus, BG in most children with RAD were found in this study. These results suggest that brain development of infant could be impeded by severe pathologic care and early nurturing environment would be important for normal development.

  9. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummelman, Pauline [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Sattler, Margriet G.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Elderson, Martin F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Dullaart, Robin P.F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Koerts, Janneke [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Werumeus Buning, Jorien, E-mail: j.werumeus.buning@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Tucha, Oliver [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van, E-mail: a.p.van.beek@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  10. Effects of diltiazem on myocardial perfusion abnormalities during exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Taniguchi, Yoko; Ito, Kazuki [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    The effect of diltiazem on myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was evaluated by exercise myocardial {sup 201}Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Exercise myocardial SPECT was performed before and 8 weeks after oral administration of diltiazem (180 mg/day) in 20 patients with HCM who showed transient perfusion defects on exercise myocardial {sup 201}Tl SPECT under control conditions. SPECT images were divided into 17 segments. The {sup 201}Tl perfusion defects were visually scored and evaluated as the defect score. The transient dilation index was calculated as an index of subendocardial ischemia. Improvement of the defect score was demonstrated in 15 patients after the administration of diltiazem. The mean defect score decreased significantly from 9.90{+-}5.17 to 5.50{+-}4.89 (p<0.0001). Although 16 of 20 patients showed an abnormal transient dilation index before diltiazem treatment, 16 showed improvement and 13 of these normalized after diltiazem therapy. The mean transient dilation index decreased from 1.16{+-}0.10 to 1.02{+-}0.09 (p<0.0001). In conclusion, diltiazem prevents or diminishes myocardial ischemia in patients with HCM. (author)

  11. Differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET perfusion imaging between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Lee, B.-F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chang, Y.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Kang Children' s Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Huang, C.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan); Wang, S.-T. [Dept. of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-02-01

    Early differential diagnosis between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder is difficult but important because both the outcome and the treatment of these two childhood-onset diseases are distinct. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion imaging in distinguishing the two diseases, and characterized their different cerebral perfusion patterns. Twenty-seven children with Tourette's syndrome and 11 with chronic tic disorder (mean age 9.5 and 8.6 years, respectively) underwent brain SPET with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Visual interpretation and semi-quantitative analysis of SPET images were performed. On visual interpretation, 22 of 27 (82%) of the Tourette's syndrome group had lesions characterized by decreased perfusion. The left hemisphere was more frequently involved. None of the children with chronic tic disorder had a visible abnormality. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that, compared with children with chronic tic disorder, children with Tourette's syndrome had significantly lower perfusion in the left lateral temporal area and asymmetric perfusion in the dorsolateral frontal, lateral and medial temporal areas. In conclusion, using the visual approach, brain SPET perfusion imaging is sensitive and specific in differentiating Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder. The perfusion difference between the two groups, demonstrated by semi-quantitative analysis, may be related more to the co-morbidity in Tourette's syndrome than to tics per se. (orig.)

  12. Improvement of Brain Reward Abnormalities by Antipsychotic Monotherapy in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne;

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Schizophrenic symptoms are linked to a dysfunction of dopamine neurotransmission and the brain reward system. However, it remains unclear whether antipsychotic treatment, which blocks dopamine transmission, improves, alters, or even worsens the reward-related abnormalities. OBJECTIVE To i...

  13. Hepatic abnormal perfusion visible by magnetic resonance imaging in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; tang; Xiao-Ming; Zhang; Zhao-Hua; Zhai; Nan-Lin; Zeng

    2013-01-01

    AIM:to study the prevalence and patterns of hepatic abnormal perfusion(HAP)visible by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)in acute pancreatitis(AP).METHODS:Enhanced abdominal MRI was performed on 51 patients with AP.these patients were divided into two groups according to the MRI results:those with signs of gallstones,cholecystitis,common bile duct(CBD)stones or dilatation of the CBD on MRI and those without.the prevalence,shape and distribution of HAP in the two groups were analyzed and compared.the severity of AP was graded using the MR severity index(MRSI).the correlation between the MRSI and HAP was then analyzed.RESULTS:Of the 51 patients with AP,32(63%)showed at least one sign of gallbladder and CBD abnormalities on the MR images,while 19(37%)showed no sign of gallbladder or CBD abnormalities.Nineteen patients(37%)had HAP visible in the enhanced images,including strip-,wedge-or patch-shaped HAP distributed in the hepatic tissue adjacent to the gallbladder and left and right liver lobes.there were no significant differences in the prevalence of HAP(χ2=0.305,P=0.581>0.05)or HAP distribution in the liver(χ2=2.181,P=0.536>0.05)between patients with and without gallbladder and CBD abnormalities.there were no significant differences in the MRSI score between patients with and without HAP(t=0.559,P=0.552>0.05).HAP was not correlated with the MRSI score.CONCLUSION:HAP is common in patients with AP and appears strip-,patch-or wedge-shaped on MRI.HAP on MRI cannot be used to indicate the severity of AP.

  14. NeuroGam Software Analysis in Epilepsy Diagnosis Using 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Gao, Jianqing; Jing, Jianmin; Pan, Liping; Li, Dongxue; Wei, Lingge

    2015-09-20

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the value of NeuroGam software in diagnosis of epilepsy by 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS NeuroGam was used to analyze 52 cases of clinically proven epilepsy by 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging. The results were compared with EEG and MRI, and the positive rates and localization to epileptic foci were analyzed. RESULTS NeuroGam analysis showed that 42 of 52 epilepsy cases were abnormal. 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging revealed a positive rate of 80.8% (42/52), with 36 out of 42 patients (85.7%) clearly showing an abnormal area. Both were higher than that of brain perfusion SPECT, with a consistency of 64.5% (34/52) using these 2 methods. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was observed in frontal (18), temporal (20), and parietal lobes (2). Decreased rCBF was seen in frontal and temporal lobes in 4 out of 36 patients, and in temporal and parietal lobes of 2 out of 36 patients. NeuroGam further showed that the abnormal area was located in a different functional area of the brain. EEG abnormalities were detected in 29 out of 52 patients (55.8%) with 16 cases (55.2%) clearly showing an abnormal area. MRI abnormalities were detected in 17 out of 43 cases (39.5%), including 9 cases (52.9%) clearly showing an abnormal area. The consistency of NeuroGam software analysis, and EEG and MRI were 48.1% (25/52) and 34.9% (15/43), respectively. CONCLUSIONS NeuroGam software analysis offers a higher sensitivity in detecting epilepsy than EEG or MRI. It is a powerful tool in 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging.

  15. An observer study methodology for evaluating detection of motion abnormalities in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalush, David S; Jatko, Megan K; Segars, W Paul

    2005-03-01

    To address the task of detecting nonischemic motion abnormalities from animated displays of gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography data, we performed an observer study to evaluate the difference in detection performance between gating to 8 and 16 frames. Images were created from the NCAT mathematical phantom with a realistic heart simulating hypokinetic motion in the left lateral wall. Realistic noise-free projection data were simulated for both normal and defective hearts to obtain 16 frames for the cardiac cycle. Poisson noise was then simulated for each frame to create 50 realizations of each heart, All datasets were processed in two ways: reconstructed as a 16-frame set, and collapsed to 8 frames and reconstructed. Ten observers viewed the cardiac images animated with a realistic real-time frame rate. Observers trained on 100 images and tested on 100 images, rating their confidence on the presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. None of the observers showed a significant difference in performance between the two gating methods. The 95% confidence interval on the difference in areas under the ROC curve (Az8 - Az16) was -0.029-0.085. Our test did not find a significant difference in detection performance between 8-frame gating and 16-frame gating. We conclude that, for the task of detecting abnormal motion, increasing the number of gated frames from 8 to 16 offers no apparent advantage.

  16. Brain Perfusion in Corticobasal Syndrome with Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Abe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain perfusion may differ between patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS with and without aphasia. Methods: Twenty-six (9 males and 17 females; mean age 76 ± 5.3 years patients with CBS were enrolled in the study. Brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed in all subjects. Language was evaluated using the Standard Language Test of Aphasia. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of progressive aphasia. Differences in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF between the two groups were detected based on voxel-by-voxel group analysis using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. Results: All patients exhibited asymmetric motor symptoms and signs, including limb apraxia, bradykinesia, and akinetic rigidity. Of 26 patients, 9 had a clinically obvious language disturbance, characterized as nonfluent aphasia. Almost all CBS patients with aphasia exhibited cortical atrophy predominantly in the left frontal and temporal lobes with widening of the Sylvian fissure on MRI. The rCBF in the left middle frontal gyrus differed significantly between CBS patients with and without aphasia. Conclusion: CBS patients with aphasia exhibit motor symptoms predominantly on the right side and cortical atrophy mainly in the left perisylvian cortices. In particular, left frontal dysfunction might be related to nonfluent aphasia in CBS.

  17. Image analysis of intracranial high perfusion lesion by whole brain one-stop imaging technique with 320 detector rows CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-zhou DU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  The perfusion and vascular architecture features were investigated and evaluated by use of one-stop imaging technique with 320 rows CT for exploring the clinical value of one-stop imaging technique in the diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Methods  The perfusion parameters and vascular architecture of intracranial high perfusion lesions of 52 patients were collected in General Hospital of Chengdu Command from Oct. 2010 to Apr. 2013, who were examined by one-stop imaging technique with 320 rows CT, were retrospectively analyzed. The perfusion values of normal contralateral cerebral tissue were used as control to analyze the perfusion and vascular architecture features of injured parts. Results  Of the 52 patients, there were 16 cases of subacute cerebral infarction, 9 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 7 cases of hemangioma, 12 cases of meningioma, and 8 cases of glioma. All the patients showed elevated CBV and/or CBF and different changes in mean transit time (MTT, time to peak (TTP and delay time (Delay. In the cases of subacute cerebral infarction, the parameters of MTT, TTP and Delay increased. In the cases of arteriovenous malformation, all the parameters decreased. In the cases of hemangioma, the MTT decreased, while TTP and Delay increased. In the cases of glioma, the TTP and Delay increased, while the change of MTT varied. Meanwhile, abnormality of vascular structures was found in all the cases by CT angiography. Conclusion  With whole brain perfusion and one-stop vascular imaging with 320 rows CT, the perfusion characteristics of intracranial lesions can be revealed completely, including blood supply and microcirculation changes in the lesions, and it may be of benefit in guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.10

  18. Brain FDG-PET Scan and Brain Perfusion SPECT in the Diagnosis of Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Değirmenci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NA include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. Fluor 18 -2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET positron emission tomography (PET and technetium 99m -d, l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT have been increasingly used for the detection of neurologic disorders, such as dementia, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In this case report, we report two patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes with the imaging features of brain metabolism by PET and brain perfusion by SPECT. Brain PET and brain SPECT findings of patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes were also reviewed.

  19. Neuropsychological Correlates of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients with Macrophagic Myofasciitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Van Der Gucht

    Full Text Available Patients with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue and cognitive deficits. This study aimed to characterize brain perfusion in these patients.Brain perfusion SPECT was performed in 76 consecutive patients (aged 49±10 y followed in the Garches-Necker-Mondor-Hendaye reference center for rare neuromuscular diseases. Images were acquired 30 min after intravenous injection of 925 MBq 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD at rest. All patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, within 1.3±5.5 mo from SPECT. Statistical parametric maps (SPM12 were obtained for each test using linear regressions between each performance score and brain perfusion, with adjustment for age, sex, socio-cultural level and time delay between brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing.SPM analysis revealed positive correlation between neuropsychological scores (mostly exploring executive functions and brain perfusion in the posterior associative cortex, including cuneus/precuneus/occipital lingual areas, the periventricular white matter/corpus callosum, and the cerebellum, while negative correlation was found with amygdalo-hippocampal/entorhinal complexes. A positive correlation was also observed between brain perfusion and the posterior associative cortex when the time elapsed since last vaccine injection was investigated.Brain perfusion SPECT showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical changes in accordance with the MMF-associated cognitive disorder previously described. These results provide a neurobiological substrate for brain dysfunction in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced MMF patients.

  20. Stroke prognosis by applying double thresholds on CT-perfusion-brain images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokchaitam, Somchart; Santipromwong, Nittaya; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat

    2013-03-01

    The CT-perfusion image shows information of brain abnormalities such as its size and location. Generally, neurologist diagnoses stroke disease using CT-perfusion images such as Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV). In our previous report, we applied threshold technique to divide amount of CBV and CBF into low and high level. Then, their levels are applied to identify normal tissue areas, dead tissue areas (infract core) and blood-cot tissue areas (infract penumbra). However, it's not totally correct, if the same threshold is applied to the whole area (it must depend on size of blood vessel in that area. In this report, we propose double thresholds to divided CBV and CBF into 3 levels: very low, medium and very high levels. Very low and very high levels are definitely implied to bad areas and good areas, respectively. The proposed double thresholds makes stroke prognosis more accurate. The simulation results confirm that our proposed results closed to results defined from neurologist comparing to the conventional results.

  1. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Eric H. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Amigenics, Inc, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Roach, Cayce J. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Life Sciences, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, Erik N. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Psychology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wynn, Brad L. [Family Medicine Spokane, Spokane, WA (United States); DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); Diamond, Alan S. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Orrison, William W. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Reno, NV (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  2. Genes and brain malformations associated with abnormal neuron positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Jeffrey J; Ka, Minhan; Jung, Eui-Man; Kim, Woo-Yang

    2015-11-05

    Neuronal positioning is a fundamental process during brain development. Abnormalities in this process cause several types of brain malformations and are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Little is known about the pathogenesis of developmental brain malformations associated with abnormal neuron positioning, which has hindered research into potential treatments. However, recent advances in neurogenetics provide clues to the pathogenesis of aberrant neuronal positioning by identifying causative genes. This may help us form a foundation upon which therapeutic tools can be developed. In this review, we first provide a brief overview of neural development and migration, as they relate to defects in neuronal positioning. We then discuss recent progress in identifying genes and brain malformations associated with aberrant neuronal positioning during human brain development.

  3. Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jun; Chen, Wei-jian; Wang, Mei-hao; Li, Jian-ce; Zhang, Qian; Xia, Neng-zhi; Yang, Yun-jun [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou (China); Wu, Gui-yun [Cleveland Clinics Foundation, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cheng, Jing-liang; Zhang, Yong [Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhuge, Qichuan [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou (China)

    2014-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). We investigated 62 of 156 patients with unilateral supratentorial SICH using 320-detector row CT scanning. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time to peak (rTTP) levels were measured in different regions of interest (ROIs) that were manually outlined on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) for the cerebrum, including normal-appearing brain tissue that surrounded the perilesional low-density area (NA) and the perihematomal low-density area (PA) in all patients and the cerebellum (ipsilateral and contralateral) in CCD-positive patients. Of 62 cases, a total of 14 met the criteria for CCD due to cerebellar perfusion asymmetry on CTP maps. In the quantitative analysis, significant differences were found in the perfusion parameters between the contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum in CCD-positive cases. No significant differences were found between the CCD-positive group and the CCD-negative group according to the hematoma volume, NIHSS scores, and cerebral perfusion abnormality (each P > 0.05). The correlation analysis of the degree of NA, PA perfusion abnormality, and the degree of CCD severity showed negative and significant linear correlations (R, -0.66∝-0.56; P < 0.05). 320-detector row CT is a robust and practicable method for the comprehensive primary imaging work-up of CCD in unilateral supratentorial SICH patients. (orig.)

  4. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu

    Full Text Available Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD, during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation.Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers.During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls.Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  5. Technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography detects subclinical myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, O. [Nuclear Medicine, University of l`Aquila (Italy); Lagana, B.; Gentile, R.; Tubani, L.; Baratta, L. [Department of Clinical Medicine, University ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy); Danieli, R.; Scopinaro, F. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, involvement of the cardiovascular system is the third leading cause of death. However, although autopsy studies have demonstrated a high incidence of abnormalities in both the myocardium and coronary vessels, clinical manifestations have been reported in only a small percentage of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic lupus patients using technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Twenty-eight patients without overt cardiac involvement and risk factors were studied with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET at rest and after dipyridamole infusion. Perfusion abnormalities were detected in 18 cases: six had persistent defects, three had reversible defects, seven had both persistent and reversible defects, and two showed rest defects which normalized on dipyridamole images (``reverse redistribution pattern``). Coronary angiography was performed in eight patients with positive {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET, and showed normal epicardial vessels in all the cases. These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET reveals a high prevalence (18 out of 28 patients in this study, i.e. 64%) of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic lupus patients, probably due to the primary immunological damage of this autoimmune disease. In conclusion, rest/dipyridamole {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPET can be a useful non-invasive method to identify subclinical myocardial involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, and patients potentially at risk of later cardiac events. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs.

  6. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  7. Fast nonlinear regression method for CT brain perfusion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennink, Edwin; Oosterbroek, Jaap; Kudo, Kohsuke; Viergever, Max A; Velthuis, Birgitta K; de Jong, Hugo W A M

    2016-04-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) perfusion (CTP) imaging enables rapid diagnosis and prognosis of ischemic stroke, current CTP analysis methods have several shortcomings. We propose a fast nonlinear regression method with a box-shaped model (boxNLR) that has important advantages over the current state-of-the-art method, block-circulant singular value decomposition (bSVD). These advantages include improved robustness to attenuation curve truncation, extensibility, and unified estimation of perfusion parameters. The method is compared with bSVD and with a commercial SVD-based method. The three methods were quantitatively evaluated by means of a digital perfusion phantom, described by Kudo et al. and qualitatively with the aid of 50 clinical CTP scans. All three methods yielded high Pearson correlation coefficients ([Formula: see text]) with the ground truth in the phantom. The boxNLR perfusion maps of the clinical scans showed higher correlation with bSVD than the perfusion maps from the commercial method. Furthermore, it was shown that boxNLR estimates are robust to noise, truncation, and tracer delay. The proposed method provides a fast and reliable way of estimating perfusion parameters from CTP scans. This suggests it could be a viable alternative to current commercial and academic methods.

  8. Validation of CT brain perfusion methods using a realistic dynamic head phantom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riordan, A.J.; Prokop, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Dankbaar, J.W.; Smit, E.J.; Jong, H.W. de

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Development and evaluation of a realistic hybrid head phantom for the validation of quantitative CT brain perfusion methods. METHODS: A combination, or hybrid, of CT images of an anthropomorphic head phantom together with clinically acquired MRI brain images was used to construct a dynamic

  9. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  10. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail: rodrigo_dsp@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia

    2008-11-15

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  11. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia.

  12. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  13. Influence of Thin Slice Reconstruction on CT Brain Perfusion Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bennink

    Full Text Available Although CT scanners generally allow dynamic acquisition of thin slices (1 mm, thick slice (≥5 mm reconstruction is commonly used for stroke imaging to reduce data, processing time, and noise level. Thin slice CT perfusion (CTP reconstruction may suffer less from partial volume effects, and thus yield more accurate quantitative results with increased resolution. Before thin slice protocols are to be introduced clinically, it needs to be ensured that this does not affect overall CTP constancy. We studied the influence of thin slice reconstruction on average perfusion values by comparing it with standard thick slice reconstruction.From 50 patient studies, absolute and relative hemisphere averaged estimates of cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow (CBF, mean transit time (MTT, and permeability-surface area product (PS were analyzed using 0.8, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mm slice reconstructions. Specifically, the influence of Gaussian and bilateral filtering, the arterial input function (AIF, and motion correction on the perfusion values was investigated.Bilateral filtering gave noise levels comparable to isotropic Gaussian filtering, with less partial volume effects. Absolute CBF, CBV and PS were 22%, 14% and 46% lower with 0.8 mm than with 4.8 mm slices. If the AIF and motion correction were based on thin slices prior to reconstruction of thicker slices, these differences reduced to 3%, 4% and 3%. The effect of slice thickness on relative values was very small.This study shows that thin slice reconstruction for CTP with unaltered acquisition protocol gives relative perfusion values without clinically relevant bias. It does however affect absolute perfusion values, of which CBF and CBV are most sensitive. Partial volume effects in large arteries and veins lead to overestimation of these values. The effects of reconstruction slice thickness should be taken into account when absolute perfusion values are used for clinical decision making.

  14. The role of Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young [Nuclear Medicne, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Sun Woo; Ghi, Lek Sung; Song, Chang June [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    We studied whether brain perfusion SPECT is useful in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-nine patients (M:F=58:11, age 39 {+-} 14 years) who underwent Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, brain MRI and neuropsychological (NP) tests during hospitalization in psychiatric wards for the psychiatric disability evaluation were included; the severity of injury was mild in 31, moderate in 17 and severe in 21. SPECT, MRI, NP tests were performed 6 {approx} 61 months (mean 23 months) post-injury. Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and MRI to show hypoperfusion or abnormal signal intensity in patients with cognitive impairment represented by NP test results were compared. Forty-two patients were considered to have cognitive impairment on NP tests and 27 not. Brain SPECT showed 71% sensitivity and 85% specificity, while brain MRI showed 62% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p>0.05, McNemar test). SPECT found more cortical lesions and MRI was superior in detecting white matter lesions. sensitivity and specificity of 31 mild TBI patients were 45%, 90% for SPECT and 27%, 100% for MRI (p>0.05, McNemar test). Among 41 patients with normal brain MRI, SEPCT showed 63% sensitivity (50% for mild TBI) and 88% specificity (85% for malingerers). Brain SPECT has a supplementary role to neuropsychological tests in the psychiatric disability evaluation of chronic TBI patients by detecting more cortical lesions than MRI.

  15. Gyrification brain abnormalities as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Manara, Renzo; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Gyrification brain abnormalities are considered a marker of early deviations from normal developmental trajectories and a putative predictor of poor outcome in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore cortical folding morphology in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A MRI brain study was conducted on 38 patients with AN, 20 fully recovered patients, and 38 healthy women. Local gyrification was measured with procedures implemented in FreeSurfer. Vertex-wise comparisons were carried out to compare: (1) AN patients and healthy women; (2) patients with a full remission at a 3-year longitudinal follow-up assessment and patients who did not recover. AN patients exhibited significantly lower gyrification when compared with healthy controls. Patients with a poor 3-year outcome had significantly lower baseline gyrification when compared to both healthy women and patients with full recovery at follow-up, even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and gray matter volume. No significant correlation has been found between gyrification, body mass index, amount of weight loss, onset age, and duration of illness. Brain gyrification significantly predicted outcome at follow-up even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and other clinical prognostic factors. Although the role of starvation in determining our findings cannot be excluded, our study showed that brain gyrification might be a predictor of outcome in AN. Further studies are needed to understand if brain gyrification abnormalities are indices of early neurodevelopmental alterations, the consequence of starvation, or the interaction between both factors.

  16. Abnormal electrical brain responses to pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2005-09-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disability that prevents afflicted individuals from enjoying music as ordinary people do. The deficit is limited to music and cannot be explained by prior brain lesion, hearing loss, or any cognitive or socio-affective disturbance. Recent behavioral results suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we present novel electrophysiological evidence that this disorder can be traced down to a right-lateralized N2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200 milliseconds after tone onset and may serve as a marker of an anomaly in music acquisition.

  17. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in cluster headaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enchao Qiu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH attacks ('in attack' and headache-free intervals ('out of attack' using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during 'in attack' and 'out of attack' periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.

  18. Influence of Thin Slice Reconstruction on CT Brain Perfusion Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Edwin; Oosterbroek, Jaap; Horsch, Alexander D.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, BK; Viergever, Max A.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although CT scanners generally allow dynamic acquisition of thin slices (1 mm), thick slice (>= 5 mm) reconstruction is commonly used for stroke imaging to reduce data, processing time, and noise level. Thin slice CT perfusion (CTP) reconstruction may suffer less from partial volume effec

  19. Perfusion impairments in infantile autism on technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single-photon emission tomography: comparison with findings on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y.H.; Lee, J.D.; Yoon, P.H.; Kim, D.I. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.B.; Shin, Y.J. [Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrate of autism has been the subject of detailed investigation. Because previous studies have not demonstrated consistent and specific neuro-imaging findings in autism and most such studies have been performed in adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in young children in search of common functional and anatomical abnormalities with brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) and correlative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient population was composed of 23 children aged 28-92 months (mean: 54 months) who met the diagnostic criteria of autism as defined in the DSM-IV and CARS. Brain SPET was performed after intravenous injection of 185-370 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD using a brain-dedicated annular crystal gamma camera. MRI was performed in all patients, including T1, T2 axial and T1 sagittal sequences. SPET data were assessed visually. Twenty patients had abnormal SPET scans revealing focal areas of decreased perfusion. Decreased perfusion of the cerebellar hemisphere (20/23), thalami (19/23), basal ganglia (5/23) and posterior parietal (10/23) and temporal (7/23) areas were noted on brain SPET. By contrast all patients had normal MRI findings without evidence of abnormalities of the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, thalami, basal ganglia or parietotemporal cortex. In conclusion, extensive perfusion impairments involving the cerebellum, thalami and parietal cortex were found in this study. SPET may be more sensitive in reflecting the pathophysiology of autism than MRI. However, further studies are necessary to determine the significance of thalamic and parietal perfusion impairment in autism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 33 refs.

  20. Visual and SPM Analysis of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients of Dementia with Lewy Bodies with Clinical Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is widely recognized as the second commonest form of degenerative dementia. Its core clinical features include persistent visual hallucinosis, fluctuating cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. We evaluated the brain perfusion of dementia with Lewy bodies by SPM analysis and correlated the findings with clinical symptom. Twelve DLB patients (mean age ; 68.88.3 yrs, K-MMSE ; 17.36) and 30 control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 yrs) were included. Control subjects were selected by 28 items of exclusion criteria and checked by brain CT or MRI except 3 subjects. Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT was performed and the image data were analyzed by visual interpretation and SPM99 as routine protocol. In visual analysis, 7 patients showed hypoperfusion in both frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 2 patients in both frontal, temporal and parietal lobe, 2 patients in both temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 1 patients in left temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. In SPM analysis (uncorrected p<0.01), significant hypoperfusion was shown in Lt inf. frontal gyrus (B no.47), both inf. parietal lobule (Rt B no.40), Rt parietal lobe (precuneus), both sup. temporal gyrus (Rt B no.42), Rt mid temporal gyrus, Lt transverse temporal gyrus (B no.41), both para hippocampal gyrus, Rt thalamus (pulvinar), both cingulate gyrus (Lt B no.24, Lt B no.25, Rt B no.23, Rt B no.24, Rt B no.33), Rt caudate body, both occipital lobe (cuneus, Lt B no.17, Rt B no.18). All patients had fluctuating cognition and parkinsonism, and 9 patients had visual hallucination. The result of SPM analysis was well correlated with visual interpretation and may be helpful to specify location to correlate with clinical symptom. Significant perfusion deficits in occipital region including visual cortex and visual association area are characteristic findings in DLB. Abnormalities in these areas may be important in understanding symptoms of visual hallucination and

  1. Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity.

  2. Brain perfusion correlates of cognitive and nigrostriatal functions in de novo Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Arnaldi, Dario; Campus, Claudio; Ferrara, Michela; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Girtler, Nicola; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); De Carli, Fabrizio [National Research Council, Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, Genoa (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Abruzzese, Giovanni [University Hospital San. Martino, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Subtle cognitive impairment is recognized in the first stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), including executive, memory and visuospatial dysfunction, but its pathophysiological basis is still debated. Twenty-six consecutive, drug-naive, de novo PD patients underwent an extended neuropsychological battery, dopamine transporter (DAT) and brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We previously reported that nigrocaudate impairment correlates with executive functions, and nigroputaminal impairment with visuospatial abilities. Here perfusion SPECT was first compared between the PD group and age-matched controls (CTR). Then, perfusion SPECT was correlated with both DAT SPECT and four neuropsychological factors by means of voxel-based analysis (SPM8) with a height threshold of p < 0.005 at peak level and p < 0.05 false discovery rate-corrected at cluster level. Both perfusion and DAT SPECT images were flipped in order to have the more affected hemisphere (MAH), defined clinically, on the same side. Significant hypoperfusion was found in an occipital area of the MAH in PD patients as compared to CTR. Executive functions directly correlated with brain perfusion in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in the less affected hemisphere (LAH), while verbal memory directly correlated with perfusion in the precuneus, inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus in the LAH. Furthermore, positive correlation was highlighted between nigrocaudate and nigroputaminal impairment and brain perfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and parahippocampal gyri of the LAH. These data support the evidence showing an early involvement of the cholinergic system in the early cognitive dysfunction and point to a more relevant role of parietal lobes and posterior cingulate in executive functions in PD. (orig.)

  3. Radiation dose reduction in perfusion CT imaging of the brain: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Afat, Saif; Brockmann, Marc A; Nikoubashman, Omid; Brockmann, Carolin; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Wiesmann, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Perfusion CT (PCT) of the brain is widely used in the settings of acute ischemic stroke and vasospasm monitoring. The high radiation dose associated with PCT is a central topic and has been a focus of interest for many researchers. Many studies have examined the effect of radiation dose reduction in PCT using different approaches. Reduction of tube current and tube voltage can be efficient and lead to a remarkable reduction of effective radiation dose while preserving acceptable image quality. The use of novel noise reduction techniques such as iterative reconstruction or spatiotemporal smoothing can produce sufficient image quality from low-dose perfusion protocols. Reduction of sampling frequency of perfusion images has only little potential to reduce radiation dose. In the present article we aimed to summarize the available data on radiation dose reduction in PCT imaging of the brain.

  4. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

    2008-10-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  5. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies.

  6. Dynamic Perfusion CT Assessment of the Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability : First Pass versus Delayed Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, J. W.; Hom, J.; Schneider, T.; Cheng, S. -C.; Lau, B. C.; van der Schaaf, I.; Virmani, S.; Pohlman, S.; Dillon, W. P.; Wintermark, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Patlak model has been applied to first-pass perfusion CT (PCT) data to extract information on blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) to predict hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke. However, the Patlak model was originally described for the delayed st

  7. Value of Whole Brain Computed Tomography Perfusion for Predicting Outcome after TIA or Minor Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Wijngaard, Ido R.; Algra, Ale; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis; Wermer, Marieke J H; Van Walderveen, Marianne A A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 15% of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke have functional impairment after 3 months. We studied the role of whole brain computed tomography perfusion (WB-CTP) in the emergency diagnosis of TIA or minor stroke in predicting disability at 3 months

  8. Brain perfusion CT compared with ¹⁵O-H₂O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüner, Julie Marie; Paamand, Rune Tore; Kosteljanetz, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with (15)O...

  9. Prevalence of abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance (MR examinations in adult participants of brain docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketomi-Takahashi Ayako

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence of abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance (MR examinations in adult participants of brain docking in order to assess its usefulness. Methods We analyzed screening brain MR examinations for 1113 adults (age, 52.6+/-8.5 years; range, 22–84; 761 male and 352 female performed during 6-year period from April 1998 to March 2004. All participants voluntarily sought a brain MR examination at their own expense. All subjects were studied using the same 1.0-T MR scanner, on axial T1-weighted spin echo (SE images, proton-density-weighted and T2-weighted fast SE images, and intracranial MR angiography (MRA. All abnormal findings were classified into three basic categories: (1 findings with no referral necessary; (2 findings not requiring further evaluation, but which needed to be reported to the referring physician; (3 findings requiring further evaluation. Results Participants with abnormal MR findings requiring further evaluation accounted for 1.3 %, but five of seven suspected intracranial aneurysms were not confirmed by other imaging modalities (false positive. No malignant tumors or other life-threatening pathology was detected, and only three participants (0.27 % with abnormalities underwent surgical treatment. No participant groups were identified from our data as being high risk for MR abnormal findings requiring further evaluation. Conclusion Brain-docking participants had a variety of abnormalities on brain MR examinations, but only a small percentage of these findings required further evaluation. The usefulness of the brain docking with MRI and MRA has yet to be proven, and at this time we cannot approve this screening procedure.

  10. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI.

  11. Transient hyperperfusion after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery on brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Oh, Chang Wan; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We designed this study to investigate the transient relative hyperperfusion and its clinical implication after STA (superficial temporal artery) to MCA (middle cerebral artery) bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cerebral stroke. In 25 patients, comprising of 11 moyamoya disease (MMD) and 14 atherosclerotic disease (ASD), STA-MCA anastomosis was performed to distal cortical branches of middle cerebral artery for revascularization. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT was performed before, 3 days and then 10 days after bypass surgery. Each image was spatially normalized into the standard space and changes of brain perfusion in the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) territory were evaluated using standardized ROIs. In the overall analysis including all patients, the surgery effectively increased ICA territory perfusion on the 3rd and 10th day after bypass surgery in comparison with the preoperative one (p<0.01 and p=0.03). The 3rd day perfusion was significantly higher than the 10th day one (p<0.01), demonstrating transient relative hyperperfusion on the 3rd day compared with the 10th day. In MMD group, such transient increase of perfusion was most severe in the vicinity of the anastomosis site, and more definite than the ASD group. Three patients, 2 ASD and one MMD, showed temporary neurological deterioration (dysphasia or dysarthria) beginning within 3 days after surgery and resolving completely within 2 weeks after onset, without hemorrhage, infarction or other serious defects on CT scan. Their neurological changes correlated well with the focal perfusion changes confirmed by SPECT images on the 3rd and 10th postoperative day. Transient relative hyperperfusion was observed on postoperative 3rd day compared with the 10th day following STA-MCA bypass surgery. In some patients, such transient increase of focal perfusion seems to provoke temporary neurological deterioration.

  12. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsenik Jernej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with pathologies such as acute stroke, tumors, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Blood-brain barrier permeability imaging using perfusion computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Avsenik Jernej; Bisdas Sotirios; Popovic Katarina Surlan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The blood-brain barrier represents the selective diffusion barrier at the level of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Other functions of blood-brain barrier include transport, signaling and osmoregulation. Endothelial cells interact with surrounding astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. These interactions are crucial to the development, structural integrity and function of the cerebral microvascular endothelium. Dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has been associated with patholog...

  14. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Raabjerg Christensen, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder......, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10-18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Psychotic patients had frontal white matter abnormalities, but expected (regional) gray matter reductions were not observed. Post hoc analyses revealed...... already at illness onset in young schizophrenia spectrum patients, suggests aberrant neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Gray matter volume changes, however, appear not to be a key feature in early onset first-episode psychosis....

  15. Quantitative assessment of brain perfusion with magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Egbert Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on assessing blood supply to brain tissue using MRI. For Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-MRI a series of images is acquired during the passage of a bolus contrast agent through the brain up to the point that the contrast agent is equally mixed within the total blood pool. The tis

  16. Whole-Brain CT Perfusion to Quantify Acute Ischemic Penumbra and Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Longting; Bivard, Andrew; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To validate the use of perfusion computed tomography (CT) with whole-brain coverage to measure the ischemic penumbra and core and to compare its performance to that of limited-coverage perfusion CT. Materials and Methods Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Patients (n = 296) who underwent 320-detector CT perfusion within 6 hours of the onset of ischemic stroke were studied. First, the ischemic volume at CT perfusion was compared with the penumbra and core reference values at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to derive CT perfusion penumbra and core thresholds. Second, the thresholds were tested in a different group of patients to predict the final infarction at diffusion-weighted imaging 24 hours after CT perfusion. Third, the change in ischemic volume delineated by the optimal penumbra and core threshold was determined as the brain coverage was gradually reduced from 160 mm to 20 mm. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and analysis of variance were used for the first, second, and third steps, respectively. Results CT perfusion at penumbra and core thresholds resulted in the least volumetric difference from MR imaging reference values with delay times greater than 3 seconds and delay-corrected cerebral blood flow of less than 30% (P = .34 and .33, respectively). When the thresholds were applied to the new group of patients, prediction of the final infarction was allowed with delay times greater than 3 seconds in patients with no recanalization of the occluded artery (CCC, 0.96 [95% confidence interval: 0.92, 0.98]) and with delay-corrected cerebral blood flow less than 30% in patients with complete recanalization (CCC, 0.91 [95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.95]). However, the ischemic volume with a delay time greater than 3 seconds was underestimated when the brain coverage was reduced to 80 mm (P = .04) and the core volume measured as cerebral blood flow less than 30% was

  17. The cerebral imaging using vessel-around method in the perfusion CT of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Choong-Il; Choi, Seung-Wook; Park, Seung-Chul; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Jae-Hyoung; Chong, Gi-Bong

    2005-04-01

    Perfusion CT has been successfully used as a functional imaging technique for diagnosis of patients with hyperacute stroke. However, the commonly used methods based on curve-fitting are time consuming. Numerous researchers have investigated to what extent Perfusion CT can be used for the quantitative assessment of cerebral ischemia and to rapidly obtain comprehensive information regarding the extent of ischemic damage in acute stroke patients. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative approach to rapidly obtain the brain perfusion mapping and to show the proposed cerebral flow imaging of the vessel and tissue in human brain be reliable and useful. Our main design concern was algorithmic speed, robustness and automation in order to allow its potential use in the emergency situation of acute stroke. To obtain a more effective mapping, we analyzed the signal characteristics of Perfusion CT and defined the vessel-around model which includes the vessel and tissue. We proposed a nonparametric vessel-around approach which automatically discriminates the vessel and tissue around vessel from non-interested brain matter stratifying the level of maximum enhancement of pixel-based TAC. The stratification of pixel-based TAC was executed using the mean and standard deviation of the signal intensity of each pixel and mapped to the cerebral flow imaging. The defined vessel-around model was used to show the cerebral flow imaging and to specify the area of markedly reduced perfusion with loss of function of still viable neurons. Perfusion CT is a fast and practical technique for routine clinical application. It provides substantial and important additional information for the selection of the optimal treatment strategy for patients with hyperacute stroke. The vessel-around approach reduces the computation time significantly when compared with the perfusion imaging using the GVF. The proposed cerebral imaging shows reliable results which are validated by physicians and

  18. Assessment of drug disposition in the perfused rat brain by statistical moment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, T.; Nakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Hashida, M.; Sezaki, H.; Yamashita, S.; Nadai, T. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Drug disposition in the brain was investigated by statistical moment analysis using an improved in situ brain perfusion technique. The right cerebral hemisphere of the rat was perfused in situ. The drug and inulin were injected into the right internal carotid artery as a rapid bolus and the venous outflow curve at the posterior facial vein was obtained. The infusion rate was adjusted to minimize the flow of perfusion fluid into the left hemisphere. The obtained disposition parameters were characteristics and considered to reflect the physicochemical properties of each drug. Antipyrine showed a small degree of initial uptake. Therefore, its apparent distribution volume (Vi) and apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint,i) were small. Diazepam showed large degrees of both influx and efflux and, thus, a large Vi. Water showed parameters intermediate between those of antipyrine and those of diazepam. Imipramine, desipramine, and propranolol showed a large CLint,i compared with those of the other drugs. The extraction ratio of propranolol significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of unlabeled propranolol in the perfusion fluid. These findings may be explained partly by the tissue binding of these drugs. In conclusion, the present method is useful for studying drug disposition in the brain.

  19. Quantitative Perfusion and Permeability Biomarkers in Brain Cancer from Tomographic CT and MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilaghi, Armin; Yeung, Timothy; d'Esterre, Christopher; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Easaw, Jay; Fainardi, Enrico; Lee, Ting-Yim; Frayne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion and permeability imaging, using computed tomography and magnetic resonance systems, are important techniques for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of healthy brain parenchyma and tumors. These techniques can measure blood flow, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability surface area product and, thus, may provide information complementary to clinical and pathological assessments. These have been used as biomarkers to enhance the treatment planning process, to optimize treatment decision-making, and to enable monitoring of the treatment noninvasively. In this review, the principles of magnetic resonance and computed tomography dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion and permeability imaging are described (with an emphasis on their commonalities), and the potential values of these techniques for differentiating high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, distinguishing true progression from posttreatment effects, and predicting survival after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and antiangiogenic treatments are presented.

  20. Quantitative Perfusion and Permeability Biomarkers in Brain Cancer from Tomographic CT and MR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilaghi, Armin; Yeung, Timothy; d’Esterre, Christopher; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Easaw, Jay; Fainardi, Enrico; Lee, Ting-Yim; Frayne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion and permeability imaging, using computed tomography and magnetic resonance systems, are important techniques for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of healthy brain parenchyma and tumors. These techniques can measure blood flow, blood volume, and blood–brain barrier permeability surface area product and, thus, may provide information complementary to clinical and pathological assessments. These have been used as biomarkers to enhance the treatment planning process, to optimize treatment decision-making, and to enable monitoring of the treatment noninvasively. In this review, the principles of magnetic resonance and computed tomography dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion and permeability imaging are described (with an emphasis on their commonalities), and the potential values of these techniques for differentiating high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, distinguishing true progression from posttreatment effects, and predicting survival after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and antiangiogenic treatments are presented. PMID:27398030

  1. Relation between exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with intermediate pretest probability of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhendy, A.; Sozzi, F.B.; Van Domburg, R.T.; Bax, J.J.; Roelandt, J.R.T.C. [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Thorax Center; Valkema, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-03-01

    We studied 302 patients (mean age 54{+-}9 years, 152 men and 150 women) with intermediate pretest probability of CAD (range=0.25- 0.80, mean=0.43{+-}0.20) by upright bicycle exercise stress test in conjunction with technetium-99m single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. Exercise-induced VAs (frequent or complex premature ventricular contractions or ventricular tachycardia) occurred in 65 patients (22%). No significant difference was found between patients with and patient without VAs regarding the pretest probability of CAD (0.45{+-}0.21 vs 0.43{+-}0.20). Patients with exercise-induced VAs had a higher prevalence of perfusion abnormalities (52% vs 26%, P=0.002) and ischaemic electrocardiographic changes (31% vs 16%, P<0.05) compared to patients without VAs. A higher prevalence of perfusion abnormalities in patients with VAs was observed in both men (67% vs 35%, P<0.01) and women (38% vs 16%, P<0.05). However, the positive predictive value of exercise-induced VAs for the presence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities was higher in men than in women (67% vs 38%, P<0.05). The presence of abnormal myocardial perfusion was the only independent predictor of exercise-induced VAs (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.2) by multivariate analysis of clinical and stress test variables. It is concluded that in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD, exercise-induced VAs are predictive of a higher prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in both men and women. However, the positive predictive value of exercise-induced VAs for perfusion abnormalities is higher in men. Because of the underestimation of ischaemia by electrocardiographic changes, exercise-induced VAs should be interpreted as a marker of a higher probability of CAD. (orig./MG) (orig.)

  2. Quantitative analysis of CT-perfusion parameters in the evaluation of brain gliomas and metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nallo Anna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper reports a quantitative analysis of the perfusion maps of 22 patients, affected by gliomas or by metastasis, with the aim of characterizing the malignant tissue with respect to the normal tissue. The gold standard was obtained by histological exam or nuclear medicine techniques. The perfusion scan provided 11 parametric maps, including Cerebral Blood Volume (CBV, Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF, Average Perfusion (Pmean and Permeability-surface area product (PS. Methods The perfusion scans were performed after the injection of 40 ml of non-ionic contrast agent, at an injection rate of 8 ml/s, and a 40 s cine scan with 1 s interval was acquired. An expert radiologist outlined the region of interest (ROI on the unenhanced CT scan, by using a home-made routine. The mean values with their standard deviations inside the outlined ROIs and the contralateral ROIs were calculated on each map. Statistical analyses were used to investigate significant differences between diseased and normal regions. Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were also generated. Results Tumors are characterized by higher values of all the perfusion parameters, but after the statistical analysis, only the PS, PatRsq (Patlak Rsquare and Tpeak (Time to Peak resulted significant. ROC curves, confirmed both PatRsq and PS as equally reliable metrics for discriminating between malignant and normal tissues, with areas under curves (AUCs of 0.82 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusion CT perfusion is a useful and non invasive technique for evaluating brain neoplasms. Malignant and normal tissues can be accurately differentiated using perfusion map, with the aim of performing tumor diagnosis and grading, and follow-up analysis.

  3. A study of cerebral perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography in neonates with brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, J.; Contantinesco, A.; Brunot, B.; Messer, J. (Hospital Universitaire de Strasbourg (France))

    1994-03-01

    In this study the authors used a single photon emission computed tomography technique (SPECT) with radiolabelled [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO to assess cerebral perfusion in newborn infants with documented cerebral lesions and to determine to what extent brain SPECT might be useful in the neonatal period. A total of 15 newborn infants with the following cerebral pathologies were enrolled: severe parietal bilateral periventricular leucomalacia; moderate parietal bilateral PVL; intraventricular haemorrhage grade II with unilateral parietal parenchymal extension; cerebral infarction in the zone of middle cerebral artery; and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Follow-up was available in all infants. Alterations in cerebral perfusion were seen in only 12 of 15 infants and at the location of severe PVL, PE and CI. It was noted that the regions of diminished perfusion extended beyond the apparent extent of cerebral pathology delineated by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Markedly diminished perfusion was seen in one infant with hydrocephalus, which recovered following placement of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Regarding outcome, SPECT data failed to provide additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. It is concluded that the use of SPECT, under these conditions, to assess alteration of cerebral perfusion in the neonatal period will not provide any additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Brain perfusion SPECT and EEG findings in Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, R. [Children`s Castle Hospital, Dept. of Child Neurology, Helsinki (Finland); Liewendahl, K.; Nikkinen, P. [Univ. Central Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Laboratory Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Sainio, K.; Riikonen, R.S. [Univ. Central Hospital, Child Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients (mean age 8.4 + 5.3 years) with Rett syndrome (RS) were studied with EEG and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. Eleven patients had background abnormalities and 10 patients paroxysmal activity in EEG. Hypoperfusion of varying severity was detected in 11 patients, 7 patients having multiple lesions. Bifrontal hypoperfusion, observed in 6 patients, was the most distinctive finding. Hypoperfusion was observed also in other cortical regions, except for the occipital lobes. There was no correlation between severity of the background abnormality or presence of paroxysmal activity in EEG and grade of hypoperfusion. There was, however, an association between the severity of hypoperfusion and early manifestation of symptoms in patients with RS. Whether this early-onset group of patients represents a different disease entity or only reflects disease variability the basic pathology being the same, is a possibility that deserves further clarification. (au) 37 refs.

  5. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Taieb, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-08-15

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 {+-} 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 {+-} 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 {+-} 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  6. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in chronic tinnitus in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjamian, Peyman; Hall, Deborah A.; Palmer, Alan R.; Allan, Thomas W.; Langers, Dave R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review studies that have investigated brain morphology in chronic tinnitus in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. Current consensus is that tinnitus is a disorder involving a distributed network of peripheral and central pathways in the nervous system. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and it is unclear which structures are involved. Given that brain structure and function are highly related, identification of anatomical differences may shed light upon the mechanism of tinnitus generation and maintenance. We discuss anatomical changes in the auditory cortex, the limbic system, and prefrontal cortex, among others. Specifically, we discuss the gating mechanism of tinnitus and evaluate the evidence in support of the model from studies of brain anatomy. Although individual studies claim significant effects related to tinnitus, outcomes are divergent and even contradictory across studies. Moreover, results are often confounded by the presence of hearing loss. We conclude that, at present, the overall evidence for structural abnormalities specifically related to tinnitus is poor. As this area of research is expanding, we identify some key considerations for research design and propose strategies for future research. PMID:24892904

  7. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for perfusion quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke

    2002-01-01

    to be more robust. Successful brain perfusion quantication based on R1 weighted signals has not previously been reported, due to the poor signal to noise ratio of the images. Initial experiments reported in this thesis show that improved sequence may provide more accurate perfusion estimates in the brain...... with the tissue IRF. To obtain the IRF, the tissue curves and the input curves are deconvolved and perfusion is related to the peak of IRF. In this thesis, a new method for deconvolution of perfusion data is introduced. It is the Gaussian process for deconvolution, GPD. The method is compared to singular value......Magnetic resonance imaging, during bolus passage of a paramagnetic contrast agent, is used world-wide to obtain parameters that reflect the pathological state of tissue. Abnormal perfusion occurs in diseases such as stoke and tumour. Consequently, perfusion quantication could have signi cant...

  8. Blood flow and vascular reactivity in collaterally perfused brain tissue. Evidence of an ischemic penumbra in patients with acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Larsen, B; Herning, M;

    1983-01-01

    ischemic low flow areas were a constant finding in the collaterally perfused tissue. In 6 of the patients, the collaterally perfused part of the brain had low flow values comparable to those of an "ischemic penumbra" (viable, but functionally depressed brain tissue due to inadequate perfusion......In a group of 48 patients with completed stroke, 8 patients had viable collaterally perfused brain tissue which was accessible for rCBF recordings with a two dimensional technique. All 8 had deep subcortical infarcts on CT-scan, and angiographic occlusion of the arteries normally supplying...... the infarcted territory. The brain tissue overlying the deep infarcts appeared normal on CT-scan and was supplied by collateral circulation. rCBF was measured in all within 72 hours after the stroke. The intra-carotid Xe-133 injection method and a 254 multidetector camera were used to study rCBF. Relatively...

  9. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. Q.; Wade, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an overview of hypothalamic and pituitary alterations in brain trauma, including the incidence of hypothalamic-pituitary damage, injury mechanisms, features of the hypothalamic-pituitary defects, and major hypothalamic-pituitary disturbances in brain trauma. While hypothalamic-pituitary lesions have been commonly described at postmortem examination, only a limited number of clinical cases of traumatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction have been reported, probably because head injury of sufficient severity to cause hypothalamic and pituitary damage usually leads to early death. With the improvement in rescue measures, an increasing number of severely head-injured patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction will survive to be seen by clinicians. Patterns of endocrine abnormalities following brain trauma vary depending on whether the injury site is in the hypothalamus, the anterior or posterior pituitary, or the upper or lower portion of the pituitary stalk. Injury predominantly to the hypothalamus can produce dissociated ACTH-cortisol levels with no response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a limited or failed metopirone test, hypothyroxinemia with a preserved thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, low gonadotropin levels with a normal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a variable growth hormone (GH) level with a paradoxical rise in GH after glucose loading, hyperprolactinemia, the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), temporary or permanent diabetes insipidus (DI), disturbed glucose metabolism, and loss of body temperature control. Severe damage to the lower pituitary stalk or anterior lobe can cause low basal levels of all anterior pituitary hormones and eliminate responses to their releasing factors. Only a few cases showed typical features of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. Most severe injuries are sufficient to damage both structures and produce a mixed endocrine picture

  10. Quantification of the effect of water exchange in dynamic contrast MRI perfusion measurements in the brain and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Rosenbaum, S; Fritz-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial and brain perfusion when using exogenous contrast agents (CAs) such as gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) and MRI is affected by the diffusion of water between compartments. This water exchange may have an impact on signal enhancement, or, equivalently, on the longitudinal...... exchange can have a significant effect on perfusion estimation (F) in the brain when using Gd-DTPA, where it acts as an intravascular contrast agent....

  11. Clinical and Physiological Events That Contribute to the Success Rate of Finding "Optimal" Cerebral Perfusion Pressure in Severe Brain Trauma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weersink, Corien S. A.; Aries, Marcel J. H.; Dias, Celeste; Liu, Mary X.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Donnelly, Joseph; Czosnyka, Marek; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Regtien, Joost; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Smielewski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recently, a concept of an individually targeted level of cerebral perfusion pressure that aims to restore impaired cerebral vasoreactivity has been advocated after traumatic brain injury. The relationship between cerebral perfusion pressure and pressure reactivity index normally is suppos

  12. A Device for Long-Term Perfusion, Imaging, and Electrical Interfacing of Brain Tissue In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Nathaniel J.; Vernekar, Varadraj N.; Potter, Steve M.; Vukasinovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Distributed microelectrode array (MEA) recordings from consistent, viable, ≥500 μm thick tissue preparations over time periods from days to weeks may aid in studying a wide range of problems in neurobiology that require in vivo-like organotypic morphology. Existing tools for electrically interfacing with organotypic slices do not address necrosis that inevitably occurs within thick slices with limited diffusion of nutrients and gas, and limited removal of waste. We developed an integrated device that enables long-term maintenance of thick, functionally active, brain tissue models using interstitial perfusion and distributed recordings from thick sections of explanted tissue on a perforated multi-electrode array. This novel device allows for automated culturing, in situ imaging, and extracellular multi-electrode interfacing with brain slices, 3-D cell cultures, and potentially other tissue culture models. The device is economical, easy to assemble, and integrable with standard electrophysiology tools. We found that convective perfusion through the culture thickness provided a functional benefit to the preparations as firing rates were generally higher in perfused cultures compared to their respective unperfused controls. This work is a step toward the development of integrated tools for days-long experiments with more consistent, healthier, thicker, and functionally more active tissue cultures with built-in distributed electrophysiological recording and stimulation functionality. The results may be useful for the study of normal processes, pathological conditions, and drug screening strategies currently hindered by the limitations of acute (a few hours long) brain slice preparations. PMID:27065793

  13. Whole-brain CT perfusion and CT angiography assessment of Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization: preliminary study with 256-slice CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 256-slice CT enables the entire brain to be scanned in a single examination. We evaluated the application of 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP in determining graft patency as well as investigating cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization. METHODS: Thirty-nine cases of Moyamoya disease were evaluated before and after surgical revascularization with 256-slice CT. Whole-brain perfusion images and dynamic 3D CT angiographic images generated from perfusion source data were obtained in all patients. Cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV, time to peak (TTP and mean transit time (MTT of one hemisphere in the region of middle cerebral artery (MCA distribution and contralateral mirroring areas were measured. Relative CTP values (rCBF, rCBV, rTTP, rMTT were also obtained. Differences in pre- and post- operation perfusion CT values were assessed with paired t test or matched-pairs signed-ranks test. RESULTS: Preoperative CBF, MTT and TTP of potential surgical side were significantly different from those of contralateral side (P<0.01 for all. All graft patencies were displayed using the 3D-CTA images. Postoperative CBF, rCBF and rCBV values of surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly higher than those before operation (P<0.01 for all. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT and rTTP values of the surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly lower than those before operation (P<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION: The 256-slice whole-brain CTP can be used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgery and the 3D-CTA is useful for assessing the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and graft patencies.

  14. The evolution of the cerebral blood volume abnormality in patients with ischemic stroke: a CT perfusion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Esterre, Christopher D.; Lee, Ting Yim (Lawson Health Research Inst., London (Canada); Robarts Research Inst., London (Canada)), email: tlee@robarts.ca; Aviv, Richard I. (Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada))

    2012-05-15

    Background: Accurate identification of the acute infarct core abnormality is important for guiding acute stroke treatment. Abnormality volumes from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and CT perfusion (CTP)-cerebral blood volume (CBV) are highly correlated. DWI lesions have been shown to be reversible at 24 h. Purpose: To examine the temporal profile of the CT perfusion (CTP)-derived CBV abnormality out to 7 days post ischemic stroke. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients were included. Group A (n = 13) underwent a noncontrast CT (NCCT), CTP/CT angiography (CTA) within 6 h of stroke onset, CTP/CTA at 24 h, and CTP/NCCT at 5-7 days post stroke. Group B (n = 13) underwent a NCCT, CTP/CTA within 6 h of stroke onset, and NCCT at 5-7 days. Recanalization status was established in all patients. For both groups, infarct volumes were traced on 5-7 day NCCT images and superimposed onto all CTP-CBV functional maps to determine CBV. Group B (n = 13) admission images were used to define CBV infarct thresholds for gray and white matter. CBV-lesion overestimation was determined for Group A using the thresholds from Group B. Results: CBV (ml x 100g- 1; mean +- stdev) for gray/white matter, within confirmed infarcted regions (CBVI) at admission, 24 h, and 5-7 days were 1.82 +- 0.56, 1.56 +- 0.42, 1.75 +- 0.31, and 1.38 +- 0.65, 1.13 +- 0.31, 1.32 +- 0.44, respectively, when averaged over all patients (P > 0.05). Four patients had tissue time-density curves from ischemic lesions (TDCi) with an incomplete contrast medium wash-out phase (truncation) at admission and/or 24 h. Compared to admission, gray matter CBVI was higher at 5-7 days for patients with TDCi truncation (P < 0.05). There were no significant CBVI increases for the eight patients without truncation (P > 0.05). Over-estimation of acute CBV lesion was present in 3/4 (75%) and 1/9 (11%) of patients with/without TDCi truncation, respectively. Conclusion: CTP-derived CBV lesion reversal is associated with TDCi truncation

  15. Abnormal regional brain function in Parkinson's disease: truth or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chengke; Moeller, James R; Eidelberg, David

    2009-04-01

    Normalization of regional measurements by the global mean is commonly employed to minimize inter-subject variability in functional imaging studies. This practice is based on the assumption that global values do not substantially differ between patient and control groups. In this issue of NeuroImage, Borghammer and colleagues challenge the validity of this assumption. They focus on Parkinson's disease (PD) and use computer simulations to show that lower global values can produce spurious increases in subcortical brain regions. The authors speculate that the increased signal observed in these areas in PD is artefactual and unrelated to localized changes in brain function. In this commentary, we summarize what is currently known of the relationship between regional and global metabolic activity in PD and experimental parkinsonism. We found that early stage PD patients exhibit global values that are virtually identical to those of age-matched healthy subjects. SPM analysis revealed increased normalized metabolic activity in a discrete set of biologically relevant subcortical brain regions. Because of their higher variability, the corresponding absolute regional measures did not differ across the two groups. Longitudinal imaging studies in this population showed that the subcortical elevations in normalized metabolism appeared earlier and progressed faster than did focal cortical or global metabolic reductions. The observed increases in subcortical activity, but not the global changes, correlated with independent clinical measures of disease progression. Multivariate analysis with SSM/PCA further confirmed that the abnormal spatial covariance structure of early PD is dominated by these subcortical increases as opposed to network-related reductions in cortical metabolic activity or global changes. Thus, increased subcortical activity in PD cannot be regarded as a simple artefact of global normalization. Moreover, stability of the normalized measurements, particularly at

  16. Image quality in CT perfusion imaging of the brain. The role of iodine concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias; Bueltmann, Eva; Bode-Schnurbus, Lucas; Koenen, Dirk; Mielke, Eckhart; Heuser, Lothar [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Langendreer, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of various iodine contrast concentrations on image quality in computed tomography (CT) perfusion studies. Twenty-one patients with suspicion of cerebral ischemia underwent perfusion CT using two different iodine contrast concentrations: 11 patients received iomeprol 300 (iodine concentration: 300 mg/ml) while ten received the same volume of iomeprol 400 (iodine concentration: 400 mg/ml). Scan parameters were kept constant for both groups. Maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and time to peak (TTP) were calculated from two adjacent slices. Quantitative comparisons were based on measurements of the maximum enhancement [Hounsfield units (HU)] and signal-to-noise index (SNI) on CBF, CBV, and TTP images. Determinations of grey-to-white-matter delineation for each iodine concentration were performed by two blinded readers. Only data from the non-ischemic hemispheres were considered. Both maximum enhancement and SNI values were higher after iomeprol 400, resulting in significantly better image quality in areas of low perfusion. No noteworthy differences were found for normal values of CBF, CBV, and TTP. Qualitative assessment of grey/white matter contrast on CBF and CBV maps revealed better performance for iomeprol 400. For brain perfusion studies, highly concentrated contrast media such as iomeprol 400 is superior to iomeprol 300. (orig.)

  17. 13N-ammonia PET/CT detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in Beagle dogs after local heart irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianbo; Yan, Rui; Wu, Zhifang; Li, Jianguo; Yan, Min; Hao, Xinzhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Sijin

    2016-12-01

    To determine the potential value of (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of myocardial perfusion changes at early stage induced by radiation damage.

  18. Dose reduction in dynamic perfusion CT of the brain: effects of the scan frequency on measurements of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Martin [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Grosshadern, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Berg, Scott; Stoeckelhuber, B.M. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schoepf, V.; Yousry, I.; Linn, J. [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Missler, U. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duisburg-Nord, Department of Neuroradiology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The influence of the frequency of computed tomography (CT) image acquistion on the diagnostic quality of dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) studies of the brain was investigated. Eight patients with clinically suspected acute ischemia of one hemisphere underwent PCT, performed on average 3.4 h after the onset of symptoms. Sixty consecutive images per slice were obtained with individual CT images obtained at a temporal resolution of two images per second. Eight additional data sets were reconstructed with temporal resolutions ranging from one image per second to one image per 5 s. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) measurements were performed in identical regions of interest. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the PCT images visually to identify areas of abnormal perfusion. Perfusion images created up to a temporal resolution of one image per 3 s were rated to be diagnostically equal to the original data. Even at one image per 4 s, all areas of infarction were identified. Quantitative differences of CBF, CBV and MTT measurements were {<=}10% up to one image per 3 s. For PCT of the brain, temporal resolution can be reduced to one image per 3 s without significant compromise in image quality. This significantly reduces the radiation dose of the patient. (orig.)

  19. First-pass extraction fraction of iodine-123 labeled perfusion tracers in living primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerlein, S.M.; Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology]|[Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine; Welch, M.J. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology

    1994-08-01

    The cerebral extraction and retention of three radioiodinated SPECT perfusion tracers were measured using residue detection in a baboon. A permeability-surface area product PS` with special relevance to SPECT was calculated from the retention of tracer in the brain after 10 min. PS` differs from the traditional PS value, which is calculated from the tracer clearance curve at 2 min. The PS` values ranged from 50 to 95 mL/min/100 g, decreased in the order [{sup 123}I]IMP > [{sup 123}I]iodoperidol=[{sup 123}I] HIPDM, and did not differ for specific activities of 10 MBq/mmol to 74 TBq/mmol. These radioiodinated compounds exhibited extraction characteristics superior to those of [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO but underestimated cerebral blood flow when flows were above 20-30 mL/min/100 g, underscoring the need for development of a more ideal SPECT perfusion tracer. (author).

  20. Clinical value of dipyridamole brain perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using dipyridamole stress test to evaluate cerebral blood flow reserve in cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Dipyridamole stress tests were performed first, the baseline SPECT images were obtained under similar conditions 2-5 days later. By visual and semiquantitative analysis, the responses of cerebral blood flow to dipyridamole were divided into the following four patterns: A: The dipyridamole SPECT showed an expanded area of hypoperfusion, Asymmetry Index(AI) and Uptake Rate(UR) were all decreased; B: Rest images was normal but new hypoperfused areas appeared on stress test with decreased Al and UR; C: Hypoperfused areas were decreased in size or disappeared after stress test with increased Al and UR; D: No changes showed in cerebral perfusion imaging patterns, and in Al and UR between stress and rest studies. Dipyridarnole brain perfusion imaging may be helpful to the diagnosis of CVD, to the decision the therapeutic plan, and to predicting the therapeutic effect.

  1. Diagnostic performance of whole brain volume perfusion CT in intra-axial brain tumors: Preoperative classification accuracy and histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xyda, Argyro, E-mail: argyro.xyda@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Department of Radialogy, University Hospital of Heraklion, Voutes, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.haberland@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: ernst.klotz@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Jung, Klaus, E-mail: kjung1@uni-goettingen.de [Department of Medical Statistics, Georg-August University, Humboldtallee 32, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Bock, Hans Christoph, E-mail: cbock@gmx.de [Department of Neurosurgery, Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital of Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Schramm, Ramona, E-mail: ramona.schramm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Knauth, Michael, E-mail: michael.knauth@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Schramm, Peter, E-mail: p.schramm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Background: To evaluate the preoperative diagnostic power and classification accuracy of perfusion parameters derived from whole brain volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in patients with cerebral tumors. Methods: Sixty-three patients (31 male, 32 female; mean age 55.6 ± 13.9 years), with MRI findings suspected of cerebral lesions, underwent VPCT. Two readers independently evaluated VPCT data. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were marked circumscript around the tumor according to maximum intensity projection volumes, and then mapped automatically onto the cerebral blood volume (CBV), flow (CBF) and permeability Ktrans perfusion datasets. A second VOI was placed in the contra lateral cortex, as control. Correlations among perfusion values, tumor grade, cerebral hemisphere and VOIs were evaluated. Moreover, the diagnostic power of VPCT parameters, by means of positive and negative predictive value, was analyzed. Results: Our cohort included 32 high-grade gliomas WHO III/IV, 18 low-grade I/II, 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, 4 metastases and 3 tumor-like lesions. Ktrans demonstrated the highest sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, with a cut-off point of 2.21 mL/100 mL/min, for both the comparisons between high-grade versus low-grade and low-grade versus primary cerebral lymphomas. However, for the differentiation between high-grade and primary cerebral lymphomas, CBF and CBV proved to have 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value, identifying preoperatively all the histopathologically proven high-grade gliomas. Conclusion: Volumetric perfusion data enable the hemodynamic assessment of the entire tumor extent and provide a method of preoperative differentiation among intra-axial cerebral tumors with promising diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Effect of Acupuncture Signal after Brachial Plexus Blockade on Cerebral Blood Perfusion and Brain Cell Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永功; 郭长春; 贾少微

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to observe the influence of the up-transmitting of acupuncture signal into the brain in health volunteers whose nerve trunk was blocked by anesthetics. Methods: Thirty-one healthy volunteers were divided into two groups, the control group of 20 cases, and the brachial plexus blockade (BPB) group of 11 cases, with supraclavicular BPB route adopted. With the control group 2 acupoints were randomly selected (Hegu and Quchi of both sides), while with the BPB group Hegu and Quchi of anesthetic arm side were selected. Siemens ECAM/ICON SPECT system was used to conduct brain imaging using double imaging assay before acupuncture and 99mTc-ECD imaging agent during acupuncture for cerebral perfusion. The data were quantitatively analyzed by blood functional changing rate (BFCR%) mathematics model. Results: Before acupuncture, the control and BPB groups showed insignificant change by SPECT, but after electro-acupuncture (EA), the control group displayed improved motor and sensory cortex excitability in basal nuclei, contra-lateral thalamus, parietal and frontal lobe; while BPB group was characterized with reduction of the blood perfusion and cell function of contra-lateral thalamus of anesthetized arm. The difference between the two groups was significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: (1) After BPB, the up-transmitting of the acupuncture signal via upper limb into the brain, and its strength was impaired or blocked; (2) After BPB, the effect of acupuncture on cerebral perfusion and brain cell function of contra-lateral thalamus was impaired or blocked.

  3. Whole-brain perfusion imaging with balanced steady-state free precession arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul Kyu; Ye, Jong Chul; Kim, Eung Yeop; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Recently, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout has been proposed for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to reduce susceptibility artifacts at a relatively high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the main limitation of bSSFP-ASL is the low spatial coverage. In this work, methods to increase the spatial coverage of bSSFP-ASL are proposed for distortion-free, high-resolution, whole-brain perfusion imaging. Three strategies of (i) segmentation, (ii) compressed sensing (CS) and (iii) a hybrid approach combining the two methods were tested to increase the spatial coverage of pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with three-dimensional bSSFP readout. The spatial coverage was increased by factors of two, four and six using each of the three approaches, whilst maintaining the same total scan time (5.3 min). The number of segments and/or CS acceleration rate (R) correspondingly increased to maintain the same bSSFP readout time (1.2 s). The segmentation approach allowed whole-brain perfusion imaging for pCASL-bSSFP with no penalty in SNR and/or total scan time. The CS approach increased the spatial coverage of pCASL-bSSFP whilst maintaining the temporal resolution, with minimal impact on the image quality. The hybrid approach provided compromised effects between the two methods. Balanced SSFP-based ASL allows the acquisition of perfusion images with wide spatial coverage, high spatial resolution and SNR, and reduced susceptibility artifacts, and thus may become a good choice for clinical and neurological studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  5. Decreased Brain and Placental Perfusion in Omphalopagus Conjoined Twins on Fetal MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureyya Burcu Gorkem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate perfusional changes in brain and placenta of omphalopagus conjoined twins and to compare them with singleton fetuses by using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. Fetal MRIs of 28-week-old omphalopagus conjoined twins with a shared liver with two separate gallbladders and portal and hepatic venous systems and three singleton fetuses with unilateral borderline ventriculomegaly at the same gestational week as control group were enrolled retrospectively. There was a significant decrease in ADC values of brain regions (p=0.018 and placenta (p=0.005 of conjoined twins compared to the control group. The decreased ADC values in placenta and brain regions in conjoined twins might be due to decreased placental perfusion compared to singleton pregnancy. Our results would be a keystone for future studies which will compare larger group of monochorionic multiple pregnancies with singleton pregnancies.

  6. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology.

  7. Real-time ultrasound brain perfusion imaging with analysis of microbubble replenishment in acute MCA stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Rolf; Diels, Anna; Pettenpohl, Johanna; Kablau, Micha; Brade, Joachim; Hennerici, Michael G; Meairs, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    Real-time ultrasound perfusion imaging (rt-UPI) allows visualization of microbubbles flowing through the cerebral microvasculature. We hypothesized that analysis of microbubble tissue replenishment would enable for characterization of perfusion deficits in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory stroke. Twenty-three patients (mean age 70.2 ± 13.2 years, 9 weeks) were included. Sequential images of bubble replenishment were acquired by transcranial rt-UPI at low mechanical index immediately after microbubble destruction. Different parameters were calculated from regions of interest (ROIs): real-time time to peak (rt-TTP), rise rate (β), and plateau (A) of acoustic intensity, and A × β was used as an index of blood flow. Results were compared with diffusion-weighted and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Parameters of rt-UPI had lower values in ROIs of ischemic as compared with normal tissue (β=0.58 ± 0.40 versus 1.25 ± 0.83; P=0.001; A=1.44 ± 1.75 versus 2.63 ± 2.31; P=0.05; A × β=1.14 ± 2.25 versus 2.98 ± 2.70; P=0.01). Real-time time to peak was delayed in ischemic tissue (11.43 ± 2.67 versus 8.88 ± 1.66 seconds; Preplenishment correctly identifies ischemic brain tissue in acute MCA stroke.

  8. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  9. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  10. A mismatch between the abnormalities in diffusion- and susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may represent an acute ischemic penumbra with misery perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Masayuki; Okuchi, Kazuo; Iwamura, Asami; Taoka, Toshiaki; Siesjö, Bo K

    2013-11-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has recently attracted attention for its ability to investigate acute stroke pathophysiology. SWI detects an increased ratio of deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin in cerebral venous compartments, which can illustrate cerebral misery perfusion with a compensatory increase of oxygen extraction fraction in the hypoperfused brain. In this study we make the first case report of blunt cervical trauma leading to a stroke, demonstrating the disparity between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and SWI changes, or DWI-SWI mismatch, in the acute ischemic brain. The area of mismatch between a smaller DWI cytotoxic edema and a larger SWI misery perfusion in our patient matured into a complete infarction with time. The DWI-SWI mismatch may signify the presence of an ischemic penumbra, and provide information about viability of the brain tissue at risk of potential infarction if without early reperfusion.

  11. Measurement of blood–brain barrier permeability in acute ischemic stroke using standard first-pass perfusion CT data ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang Truong; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew; Sheikh, Nabeel; Henderson, Robert; O'Sullivan, John D.; Reutens, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Increased blood–brain barrier permeability is believed to be associated with complications following acute ischemic stroke and with infarct expansion. Measurement of blood–brain barrier permeability requires a delayed image acquisition methodology, which prolongs examination time, increasing the likelihood of movement artefacts and radiation dose. Existing quantitative methods overestimate blood–brain barrier permeability when early phase CT perfusion data are used. The...

  12. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill;

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...

  13. Blind Source Separation of Hemodynamics from Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Brain Images Using Independent Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfusion magnetic resonance brain imaging induces temporal signal changes on brain tissues, manifesting distinct blood-supply patterns for the profound analysis of cerebral hemodynamics. We employed independent factor analysis to blindly separate such dynamic images into different maps, that is, artery, gray matter, white matter, vein and sinus, and choroid plexus, in conjunction with corresponding signal-time curves. The averaged signal-time curve on the segmented arterial area was further used to calculate the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, and mean transit time (MTT. The averaged ratios for rCBV, rCBF, and MTT between gray and white matters for normal subjects were congruent with those in the literature.

  14. 重型颅脑外伤灌注CT结果与脑灌注压的相关性%Correlation of brain perfusion computed tomography results and cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with severe head trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐裕; 冯东侠; 高恒; 那汉荣; 徐伟东; 周新民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重型颅脑外伤患者灌注CF结果与脑灌注压监测结果的相关性.方法 50例重型颅脑外伤患者分为两组:T组28例,C组22例,人院时头颅CT平扫有明显异常.在行灌注CT时,同时监测平均动脉压(MAP)及颅内压(ICP),计算脑灌注压(CPP).应用直线回归分析灌注CT参数[局部脑血容量(rCBV)、局部脑血流(rCBF)和平均通过时间(MTT)]与CPP的相关性.结果 根据灌注CT结果,T组分为两个亚组:T1组,16例,灌注CT结果与CPP呈弱相关;T2组,12例,两者存在强相关.T1、T2和C组间的灌注CT参数均有明显差异.T1组的rCBF为(18.8±8.0)cm3·100g1·min-2,明显低于T2组的(60.2±21.3)cm3·100g1·min-1和C组的(48.3±11.0)CM3·100g1·min-1(P<0.01).T1、T2组灌注CT参数与相应CPP值之间均显著相关(P<0.01).结论 灌注CT结合ICP监测能提供有价值的评估脑血管自动调节功能是否完好的信息,有助于指导治疗.%Objective To investigate the correlation of brain perfusion computed tomography (CT) results and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patients with severe head trauma. Methods Perfusion CT results of 50 patients with head trauma were analyzed , who were divided into two groups of T(28 cases, severe head trauma with abnormal CT findings during admission) and C(22 cases,head trauma with normal CT findings during admission). The patients underwent perfusion CT and MAP and ICP were measured at the same time, by which CPP was calculated. The correlation between perfusion CT results [regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and MTT] and corresponding CPP was analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results According to perfusion CT results, group T was divided into two subgroups of Tl (16 cases, characterized by a weak correlation between the perfusion-CT results and the corresponding CPP values) and T2(12 cases,characterized by a strong correlation between the perfusion-CT results and the corresponding

  15. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  16. Brain edema formation correlates with perfusion deficit during the first six hours after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westermaier Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe brain edema is observed in a number of patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Little is known about its pathogenesis and time-course in the first hours after SAH. This study was performed to investigate the development of brain edema and its correlation with brain perfusion after experimental SAH. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats, randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 8, were subjected to SAH using the endovascular filament model or underwent a sham operation. Animals were sacrificed 15, 30, 60, 180 or 360 minutes after SAH. Intracranial pressure (ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP and bilateral local cerebral blood flow (LCBF were continuously measured. Brain water content (BWC was determined by the wet/dry-weight method. Results After SAH, CPP and LCBF rapidly decreased. The decline of LCBF markedly exceeded the decline of CPP and persisted until the end of the observation period. BWC continuously increased. A significant correlation was observed between the BWC and the extent of the perfusion deficit in animals sacrificed after 180 and 360 minutes. Conclusions The significant correlation with the perfusion deficit after SAH suggests that the development of brain edema is related to the extent of ischemia and acute vasoconstriction in the first hours after SAH.

  17. Incidental sinus abnormalities in 256 patients referred for brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging abnormalities in the paranasal sinuses are regularly noted as incidental findings on MRI, however, little is known about their prevalence in the Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to classify these findings in the paranasal sinuses as seen on MRI and to investigate the prevalence, according to site and type of paranasal abnormality. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the T2-weighted axial MRI of 256 patients with diseases unrelated to their paranasal sinuses were reviewed between May 2002 and June 2003. The findings were categorized according to the anatomic location and the imaging characteristics of the abnormality. The abnormalities recorded included total sinus opacification, mucoperiosteal thickening >5mm, air fluid levels and retention cysts or polyps. Unilateral or bilateral involvement and septal deviation were also noted. A sinus was considered normal if it was fully aerated and no soft-tissue density was apparent within the cavity. Results: Among our cases, 111 (43.5% were male and 145 (56.5% were female. Of these patients, abnormalities in one or more of the sinus groups were found in 110 subjects (42.9%, 55.5% of which were male and 44.5% were female (P=0.001. Maxillary sinus abnormalities were observed in 66.4% of the patients, while ethmoid sinus abnormalities were found in 63.6%. Of the ethmoid abnormalities, 21% were found in the anterior section, 9% in the middle ethmoid, and 8% in the posterior ethmoid. The most common abnormality found was mucosal thickening. Among our cases, 23.4% had septal deviation, which was significantly higher among those with sinusitis (29% versus 19.1%; P<0.01. Of those patients with sinus involvement, 16% were involved in the sphenoid sinus and 5% in the frontal sinus. The results obtained from the patients with sinus abnormality revealed that 85% suffered from cough, nasal obstruction, runny nose, facial pain and post nasal discharge and 24% had been diagnosed

  18. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  19. Multiple resting state network functional connectivity abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Lovejoy, David; Kim, Jinsuh; Oakes, Howard; Kureshi, Inam; Witt, Suzanne T

    2012-06-01

    Several reports show that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in abnormalities in the coordinated activation among brain regions. Because most previous studies examined moderate/severe TBI, the extensiveness of functional connectivity abnormalities and their relationship to postconcussive complaints or white matter microstructural damage are unclear in mild TBI. This study characterized widespread injury effects on multiple integrated neural networks typically observed during a task-unconstrained "resting state" in mild TBI patients. Whole brain functional connectivity for twelve separate networks was identified using independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data collected from thirty mild TBI patients mostly free of macroscopic intracerebral injury and thirty demographically-matched healthy control participants. Voxelwise group comparisons found abnormal mild TBI functional connectivity in every brain network identified by ICA, including visual processing, motor, limbic, and numerous circuits believed to underlie executive cognition. Abnormalities not only included functional connectivity deficits, but also enhancements possibly reflecting compensatory neural processes. Postconcussive symptom severity was linked to abnormal regional connectivity within nearly every brain network identified, particularly anterior cingulate. A recently developed multivariate technique that identifies links between whole brain profiles of functional and anatomical connectivity identified several novel mild TBI abnormalities, and represents a potentially important new tool in the study of the complex neurobiological sequelae of TBI.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-brain CT perfusion in the detection of acute infratentorial infarctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollwein, Christine; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Plate, Annika; Straube, Andreas; Baumgarten, Louisa von [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital of Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Hendrik [South Nuremberg Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Although the diagnostic performance of whole-brain computed tomographic perfusion (WB-CTP) in the detection of supratentorial infarctions is well established, its value in the detection of infratentorial strokes remains less well defined. We examined its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of infratentorial infarctions and compared it to nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT), aiming to identify factors influencing its detection rate. Out of a cohort of 1380 patients who underwent WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we retrospectively included all patients with MRI-confirmed infratentorial strokes and compared it to control patients without infratentorial strokes. Two blinded readers evaluated NECT and four different CTP maps independently for the presence and location of infratentorial ischemic perfusion deficits. The study was designed as a retrospective case-control study and included 280 patients (cases/controls = 1/3). WB-CTP revealed a greater diagnostic sensitivity than NECT (41.4 vs. 17.1 %, P = 0.003). The specificity, however, was comparable (93.3 vs. 95.0 %). Mean transit time (MTT) and time to drain (TTD) were the most sensitive (41.4 and 40.0 %) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) the most specific (99.5 %) perfusion maps. Infarctions detected using WB-CTP were significantly larger than those not detected (15.0 vs. 2.2 ml; P = 0.0007); infarct location, however, did not influence the detection rate. The detection of infratentorial infarctions can be improved by assessing WB-CTP as part of the multimodal stroke workup. However, it remains a diagnostic challenge, especially small volume infarctions in the brainstem are likely to be missed. (orig.)

  1. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported.

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion measurement of the brain using T-1-weighted MRI at 3T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H.B.W.; Hansen, A.E.; Berg, H.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for the measurement of brain perfusion based on dynamic contrast-enhanced T-1-weighted MR imaging. Materials and Methods: Dynamic imaging of the first pass of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent was performed using a 3T whole-body magnet and a T-1-weighted fast...... field echo sequence. The input function was obtained from the internal carotid artery. An initial T-1 measurement was performed in order to convert the MR signal to concentration of the contrast agent. Pixelwise and region of interest (ROI)based calculation of cerebral perfusion (CBF) was performed...... inside the infarct core was, 9 mL/100g/min in one of the stroke patients. The other stroke patient had postischemic hyperperfusion and CBF was 140 mL/100g/min. Conclusion: Absolute values of brain perfusion can be obtained using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These values correspond,to expected values...

  3. Prognostic implications of post-stress ejection fraction decrease detected by gated SPECT in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, Manjola; Massi, Lucia; Settimo, Leonardo; Bartolini, Matteo; Gianni, Gianluca; Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The prognostic meaning of a post-stress ejection fraction (EF) decrease detected by perfusion gated SPECT is still unclear. We therefore followed up patients with post-stress EF decrease in the absence of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. We prospectively enrolled 57 consecutive patients with post-stress EF drop {>=} 5 EF units and summed difference score (SDS) {<=} 1. They were followed up for more than 1 year and their outcome was compared with a group of sex- and age-matched controls with the same SDS but without EF decrease. During follow-up there were 13 events (1 cardiac death, 1 non-fatal myocardial infarction, 1 congestive heart failure and 10 late revascularizations). In the control group we registered six events. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the event-free survival curves of the two groups. The event rate of patients with post-stress EF decrease {>=} 5 EF units is relatively high and is significantly worse than that of a control group of patients with similarly normal SDS but without EF changes. Therefore, a post-stress EF decrease without stress-induced perfusion abnormalities should be cautiously interpreted. (orig.)

  4. Structural brain abnormalities in early onset first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Baaré, W F C; Raabjerg Christensen, A M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations. METHODS: We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, delusi...

  5. Human brain: reliability and reproducibility of pulsed arterial spin-labeling perfusion MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho; Song, Enmin; Zhu, Xiao-Ping; Matson, Gerald B; Weiner, Michael W; Schuff, Norbert

    2005-03-01

    The Committee of Human Research of the University of California San Francisco approved this study, and all volunteers provided written informed consent. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the global and regional reliability and reproducibility of noninvasive brain perfusion measurements obtained with different pulsed arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and to determine the extent to which within-subject variability and random noise limit reliability and reproducibility. Thirteen healthy volunteers were examined twice within 2 hours. The pulsed ASL methods compared in this study differ mainly with regard to magnetization transfer and eddy current effects. There were two main results: (a) Pulsed ASL MR imaging consistently had high measurement reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.75) and reproducibility (coefficients of variation less than 8.5%), and (b) random noise rather than within-subject variability limited reliability and reproducibility. It was concluded that low signal-to-noise ratios substantially limit the reliability and reproducibility of perfusion measurements.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of neonatal brain. Assessment of normal and abnormal findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Koh; Kadono, Naoko; Kawase, Shohji; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sawada, Tadashi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    To establish the normal MRI appearance of the neonatal brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 124 neonates who admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Degree of myelination, ventricular size, width of the extracerebral space and focal lesion in the brain were evaluated to investigate the relationship between MRI findings of neonatal brain and the neurological prognosis. 85 neonates underwent MRI both at neonatal period and at the corrected age of one year. The change of abnormal MRI findings was evaluated. 19 neonates had abnormal neurological outcome on subsequent examinations. Delayed myelination, ventriculomegaly and large extracerebral space were seen in 13, 7 and 9 neonates respectively. 4, 3 and 5 neonates out of them showed abnormal neurological prognosis respectively. Of the 19 neonates with focal lesion in MRI, 2 had parenchymal hematoma in the brain, 2 had subdural hematoma, 5 had chronic hematoma following subependymal hemorrhage, 6 had cystic formation following subependymal hemorrhage, 2 had subcortical leukomalacia, one had periventricular leukomalacia and one had cyst in the parenchyma of cerebellum. 4 neonates of 19 with focal lesion in MRI showed abnormal development. Of the neonates who had abnormal neurological prognosis, 7 neonates showed no abnormal finding in MRI at neonatal period. 3 of them had mild mental retardation. MRI shows promise in the neonatal period. It facilitates recognition of abnormalities of neonatal brain and may be used to predict abnormal neurologic outcome. However physiological change in the brain of neonates, especially of premature neonates, should be considered on interpreting these findings. Awareness of developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain. (author).

  7. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Teune, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We identified PD-related perfusion and metabolic brain patterns using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients which were comparable with results of existing research. In this respect, PCASL appears to be a promising addition in the early diagnosis of individual parkinsonian patients.

  8. Optimal Duration of Acquisition for Dynamic Perfusion CT Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using the Patlak Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hom, J.; Dankbaar, J. W.; Schneider, T.; Cheng, S. -C.; Bredno, J.; Wintermark, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A previous study demonstrated the need to use delayed acquisition rather than first-pass data for accurate blood-brain barrier permeability surface product (BBBP) calculation from perfusion CT (PCT) according to the Patlak model, but the optimal duration of the delayed acquis

  9. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Reitz, Matthias; Bolar, Divya S; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Schmidt, Nils O; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7 T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml · kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s(∧)-1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s(∧)-1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s-(∧)1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml · min(∧)-1 · 100 g(∧)-1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level. We found good correlation between MRI and micro probe measurements. However, direct conversion of tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation is very limited. Furthermore, adverse effects of anesthesia and

  10. Brain Perfusion MRI Findings in Patients with Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpay Alkan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To search brain perfusion MRI (pMRI changes in Behcet’s disease (BD with or without neurological involvement. Materials and Method. The pMRI were performed in 34 patients with BD and 16 healthy controls. Based on neurologic examination and post-contrast MRI, 12 patients were classified as Neuro-Behcet (group 1, NBD and 22 patients as BD without neurological involvement (group 2. Mean transit time (MTT, time to peak (TTP, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF were obtained and compared to those of healthy control group (group 3. Results. There was a significant difference in the MTT and rCBF within the pons and parietal cortex in groups 1 and 2. rCBV increased in cerebral pedicle in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3. In the temporal lobe white matter, prolonged MTT and decreased rCBF were found in groups 1 and 2. In the corpus striatum, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter, rCBF increased in group 1 compared with group 3 and decreased in groups 1 and 2. Conclusion. Brain pMRI is a very sensitive method to detect brain involvement in patients with BD and aids the clinical diagnosis of NBD, especially in patients with negative MRI findings.

  11. Usefulness of Permeability Map by Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor the Grade Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Young [GE Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to assess how effective the permeability ratio and relative cerebral blood volume ratio are to tumor through perfusion MRI by measuring and reflecting the grade assessment and differential diagnosis and the permeability and relative cerebral blood volume of contrast media plunged from blood vessel into organ due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier in cerebral. Subject and Method : Subject of study was 29 patients whose diagnosis were confirmed by biopsy after surgery and 550 (11 slice x 50 image) perfusion MRI were used to make image of relative cerebral blood volume with the program furnished on instrument. The other method was to transmit to private computer and the image analysis was made additionally by making image of relative cerebral blood volume-reformulated singular value decomposition, rCBV-rSVD and permeability using IDL.6.2. In addition, Kruskal-wallis test tonggyein non numerical average by a comparative analysis of brain tumors Results : The rCBV ratio (Functool PF; GE Medical Systems and IDL 6.2 program by analysis) and permeability ratio of tumors were as follows; high grade glioma(n=4), (14.75, 19.25) 13.13. low grade astrocytoma(n=5) (14.80, 15.90) 11.60, glioblastoma(n=5) (10.90, 18.60), 22.00, metastasis(n=6) (11.00, 15.08). 22.33. meningioma(n=6) (18.58, 7.67), 5.58. oliogodendroglioma(n=3) (23.33, 16.33, 15.67. Conclusion : It was not easy to classify the grade with the relative cerebral blood volume ratio measured by using the relative cerebral blood image by type of tumors, however, permeability ratio measured by permeability image revealed that the higher the grade of tumor, the higher the measured permeability ratio, showing the assessment of tumor grade is more effective to differential diagnosis.

  12. Justification of administered dose level in brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, I.; Geronikola-Trapali, X.; Armeniakos, I.; Prentakis, A.; Soultanis, S.; Chatziioannou, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-HMPAO is widely used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The administered dose range recommended by the manufacturer and reported in bibliography is rather wide (~ 9.5 - 27 mCi), necessitating further quantitative analysis. In the framework of this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose was carried out, based on image quality indicators. Evaluation of image quality was based on wavelet-generated contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted as CI, NI and CNR respectively. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator (denoted as PI). Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal distributions) showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p 0.05) values. Application of Tukey test for CI and NI normal distributions demonstrated that CI (10 mCi) = CI (20 mCi) NI (20 mCi), while NI (15 mCi) could not be characterised. Finally, application of non-parametric multiple comparisons showed that CNR (20 mCi) < CNR (10 mCi), while CNR (15 mCi) could not be characterised. Consequently, brain perfusion imaging, by means of 99mTc-HMPAO utilising an administered dose of 20 mCi, results in improved image quality on the basis of the estimated indicators. Additionally, this image quality improvement is sufficient to justify the increased patient radiation burden.

  13. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  14. Characteristic of brain perfusion imaging in children brain death patients%儿童脑死亡患者脑血流灌注显像特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吉刚; 庄红明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate characteristics of brain perfusion imaging of patients with brain death. Methods 77 pediatric patients with clinical suspicion brain death were received brain perfusion imaging, Eventually, 77 patients were died within twenty four hours after last brain perfusion imaging. These data were retrospectively analyzed. Results In the 15 patients (19.5%), the images revealed minimal radioactivity in the brain, which can be seen clearly part of the brain of patients with radioactive distribution. The other patients can be seen a small number of radioactivity distribution. While 62 patients (80.5%) with cerebral perfusion imaging showed brain no radioactive distribution. Conclusion Patients with brain perfusion imaging of the brain no radioactive distribution is the performance of the typical brain-dead, brain no radioactive distribution must not survive. However, the brain radioactivity distribution of patients is not indicative of patient survival.%目的 研究儿童脑死亡患者脑血流灌注显像特点.方法 77例临床怀疑脑死亡的患者行脑血流灌注显像,最终77例患者全部于最后一次脑血流灌注显像后24 h内死亡.本研究回顾性分析脑血流灌注显像的特点.结果 15例(19.5%)患者脑血流灌注显像示脑内可见放射性分布,其中部分患者脑内可见明显放射性分布,其余患者可见少量放射性分布;62例(80.5%)患者脑血流灌注显像示脑内未见放射性分布.临床随访证实77例患者最终全部死亡.结论 脑血流灌注显像示脑内未见放射性分布是典型脑死亡的表现,脑内未见放射性分布的患者一定不能存活,但脑内有放射性分布的患者并不预示患者存活.

  15. EEG abnormalities in clinically diagnosed brain death organ donors in Iranian tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Khodadadi, Abbas; Azimi Saein, Amir Reza; Bahrami-Nasab, Hasan; Hashemi, Behnam; Tirgar, Niloufar; Nozary Heshmati, Behnaz

    2012-01-01

    Brain death is defined as the permanent, irreversible and concurrent loss of all brain and brain stem functions. Brain death diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and it is not routine to use paraclinical studies. In some countries, electroencephalogram (EEG) is performed in all patients for the determination of brain death while there is some skepticism in relying on EEG as a confirmatory test for brain death diagnosis. In this study, we assessed the validity of EEG and its abnormalities in brain death diagnosis. In this retrospective study, we used 153 EEGs from medical records of 89 brain death patients in organ procurement unit of the Iranian Tissue Bank admitted during 2002-2008. We extracted and analyzed information including EEGs, which were examined by a neurologist for waves, artifacts and EEG abnormalities. The mean age of the patients was 27.2±12.7 years. The most common cause of brain death was multiple traumas due to accident (65%). The most prevalent artifact was electrical transformer. 125 EEGs (82%) were isoelectric (ECS) and seven EEGs (5%) were depictive of some cerebral activity which upon repeat EEGs, they showed ECS patterns too. There was no relationship between cause of brain death and cerebral activity in EEGs of the patients. In this study, we could confirm ECS patterns in all brain death patients whose status had earlier been diagnosed clinically. Considering the results of this study, it seems sensible to perform EEG as a final confirmatory test as an assurance to the patients' families.

  16. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  17. Trail Making Test Part A and Brain Perfusion Imaging in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Shindo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Trail Making Test (TMT has long been used to investigate deficits in cognitive processing speed and executive function in humans. However, there are few studies that elucidate the neural substrates of the TMT. The aim of the present study was to identify the regional perfusion patterns of the brain associated with performance on the TMT part A (TMT-A in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Eighteen AD patients with poor performance on the TMT-A and 36 age- and sex-matched AD patients with good performance were selected. All subjects underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography. Results: No significant differences between the good and poor performance groups were found with respect to years of education and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination scores. However, higher z-scores for hypoperfusion in the bilateral superior parietal lobule were observed in the group that scored poorly on the TMT-A compared with the good performance group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that functional activity of the bilateral superior parietal lobules is closely related to performance time on the TMT-A. Thus, the performance time on the TMT-A might be a promising index of dysfunction of the superior parietal area among mild AD patients.

  18. Development of a realistic, dynamic digital brain phantom for CT perfusion validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divel, Sarah E.; Segars, W. Paul; Christensen, Soren; Wintermark, Max; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Physicians rely on CT Perfusion (CTP) images and quantitative image data, including cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and bolus arrival delay, to diagnose and treat stroke patients. However, the quantification of these metrics may vary depending on the computational method used. Therefore, we have developed a dynamic and realistic digital brain phantom upon which CTP scans can be simulated based on a set of ground truth scenarios. Building upon the previously developed 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom containing a highly detailed brain model, this work consisted of expanding the intricate vasculature by semi-automatically segmenting existing MRA data and fitting nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces to the new vessels. Using time attenuation curves input by the user as reference, the contrast enhancement in the vessels changes dynamically. At each time point, the iodine concentration in the arteries and veins is calculated from the curves and the material composition of the blood changes to reflect the expected values. CatSim, a CT system simulator, generates simulated data sets of this dynamic digital phantom which can be further analyzed to validate CTP studies and post-processing methods. The development of this dynamic and realistic digital phantom provides a valuable resource with which current uncertainties and controversies surrounding the quantitative computations generated from CTP data can be examined and resolved.

  19. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  20. Early whole-brain CT perfusion for detection of patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Vesna; Dolatowski, Karoline; Schramm, Peter; Moerer, Onnen; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT This prospective study investigated the role of whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) studies in the identification of patients at risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) and of tissue at risk for delayed cerebral infarction (DCI). METHODS Forty-three patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were included in this study. A CTP study was routinely performed in the early phase (Day 3). The CTP study was repeated in cases of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD)-measured blood flow velocity (BFV) increase of > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours and/or on Day 7 in patients who were intubated/sedated. RESULTS Early CTP studies revealed perfusion deficits in 14 patients, of whom 10 patients (72%) developed DIND, and 6 of these 10 patients (60%) had DCI. Three of the 14 patients (21%) with early perfusion deficits developed DCI without having had DIND, and the remaining patient (7%) had neither DIND nor DCI. There was a statistically significant correlation between early perfusion deficits and occurrence of DIND and DCI (p 50 cm/sec within 24 hours, revealing a perfusion deficit in 3 of them (38%). Two of the 3 patients (67%) developed DCI without preceding DIND and 1 patient (33%) had DIND without DCI. In 4 of the 7 patients (57%) who were sedated and/or comatose, additional CTP studies on Day 7 showed perfusion deficits. All 4 patients developed DCI. CONCLUSIONS Whole-brain CTP on Day 3 after aSAH allows early and reliable identification of patients at risk for DIND and tissue at risk for DCI. Additional CTP investigations, guided by TCD-measured BFV increase or persisting coma, do not contribute to information gain.

  1. Neuroendocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    is common in head trauma. INJURY MECHANISMS Hypothalamic Injury The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is the most vulnerable area of the hypothalamus because...pothaIlimus. but portlif esscls to the antenorpituitat) ma) escape injur). (C) oss stalk transvecion ma% causect rupture of the A gportal sessels ssth...via the systemic circulation to the adrenal gland, where it stimulates secretion of cortisol and aldosterone . Thus, when the brain is traumatized

  2. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  3. Blood-brain barrier permeability is positively correlated with cerebral microvascular perfusion in the early fluid percussion-injured brain of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Pan, Yaohua; Wang, Mingliang; Huang, Xianjian; Yin, Yuhua; Wang, Yu; Jia, Feng; Xiong, Wenhao; Zhang, Nu; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2012-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening following traumatic brain injury (TBI) provides a chance for therapeutic agents to cross the barrier, yet the reduction of the cerebral microvascular perfusion after TBI may limit the intervention. Meanwhile, optimizing the cerebral capillary perfusion by the strategies such as fluid administration may cause brain edema due to the BBB opening post trauma. To guide the TBI therapy, we characterized the relationship between the changes in the cerebral capillary perfusion and BBB permeability after TBI. First, we observed the changes of the cerebral capillary perfusion by the intracardiac perfusion of Evans Blue and the BBB disruption with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the rat subjected to lateral fluid percussion (FP) brain injury. The correlation between two variables was next evaluated with the correlation analysis. Since related to BBB breakdown, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was finally detected by gelatin zymography. We found that the ratios of the perfused microvessel numbers in the lesioned cortices were significantly reduced at 0 and 1 h post trauma compared with that in the normal cortex, which then dramatically recovered at 4 and 24 h after injury, and that the BBB permeability was greatly augmented in the ipsilateral parts at 4, 12, and 24 h, and in the contralateral area at 24 h after injury compared with that in the uninjured brain. The correlation analysis showed that the BBB permeability increase was related to the restoration of the cerebral capillary perfusion over a 24-h period post trauma. Moreover, the gelatin zymography analysis indicated that the MMP-9 activity in the injured brain increased at 4 h and significantly elevated at 12 and 24 h as compared to that at 0 or 1 h after TBI. Our findings demonstrate that the 4 h post trauma is a critical turning point during the development of TBI, and, importantly, the correlation analysis may guide us how to treat TBI.

  4. Progressive abnormalities in the brain scan in adrenal leukodystrophy. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, B.E.

    1977-11-01

    A case report is presented of a 10-yr-old boy with restless movements and deteriorated mental ability. A brain scan was performed using /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. A faint area of uptake appeared; 6 months later the brain scan showed more intense uptake and neurologic symptoms increased; the patient died soon after and autopsy showed leukodystrophy of the brain and adrenal atrophy. A study of previous cases indicates that adrenal leukodystrophy is a sex-linked hereditary disease in which progressive demyelination leads to dementia, cortical blindness, and spasticity. In all reported cases abnormal areas on the brain scan corresponded with pathologic changes. (HLW)

  5. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, A., E-mail: acianfoni@hotmail.com [Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Italian Switzerland–Ospedale regionale Lugano, Via Tesserete 46, Lugano, 6900, CH (Switzerland); Caulo, M., E-mail: caulo@unich.it [Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 6610 Chieti. Italy (Italy); Cerase, A., E-mail: alfonsocerase@gmail.com [Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention NINT, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, V.le Bracci 16, Siena (Italy); Della Marca, G., E-mail: dellamarca@rm.unicatt.it [Neurology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Falcone, C., E-mail: carlo_falc@libero.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Di Lella, G.M., E-mail: gdilella@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Gaudino, S., E-mail: sgaudino@sirm.org [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Edwards, J., E-mail: edwardjc@musc.edu [Neuroscience Dept., Medical University of South Carolina, 96J Lucas st, 29425, Charleston, SC (United States); Colosimo, C., E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention.

  6. Early CT perfusion changes and blood-brain barrier permeability after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Amanda; Bharatha, Aditya [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); De Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Kouzmina, Ekaterina [St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Burgers, Kyle; Lee, Ting [Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Macdonald, R.L. [St. Michael' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Early brain injury (EBI) can occur within 72 h of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in early CTP parameters (<72 h) with respect to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), cerebral infarction, and functional outcome. We performed a prospective cohort study of aSAH patients admitted to a single tertiary care center. MTT, CBF and blood-brain barrier permeability (PS) were quantified with CTP within 72 h of aneurysm rupture. Primary outcomes were functional outcome by the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months and cerebral infarction. Secondary outcome was the development of DCI. Differences between early CTP parameters were determined with respect to primary and secondary outcomes. Fifty aSAH patients were included in the final analysis. MTT was significantly higher in patients who developed DCI (6.7 ± 1.2 vs 5.9 ± 1.0; p = 0.03) and cerebral infarction (7.0 ± 1.2 vs 5.9 ± 0.9; p = 0.007); however, no difference in MTT was found between patients with and without a poor outcome (mRS > 2). Early CBF and PS did not differ with respect to functional outcome, DCI, and cerebral infarction. Elevated MTT within 72 h of aneurysm rupture is associated with DCI and cerebral infarction but not with long-term functional outcome. Blood-brain barrier permeability, as assessed by CT perfusion, was not associated with DCI or worse outcome in this cohort. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral perfusion pressure and risk of brain hypoxia in severe head injury: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Caballos, Antonio J; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; Cayuela-Domínguez, Aurelio; Domínguez-Roldán, Jose M; Rincón-Ferrari, M Dolores; Valencia-Anguita, Julio; Flores-Cordero, Juan M; Muñoz-Sánchez, M Angeles

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Higher and lower cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) thresholds have been proposed to improve brain tissue oxygen pressure (PtiO2) and outcome. We study the distribution of hypoxic PtiO2 samples at different CPP thresholds, using prospective multimodality monitoring in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Methods This is a prospective observational study of 22 severely head injured patients admitted to a neurosurgical critical care unit from whom multimodality data was collected during standard management directed at improving intracranial pressure, CPP and PtiO2. Local PtiO2 was continuously measured in uninjured areas and snapshot samples were collected hourly and analyzed in relation to simultaneous CPP. Other variables that influence tissue oxygen availability, mainly arterial oxygen saturation, end tidal carbon dioxide, body temperature and effective hemoglobin, were also monitored to keep them stable in order to avoid non-ischemic hypoxia. Results Our main results indicate that half of PtiO2 samples were at risk of hypoxia (defined by a PtiO2 equal to or less than 15 mmHg) when CPP was below 60 mmHg, and that this percentage decreased to 25% and 10% when CPP was between 60 and 70 mmHg and above 70 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study indicates that the risk of brain tissue hypoxia in severely head injured patients could be really high when CPP is below the normally recommended threshold of 60 mmHg, is still elevated when CPP is slightly over it, but decreases at CPP values above it. PMID:16356218

  8. Assessment of the ability of myocardial contrast echocardiography with harmonic power Doppler imaging to identify perfusion abnormalities in patients with Kawasaki disease at rest and during dipyridamole stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M; Himeno, W; Sawa, M; Iemura, M; Furui, J; Muta, H; Sugahara, Y; Egami, K; Akagi, T; Ishibashi, M; Kato, H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the ability of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) with harmonic power Doppler imaging (HPDI) to identify perfusion abnormalities in patients with Kawasaki disease at rest and during pharmacological stress imaging with dipyridamole. Results were compared with those of 99mTc-tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging as the clinical reference standard. MCE with HPDI was performed on 20 patients with a history of Kawasaki disease. Images were obtained at baseline and during dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg x kg(-1)) in the apical two- and four-chamber views. Myocardial opacification suitable for the analysis was obtained in all patients. Nine patients with stenotic lesions had a reversible defect after dipyridamole infusion detected by both MCE with HPDI and SPECT, and 3 patients with a history of myocardial infarction had a partially or completely irreversible defect detected by both methods. Three patients with coronary aneurysm without stenotic lesion, 4 patients with regressed coronary aneurysm, and 2 patients with normal coronary artery in acute phase also had normal perfusion at rest and after pharmacological stress by both methods. A 96% concordance (kappa = 0.87) was obtained when comparing the respective segmental perfusion scores using the two methods at baseline, and an 86% concordance (kappa = 0.81) was obtained at postdipyridamole infusion. After combining baseline and postdipyridamole images, each segment was labeled as having normal perfusion, irreversible defects, or reversible defects. Using these classifications, concordance for the two methods was 92% (kappa = 0.87). MCE with HPDI is a safe and feasible method by which to detect asymptomatic ischemia due to severe stenotic lesion, and it may be an important addition to the modalities used to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction as a complication of Kawasaki disease.

  9. Hemodynamic segmentation of brain perfusion images with delay and dispersion effects using an expectation-maximization algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Lu

    Full Text Available Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified.

  10. Brain perfusion CT compared with {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Julie Marie; Paamand, Rune; Hoejgaard, Liselotte; Law, Ian [University of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kosteljanetz, Michael [University of Copenhagen, Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Broholm, Helle [University of Copenhagen, Department of Neuropathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with {sup 15}O-labelled water ({sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O). On the same day within a few hours, rCBF was measured in ten adult patients with treatment-naive primary brain tumours, twice using {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET and once with PCT performed over the central part of the tumour. Matching rCBF values in tumour and contralateral healthy regions of interest were compared. PCT overestimated intratumoural blood flow in all patients with volume-weighted mean rCBF values of 28.2 {+-} 18.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for PET and 78.9 {+-} 41.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for PCT. There was a significant method by tumour grade interaction with a significant tumour grade rCBF difference for PCT of 32.9 {+-} 15.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for low-grade (WHO I + II) and 81.5 {+-} 15.4 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for high-grade (WHO III + IV) tumours, but not for PET. The rCBF PCT and PET correlation was only significant within tumours in two patients. Although intratumoural blood flow measured by PCT may add valuable information on tumour grade, the method cannot substitute quantitative measurements of blood flow by PET and {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET in brain tumours. (orig.)

  11. A voxel-based analysis of cerebral perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kim, Chan Hyung; Lee, Hong Shick; Min, Sung Kil; Chung, Sang Sup [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Many neuroimaging studies, especially metabolic imaging with PET, showed a specific frontal-subcortical brain circuit connecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, elements of basal ganglia and thalamus is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite consistent metabolic alteration on PET, blood flow studies with SPECT were inconsistent and various cortical and subcortical structures showed abnormal perfusion patterns. In this study, brain SPECT images of seven patients with OCD were evaluated with a sophisticated method of statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients with severe, primary OCD (6 males and 1 female) with mean age of 25.4 4.7 yrs (20-32 yrs) were studied. The SPECT data of the patients were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with drug nave schizophrenia using SPM. The SPM parameters were p value of 0.001 with Z value of 3.09 (higher threshold ) or p value of 0.005 with Z value 2.58 (lower threshold). On a higher threshold (p<0.01),five of the seven patients showed hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex, however, hyperperfusion within OFC or caudate nucleus was seen in only one patient. On a lower threshold (p<0.005), hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was seen in all patients, and followed by thalamus (n=5), lentiform nucleus (n=4), caudate nucleus (n=3), and OFC (n=3). Perfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was also increased in OCD compared with drug nave schizophrenia. Anterior cingulate cortex appears to be an important anatomical structure in the pathogenesis of OCD symptoms. Brain SPECT using a sophisticated analysis method of SPM is useful for the diagnosis of OCD and differentiation from schizophrenia.

  12. Endocrine abnormalities after radiation therapy for brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aida, Toshimitsu; Sugimoto, Shinji; Abe, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Kenji; Matsuura, Nobuo (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    Endocrine evaluations were performed in 5 children, previously treated for brain tumors which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, who had received cranial irradiation 2 to 4 years earlier. Their rate of growth was considerably reduced during the year following the completion of cranial irradiation. Impaired growth hormone (GH) responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and to an arginine tolerance test (ATT) in 5 children. Three children had a prolonged response of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH). The remaining pituitary functions were essentially normal. Four children received human GH therapy. The growth rate of each was improved by GH therapy, but 2 of the 4 were still short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) below 2. Close monitoring of the growth and hormonal status of children with brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation is necessary, and the timing of the initiation of GH therapy is very important for partial or complete restoration of the normal growth rate. (author).

  13. scMRI reveals large-scale brain network abnormalities in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A Zielinski

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurological condition characterized by childhood onset of dysfunction in multiple cognitive domains including socio-emotional function, speech and language, and processing of internally versus externally directed stimuli. Although gross brain anatomic differences in autism are well established, recent studies investigating regional differences in brain structure and function have yielded divergent and seemingly contradictory results. How regional abnormalities relate to the autistic phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that autism exhibits distinct perturbations in network-level brain architecture, and that cognitive dysfunction may be reflected by abnormal network structure. Network-level anatomic abnormalities in autism have not been previously described. We used structural covariance MRI to investigate network-level differences in gray matter structure within two large-scale networks strongly implicated in autism, the salience network and the default mode network, in autistic subjects and age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls. We report specific perturbations in brain network architecture in the salience and default-mode networks consistent with clinical manifestations of autism. Extent and distribution of the salience network, involved in social-emotional regulation of environmental stimuli, is restricted in autism. In contrast, posterior elements of the default mode network have increased spatial distribution, suggesting a 'posteriorization' of this network. These findings are consistent with a network-based model of autism, and suggest a unifying interpretation of previous work. Moreover, we provide evidence of specific abnormalities in brain network architecture underlying autism that are quantifiable using standard clinical MRI.

  14. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neuroradiology; Reitz, Matthias; Schmidt, Nils O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurosurgery; Bolar, Divya S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States). Radiology; Adalsteinsson, Elfar [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2015-05-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml.kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s {sup and} -1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s {sup and} -1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s {sup and} 1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml.min {sup and} -1.100g {sup and} -1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood

  15. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Uematsu, Hidemasa; Maeda, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel...

  16. 3D movement correction of CT brain perfusion image data of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, Fahmi [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Sumatera Utara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Medan (Indonesia); Marquering, Henk A.; Streekstra, Geert J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borst, Jordi; Beenen, Ludo F.M.; Majoie, Charles B.L. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niesten, Joris M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); VanBavel, Ed [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the DUST study

    2014-06-15

    Head movement during CT brain perfusion (CTP) acquisition can deteriorate the accuracy of CTP analysis. Most CTP software packages can only correct in-plane movement and are limited to small ranges. The purpose of this study is to validate a novel 3D correction method for head movement during CTP acquisition. Thirty-five CTP datasets that were classified as defective due to head movement were included in this study. All CTP time frames were registered with non-contrast CT data using a 3D rigid registration method. Location and appearance of ischemic area in summary maps derived from original and registered CTP datasets were qualitative compared with follow-up non-contrast CT. A quality score (QS) of 0 to 3 was used to express the degree of agreement. Furthermore, experts compared the quality of both summary maps and assigned the improvement score (IS) of the CTP analysis, ranging from -2 (much worse) to 2 (much better). Summary maps generated from corrected CTP significantly agreed better with appearance of infarct on follow-up CT with mean QS 2.3 versus mean QS 1.8 for summary maps from original CTP (P = 0.024). In comparison to original CTP data, correction resulted in a quality improvement with average IS 0.8: 17 % worsened (IS = -2, -1), 20 % remained unchanged (IS = 0), and 63 % improved (IS = +1, +2). The proposed 3D movement correction improves the summary map quality for CTP datasets with severe head movement. (orig.)

  17. Caveat of measuring perfusion indexes using intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Chen, Ya-Fang; Yang, Shun-Chung; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2015-08-15

    To numerically and experimentally investigate the robustness of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging in measuring perfusion indexes in the human brain. Eighteen healthy volunteers were imaged on a 3 T clinical system. Data of IVIM imaging (12 b-values ranging from 0 to 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, 12 repetitions) were fitted with a bi-exponential model to extract blood volume fraction (f) and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*). The robustness of measurement was assessed by bootstrapping. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging and arterial spin-labelling (ASL) imaging were performed for cross-modal comparison. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the accuracy and precision of f and D* estimates at varied signal-to-noise ratio (SNR{sub b1000}). Based on our experimental setting (SNR{sub b1000} ∝ 30), the average error/variability is ∝ 5 %/25 % for f and ∝ 100 %/30 % for D* in gray matter, and ∝ 10 %/50 % for f and ∝ 300 %/60 % for D* in white matter. Correlation was found between f and DSC-derived cerebral blood volume in gray matter (r = 0.29 - 0.48 across subjects, p < 10{sup -5}), but not in white matter. No correlation was found between f-D* product and ASL-derived cerebral blood flow. f may provide noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood volume, particularly in gray matter. D* has limited robustness and should be interpreted with caution. (orig.)

  18. Reduction in radiation dose with reconstruction technique in the brain perfusion CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, H. K.; Song, H.; Ju, M. S.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.; Cho, M. S.; Cho, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The principal objective of this study was to verify the utility of the reconstruction imaging technique in the brain perfusion computed tomography (PCT) scan by assessing reductions in the radiation dose and analyzing the generated images. The setting used for image acquisition had a detector coverage of 40 mm, a helical thickness of 0.625 mm, a helical shuttle mode scan type and a rotation time of 0.5 s as the image parameters used for the brain PCT scan. Additionally, a phantom experiment and an animal experiment were carried out. In the phantom and animal experiments, noise was measured in the scanning with the tube voltage fixed at 80 kVp (kilovolt peak) and the level of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) was changed from 0% to 100% at 10% intervals. The standard deviation of the CT coefficient was measured three times to calculate the mean value. In the phantom and animal experiments, the absorbed dose was measured 10 times under the same conditions as the ones for noise measurement before the mean value was calculated. In the animal experiment, pencil-type and CT-dedicated ionization chambers were inserted into the central portion of pig heads for measurement. In the phantom study, as the level of the ASIR changed from 0% to 100% under identical scanning conditions, the noise value and dose were proportionally reduced. In our animal experiment, the noise value was lowest when the ASIR level was 50%, unlike in the phantom study. The dose was reduced as in the phantom study.

  19. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janušonis Skirmantas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia. The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene based on currently available clinical and

  20. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  1. Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sigi eHale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s continuous performance test (CPT. Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16-21 Hz asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p=.00001, and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls with beta asymmetry at temporal-parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample, and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: a EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, b unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and c the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings, again demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal-parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal-parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increases of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention.

  2. TU-AB-204-01: Advances in C-Arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This symposium highlights advanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) technologies in four areas of emerging application in diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. Each area includes research that extends the spatial, temporal, and/or contrast resolution characteristics of CBCT beyond conventional limits through advances in scanner technology, acquisition protocols, and 3D image reconstruction techniques. Dr. G. Chen (University of Wisconsin) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Brain Perfusion Imaging. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and a fraction of people having an acute ischemic stroke are suitable candidates for endovascular therapy. Critical factors that affect both the likelihood of successful revascularization and good clinical outcome are: 1) the time between stroke onset and revascularization; and 2) the ability to distinguish patients who have a small volume of irreversibly injured brain (ischemic core) and a large volume of ischemic but salvageable brain (penumbra) from patients with a large ischemic core and little or no penumbra. Therefore, “time is brain” in the care of the stroke patients. C-arm CBCT systems widely available in angiography suites have the potential to generate non-contrast-enhanced CBCT images to exclude the presence of hemorrhage, time-resolved CBCT angiography to evaluate the site of occlusion and collaterals, and CBCT perfusion parametric images to assess the extent of the ischemic core and penumbra, thereby fulfilling the imaging requirements of a “one-stop-shop” in the angiography suite to reduce the time between onset and revascularization therapy. The challenges and opportunities to advance CBCT technology to fully enable the one-stop-shop C-arm CBCT platform for brain imaging will be discussed. Dr. R. Fahrig (Stanford University) will present on the topic: Advances in C-arm CBCT for Cardiac Interventions. With the goal of providing functional information during cardiac interventions

  3. Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management.

  4. Diffusion tensor MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1: expanding the knowledge of microstructural brain abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L.; Muniz, Marcos P.; Souza, Antonio S. [Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio J. da [School Medical Sciences of the Santa Casa de Sao Paulo, Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goloni-Bertollo, Eny M.; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika C. [Center of Research and attendace in Neurofibromatosis (CEPAN) of Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary disease with a dominant autosomal pattern. In children and adolescents, it is frequently associated with the appearance of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the brain's white matter. MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to detect white matter abnormalities by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA). This study employed DTI to evaluate the relationship between FA patterns and the findings of T2 sequences, with the aim of improving our understanding of anatomical changes and microstructural brain abnormalities in individuals with NF1. Forty-four individuals with NF1 and 20 control subjects were evaluated. The comparative analysis of FA between NF1 and control groups was based on four predetermined anatomical regions of the brain hemispheres (basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, thalamus) and related the presence or absence of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the brain, which are called unidentified bright objects (UBOs). The FA values between the groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (P {<=} 0.05) for the cerebellum and thalamus in patients with NF1, independent of the occurrence of UBOs. Diffusion tensor MR imaging confirms the influence of UBOs in the decrease of FA values in this series of patients with NF1. Additionally, this technique allows the characterization of microstructural abnormalities even in some brain regions that appear normal in conventional MR sequences. (orig.)

  5. Impact of a single bout of aerobic exercise on regional brain perfusion and activation responses in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J MacIntosh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the generally accepted view that aerobic exercise can have positive effects on brain health, few studies have measured brain responses to exercise over a short time span. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact within one hour of a single bout of exercise on brain perfusion and neuronal activation. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 16; age range: 20-35 yrs were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI before and after 20 minutes of exercise at 70% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL was used to measure absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF prior to exercise (pre and at 10 min (post-10 and 40 min (post-40 post-exercise. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI was performed pre and post-exercise to characterize activation differences related to a go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: Compared to pre-exercise levels, grey matter CBF was 11% (±9% lower at post-10 (P<0.0004 and not different at post-40 (P = 0.12, while global WM CBF was increased at both time points post-exercise (P<0.0006. Regionally, the hippocampus and insula showed a decrease in perfusion in ROI-analysis at post-10 (P<0.005, FDR corrected, whereas voxel-wise analysis identified elevated perfusion in the left medial postcentral gyrus at post-40 compared to pre (pcorrected = 0.05. BOLD activations were consistent between sessions, however, the left parietal operculum showed reduced BOLD activation after exercise. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of regionalized brain effects associated with a single bout of aerobic exercise. The observed acute cerebrovascular responses may provide some insight into the brain's ability to change in relation to chronic interventions.

  6. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford C. Dickerson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other regions of the large-scale episodic memory network are affected early in the disease as well, and fMRI has begun to illuminate functional abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well in MCI and AD. Besides predictable hypoactivation of brain regions as they accrue pathology and undergo atrophy, there are also areas of hyperactivation in brain memory and cognitive circuits, possibly representing attempted compensatory activity. Recent fMRI data in MCI and AD are beginning to reveal relationships between abnormalities of functional activity in the MTL memory system and in functionally connected brain regions, such as the precuneus. Additional work with “resting state” fMRI data is illuminating functional-anatomic brain circuits and their disruption by disease. As this work continues to mature, it will likely contribute to our understanding of fundamental memory processes in the human brain and how these are perturbed in memory disorders. We hope these insights will translate into the incorporation of measures of task-related brain function into diagnostic assessment or therapeutic monitoring, which will hopefully one day be useful for demonstrating beneficial effects of treatments being tested in clinical trials.

  7. Myocardial perfusion abnormality and effects of Ca channel blockers on myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoko [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of myocardial ischemia and characteristic regions of myocardial hypoperfusion during stress in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, the effects of Ca channel blocker (verapamil, diltiazem) on myocardial ischemia were studied. One hundred patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl SPECT. Sixty-eight patients had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Of the 68 patients with {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 56 had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and 12 had fixed defect. {sup 201}Tl abnormalities were frequently distributed in the anterior and posterior areas of junction between the ventricular septum and the free wall and the apex. Of the 56 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 40 patients underwent one more exercise {sup 201}Tl SPECT after 8 weeks of oral administration of verapamil or diltiazem. The {sup 201}Tl defect was visually scored as the defect score. Transient dilation index was calculated as an index of subendocardial ischemia. The mean defect score decreased significantly from 9.80{+-}4.35 to 5.50{+-}4.63 after verapamil and from 9.90{+-}5.17 to 5.50{+-}4.89 after diltiazem. Mean transient dilation index decreased from 1.20{+-}0.12 to 1.08{+-}0.09 after treatment with verapamil and from 1.16{+-}0.10 to 1.02{+-}0.09 after treatment with diltiazem. (K.H.)

  8. Brain perfusion CT for acute stroke using a 256-slice CT: improvement of diagnostic information by large volume coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, F. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Muenzel, D.; Meier, R.; Rummeny, E.J.; Huber, A. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Poppert, H. [Technical University, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To compare a 256-slice CT with a simulated standard CT for brain CT perfusion (CTP). CTP was obtained in 51 patients using a 256-slice CT (128 detector rows, flying z-focus, 8-cm detector width, 80 kV, 120mAs, 20 measurements, 1 CT image/2.5 s). Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were compared in grey and white matter. Perfusion maps were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in hypoperfused areas and corresponding contralateral regions. Two reconstructed 10-mm slices for simulation of a standard CT (SDCT) were compared with the complete data sets (large-volume CT, LVCT). Adequate image quality was achieved in 50/51 cases. SNR were significantly different in grey and white matter. A perfusion deficit was present in 27 data sets. Differences between the hypoperfusions and the control regions were significant for MTT and CBF, but not for CBV. Three lesions were missed by SDCT but detected by LVCT; 24 lesions were covered incompletely by SDCT, and 6 by LVCT. 21 lesions were detected completely by LVCT, but none by SDCT. CTP imaging of the brain using an increased detector width can detect additional ischaemic lesions and cover most ischaemic lesions completely. (orig.)

  9. Accuracy of F-DOPA PET and perfusion-MRI for differentiating radionecrotic from progressive brain metastases after radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicone, Francesco; Papa, Annalisa; Scopinaro, Francesco [Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy). Unit of Nuclear Medicine; ' ' Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Surgical and Medicine Sciences and Translational Medicine; Minniti, Giuseppe; Scaringi, Claudia; Maurizi Enrici, Riccardo [' ' Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Surgical and Medicine Sciences and Translational Medicine; Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy). Unit of Radiotherapy; Romano, Andrea; Tavanti, Francesca; Bozzao, Alessandro [Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy). Unit of Neuroradiology; Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs (Ne.S.M.O.S.)

    2015-01-15

    We assessed the performance of 6-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-DOPA) PET for differentiating radionecrosis (RN) from tumour progression (PD) in a population of patients with brain metastases, treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. The accuracy of F-DOPA PET was compared with that of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (perfusion-MR). In 42 patients with a total of 50 brain metastases from various primaries F-DOPA PET/CT was performed because of suspected radiological progression at the site of previously irradiated brain metastasis. Several semiquantitative PET parameters were recorded, and their diagnostic accuracy was compared by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The diagnosis was established by either surgery or follow-up. A comparison was made between F-DOPA PET and perfusion-MR sequences acquired no more than 3 weeks apart. Definitive outcome was available in 46 of the 50 lesions (20 PD, 26 RN). Of the 46 lesions, 11 were surgically excised while in the remaining 35 lesions the diagnosis was established by radiological and clinical criteria. The best diagnostic performance was obtained using the semiquantitative PET parameter maximum lesion to maximum background uptake ratio (SUVL{sub max}/Bkgr{sub max}). With a cut-off value of 1.59, a sensitivity of 90 % and a specificity of 92.3 % were achieved in differentiating RN from PD lesions (accuracy 91.3 %). Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) derived from perfusion-MR was available for comparison in 37 of the 46 metastases. Overall accuracy of rCBV was lower than that of all semiquantitative PET parameters under study. The best differentiating rCBV cut-off value was 2.14; this yielded a sensitivity of 86.7 % and a specificity of 68.2 % (accuracy 75.6 %). F-DOPA PET is a highly accurate tool for differentiating RN from PD brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery. In this specific setting, F-DOPA PET seems to perform better than perfusion-MR. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of partial volume effects in arterial and venous contrast curves in CT brain perfusion imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Riordan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In brain CT perfusion (CTP, the arterial contrast bolus is scaled to have the same area under the curve (AUC as the venous outflow to correct for partial volume effects (PVE. This scaling is based on the assumption that large veins are unaffected by PVE. Measurement of the internal carotid artery (ICA, usually unaffected by PVE due to its large diameter, may avoid the need for partial volume correction. The aims of this work are to examine i the assumptions behind PVE correction and ii the potential of selecting the ICA obviating correction for PVE. METHODS: The AUC of the ICA and sagittal sinus were measured in CTP datasets from 52 patients. The AUCs were determined by i using commercial CTP software based on a Gaussian curve-fitting to the time attenuation curve, and ii by simple integration of the time attenuation curve over a time interval. In addition, frames acquired up to 3 minutes after first bolus passage were used to examine the ratio of arterial and venous enhancement. The impact of selecting the ICA without PVE correction was illustrated by reporting cerebral blood volume (CBV measurements. RESULTS: In 49 of 52 patients, the AUC of the ICA was significantly larger than that of the sagittal sinus (p = 0.017. Measured after the first pass bolus, contrast enhancement remained 50% higher in the ICA just after the first pass bolus, and 30% higher 3 minutes later. CBV measurements were significantly lowered when the ICA was used without PVE correction. CONCLUSIONS: Contradicting the assumptions underlying PVE correction, contrast in the ICA was significantly higher than in the sagittal sinus, even 3 minutes after the first pass of the contrast bolus. PVE correction might lead to overestimation of CBV if the CBV is calculated using the AUC of the time attenuation curves.

  11. Optimized Fuzzy Logic Based Segmentation for Abnormal MRI Brain Images Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Soesanti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an optimized fuzzy logic based segmentation for abnormal MRI brain images analysis is presented. A conventional fuzzy c-means (FCM technique does not use the spatial information in the image. In this research, we use a FCM algorithm that incorporates spatial information into the membership function for clustering. The FCM algorithm that incorporates spatial information into the membership function is used for clustering, while a conventional FCM algorithm does not fully utilize the spatial information in the image.The advantage of the technique is less sensitive to noise than the others. Originality of this research is focused in application of the technique on a normal and a glioma MRI brain images, and analysis of the area of abnormal mass from segmented images. The results show that the method effectively segmented MRI brain images, and the segmented normal and glioma MRI brain images can be analyzed for diagnosis purpose. The area of abnormal mass is identified from 7.15 to 19.41 cm2.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Effect of Acupuncture Signal after Brachial Plexus Blockade on Cerebral Blood Perfusion and Brain Cell Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENYong-gong; JIAShao-wei

    2003-01-01

    Objective:Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)to observe the influence of the up-transmitting of acupuncture signal into the brain in health volunteers whose nerve trunk was blocked by anesthetics.Methods:Thirty-one healthy volunteers were divided into two groups,the control group of 20 cases,and the brachial plexus blockade(BPB)group of 11cases,with supraclavicular BPB route adopted.With the control group 2 acupoints were randomly selected(Hegu and Quchi of both sides),while with the BPB group Hegu and Quchi of anesthetic arm side were selected.Siemens ECAM/ICON SPECT system was used to conduct brain imaging using double imaging assay before acupuncture and 99m Tc-ECD imaging agent during acupuncture for cerebral perfusion.The data were quantitatively ana-lyzed by blood functional changing rate (BFCR%) mathematics model.Results:Before acupuncture,the control and BPB groups showed insignificant change by SPECT, but after electro-acupuncture(EA),the control group displayed improved motor and sensory cortex excitability in basal nuclei,contra-lateral thal-amus,parietal and frontal lobe; while BPB group was characterized with reduction of the blood perfusion and cell function of contra-lateral thalamus of anesthetized arm.The difference between the two groups was significant(P<0.01).Conclusion:(1)After BPB,the up-transmitting of the acupuncture signal viaupper limb into the brain,and its strength was impaired or blocked; (2)After BPB, the effect of acupunc-ture on cerebral perfusion and brain cell function of contra-lateral thalamus was impaired or blocked.

  13. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Taieb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-01-15

    Neuro-imaging studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in fibromyalgia (FM) patients have reported only limited subcortical hypoperfusion. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT is known to provide better evaluation of areas of high cerebral blood flow and regional metabolic rate. We evaluated a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic patients with FM using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. The aim of this study was to investigate brain processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 49 years, range 25-63 years; American College of Rheumatology criteria) and ten healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Visual Analogue Scale score for pain was 82{+-}4 at the time of the SPECT study. Compared with control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis, with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. In the present study, performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in the sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective-attentional dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on the two components of pain, we hypothesise that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain processing recovery under treatment. (orig.)

  14. A non-linear regression method for CT brain perfusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennink, E.; Oosterbroek, J.; Viergever, M. A.; Velthuis, B. K.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2015-03-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) imaging allows for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Generation of perfusion maps from CTP data usually involves deconvolution algorithms providing estimates for the impulse response function in the tissue. We propose the use of a fast non-linear regression (NLR) method that we postulate has similar performance to the current academic state-of-art method (bSVD), but that has some important advantages, including the estimation of vascular permeability, improved robustness to tracer-delay, and very few tuning parameters, that are all important in stroke assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fast NLR method against bSVD and a commercial clinical state-of-art method. The three methods were tested against a published digital perfusion phantom earlier used to illustrate the superiority of bSVD. In addition, the NLR and clinical methods were also tested against bSVD on 20 clinical scans. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the tested methods. All three methods showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the ground truth in the phantom. With respect to the clinical scans, the NLR perfusion maps showed higher correlation with bSVD than the perfusion maps from the clinical method. Furthermore, the perfusion maps showed that the fast NLR estimates are robust to tracer-delay. In conclusion, the proposed fast NLR method provides a simple and flexible way of estimating perfusion parameters from CT perfusion scans, with high correlation coefficients. This suggests that it could be a better alternative to the current clinical and academic state-of-art methods.

  15. An abnormal resting-state functional brain network indicates progression towards Alzheimer’s disease*****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xiang; Hao Guo; Rui Cao; Hong Liang; Junjie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Brain structure and cognitive function change in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, and brain network-connection strength, network efficiency, and nodal attributes are abnormal. However, existing research has only analyzed the differences between these patients and normal controls. In this study, we constructed brain networks using resting-state functional MRI data that was extracted from four populations mal controls, patients with early mild cognitive impairment, patients with late mild cognitive impairment, and patients with Alzheimer’s disease) using the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data set. The aim was to analyze the characteristics of resting-state functional neural networks, and to observe mild cognitive impairment at different stages before the transformation to Alzheimer’s disease. Results showed that as cognitive deficits increased across the four groups, the shortest path in the rest-ing-state functional network gradual y increased, while clustering coefficients gradual y decreased. This evidence indicates that dementia is associated with a decline of brain network efficiency. In tion, the changes in functional networks revealed the progressive deterioration of network function across brain regions from healthy elderly adults to those with mild cognitive impairment and Alzhei-mer’s disease. The alterations of node attributes in brain regions may reflect the cognitive functions in brain regions, and we speculate that early impairments in memory, hearing, and language function can eventual y lead to diffuse brain injury and other cognitive impairments.

  16. Application of time sampling in brain CT perfusion imaging for dose reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. G.; Park, S. J.; Im, Jung Gi

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine a stable sampling rate not to be affected by sampling shift for reducing radiation exposure with time sampling and interpolation in cerebral perfusion CT examination. Original images were obtained every 1 second for 40 time series from 3 patients, respectively. Time sampling was performed with sampling intervals (SI) from 2 to 10 seconds. Sampling shift was applied from +1 to SI-1 for each sampling rate. For each patient, 30 tissue concentration time-course data were collected, and arterial input curves were fitted by gamma-variate function. The sinc function was introduced for interpolation. Deconvolution analysis based on SVD was performed for quantifying perfusion parameters. The perfusion values through time-varying sampling and interpolation were statistically compared with the original perfusion values. The mean CBF values with increase of sampling interval and shift magnitude from the collected data had a wider fluctuation pattern centering around the original mean CBF. The mean CBV values had a similar tendency to the mean CBF values, but a relatively narrower deviation. The mean MTT values were fluctuated reversely to the trend of the mean CBF values. The stable sampling interval for quantifying perfusion parameters with lower radiation exposure was statistically acceptable up to 4 seconds. These results indicate that sampling shift limits sampling rate for acquiring acceptable perfusion values. This study will help in selecting more reasonable sampling rate for low-radiation-dose CT examination.

  17. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  18. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  19. Automated Brain Image classification using Neural Network Approach and Abnormality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Muthu Krishnammal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation of surgical images plays an important role in diagnosis and analysis the anatomical structure of human body. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI helps in obtaining a structural image of internal parts of the body. This paper aims at developing an automatic support system for stage classification using learning machine and to detect brain Tumor by fuzzy clustering methods to detect the brain Tumor in its early stages and to analyze anatomical structures. The three stages involved are: feature extraction using GLCM and the tumor classification using PNN-RBF network and segmentation using SFCM. Here fast discrete curvelet transformation is used to analyze texture of an image which be used as a base for a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system .The Probabilistic Neural Network with radial basis function is employed to implement an automated Brain Tumor classification. It classifies the stage of Brain Tumor that is benign, malignant or normal automatically. Then the segmentation of the brain abnormality using Spatial FCM and the severity of the tumor is analysed using the number of tumor cells in the detected abnormal region.The proposed method reports promising results in terms of training performance and classification accuracies.

  20. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Peter; Xyda, Argyro; Knauth, Michael [University of Goettingen, Medical Center, Department of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst [Computed Tomography, SIEMENS Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Tronnier, Volker [University Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Neurosurgery, Luebeck (Germany); Hartmann, Marius [University of Heidelberg, Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K {sup Trans}). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p < 0.0001 for K {sup Trans}, p < 0.0001 for CBV and p = 0.0002 for CBF). Lymphomas displayed significantly increased mean K{sup Trans} values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K {sup Trans}. (orig.)

  1. Follow-up of pain processing recovery after ketamine in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia patients using brain perfusion ECD-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille, Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the follow-up of pain processing recovery in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia (FM) could be objectively evaluated with brain perfusion ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon computerized tomography (ECD-SPECT) after administration of ketamine. We enrolled 17 hyperalgesic FM women patients (48.5 {+-} 11 years, range 25-63). After treatment with subcutaneous ketamine, 11 patients were considered as 'good responders', with a decrease in pain intensity, evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), greater than 50%. On the other hand, six patients were considered as 'poor responders'. A voxel-based analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was conducted (p{sub voxel} < 0.001uc), in the two subgroups of patients, before and after treatment, in comparison to a group of ten healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. In comparison to baseline brain SPECT, midbrain rCBF showed a greater increase after ketamine in the responder group than in the nonresponder group (p{sub cluster} = 0.016c). In agreement with the clinical response, the change in midbrain rCBF after ketamine was highly correlated with the reduction of VAS pain score (r = 0.7182; p = 0.0041). This prospective study suggests that blockade of facilitatory descending modulation of pain with ketamine can be evaluated in the periaqueductal grey with brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  2. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T. G M; Hibar, D. P.; Rasmussen, J. M.; Glahn, D. C.; Pearlson, G. D.; Andreassen, O. A.; Agartz, I.; Westlye, L. T.; Haukvik, U. K.; Dale, A. M.; Melle, I.; Hartberg, C. B.; Gruber, O.; Kraemer, B.; Zilles, D.; Donohoe, G.; Kelly, S.; McDonald, C.; Morris, D. W.; Cannon, D. M.; Corvin, A.; Machielsen, M. W J; Koenders, L.; de Haan, L.; Veltman, D. J.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Wolf, D. H.; Gur, R. C.; Gur, R. E.; Potkin, S. G.; Mathalon, D. H.; Mueller, B. A.; Preda, A.; Macciardi, F.; Ehrlich, S.; Walton, E.; Hass, J.; Calhoun, V. D.; Bockholt, H. J.; Sponheim, S. R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; van Haren, N. E M; Pol, H. E H; Ophoff, R. A.; Kahn, R. S.; Roiz-Santiañez, R.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Wang, L.; Alpert, K. I.; Jönsson, E. G.; Dimitrova, R.; Bois, C.; Whalley, H. C.; McIntosh, A. M.; Lawrie, S. M.; Hashimoto, R.; Thompson, P. M.; Turner, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and 2

  3. Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumskaya, E.; Andriessen, T.; Norris, D.G.; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects, mat

  4. Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumskaya, A.N.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Norris, D.G.; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects, match

  5. Mapping the dynamics of brain perfusion using functional ultrasound in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clément; Isabel, Clothilde; Martin, Abraham; Dussaux, Clara; Savoye, Anne; Emmrich, Julius; Montaldo, Gabriel; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Urban, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, tissue outcome ranges from normal to infarcted depending on depth and duration of hypoperfusion as well as occurrence and efficiency of reperfusion. However, the precise time course of these changes in relation to tissue and behavioral outcome remains unsettled. To address these issues, a three-dimensional wide field-of-view and real-time quantitative functional imaging technique able to map perfusion in the rodent brain would be desirable. Here, we applied functional ultrasound imaging, a novel approach to map relative cerebral blood volume without contrast agent, in a rat model of brief proximal transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess perfusion in penetrating arterioles and venules acutely and over six days thanks to a thinned-skull preparation. Functional ultrasound imaging efficiently mapped the acute changes in relative cerebral blood volume during occlusion and following reperfusion with high spatial resolution (100 µm), notably documenting marked focal decreases during occlusion, and was able to chart the fine dynamics of tissue reperfusion (rate: one frame/5 s) in the individual rat. No behavioral and only mild post-mortem immunofluorescence changes were observed. Our study suggests functional ultrasound is a particularly well-adapted imaging technique to study cerebral perfusion in acute experimental stroke longitudinally from the hyper-acute up to the chronic stage in the same subject.

  6. NeuroGam Software Analysis in Epilepsy Diagnosis Using 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Gao, Jianqing; Jing, Jianmin; Pan, Liping; Li, Dongxue; Wei, Lingge

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the value of NeuroGam software in diagnosis of epilepsy by 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging. Material/Methods NeuroGam was used to analyze 52 cases of clinically proven epilepsy by 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging. The results were compared with EEG and MRI, and the positive rates and localization to epileptic foci were analyzed. Results NeuroGam analysis showed that 42 of 52 epilepsy cases were abnormal. 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging revealed ...

  7. Serial {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT for Assessing Perfusion Improvement after DEAS in Moyamoya Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Sang Hyung; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Kwark, Chul Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myoung Chul; Cho, Byoung Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) is a relatively new surgical procedure for treatment of childhood moyamoya disease. We assessed regional cerebral perfusion in moyamoya patients before (1.3 mo) and after (6.8 mo) EDAS with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. A total of 21 EDAS operations in 17 moyamoya patients was included. Preoperative CT or MRI showed cerebral infarction in 14 patients and carotid angiography showed Suzuki grade 1 to V stenosis in 6%, 9%, 62%, 12% and 12% of the hemispheres respectively. Preoperative SPECT showed regional hypoperfusion in all patients, bilateral frontal and temporal loves being the most frequently involved site. 4 X 4 pixel sized ROIs were applied on the frontotemmporal cortex in 3 slice averaged transverse tomographic images. An index of regional perfusion was measured as; PI (%)=average FT activity/average cerebellar activity X 100 Pre-EDAS ipsilateral PI ranged from 23.7 to 98.4% (mean:74.3 +- 17%) and increased significantly after operation (81.4 +- 17%, p<0.001). Individual post-EDAS PI improved in 15/21 cases, showed no significant change in 5 and was slightly aggravated in 1. The amount of clinical improvement XCI) was graded with a scale of 0 to 4 based on frequency and severity of TIA attacks. When patients were grouped according to pre-EDAS PI, group II (PI 70approx89) showed a significantly higher CI (3.3) compared to group I (PI<70, 1.57) of group III (PI>90, 0.5) (p<0.001). The amount of perfusion improvement (PI) showed significant correlation with CI (r-0.42, p=0.04). PI did not, however, correlate with the amount of neovascularization assessed angiographically in 8 patients. Serial HMPAO SPECT is an useful noninvasive study for assessing perfusion improvement after EDAS in childhood moyamoya patients.

  8. Color-coded perfused blood volume imaging using multidetector CT: initial results of whole-brain perfusion analysis in acute cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Fischer, Tobias; Fischbach, Roman; Heindel, Walter [University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Nabavi, Darius G.; Dittrich, Ralf; Ringelstein, E.B. [University of Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Ditt, Hendrik; Klotz, Ernst [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is still the primary imaging modality following acute stroke. To evaluate a prototype of software for the calculation of color-coded whole-brain perfused blood volume (PBV) images from CT angiography (CTA) and nonenhanced CT (NECT) scans, we studied 14 patients with suspected acute ischemia of the anterior cerebral circulation. PBV calculations were performed retrospectively. The detection rate of ischemic changes in the PBV images was compared with NECT. The volume of ischemic changes in PBV was correlated with the infarct volume on follow-up examination taking potential vessel recanalization into account. PBV demonstrated ischemic changes in 12/12 patients with proven infarction and was superior to NECT (8/12) in the detection of early ischemia. Moreover, PBV demonstrated the best correlation coefficient with the follow-up infarct volume (Pearson's R = 0.957; P = 0.003) for patients with proven recanalization of initially occluded cerebral arteries. In summary, PBV appears to be more accurate in the detection of early infarction compared to NECT and mainly visualizes the irreversibly damaged ischemic tissue. (orig.)

  9. Blood-Brain Barrier Abnormalities Caused by HIV-1 gp120: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Louboutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120 as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120, an experimental model of ongoing production of gp120] disrupted the BBB, and led to leakage of vascular contents. Gp120 was directly toxic to brain endothelial cells. Abnormalities of the BBB reflect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. These target laminin and attack the tight junctions between endothelial cells and BBB basal laminae. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated following gp120-injection. Gp120 reduced laminin and tight junction proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS activate MMPs. Injecting gp120 induced lipid peroxidation. Gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes protected against gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. NMDA upregulates the proform of MMP-9. Using the NMDA receptor (NMDAR-1 inhibitor, memantine, we observed partial protection from gp120-induced BBB injury. Thus, (1 HIV-envelope gp120 disrupts the BBB; (2 this occurs via lesions in brain microvessels, MMP activation and degradation of vascular basement membrane and vascular tight junctions; (3 NMDAR-1 activation plays a role in this BBB injury; and (4 antioxidant gene delivery as well as NMDAR-1 antagonists may protect the BBB.

  10. Effect of minimized perfusion circuit on brain injury markers carnosinase and brain-type fatty binding protein in coronary artery bypass grafting patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Dipak R; Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; El-Essawi, Aschraf; Harringer, Wolfgang; Brouwer, René M H

    2013-02-01

    A minimized perfusion circuit (MPC) has proven to be superior to the conventional circulatory perfusion bypass (CCPB) as it reduces the blood-material interaction and hemodilution. Until now not much is known about impact these different perfusion systems have on the brain. The objective of this study is to determine carnosinase and brain-type fatty binding protein (BFABP) activity as novel specific biomarkers for ischemic brain tissue damage and how their activity differs during and after MPC and CCPB as well as to compare the inflammatory response of both perfusion systems. In a prospective pilot study, 28 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly divided into an MPC group (n = 14) and a CCPB group (n = 14). Blood samples were taken before, during, and after operation until the fifth postoperative day. The brain biomarker carnosinase was determined by measuring the rate of histidine production from the substrate homocarnosine, whereas BFABP and interleukin-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C-reactive protein (CRP) and endothelin-1 were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The mean serum carnosinase activity was significantly higher in MPC (0.57 ± 0.34 nM histidine/mL/min) as compared with the CCPB group (0.36 ± 0.13 nM histidine/mL/min) at the end of operation (P = 0.02). The BFABP did not show any difference between the two groups in the immediate postoperative period until the second postoperative day. From that time point onward, it showed a steep increase in the CCPB group (581.3 ± 157.11 pg/mL) as compared with the concentrations in the MPC group (384.6 ± 39 pg/mL) (P = 0.04). The inflammation markers interleukin-6 and CRP showed a similar pattern in both groups without significant difference. In contrast, the leukocyte count on operation day and endothelin-1 on the first postoperative day were significantly higher in the CCPB group (P = 0.01, P = 0

  11. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu eXiangzhe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are almost unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs, followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized shortest path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing the functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  12. Brain perfusion and VEP reactivity in occipital and parietal areas are associated to recovery from hypoxic vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Helmut; Happe, Svenja; Deutschmann, Angelika; Basar-Eroglu, Canan; Eling, Paul; Brunhöber, Jens

    2007-09-15

    Patients in a vegetative state (VS) show a spontaneous wake-sleep-cycle but no evidence of awareness, of interaction with the environment, voluntary action, and language comprehension. The neuropathological conditions underlying VS are still not fully understood. In this retrospective study we focused on VS due to hypoxia and used SPECT, VEP and event related potentials (N100, N200, MMN, and P300) to assess differences between a group of patients moving into a permanent VS (n=13) and a group recovering from VS (n=8). The two groups were matched for age, gender, duration of illness, and on the coma remission scale at admission. The patient groups differed in global uptake of (99m)Tc-ethylencysteine dimer (being reduced in non-recovered VS patients to 2/3 of the recovered group), and in presence of VEP and N100 (recovered patients always had a present VEP and N100). Moreover, analysis of uptake in specific brain areas showed that the recovered group had a higher perfusion in the visual cortex and in the precuneus, whereas no differences were found in the frontal pole and more ventral parts of the brain. Statistical testing revealed a strong association between occipital and parietal perfusion and the presence of a VEP, but no specific results for the N100. We conclude that occipital and parietal lobe perfusion and rudimentary vision may be critical characteristics distinguishing between VS and patients recovered from VS. Although this may just reflect haemodynamics during hypoxia leading to differences in severity of VS, it also may be regarded as a functional precondition for orientation towards stimuli and therefore for conscious actions in general.

  13. Differentiation of solitary brain metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme: a predictive multiparametric approach using combined MR diffusion and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Adam Herman; Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Erly, William; Nael, Kambiz [University of Arizona Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Solitary brain metastasis (MET) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can appear similar on conventional MRI. The purpose of this study was to identify magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and diffusion-weighted biomarkers that can differentiate MET from GBM. In this retrospective study, patients were included if they met the following criteria: underwent resection of a solitary enhancing brain tumor and had preoperative 3.0 T MRI encompassing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion. Using co-registered images, voxel-based fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), K{sup trans}, and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were obtained in the enhancing tumor and non-enhancing peritumoral T2 hyperintense region (NET2). Data were analyzed by logistic regression and analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter/s and threshold for predicting of GBM vs. MET. Twenty-three patients (14 M, age 32-78 years old) met our inclusion criteria. Pathology revealed 13 GBMs and 10 METs. In the enhancing tumor, rCBV, K{sup trans}, and FA were higher in GBM, whereas MD was lower, neither without statistical significance. In the NET2, rCBV was significantly higher (p = 0.05) in GBM, but MD was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in GBM. FA and K{sup trans} were higher in GBM, though not reaching significance. The best discriminative power was obtained in NET2 from a combination of rCBV, FA, and MD, resulting in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. The combination of MR diffusion and perfusion matrices in NET2 can help differentiate GBM over solitary MET with diagnostic accuracy of 98 %. (orig.)

  14. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium

    OpenAIRE

    van Erp, T. G. M.; Hibar, D.P.; Rasmussen, J M; Glahn, D. C.; Pearlson, G.D.; Andreassen, O.A.; Agartz, I; Westlye, L T; Haukvik, U K; Dale, A. M.; Melle, I.; Hartberg, C B; Gruber, O.; Kraemer, B; Zilles, D.

    2015-01-01

    IN_PRESS The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and 2540 healthy controls, assessed with standardized methods at 15 centers worldwide. We identified subcortical brain volumes that differentiated patients from controls, and ranked them acc...

  15. Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1ρ maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1ρ values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1ρ abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1ρ mapping in psychiatric research.

  16. Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Serafini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, brain white matter (WM abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and MDD/suicidal behavior. Microstructural WM abnormalities may be located in neural circuits critically implicated in emotional processes and mood regulation resulting in enhanced vulnerability to psychiatric morbidity. WM abnormalities detected using DTI may contribute to functional deficits and help to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD as well as suicidal behavior. By a clinical point of view, research also suggested that affective temperaments may play a relevant role in the psychopathological characteristics of mood disorders, clinical trajectory of episodes and polarity, long-term outcome and suicidality. Unfortunately, only few studies investigated the association between affective temperaments and WM abnormalities and discussed their possible implications in patients with MDD and suicidal behavior. Using a comprehensive search of Medline database, the aim of the present study was to critically review the current literature on the association between WM alterations as assessed by MRI and DTI techniques, affective temperaments, MDD and suicidal behavior.

  17. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-04-30

    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening.

  18. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  19. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  20. Abnormal functional MRI BOLD contrast in the vegetative state after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelmann, Volker; Lippert-Grüner, Marcela; Rommel, Thomas; Wedekind, Christoph

    2010-06-01

    For the rehabilitation process, the treatment of patients surviving brain injury in a vegetative state is still a serious challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate patients exhibiting severely disturbed consciousness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five cases of posttraumatic vegetative state and one with minimal consciousness close to the vegetative state were studied clinically, electrophysiologically, and by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Visual, sensory, and acoustic paradigms were used for stimulation. In three patients examined less than 2 months after trauma, a consistent decrease in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal ('negative activation') was observed for visual stimulation; one case even showed a decrease in BOLD activation for all three activation paradigms. In the remaining three cases examined more than 6 months after trauma, visual stimulation yielded positive BOLD contrast or no activation. In all cases, sensory stimulation was followed by a decrease in BOLD signal or no activation, whereas auditory stimulation failed to elicit any activation with the exception of one case. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the vegetative state indicates retained yet abnormal brain function; this abnormality can be attributed to the impairment of cerebral vascular autoregulation or an increase in the energy consumption of activated neocortex in severe traumatic brain injury.

  1. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

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    Melrose Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astroglia from two different rat brain regions, cortex (region affected in AD and cerebellum (unaffected region, were treated with 0.2 mM of palmitic acid. The conditioned media were then transferred to the cortical neurons to study the possible effects on the two main, AD-associated protein abnormalities, viz. BACE1 upregulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The conditioned media from palmitic-acid treated cortical astroglia, but not the cerebellar astroglia, significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated tau and BACE1 in cortical neurons as compared to controls (47 ± 7% and 45 ± 4%, respectively. Conclusion The present data provide an experimental explanation for the region-specific damage observed in AD brain; higher fatty acid-metabolizing capacity of cortical astroglia as compared to cerebellar astroglia, may play a causal role in increasing vulnerability of cortex in AD, while sparing cerebellum.

  2. Abnormal brain connectivity patterns in adults with ADHD: a coherence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    Full Text Available Studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the resting state have shown decreased functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD relative to subjects with typical development (TD. Most studies used Pearson correlation coefficients among the BOLD signals from different brain regions to quantify functional connectivity. Since the Pearson correlation analysis only provides a limited description of functional connectivity, we investigated functional connectivity between the dACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in three groups (adult patients with ADHD, n=21; TD age-matched subjects, n=21; young TD subjects, n=21 using a more comprehensive analytical approach - unsupervised machine learning using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM that quantifies an abnormality index for each individual. The median abnormality index for patients with ADHD was greater than for TD age-matched subjects (p=0.014; the ADHD and young TD indices did not differ significantly (p=0.480; the median abnormality index of young TD was greater than that of TD age-matched subjects (p=0.016. Low frequencies below 0.05 Hz and around 0.20 Hz were the most relevant for discriminating between ADHD patients and TD age-matched controls and between the older and younger TD subjects. In addition, we validated our approach using the fMRI data of children publicly released by the ADHD-200 Competition, obtaining similar results. Our findings suggest that the abnormal coherence patterns observed in patients with ADHD in this study resemble the patterns observed in young typically developing subjects, which reinforces the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with brain maturation deficits.

  3. Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Zika Virus: What the Radiologist Can Expect to See Prenatally and Postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Patricia; Levine, Deborah; Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Batista, Alba Gean M; Chimelli, Leila; Tanuri, Amilcar; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Malinger, Gustavo; Ximenes, Renato; Robertson, Richard; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To document the imaging findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection as found in the Instituto de Pesquisa in Campina Grande State Paraiba (IPESQ) in northeastern Brazil, where the congenital infection has been particularly severe. Materials and Methods From June 2015 to May 2016, 438 patients were referred to the IPESQ for rash occurring during pregnancy or for suspected fetal central nervous system abnormality. Patients who underwent imaging at IPESQ were included, as well as those with documented Zika virus infection in fluid or tissue (n = 17, confirmed infection cohort) or those with brain findings suspicious for Zika virus infection, with intracranial calcifications (n = 28, presumed infection cohort). Imaging examinations included 12 fetal magnetic resonance (MR) examinations, 42 postnatal brain computed tomographic examinations, and 11 postnatal brain MR examinations. Images were reviewed by four radiologists, with final opinion achieved by means of consensus. Results Brain abnormalities seen in confirmed (n = 17) and presumed (n = 28) congenital Zika virus infections were similar, with ventriculomegaly in 16 of 17 (94%) and 27 of 28 (96%) infections, respectively; abnormalities of the corpus callosum in 16 of 17 (94%) and 22 of 28 (78%) infections, respectively; and cortical migrational abnormalities in 16 of 17 (94%) and 28 of 28 (100%) infections, respectively. Although most fetuses underwent at least one examination that showed head circumference below the 5th percentile, head circumference could be normal in the presence of severe ventriculomegaly (seen in three fetuses). Intracranial calcifications were most commonly seen at the gray matter-white matter junction, in 15 of 17 (88%) and 28 of 28 (100%) confirmed and presumed infections, respectively. The basal ganglia and/or thalamus were also commonly involved with calcifications in 11 of 17 (65%) and 18 of 28 (64%) infections, respectively. The skull frequently had a collapsed

  4. Abnormal expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in brain glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    positive expressions of both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein. Automatic imaging analytic system was used to quantitatively analyze staining results of tumor.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To compare the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in brain glioma tissues and non-tumor brain tissues and investigate the effect of various sexes, ages,survival periods and severities on the expressions of them in brain tissues.RESULTS: There was no significant difference of sexes and ages in the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein (P > 0.05); however, the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein were milder in non-tumor brain tissues than those in the brain glioma tissues (P < 0.05).Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in brain tissue of grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ severity was stronger than that of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ severity, and the expression in ≥ 5-year survival periods were also stronger than that in < 5-year survival periods (P < 0.05). In addition, expression of P27 protein in brain tissue of grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ severity was stronger than that of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ severity, and the expression in ≥ 5-year survival periods were also stronger than that in < 5-year survival periods (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Abnormal expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in human brain glioma are closely related to onset, development and prognosis of tumor.

  5. Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Peschel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Krueger, Tillmann H C

    2007-11-01

    Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques. Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted to females) and 24 healthy age-matched control subjects (12 hetero- and 12 homosexual) from a comparable socioeconomic stratum were processed by using optimized automated voxel-based morphometry within multiple linear regression analyses. Compared to the homosexual and heterosexual control subjects, pedophiles showed decreased gray matter volume in the ventral striatum (also extending into the nucl. accumbens), the orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum. These observations further indicate an association between frontostriatal morphometric abnormalities and pedophilia. In this respect these findings may support the hypothesis that there is a shared etiopathological mechanism in all obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

  6. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Rita W; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Korhonen, Essi M; Kuivanen, Suvi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Smura, Teemu; Rosenberg, Avi; Hill, D Ashley; DeBiasi, Roberta L; Vezina, Gilbert; Timofeev, Julia; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Levanov, Lev; Razak, Jennifer; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew; Kennedy, Richard; Lanciotti, Robert; du Plessis, Adre; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-06-02

    The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated.

  7. Abnormal structural connectivity in the brain networks of children with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Weihong; Holland, Scott K; Shimony, Joshua S; Altaye, Mekibib; Mangano, Francesco T; Limbrick, David D; Jones, Blaise V; Nash, Tiffany; Rajagopal, Akila; Simpson, Sarah; Ragan, Dustin; McKinstry, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly in children with hydrocephalus are known to have adverse effects on white matter structure. This study seeks to investigate the impact of hydrocephalus on topological features of brain networks in children. The goal was to investigate structural network connectivity, at both global and regional levels, in the brains in children with hydrocephalus using graph theory analysis and diffusion tensor tractography. Three groups of children were included in the study (29 normally developing controls, 9 preoperative hydrocephalus patients, and 17 postoperative hydrocephalus patients). Graph theory analysis was applied to calculate the global network measures including small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficients, normalized characteristic path length, global efficiency, and modularity. Abnormalities in regional network parameters, including nodal degree, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality, were also compared between the two patients groups (separately) and the controls using two tailed t-test at significance level of p hydrocephalus in both the preoperative and postoperative groups were found to have significantly lower small-worldness and lower normalized clustering coefficient than controls. Children with hydrocephalus in the postoperative group were also found to have significantly lower normalized characteristic path length and lower modularity. At regional level, significant group differences (or differences at trend level) in regional network measures were found between hydrocephalus patients and the controls in a series of brain regions including the medial occipital gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, rectal gyrus, caudate, cuneus, and insular. Our data showed that structural connectivity analysis using graph theory and diffusion tensor tractography is sensitive to detect abnormalities of brain network connectivity associated with

  8. Abnormal structural connectivity in the brain networks of children with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly in children with hydrocephalus are known to have adverse effects on white matter structure. This study seeks to investigate the impact of hydrocephalus on topological features of brain networks in children. The goal was to investigate structural network connectivity, at both global and regional levels, in the brains in children with hydrocephalus using graph theory analysis and diffusion tensor tractography. Three groups of children were included in the study (29 normally developing controls, 9 preoperative hydrocephalus patients, and 17 postoperative hydrocephalus patients. Graph theory analysis was applied to calculate the global network measures including small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficients, normalized characteristic path length, global efficiency, and modularity. Abnormalities in regional network parameters, including nodal degree, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality, were also compared between the two patients groups (separately and the controls using two tailed t-test at significance level of p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparison. Children with hydrocephalus in both the preoperative and postoperative groups were found to have significantly lower small-worldness and lower normalized clustering coefficient than controls. Children with hydrocephalus in the postoperative group were also found to have significantly lower normalized characteristic path length and lower modularity. At regional level, significant group differences (or differences at trend level in regional network measures were found between hydrocephalus patients and the controls in a series of brain regions including the medial occipital gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, rectal gyrus, caudate, cuneus, and insular. Our data showed that structural connectivity analysis using graph theory and diffusion tensor tractography is sensitive to

  9. Lesion area detection using source image correlation coefficient for CT perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan Zhu; Rodriguez Gonzalez, David; Carpenter, Trevor; Atkinson, Malcolm; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    Computer tomography (CT) perfusion imaging is widely used to calculate brain hemodynamic quantities such as cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time that aid the diagnosis of acute stroke. Since perfusion source images contain more information than hemodynamic maps, good utilization of the source images can lead to better understanding than the hemodynamic maps alone. Correlation-coefficient tests are used in our approach to measure the similarity between healthy tissue time-concentration curves and unknown curves. This information is then used to differentiate penumbra and dead tissues from healthy tissues. The goal of the segmentation is to fully utilize information in the perfusion source images. Our method directly identifies suspected abnormal areas from perfusion source images and then delivers a suggested segmentation of healthy, penumbra, and dead tissue. This approach is designed to handle CT perfusion images, but it can also be used to detect lesion areas in magnetic resonance perfusion images.

  10. Assessment of Hyperperfusion by Brain Perfusion SPECT in Transient Neurological Deterioration after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Eo, Jae Sun; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Won Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Transient neurological deterioration (TND) is one of the complications after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery, and it has been assumed to be caused by postoperative transient hyperperfusion. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between TND and preoperative and postoperative cerebral perfusion status on brain perfusion SPECT following superficial temporal artery.middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis surgery. A total of 60 STA-MCA anastomosis surgeries of 56 patients (mean age: 50{+-}16 yrs; M:F=29:27; atherosclerotic disease: 33, moyamoya disease: 27) which were done between September 2003 and July 2006 were enrolled. The resting cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) after acetazolamide challenge were measured before and 10 days after surgery using 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT. Moreover, the cerebral perfusion was measured on the third postoperative day. With the use of the statistical parametric mapping and probabilistic brain atlas, the counts for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were calculated for each image, and statistical analyses were performed. In 6 of 60 cases (10%), TND occurred after surgery. In all patients, the preoperative cerebral perfusion of affected MCA territory was significantly lower than that of contralateral side (p=0.002). The cerebral perfusion on the third and tenth day after surgery was significantly higher than preoperative cerebral perfusion (p=0.001, p=0.02). In TND patients, basal cerebral perfusion and CVR on preoperative SPECT were significantly lower than those of non-TND patients (p=0.01, p=0.05). Further, the increases in cerebral perfusion on the third day after surgery were significant higher than those in other patients (p=0.008). In patients with TND, the cerebral perfusion ratio of affected side to contralateral side on third postoperative day was significantly higher than that of other patients (p=0.002). However, there was no significant difference of

  11. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

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    Ganeshan, Balaji [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gurling, Hugh M.D. [University College London, Department of Mental Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  12. Intrinsic brain network abnormalities in migraines without aura revealed in resting-state fMRI.

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    Ting Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have defined low-frequency, spatially consistent intrinsic connectivity networks (ICN in resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data which reflect functional interactions among distinct brain areas. We sought to explore whether and how repeated migraine attacks influence intrinsic brain connectivity, as well as how activity in these networks correlates with clinical indicators of migraine. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting-state fMRI data in twenty-three patients with migraines without aura (MwoA and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC were analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA, in combination with a "dual-regression" technique to identify the group differences of three important pain-related networks [default mode network (DMN, bilateral central executive network (CEN, salience network (SN] between the MwoA patients and HC. Compared with the HC, MwoA patients showed aberrant intrinsic connectivity within the bilateral CEN and SN, and greater connectivity between both the DMN and right CEN (rCEN and the insula cortex - a critical region involving in pain processing. Furthermore, greater connectivity between both the DMN and rCEN and the insula correlated with duration of migraine. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may provide new insights into the characterization of migraine as a condition affecting brain activity in intrinsic connectivity networks. Moreover, the abnormalities may be the consequence of a persistent central neural system dysfunction, reflecting cumulative brain insults due to frequent ongoing migraine attacks.

  13. Brain Microstructural Abnormalities Are Related to Physiological Alterations in End-Stage Renal Disease.

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    Zhigang Bai

    Full Text Available To study whole-brain microstructural alterations in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and examine the relationship between brain microstructure and physiological indictors in the disease.Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 35 patients with ESRD (28 men, 18-61 years and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs, 32 men, 22-58 years. A voxel-wise analysis was then used to identify microstructural alterations over the whole brain in the ESRD patients compared with the HCs. Multiple biochemical measures of renal metabolin, vascular risk factors, general cognitive ability and dialysis duration were correlated with microstructural integrity for the patients.Compared to the HCs, the ESRD patients exhibited disrupted microstructural integrity in not only white matter (WM but also gray matter (GM regions, as characterized by decreased fractional anisotropy (FA and increased mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (AD and radial diffusivity (RD. Further correlation analyses revealed that the in MD, AD and RD values showed significantly positive correlations with the blood urea nitrogen in the left superior temporal gyrus and significantly negative correlations with the calcium levels in the left superior frontal gyrus (orbital part in the patients.Our findings suggest that ESRD is associated with widespread diffusion abnormalities in both WM and GM regions in the brain, and microstructural integrity of several GM regions are related to biochemical alterations in the disease.

  14. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  15. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Target of rapamycin (TOR was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mTOR (mammalian TOR. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system (CNS, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development.

  16. Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene M F; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype-phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7 Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies.

  17. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

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    Jasmeet P. Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI. The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1 a region-specific analysis and 2 a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of

  18. Pharmacological assessment of ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution for cerebrospinal surgery using primary cultures of rat brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Doi, Kazuhisa; Kishimoto, Sanae; Koshitani, Osamu; Naito, Shinsaku; Yamauchi, Aiko

    2010-08-01

    ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution (Artcereb), an ethical pharmaceutical, is typically applied inside the skull and spinal cavity as artificial fluid. Artcereb is composed of glucose and electrolytes (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3- and P) and has a pH of 7.3. An in vitro assessment of the effects of Artcereb on cell culture of rat fetal astrocytes or rat fetal brain cells was performed in comparison with normal saline and lactated Ringer's solutions. Furthermore, the effects of Artcereb on cell culture of rat fetal brain cells were also assessed in comparison with Krebs bicarbonate solution. Cell function after exposure to Artcereb was assessed based on 3H-thymidine incorporation activity. Cell function after exposure to Artcereb and lactated Ringer's solution in primary cultures of rat fetal astrocytes remained unaffected when compared to that after exposure to normal saline. Cell function after exposure to Artcereb in a primary culture of rat brain cells remained unaffected as compared to that after exposure to normal saline and lactated Ringer's solution. However, function decreased after exposure to a modified Artcereb formulation lacking bicarbonate, thus confirming that the presence of bicarbonate is essential for the Artcereb formulation.

  19. Comparison of Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Cerebral Perfusion Computed Tomography in Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Alexey O; Kalentiev, George; Voennov, Oleg; Grigoryeva, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and cerebral blood volume in patients with traumatic brain injury. Perfusion computed tomography of the brain was performed in 25 patients with traumatic brain injury together with simultaneous SctO2 level measurement using cerebral near-infrared oxymetry. The mean age of the injured persons was 34.5±15.6 years (range 15-65); 14 men, 11 women. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) values were 44.4±9.7 (range 25-81). The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) mean value before the study was 10.6±2.1 (range 5-13). SctO2 ranged from 51 to 89%, mean 62±8.2%. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were 2.1±0.67 ml/100 g (min 1.1; max 4.3 ml/100 g). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 31.99±13.6 ml/100 g×min. Mean transit time (MTT) values were 5.7±4.5 s (min 2.8; max 34.3 s). The time to peak (TTP) was 22.2±3.1 s. A statistically significant correlation was found between SctO2 level and cerebral blood volume (CBV) level (R=0.9; pperfusion.

  20. Comparative value of brain perfusion SPECT and [{sup 123}I]MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in distinguishing between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

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    Hanyu, Haruo; Shimizu, Soichiro; Hirao, Kentaro; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Chikamori, Taishiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yamashina, Akira [Tokyo Medical University, 2. Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Both decreased occipital perfusion on brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and reduction in cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake are characteristic features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and potentially support the clinical diagnosis of DLB. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of these two methods for differentiation of DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study population comprised 19 patients with probable DLB and 39 patients with probable AD who underwent both SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. Objective and quantitative measurement of perfusion in the medial occipital lobe, including the cuneus and lingual gyrus, was performed by the use of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections. Medial occipital perfusion was significantly decreased in the DLB group compared with the AD group. The mean heart/mediastinum ratios of MIBG uptake were significantly lower in the DLB group than in the AD group. Although SPECT failed to demonstrate significant hypoperfusion in the medial occipital lobe in five patients with DLB, marked reduction of MIBG uptake was found in all patients with DLB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that MIBG myocardial scintigraphy enabled more accurate discrimination between DLB and AD than was possible with perfusion SPECT. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may improve the sensitivity in the detection of DLB. In particular, this method may provide a powerful differential diagnostic tool when it is difficult to distinguish cases of DLB from AD using brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  1. Early Cerebral Circulation Disturbance in Patients Suffering from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Xenon CT and Perfusion CT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONDA, Mitsuru; ICHIBAYASHI, Ryo; YOKOMURO, Hiroki; YOSHIHARA, Katsunori; MASUDA, Hiroyuki; HAGA, Daisuke; SEIKI, Yoshikatsu; KUDOH, Chiaki; KISHI, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is widely known to cause dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Ischemia is a common and deleterious secondary injury following TBI. Detecting early ischemia in TBI patients is important to prevent further advancement and deterioration of the brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cerebral circulatory disturbance during the early phase and whether it can be used to predict patient outcome. A total of 90 patients with TBI underwent a xenon-computed tomography (Xe-CT) and subsequently perfusion CT to evaluate the cerebral circulation on days 1–3. We measured CBF using Xe-CT and mean transit time (MTT: the width between two inflection points [maximum upward slope and maximum downward slope from inflow to outflow of the contrast agent]) using perfusion CT and calculated the cerebral blood volume (CBV) using the AZ-7000W98 computer system. The relationships of the hemodynamic parameters CBF, MTT, and CBV to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were examined. There were no significant differences in CBF, MTT, and CBV among GCS3–4, GCS5–6, and GCS7–8 groups. The patients with a favorable outcome (GR and MD) had significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than those with an unfavorable one (SD, VS, or D). The discriminant analysis of these parameters could predict patient outcome with a probability of 70.6%. During the early phase, CBF reduction and MTT prolongation might influence the clinical outcome of TBI. These parameters are helpful for evaluating the severity of cerebral circulatory disturbance and predicting the outcome of TBI patients. PMID:27356957

  2. Early Cerebral Circulation Disturbance in Patients Suffering from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Xenon CT and Perfusion CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuru; Ichibayashi, Ryo; Yokomuro, Hiroki; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Haga, Daisuke; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Kudoh, Chiaki; Kishi, Taichi

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is widely known to cause dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Ischemia is a common and deleterious secondary injury following TBI. Detecting early ischemia in TBI patients is important to prevent further advancement and deterioration of the brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cerebral circulatory disturbance during the early phase and whether it can be used to predict patient outcome. A total of 90 patients with TBI underwent a xenon-computed tomography (Xe-CT) and subsequently perfusion CT to evaluate the cerebral circulation on days 1-3. We measured CBF using Xe-CT and mean transit time (MTT: the width between two inflection points [maximum upward slope and maximum downward slope from inflow to outflow of the contrast agent]) using perfusion CT and calculated the cerebral blood volume (CBV) using the AZ-7000W98 computer system. The relationships of the hemodynamic parameters CBF, MTT, and CBV to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were examined. There were no significant differences in CBF, MTT, and CBV among GCS3-4, GCS5-6, and GCS7-8 groups. The patients with a favorable outcome (GR and MD) had significantly higher CBF and lower MTT than those with an unfavorable one (SD, VS, or D). The discriminant analysis of these parameters could predict patient outcome with a probability of 70.6%. During the early phase, CBF reduction and MTT prolongation might influence the clinical outcome of TBI. These parameters are helpful for evaluating the severity of cerebral circulatory disturbance and predicting the outcome of TBI patients.

  3. Use of CT perfusion to discriminate between brain metastases from different primaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgushin, Mikhail B; Pronin, Igor N; Holodny, Elena A; Fadeeva, Liudmila M; Holodny, Andrei I; Kornienko, Valeri N

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-six metastases in 22 patients were studied prospectively using computed tomography perfusion. Regions of interests were drawn around: the enhancing part of the tumor, necrotic central part, periphery, peritumoral edema, and normal white matter. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time were calculated for each zone. The enhancing part of the tumor significantly differed from the other zones in 11 of 12. Metastases of different primaries can be differentiated from one another with statistically significance (Pperfusion parameter in 57% of cases.

  4. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Weiberg, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD.

  5. Abnormal resting-state brain activities in patients with first-episode obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qihui; Yang, Lei; Song, Xueqin; Chu, Congying; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiang; Cheng, Jingliang; Li, Youhui

    2017-01-01

    Objective This paper attempts to explore the brain activity of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its correlation with the disease at resting duration in patients with first-episode OCD, providing a forceful imaging basis for clinic diagnosis and pathogenesis of OCD. Methods Twenty-six patients with first-episode OCD and 25 healthy controls (HC group; matched for age, sex, and education level) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at resting state. Statistical parametric mapping 8, data processing assistant for resting-state fMRI analysis toolkit, and resting state fMRI data analysis toolkit packages were used to process the fMRI data on Matlab 2012a platform, and the difference of regional homogeneity (ReHo) values between the OCD group and HC group was detected with independent two-sample t-test. With age as a concomitant variable, the Pearson correlation analysis was adopted to study the correlation between the disease duration and ReHo value of whole brain. Results Compared with HC group, the ReHo values in OCD group were decreased in brain regions, including left thalamus, right thalamus, right paracentral lobule, right postcentral gyrus, and the ReHo value was increased in the left angular gyrus region. There was a negative correlation between disease duration and ReHo value in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Conclusion OCD is a multifactorial disease generally caused by abnormal activities of many brain regions at resting state. Worse brain activity of the OFC is related to the OCD duration, which provides a new insight to the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:28243104

  6. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation Improves Cerebral Perfusion and Cerebral Blood Flow in a Porcine Model of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Anja; Rees, Jennifer; Kwon, Young; Matsuura, Timothy; McKnite, Scott; Lurie, Keith G

    2015-08-01

    Brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children and adults in their most productive years. Use of intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) to generate negative intrathoracic pressure during the expiratory phase of positive pressure ventilation improves mean arterial pressure and 24-h survival in porcine models of hemorrhagic shock and cardiac arrest and has been demonstrated to decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in these models. Application of IPR for 240 min in a porcine model of intracranial hypertension (ICH) will increase CPP when compared with controls. Twenty-three female pigs were subjected to focal brain injury by insertion of an epidural Foley catheter inflated with 3 mL of saline. Animals were randomized to treatment for 240 min with IPR set to a negative expiratory phase pressure of -12 cmH2O or no IPR therapy. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, CPP, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were evaluated. Intrathoracic pressure regulation significantly improved mean CPP and CBF. Specifically, mean CPP after 90, 120, 180, and 240 min of IPR use was 43.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 44.0 ± 2.7 mmHg, 44.5 ± 2.8 mmHg, and 43.1 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively; a significant increase from ICH study baseline (39.5 ± 1.7 mmHg) compared with control animals in which mean CPP was 36.7 ± 1.4 mmHg (ICH study baseline) and then 35.9 ± 2.1 mmHg, 33.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 33.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, and 36.0 ± 2.7 mmHg at 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, respectively (P blood flow, as measured by an invasive CBF probe, increased in the IPR group (34 ± 4 mL/100 g-min to 49 ± 7 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) but not in controls (27 ± 1 mL/100 g-min to 25 ± 5 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) (P = 0.01). Arterial pH remained unchanged during the entire period of IPR compared with baseline values and control values. In this anesthetized pig model of ICH, treatment with IPR significantly improved CPP and CBF. This therapy may be of clinical value by noninvasively

  7. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients:a voxel-based morphometry study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Lin Chen; Lin Bai; Juan Nie; San Zhang; Yan Xiong; Yu Bai; Can-xin Yin; Fan-rong Liang; Yu-mei Zhou; Fang Zeng; Zheng-jie Li; Lu Luo; Yong-xin Li; Wei Fan; Li-hua Qiu; Wei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed signiifcantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clin-ical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = –0.609,P = 0.047) and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deifciency scale (r = –0.737,P = 0.010). Our ifndings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  8. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  9. 320-Multidetector row whole-head dynamic subtracted CT angiography and whole-brain CT perfusion before and after carotid artery stenting: Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego, E-mail: dsanmil1@jhmi.ed [Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, B-100, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Murphy, Kieran, E-mail: KMURPHY@jhmi.ed [Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, B-100, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Gailloud, Philippe, E-mail: pgailloud@cerebrovascular.ne [Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, B-100, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Introduction: Multidetector CT (MDCT) is increasingly used for the investigation of neurovascular disorders, but restricted z-axis coverage (3.2 cm for 64-MDCT) currently limits perfusion to a small portion of the brain close to the circle of Willis, and precludes dynamic angiographic appreciation of the entire brain circulation. We illustrate the clinical potential of recently developed 320-MDCT extending the z-axis coverage to 16 cm in a patient with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Methods: In a 74-year-old patient presenting with critical symptomatic stenosis of the left CCA, pre- and post-carotid artery stenting whole-head subtracted dynamic MDCT angiography and perfusion were obtained in addition to CT angiography of the supra-aortic trunks. Both whole-head subtracted MDCT angiography and perfusion demonstrated delayed left ICA circulation, which normalized after carotid stenting. Discussion: 320-MDCT offers unprecedented z-axis coverage allowing for whole-brain perfusion and subtracted dynamic angiography of the entire intracranial circulation. These innovations can consolidate the role of MDCT as a first intention imaging technique for cerebrovascular disorders, in particular for the acute management of stroke.

  10. Effect of large decompressive craniectomy combined with vascular reconstruction on cerebral perfusion in patients with severe brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-zhen HUANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the efficacies of large decompressive craniectomy combined with vascular reconstruction and traditional decompressive craniectomy in treatment of severe brain injury. Methods Forty-eight patients with severe brain injury, which was dominated by brain contusion to the frontoparietal lobes, admitted to our hospital from March 2012 to March 2014 were divided equally into experimental group and control group. The patients in the experimental group underwent large decompressive craniectomy combined with vascular reconstruction, and the patients in the control group received traditional decompressive craniectomy. The hemodynamic changes including cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV, mean transit time (MTT, time to peak (TTP and the ratios of these values (rCBF, rCBV, rMTT and rTTP on two sides were observed by CT perfusion imaging, and the Glasgow outcome score (GOS was analyzed 6 months after operation. Results The CBF and CBV scores in experimental group were higher than those in the control group at 1 week and 1 month after the operation (P0.05. The rate of satisfactory recovery (including good recovery and moderate disability was higher in the experimental group than in the control group, while the rate of poor recovery (including severe disability, vegetative state and death was lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion The large decompressive craniectomy combined with vascular reconstruction can not only decrease the intracranial pressure, but also recover the blood supply of brain, thus deserving the clinical application and popularization. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.15

  11. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, C.; Jannin, P.; Biraben, A.; Buvat, I.; Benali, H.; Bernard, A. M.; Scarabin, J. M.; Gibaud, B.

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were found within

  12. Nevirapine uptake into the central nervous system of the Guinea pig: an in situ brain perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J E; Gaffen, Z; Thomas, S A

    2006-05-01

    The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with the development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD), a major cause of HIV-related mortality. To eradicate HIV in the CNS, anti-HIV drugs need to reach the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in therapeutic concentrations. This involves passage through the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers. Using a well established guinea pig in situ brain perfusion model, this study investigated whether nevirapine [6H-dipyrido(3,2-b:2',3'-e)(1,4)diazepin-6-one,11-cyclopropyl-5,11-dihydro-4-methyl], a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), could effectively accumulate in the CNS. [(3)H]Nevirapine was coperfused with [(14)C]mannitol (a vascular/paracellular permeability marker) through the carotid arteries for up to 30 min, and accumulation in the brain, CSF, and choroid plexus was measured. [(3)H]Nevirapine uptake into the cerebrum was greater than uptake of [(14)C]mannitol, indicating significant passage across the blood-brain barrier and accumulation into the brain (this was further confirmed with capillary depletion and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses). Likewise, [(3)H]nevirapine showed a great ability to cross the blood-CSF barrier and accumulate in the CSF, compared with [(14)C]mannitol. The CNS accumulation of [(3)H]nevirapine was unaffected by 100 muM nevirapine, suggesting that passage across the blood-brain barrier can occur by diffusion. Furthermore, coperfusion with 100 muM efavirenz [2H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one, 6-chloro-4-(cyclopropylethynyl)-1,4-dihydro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-, (4S)-; another NNRTI] did not significantly alter CNS accumulation of [(3)H]nevirapine, indicating that the efficacy of nevirapine in the CNS would not be altered by the addition of this drug to a combination therapy. Together, these data indicate that this anti-HIV drug should be beneficial in the eradication of HIV within the CNS and the subsequent treatment of

  13. Brain perfusion SPECT of patients with anorexia nervosa. Evaluation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajoh, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tani, Atsushi; Umanodan, Tomokazu [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Naruo, Tetsuro; Nozoe, Shinichi

    2001-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has two subtypes; restricting type (AN-R) and binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP). It is suggested that AN-R is different from AN-BP on psychopathological aspects. We compared regional cerebral blood flows of 7 female patients with AN-R, 7 female patients with AN-BP and 7 age-matched normal volunteers (NV) using Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT processed by SPM96. There were significant decreased perfusions in the anterior cingulate gyrus in AN-R when compared with those of AN-BP and NV. These results suggest that the mechanism of outbreak of AN-R may be different from that of AN-BP. (author)

  14. [Lowe syndrome revealed by prenatal diagnosis of congenital cataract with brain abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zéphir, P; Decramer, S; Sartor, A; Vayssière, C

    2014-05-01

    Congenital cataract is a rare disease whose incidence is estimated to 0.5% of birth in France. A study of the literature shows that congenital cataract is idiopathic in 50% of cases, hereditary forms representing 25% of cases. Other causes of congenital cataract are represented by viral embryofoetopathies acquired during pregnancy, metabolic disorders and chromosomal aberrations within the scope of malformative syndromes. The authors report the case of a neonatal diagnosis of Lowe syndrome suspected by the discovery of bilateral cataract initially isolated. The morphological exploration was completed by secondary brain abnormalities (periventricular lesions). The etiological prenatal exploration was negative. Lowe syndrome is a rare cause of antenatal cataract, which so far only one case has been reported.

  15. Apert and Crouzon syndromes-Cognitive development, brain abnormalities, and molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marilyse B L; Maximino, Luciana P; Perosa, Gimol B; Abramides, Dagma V M; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Yacubian-Fernandes, Adriano

    2016-06-01

    Apert and Crouzon are the most common craniosynostosis syndromes associated with mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. We conducted a study to examine the molecular biology, brain abnormalities, and cognitive development of individuals with these syndromes. A retrospective longitudinal review of 14 patients with Apert and Crouzon syndromes seen at the outpatient Craniofacial Surgery Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies in Brazil from January 1999 through August 2010 was performed. Patients between 11 and 36 years of age (mean 18.29 ± 5.80), received cognitive evaluations, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular DNA analyses. Eight patients with Apert syndrome (AS) had full scale intelligence quotients (FSIQs) that ranged from 47 to 108 (mean 76.9 ± 20.2), and structural brain abnormalities were identified in five of eight patients. Six patients presented with a gain-of-function mutation (p.Ser252Trp) in FGFR2 and FSIQs in those patients ranged from 47 to78 (mean 67.2 ± 10.7). One patient with a gain-of-function mutation (p.Pro253Arg) had a FSIQ of 108 and another patient with an atypical splice mutation (940-2A →G) had a FSIQ of 104. Six patients with Crouzon syndrome had with mutations in exons IIIa and IIIc of FGFR2 and their FSIQs ranged from 82 to 102 (mean 93.5 ± 6.7). These reveal that molecular aspects are another factor that can be considered in studies of global and cognitive development of patients with Apert and Crouzon syndrome (CS). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bilateral brain abnormalities associated with dominantly inherited verbal and orofacial dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Emma; Salmond, Claire H; Watkins, Kate E; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David G

    2003-03-01

    The KE family is a large three-generational pedigree in which half of the members suffer from a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia in association with a point mutation in the FOXP2 gene. This report extends previous voxel-based morphometric analyses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (Watkins et al. [2002] Brain 125:465-478) using a bilateral conjunction analysis. This searches specifically for areas of grey matter density that differ bilaterally in the affected members compared with both matched controls and the unaffected family members. 3-D T1-weighted MRI datasets of 17 family members (10 affected, 7 unaffected) and matched controls were compared. The most significant findings were reduced grey matter density bilaterally in the caudate nucleus, the cerebellum, and the left and right inferior frontal gyrus in the affected members. In addition, increased grey matter density was found bilaterally in the planum temporale. These results confirm that a point mutation in FOXP2 is associated with several bilateral grey matter abnormalities in both motor and language related regions. The results also demonstrate the advantages of using a conjunction analysis when bilateral abnormalities are suspected.

  17. Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Tonali, Pietro; Puca, Francomichele

    2003-01-01

    Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO(2)-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction of pain elaboration at the cortical level. The results were compared with findings from normal control subjects and from subjects who suffer from migraine without aura. The effects of stimulus intensity, subjective pain perception and attention were monitored and compared with features of the LEPS. Twenty-five CM patients, 15 subjects suffering from migraine without aura and 15 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. LEPS amplitude variation was reduced in CM patients with respect to the perceived stimulus intensity, in comparison with migraine without aura patients and control subjects. In both headache groups, the distraction from the painful laser stimulus induced by an arithmetic task failed to suppress the LEPS amplitude, in comparison with control subjects. These results suggest an abnormal cortical processing of nociceptive input in CM patients, which could lead to the chronic state of pain. In both headache groups, an inability to reduce pain elaboration during an alternative cognitive task emerged as an abnormal behaviour probably predisposing to migraine.

  18. The age-related deficit in LTP is associated with changes in perfusion and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Christoph W; Cowley, Thelma R; O'Sullivan, Joan; Grehan, Belinda; Browne, Tara C; Kelly, Laura; Birch, Amy; Murphy, Niamh; Kelly, Aine M; Kerskens, Christian M; Lynch, Marina A

    2012-05-01

    In view of the increase in the aging population and the unavoidable parallel increase in the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, a key challenge in neuroscience is the identification of clinical signatures which change with age and impact on neuronal and cognitive function. Early diagnosis offers the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, thus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is potentially a powerful diagnostic tool. We evaluated age-related changes in relaxometry, blood flow, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in the rat by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed these changes in the context of the age-related decrease in synaptic plasticity. We report that T2 relaxation time was decreased with age; this was coupled with a decrease in gray matter perfusion, suggesting that the observed microglial activation, as identified by increased expression of CD11b, MHCII, and CD68 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), might be a downstream consequence of these changes. Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier was observed in the perivascular area and the hippocampus of aged, compared with young, rats. Similarly there was an age-related increase in CD45-positive cells by flow cytometry, which are most likely infiltrating macrophages, with a parallel increase in the messenger mRNA expression of chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1. These combined changes may contribute to the deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses of aged animals.

  19. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ito, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Single photon labeled tracer {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has been used for rCBF studies by SPECT. However, normal perfusion pattern of this agent still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate normal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT image voxel by voxel. Eighteen male subjects without any prior or present history of medical illness participated in this study. All SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Each subject had an X-ray CT scan at the same day of SPECT measurement. All subjects had normal X-ray CT scans. The standard anatomical structures of the computerized brain atlas of Roland et al. were fitted to X-ray CT images of a subject by linear and non-linear parameters. These parameters were subsequently used to transform SPECT images of the subject. After the anatomical standardization, mean and SD images of eight standardized images were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. In the mean image, following structures showed relatively higher radioactivity; the putamen, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and the putamen showed large degree of SD. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images may be useful as a reference to diagnose and evaluate various brain disorders. (author).

  20. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  1. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  2. Brain perfusion monitoring with frequency-domain and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy: a cross-correlation study in newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.; Katz, A.; Alfano, R.R. [Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers and New York State Center for Advanced Technology for Ultrafast Photonic Materials and Applications Department of Electrical Engineering and Physics, The City College of the City University of New York, 138th Street and Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Kofinas, A.D.; Kofinas, D.A.; Beyer, D. [Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Medicine, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, The Affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 121 De Kalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Stubblefield, P.G. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston University School of Medicine, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Rosenfeld, W.; Maulik, D. [Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 251 First Street, Mineola, New York 11501 (United States); Stankovic, M.R. [Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Medicine, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, The Affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 121 De Kalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston University School of Medicine, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 251 First Street, Mineola, New York 11501 (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The newborn piglet brain model was used to correlate continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain (FD) near-infrared spectroscopy. Six ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were subjected to a series of manipulations in blood oxygenation with the effects on brain perfusion known to be associated with brain hypoxia-ischaemia. An excellent agreement between the CW and FD was demonstrated. This agreement improved when the scattering properties (determined by the FD device) were employed to calculate the differential pathlength factor, an important step in CW data processing. (author)

  3. Penumbra pattern assessment in acute stroke patients: comparison of quantitative and non-quantitative methods in whole brain CT perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolja M Thierfelder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While penumbra assessment has become an important part of the clinical decision making for acute stroke patients, there is a lack of studies measuring the reliability and reproducibility of defined assessment techniques in the clinical setting. Our aim was to determine reliability and reproducibility of different types of three-dimensional penumbra assessment methods in stroke patients who underwent whole brain CT perfusion imaging (WB-CTP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 29 patients with a confirmed MCA infarction who underwent initial WB-CTP with a scan coverage of 100 mm in the z-axis. Two blinded and experienced readers assessed the flow-volume-mismatch twice and in two quantitative ways: Performing a volumetric mismatch analysis using OsiriX imaging software (MM(VOL and visual estimation of mismatch (MM(EST. Complementarily, the semiquantitative Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score for CT perfusion was used to define mismatch (MM(ASPECTS. A favorable penumbral pattern was defined by a mismatch of ≥ 30% in combination with a cerebral blood flow deficit of ≤ 90 ml and an MM(ASPECTS score of ≥ 1, respectively. Inter- and intrareader agreement was determined by Kappa-values and ICCs. RESULTS: Overall, MM(VOL showed considerably higher inter-/intrareader agreement (ICCs: 0.751/0.843 compared to MM(EST (0.292/0.749. In the subgroup of large (≥ 50 mL perfusion deficits, inter- and intrareader agreement of MM(VOL was excellent (ICCs: 0.961/0.942, while MM(EST interreader agreement was poor (0.415 and intrareader agreement was good (0.919. With respect to penumbra classification, MM(VOL showed the highest agreement (interreader agreement: 25 agreements/4 non-agreements/κ: 0.595; intrareader agreement 27/2/0.833, followed by MM(EST (22/7/0.471; 23/6/0.577, and MM(ASPECTS (18/11/0.133; 21/8/0.340. CONCLUSION: The evaluated approach of volumetric mismatch assessment is superior to pure visual and ASPECTS penumbra

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPET: variability, asymmetry and effects of age and gender in healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Audenaert, K. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Koole, M. [Medical Signal and Image Processing Department (MEDISIP), Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, Radiology Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Reliable and high-resolution reference data for regional cerebral blood flow measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are necessary for optimal clinical and research use. Therefore, a large dataset of normal technetium-99m labelled ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD) perfusion SPET in carefully screened healthy volunteers with an age range spanning six decades was created, with correction for non-uniform attenuation and scatter and based on an anatomically standardised analysis. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers, stratified for gender (46 females, 43 males; age 20-81 years), were included. Twelve volunteers underwent repeated {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET after 2.5{+-}2.3 weeks. An automated whole-brain volume of interest analysis with MANOVA as well as voxelwise analysis using SPM99 was conducted. Average intersubject variability was 4.8% while intrasubject reproducibility was 3.0%. An age-related decline in tracer uptake was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia, left prefrontal, left lateral frontal and left superior temporal and insular cortex (all P=0.001-0.02). There was an overall increase in right/left asymmetry with age, which was most pronounced in the frontal and temporal neocortex. The most significant correlations between AI and age decade were found in the prefrontal (R=0.35, P=0.001) and superior temporal neocortex (R=0.43, P<0.001). Women had significantly higher uptake in the right parietal cortex (P<0.001), while men showed higher uptake in the cerebellum and the left anterior temporal and orbitofrontal cortex (all P<0.01). This normative dataset allows age- and gender-specific patient and group assessment of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD perfusion SPET under a wide variety of clinical circumstances in relation to normal variations and highlights the importance of both age- and gender-specific normal datasets for optimal analysis sensitivity. (orig.)

  5. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  6. 超声造影在评价脑组织灌注中的应用%Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in brain perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志祥; 何文

    2009-01-01

    超声造影(CEUS)可有效地评价正常脑微循环灌注、缺血状态下的脑组织灌注,并可评估脑血管内支架植入术后血管的通畅情况.应用CEUS不仅能更加精确地测定脑出血容积,而且能够发现肿瘤术后的残留.CEUS除可应用于脑血栓溶栓治疗中,也有望应用于脑外伤中.本文对CEUS在脑灌注成像中的应用作一综述.%Ultrasound brain perfusion imaging can evaluate brain perfusion in normal and pathological conditions. After basilar stent implantation, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can show normal visualization of color flow within the stent and provide essential functional information by evaluation of blood flow velocities. Furthermore, CEUS can estimate the volume of brain hemorrhage and readily identify residual tumor. CEUS can be used in thrombolysis, and will be applied in cerebral trauma. The value of CEUS in brain perfusion imaging was reviewed in this article.

  7. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (Greece); Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C [Neurology Dpt, General Hospital ' G. Gennimatas' , Athens (Greece); Sifakis, N; Zerva, C [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, ' Alexandra' University Hospital, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vanvalot@yahoo.gr

    2009-05-15

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76{+-}6.51 years, education 11.81{+-}4.25 years, MMSE 16.69{+-}9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25{+-}10.48 years, education 10{+-}4.6 years, MMSE 12.5{+-}3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  8. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder.

  9. Abnormal Brain Areas Common to the Focal Epilepsies: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Vaughan, David N; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Multivariate pattern analysis was applied to each of these metrics to discriminate brain areas that differed between focal epilepsy subjects and healthy controls. ReHo and DCw classified focal epilepsy subjects from healthy controls with high accuracy (89.3% and 75%, respectively). However, fALFF did not significantly classify patients from controls. Increased regional network activity in epilepsy subjects was seen in the ipsilateral piriform cortex, insula, and thalamus, in addition to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortices. Decreased regional connectivity was observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as lateral temporal cortices. Patients with extratemporal focal epilepsy have common areas of abnormality (ReHo and DCw measures), including the ipsilateral piriform cortex, temporal neocortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. ReHo shows additional increase in the "salience network" that includes anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. DCw showed additional effects in the ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. These brain areas may represent key regional network properties underlying focal epilepsy.

  10. Evaluation of Brain and Cervical MRI Abnormality Rates in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With or Without Neurological Manifestations

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    Seyed Reza Najafizadeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system (CNS involvement has been observed in 14-80% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is an appropriate method for evaluating CNS involvement in these patients. Clinical manifestations and MRI findings of CNS lupus should be differentiated from other mimicking diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS.Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of brain and cervical cord MRI lesions of lupus patients. The relationship between neurological signs and symptoms and MRI findings were evaluated as well.Patients and Methods: Fifty SLE patients who had been referred to the rheumatology clinic of our hospital within 2009 were included in a cross sectional study. All patients fulfilled the revised 1981 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria for SLE. We evaluated the neurological signs and symptoms and brain and cervical MRI findings in these patients.Results: Forty-one patients (82% were female and nine (18% were male. The mean age was 30.1 ± 9.3 years. Twenty eight (56% patients had an abnormal brain MRI. No one showed any abnormality in the cervical MRI. The lesions in 20 patients were similar to demyelinative plaques. Seventeen patients with abnormal brain MRI were neurologically asymptomatic. There was only a significant relationship between neurological motor manifestations and brain MRI abnormal findings.Conclusions: Unlike the brain, cervical MRI abnormality and especially asymptomatic cord involvement in MRI is quite rare in SLE patients. This finding may be helpful to differentiate SLE from other CNS disorders such as MS.

  11. Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in aortic arch surgery: efficacy and possible mechanisms of brain protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaria, J E; Pochettino, A

    1997-07-01

    Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) was first introduced to treat air embolism during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Its use was reintroduced to extend the safety of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) during operations involving an open aortic arch. RCP seems to prevent cerebral rewarming during HCA. Both clinical and animal data suggest that RCP provides between 10% and 30% of baseline cerebral blood flow when administered through the superior vena cava (SVC) at jugular pressures of 20 to 25 mm Hg. RCP flows producing jugular venous pressures higher than 30 mm Hg may cause cerebral edema. Cerebral blood flow generated by RCP is able to sustain some cerebral metabolic activity, yet is not able to fully meet cerebral energy demands even at temperatures of 12 degrees to 18 degrees C. RCP may further prevent embolic events during aortic arch surgery when administered at moderate jugular vein pressures (RCP, when applied during aortic arch reconstruction, may extend the safe HCA period and improve morbidity and mortality, especially when HCA times are more than 60 minutes. RCP applied in patients and severe carotid and brachiocephalic occlusive disease may be ineffective, and caution is in order when RCP times are greater than 90 minutes.

  12. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

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    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  13. Pathophysiological Concepts in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : Diffusion Tensor Imaging Related to Acute Perfusion CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Cerliani, Leonardo; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Background: A subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) experiences residual symptoms interfering with their return to work. The pathophysiological substrate of the suboptimal outcome in these patients is a source of debate. Objective: To provide greater insight into the pathophysi

  14. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury : Acute versus chronic disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2014-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully unde

  15. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

  16. Meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence and neuroimaging of addiction vulnerability and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersche, Karen D; Williams, Guy B; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2013-08-01

    Since the first study in stimulant-dependent individuals using structural MRI was published fifteen years ago, much evidence has accumulated on brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence. Here we conducted a voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of published MRI data in stimulant-dependent individuals to clarify the most robust abnormalities underlying the disorder. We found that neuroimaging studies in stimulant-dependent individuals consistently report a gray matter decline in the prefrontal cortex regions associated with self-regulation and self-awareness. One of the next key questions that neuroimaging research today needs to address is the question of causality, namely to what extent these brain abnormalities are caused by the toxic effects of drug exposure, or the possibility that these may have predated drug-taking and even predisposed individuals for the development of drug dependence. Although the question of causality has not yet been answered completely, there has been significant progress made to date.

  17. Head movement during CT brain perfusion acquisition of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke

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    Fahmi, F., E-mail: f.fahmi@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M., E-mail: l.f.beenen@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Streekstra, G.J., E-mail: g.j.streekstra@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, N.Y., E-mail: n.n.janssen@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, H.W. de, E-mail: H.W.A.M.deJong@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, UMC Utrecht, 3584CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Riordan, A., E-mail: alan.riordan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, UMC Utrecht, 3584CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roos, Y.B., E-mail: y.b.roos@amc.uva.nl [Department of Neurology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Majoie, C.B., E-mail: c.b.majoie@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bavel, E. van, E-mail: e.vanbavel@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marquering, H.A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) is a promising tool to support treatment decision for acute ischemic stroke patients. However, head movement during acquisition may limit its applicability. Information of the extent of head motion is currently lacking. Our purpose is to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the extent of head movement during acquisition. Methods: From 103 consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute ischemic stroke, head movement in 220 CTP datasets was qualitatively categorized by experts as none, minimal, moderate, or severe. The movement was quantified using 3D registration of CTP volume data with non-contrast CT of the same patient; yielding 6 movement parameters for each time frame. The movement categorization was correlated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and baseline characteristic using multinomial logistic regression and student's t-test respectively. Results: Moderate and severe head movement occurred in almost 25% (25/103) of all patients with acute ischemic stroke. The registration technique quantified head movement with mean rotation angle up to 3.6° and 14°, and mean translation up to 9.1 mm and 22.6 mm for datasets classified as moderate and severe respectively. The rotation was predominantly in the axial plane (yaw) and the main translation was in the scan direction. There was no statistically significant association between movement classification and NIHSS score and baseline characteristics. Conclusions: Moderate or severe head movement during CTP acquisition of acute stroke patients is quite common. The presented registration technique can be used to automatically quantify the movement during acquisition, which can assist identification of CTP datasets with excessive head movement.

  18. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

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    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  19. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The "paradoxically" high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception.

  20. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito eNakao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 sec, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1 a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2 a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The paradoxically high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception.

  1. Chemistry and pharmacology of triaminedithiol technetium-based brain perfusion agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.D.; Walovitch, R.C.; Belonga, B.Q.; Cheesman, E.H.

    We have examined the effects of converting the technetium(V)oxo core to the technetium nitrido core in technetium complexes based on amine derivatives of the quadridentate ligand N,N'-bis(2',2'-dimethyl-2'-mercaptoethyl)-2,2-dimethylethylenediamine. Five neutral complexes containing the technetium (V) oxo core were prepared and brain uptake indices and biodistributions were carried out in rats.

  2. CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPECT imaging for dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Rebecca; Firbank, Michael J.; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated if the appearance and diagnostic accuracy of HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT images could be improved by using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with the uniform attenuation correction method. A cohort of subjects who were clinically categorized as Alzheimer’s Disease (n=38 ), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (n=29 ) or healthy normal controls (n=30 ), underwent SPECT imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO and a separate CT scan. The SPECT images were processed using: (a) correction map derived from the subject’s CT scan or (b) the Chang uniform approximation for correction or (c) no attenuation correction. Images were visually inspected. The ratios between key regions of interest known to be affected or spared in each condition were calculated for each correction method, and the differences between these ratios were evaluated. The images produced using the different corrections were noted to be visually different. However, ROI analysis found similar statistically significant differences between control and dementia groups and between AD and DLB groups regardless of the correction map used. We did not identify an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in images which were corrected using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction, compared with those corrected using a uniform correction map.

  3. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

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    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  4. The neural underpinnings of associative learning in health and psychosis: how can performance be preserved when brain responses are abnormal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Graham K; Corlett, Philip R; Fletcher, Paul C

    2010-05-01

    Associative learning experiments in schizophrenia and other psychoses reveal subtle abnormalities in patients' brain responses. These are sometimes accompanied by intact task performance. An important question arises: How can learning occur if the brain system is not functioning normally? Here, we examine a series of possible explanations for this apparent discrepancy: (1) standard brain activation patterns may be present in psychosis but partially obscured by greater noise, (2) brain signals may be more sensitive to real group differences than behavioral measures, and (3) patients may achieve comparable levels of performance to control subjects by employing alternative or compensatory neural strategies. We consider these explanations in relation to data from causal- and reward-learning imaging experiments in first-episode psychosis patients. The findings suggest that a combination of these factors may resolve the question of why performance is sometimes preserved when brain patterns are disrupted.

  5. Assessment of SPM in perfusion brain SPECT studies. A numerical simulation study using bootstrap resampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.

  6. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  7. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  8. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking.

  9. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

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    Anne-Sophie G.T. Bronzwaer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale:A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV. Stroke volume index (SVI serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI and regional brain perfusion during CBV depletion and repletion in spontaneously breathing volunteers. Methods: This study quantified in 14 healthy subjects (11 male the effects of CBV depletion (by 30 and 70 degrees passive head-up tilt (HUT and a fluid challenge (by tilt back on CBV (thoracic admittance, mean middle cerebral artery (MCA blood flow velocity (Vmean, SVI, cardiac index (CI , PPV and SPV. Results: PPV (103±89%, p< 0.05 and SPV (136±117%, p< 0.05 increased with progression of central hypovolemia manifested by a reduction in thoracic admittance (11±5%, p< 0.001, SVI (28±6%, p< 0.001, CI (6±8%, p< 0.001 and MCAVmean (17±7%, p< 0.05 but not in arterial pressure. The reduction in MCAVmean correlated to the fall in SVI (R2=0.52, p< 0.0001 and inversely to PPV and SPV (R2=0.46 (p< 0.0001 and R2=0.45 (p< 0.0001, respectively. PPV and SPV predicted a ≥15% reduction in MCAVmean and SVI with comparable sensitivity (67%/ 67% vs. 63%/ 68% respectively and specificity (89%/94% vs. 89%/94%, respectively. A rapid fluid challenge by tilt-back restored all parameters to baseline values within one minute. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing subjects, a reduction in MCAVmean was related to an increase in PPV and SPV during graded CBV depletion and repletion. Specifically, PPV and SPV predicted changes in both SVI and MCAVmean with comparable sensitivity and specificity, however the predictive value is limited in spontaneously breathing subjects.

  10. Method for measurement of the blood-brain barrier permeability in the perfused mouse brain: application to amyloid-beta peptide in wild type and Alzheimer's Tg2576 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Barbra; Hogg, Elizabeth; Sagare, Abhay; Jovanovic, Suzana; Maness, Lawrence; Maurer, Calvin; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2004-09-30

    The role of transport exchanges of neuroactive solutes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increasingly recognized. To take full advantage of genetically altered mouse models of neurodegenerative disorders for BBB transport studies, we adapted a brain perfusion technique to the mouse. During a carotid brain perfusion with a medium containing sheep red blood cells and mock plasma, the physiological parameters in the arterial inflow, regional cerebral blood flow (14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography), ultrastructural integrity of the tissue, barrier to lanthanum, brain water content, energy metabolites and lactate levels remain unchanged. Amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta) were iodinated by lactoperoxidase method. Non-oxidized mono-iodinated Abeta monomers were separated by HPLC (as confirmed by MALDI-TOF spectrometry) and used in transport measurements. Transport of intact 125I-Abeta40 across the BBB was time- and concentration-dependent in contrast to negligible 14C-inulin uptake. In 5-6 months old Alzheimer's Tg2576 mice, Abeta40 BBB transport was increased by >eight-fold compared to age-matched littermate controls, and was mediated via the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts. We conclude the present arterial brain perfusion method provides strictly controlled environment in cerebral microcirculation suitable for examining transport of rapidly and slowly penetrating molecules across the BBB in normal and transgenic mice.

  11. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  12. 64 row CT cerebral perfusion applied research of brain ischemia%64排CT脑灌注对脑组织缺血程度的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贯清; 肖新兰; 李晓; 黄小宁; 李五根

    2015-01-01

    Objective Application of 64 row CT cerebral perfusion brain tissue ischemia. Methods 40 cases of clinical diag-nosis of acute cerebral infarction,patients with unilateral lobe brain perfusion CT perfusion showed abnormal,in combination with MRI to determine infarct,according to the cerebral blood flow group,group A (low perfusion group) and group B (infarction group), respectively,evaluation of two groups of cerebral blood flow perfusion parameters and comparison analysis. Results Of 40 cases, 18 cases of group A,CTP anomaly low perfusion of figure is determined by MTT extend approximately 1.28 (R),decreased CBF mild,CBV basic no change Or moderately reduced,only determined by MTT extension was statistically significant (P<0.01);Infarc-tion group,22 cases of group B,infarction area surrounding IP abnormal perfusion is determined by MTT extend approximately 1. 48(R),CBF significantly decreased approximately 0.45(R),CBV moderately reduced,which extended determined by MTT was sta-tistically significant (P<0.001),decrease CBF was statistically significant (P<0.01);Infarction district performance is determined by MTT extend approximately 1.64(R),CBF significantly decreased approximately 0.36(R),significantly lower CBV (approximately 0. 37)R. Which determined by MTT extension was statistically significant (P<0.001),CBF decline was statistically significant(P<0.01). Conclusion Brain tissue hypoperfusion area with the infarction in central and peripheral IP area the perfusion parameters have significant differences,according to the variation of perfusion parameters characteristics can make the image on the degree of is-chemic infarction assessment,when rCBF<0.5,suggesting infarction risk is extremely high,the clinical guidance for early interven-tion treatment.%目的:探讨应用64排CT脑灌注评价脑组织缺血程度。方法40例临床诊断急性脑梗塞,CT灌注显示单侧脑叶灌注异常患者,结合MRI判断梗塞,根据脑血流量进行分组,A

  13. Salicylic acid analogues as chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI contrast agents for the assessment of brain perfusion territory and blood-brain barrier opening after intra-arterial infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolei; Walczak, Piotr; He, Xiaowei; Yang, Xing; Pearl, Monica; Bulte, Jeff Wm; Pomper, Martin G; McMahon, Michael T; Janowski, Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. Predicted, focal opening of the BBB through intra-arterial infusion of hyperosmolar mannitol is feasible, but there is a need to facilitate imaging techniques (e.g. MRI) to guide interventional procedures and assess the outcomes. Here, we show that salicylic acid analogues (SAA) can depict the brain territory supplied by the catheter and detect the BBB opening, through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI. Hyperosmolar SAA solutions themselves are also capable of opening the BBB, and, when multiple SAA agents were co-injected, their locoregional perfusion could be differentiated.

  14. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  15. Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of 70 kVp whole brain volumetric CT perfusion imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiao Kun; Ni, Qian Qian; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Chen, Guo Zhong; Luo, Song; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States); Fuller, Stephen R.; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy for acute infarct detection and radiation dose of 70 kVp whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) reconstructed from CTP source data. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 50 each): group A, 80 kVp, 21 scanning time points; groups B, 70 kVp, 21 scanning time points; group C, 70 kVp, 17 scanning time points. Objective and subjective image quality of CTP and CTA were compared. Diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute infarct and cerebral artery stenosis ≥ 50 % was calculated for CTP and CTA with diffusion weighted imaging and digital subtraction angiography as reference standards. Effective radiation dose was compared. There were no differences in any perfusion parameter value between three groups (P > 0.05). No difference was found in subjective image quality between three groups (P > 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute infarct and vascular stenosis showed no difference between three groups (P > 0.05). Compared with group A, radiation doses of groups B and C were decreased by 28 % and 37 % (both P < 0.001), respectively. Compared with 80 kVp protocol, 70 kVp brain CTP allows comparable vascular and perfusion assessment and lower radiation dose while maintaining high diagnostic accuracy in detecting acute infarct. (orig.)

  16. Mental fatigue after mild traumatic brain injury: a 3D-ASL perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Qian, Shaowen; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Gaiyun; Sun, Yajuan; Sun, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate mental fatigue associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and investigate the underlying neurological mechanisms. We used a 20-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) related ASL-fMRI to evaluate mental fatigue in 25 MTBI patients in acute phase, 21 MTBI patients in chronic phase, and 20 healthy subjects. Mental fatigue in patients in acute phase was more severe than in chronic phase patients and healthy controls. The first 5-min-PVT increased CBF of patients in acute phase in "bottom-up" and "top-down" attention areas, and decreased CBF in default mode network (DMN) areas. Twenty-min-PVT results showed that sustained attention of patients was more fragile than in healthy subjects, while sustained attention in the acute phase was less stable than that in the chronic phase. CBF results showed that in patients in the acute phase, the second, third, and last 5-min-PVT decreased CBF in DMN areas, increased CBF of "bottom-up" and "top-down" areas; in the chronic phase, the third and last 5-min-PVT increased CBF of "bottom-up" and "top-down" cortex, while the second 5-min-PVT only increased CBF of the "top-down" cortex. Mental fatigue of MTBI patients persists for more than 12 months, and can be mitigated partly within the first year after injury. The "bottom-up" and "top-down" deficits result in mental fatigue of MTBI patients.

  17. 全脑CT灌注成像在短暂性脑缺血发作中的初步应用%Primary application of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in patients with transient ischemic attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 郭大静; 赵建农; 方正

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价全脑CT灌注(CT perfusion,CTP)成像在短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)的临床应用价值.方法 对40例临床诊断为TIA的患者行全脑CTP,CTP检查获得达峰时间(TTP)、平均通过时间(MTT)、脑血流量(CBF)、脑血容量(CBV)等参数,同时获得动态CT血管成像(4D-CTA)图像,分析TIA患者的CTP和CT血管造影(CTA)表现.结果 40例TIA患者有36例发现与临床症状相对应的58处异常灌注区.异常灌注区表现为TTP和MTT明显延长,CBF有轻度降低,CBV轻度增高或基本正常.异常灌注区和健侧镜像区TTP值、MTT值和CBF值比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),CBV值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).4D-CTA显示责任血管不同程度的狭窄或闭塞,40例TIA患者有32例发现有血管狭窄,2例闭塞,6例正常.结论 全脑CTP可以实现对TIA的全面评价,在TIA的诊断及严重程度判断中具有重要价值.%Objective To explore the value of whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) imaging in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods Whole-brain CTP was performed in 40 patients with clinically diagnosed TIA. The parameter maps of time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood flow (CBF) , and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were analyzed. Dynamic CT angiography (4D-CTA) images were also obtained. Results Fifty-eight areas of abnormal perfusion changes corresponding to clinical symptoms were found in 36 of the 40 patients with CTP. Prolonged TTP and MTT, decreased CBF and increased or non-changed CBV were detected in the abnormal perfusion areas. The differences of TTP, MTT and CBF of the affected side compared with those of the contralateral side were significant (P 0.05). 4D-CTA showed responsible vascular stenosis or occlusion in varying degrees. In the 40 patients, vascular stenosis was found in 32 patients, occlusion in 2 patients and normal in 6 patients. Conclusion Overall assessment of TIA can be achieved by whole-brain

  18. The effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure after diffuse brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, S; Kahveci, N; Alkan, T; Goren, B; Korfali, E

    2001-04-01

    Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats, weighing 220 to 290 g, were anesthetized with 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal sodium thiopental, then underwent a tracheostomy. After diffuse impact-acceleration brain injury (BI) was induced, each rat was paralyzed and mechanically ventilated with 30% O2 in nitrous oxide (N2O). The rats were assigned randomly to two groups, each of which received one of the two volatile anesthetic agents, sevoflurane or isoflurane. The anesthetics were administered at 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) for 30 minutes each, respectively, and anesthesia was maintained at 0.75 MAC during the last hour of the study period. Intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rectal and intrahemispheric temperatures, and end-tidal volatile anesthetic concentrations were monitored continuously throughout the 3 hours, with measurements recorded every 15 minutes. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the monitored physiologic values. In the sevoflurane group, MAP fell significantly after 45 minutes, and a similar change was observed in the isoflurane group after 30 minutes (P pressure increased significantly at 45 minutes in the sevoflurane group (P isoflurane group, the change was not significant. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) decreased in parallel with MAP, with the reduction in the sevoflurane group being more pronounced than that in the isoflurane group. The results demonstrated that, under the conditions of diffuse BI, animals that were anesthetized with sevoflurane had higher ICP and lower CPP levels than those anesthetized with isoflurane.

  19. Stability of MR brain-perfusion measurement using arterial spin labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petr, Jan; Hofheinz, Frank; Platzek, Ivan; Schramm, Georg; Van Den Hoff, Jorg [Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf, PET Center, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR technique for assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that does not require use of contrast agents which makes it a less invasive alternative to the 15O-H2O-PET measurement. The repeatability of ASL has been studied extensively but mainly in young healthy volunteers. We have tested repeatability of ASL under realistic clinical conditions in elderly brain tumor patients acquired with a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR in the context of an ongoing 11C-Methionine PET/MR study. Twenty three patients (age 54.8±13.0 y) were scanned on two or more session. The patients underwent 6 weeks of concurrent radiochemotherapy with Temozolomide between the first session and second measurement. The mean relative difference of gray matter CBF was 18.6% between the first two session and 13.0% for the second session and further on. The mean gray matter CBF was 46.6±7.2 mL/min/100 g on the first sessions and there was a significant decrease of 9.8% between first and second session (p=0.027). In summary, the ASL presents measurement of CBF with reasonable repeatability also in elderly patients under clinical conditions when it is not possible to control for all sources of variation. Significant decrease of CBF in healthy tissue was observed after the radiochemotherapy. Prospectively, the ASL data together with the also acquired 11C-Methionine PET will be evaluated regarding their separate and combined ability to predict patient outcome and effectiveness of the performed radiochemotherapy.

  20. Utility of susceptibility-weighted imaging and arterial spin perfusion imaging in pediatric brain arteriovenous shunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Edgar, J.C.; Vossough, Arastoo [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The objectives of the study are to investigate the application of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging in the assessment of shunting and the draining veins in pediatric patients with arteriovenous shunting and compare the utility of SWI and ASL with conventional MR and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This study is a retrospective study of 19 pediatric patients with arteriovenous shunting on brain MRI who were also evaluated with DSA. We assessed the ability of conventional MRI sequences, susceptibility magnitude images, phase-filtered SWI images, and pulsed ASL images in the detection of arteriovenous (AV) shunting, number of draining veins and drainage pathways in comparison to DSA. The mean number of detected draining veins on DSA (3.63) was significantly higher compared to SWI phase-filtered image (mean = 2.72), susceptibility magnitude image (mean = 2.92), ASL (mean = 1.76) and conventional MRI (2.47) (p < 0.05). Pairwise comparison of DSA difference scores (i.e., difference between MR modalities in the number of missed draining veins) revealed no difference between the MR modalities (p > 0.05). ASL was the only method that correctly identified superficial and deep venous drainage in all patients. Regarding detection of shunting, ASL, SWI phase-filtered, and magnitude images demonstrated shunting in 100, 83, and 84 % of patients, respectively. SWI depicts a higher number of draining vein compared to conventional MR pulse sequences. ASL is a sensitive approach in showing 100 % sensitivity in the detection of AV shunting and in the diagnosis of the pattern of venous drainage. The present findings suggest the added utility of both SWI and ASL in the assessment of AV shunting. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity in women with primary dysmenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingmin; Yang, Xuejuan; Liu, Peng; Sun, Jinbo; Chen, Fei; Xu, Ziliang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the regional spontaneous brain activity changes in primary dysmenorrhea (PD) patients in different phases of the menstrual cycle by regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. Patients and methods Thirty-three PD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs) separately received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging during menstrual phase and follicular phase (non-menstrual phase). Cox retrospective symptom scale (RSS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were applied to assess related symptoms and emotions. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in demographic data. The PD patients obtained higher RSS score, SAS score and SDS score than HCs. Compared with HCs, the ReHo values of the PD patients were increased in left midbrain and hippocampus, right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), insula and middle temporal cortex (MTC) and decreased in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in menstrual phase. In non-menstrual phase, enhanced ReHo values were found in bilateral S1 and precuneus, left S2 and MTC, and reduced ReHo values were observed in left mPFC and orbital frontal cortex. RSS score positively correlated with ReHo values of midbrain and negatively correlated with mPFC and PCC. Conclusion Our results suggested that PD is accompanied by dynamic regional spontaneous activity changes across the menstrual cycle, and the altered regions were involved in descending pain modulation, default mode network and sensory modulation. These abnormal activations might contribute to maintain the menstrual pain.

  2. Analysis of dynamic cerebral contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI time-series based on unsupervised clustering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Oliver; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Wismuller, Axel; Hurdal, Monica

    2005-03-01

    We employ unsupervised clustering techniques for the analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI time-series in patients with and without stroke. "Neural gas" network, fuzzy clustering based on deterministic annealing, self-organizing maps, and fuzzy c-means clustering enable self-organized data-driven segmentation w.r.t.fine-grained differences of signal amplitude and dynamics, thus identifying asymmetries and local abnormalities of brain perfusion. We conclude that clustering is a useful extension to conventional perfusion parameter maps.

  3. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, David G.; Jackson, Alan [Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Mason, Damon L.; Berry, Elizabeth [Department of Behavioural Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Hollis, Sally [Medical Statistics Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Yates, David W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were seen on MRI, of which 5 were definitely traumatic. There was weak correlation with abnormal neuropsychological tests for attention in the acute period. There was no significant correlation with a questionnaire for PCS and return to work status. Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery. (orig.)

  4. Detection of misery perfusion in the cerebral hemisphere with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease using crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion: comparison of brain SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saito, Hideo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Terasaki, Kazunori [Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Beppu, Takaaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Shunrou [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Tsushima, Eiki [Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    .0001 for SPECT). The blood flow ratio on brain perfusion SPECT in all patients provided 100 % sensitivity and 58 % specificity, with 43 % positive and 100 % negative predictive values for detecting abnormally elevated MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF. The ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET and SPECT correlates with PET OEF asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere, and this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  5. Perfusion MRI abnormalities in the absence of diffusion changes in a case of moyamoya-like syndrome in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Koussy, Marwan; Kiefer, Claus; Schroth, Gerhard [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Loevblad, Karl-Olof [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Neuroradiology, Service de Radiodiagnostic, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire HUG, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 11 (Switzerland); Steinlin, Maja [Department of Neuropediatrics, University of Bern, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 4, 3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-11-01

    We report on a 12-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 who suffered a transient ischemic attack. Angiography revealed occlusion of intracranial arteries, moyamoya vessels and leptomeningeal collaterals. The conventional T2-weighted and the diffusion-weighted MRI images demonstrated no pathology. Dynamic first-pass postgadolinium T2* perfusion-weighted MRI depicted altered hemodynamics in the vascular territory of the left middle cerebral artery, which defined this region as ischemic tissue at risk. The patient suffered a repeat transient ischemic attack5 days later. (orig.)

  6. Spiral Perfusion Imaging With Consecutive Echoes (SPICE™) for the Simultaneous Mapping of DSC- and DCE-MRI Parameters in Brain Tumor Patients: Theory and Initial Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Eric S.; Prah, Douglas E.; Schmainda, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects. In particular, residual susceptibility effects compete with T1 shortening, which can confound DCE-MRI parameters, whereas dipolar T1 and T2 leakage and residual susceptibility effects can confound DSC-MRI parameters. We introduce here a novel perfusion imaging acquisition and postprocessing method termed Spiral Perfusion Imaging with Consecutive Echoes (SPICE) that can be used to simultaneously acquire DCE- and DSC-MRI data, which requires only a single dose of the Gd contrast agent, does not require the collection of a precontrast T1 map for DCE-MRI processing, and eliminates the confounding contrast agent effects due to contrast extravasation. A detailed mathematical description of SPICE is provided here along with a demonstration of its utility in patients with high-grade glioma. PMID:28090589

  7. Brain volume perfusion CT performed with 128-detector row CT system in patients with cerebral gliomas: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xyda, Argyro [University Hospital of Goettingen, Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Crete (Greece); Haberland, Ulrike; Klotz, Ernst [Computed Tomography, Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Bock, Hans Christoph [University Hospital of Goettingen, Department of Neurosurgery, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Jung, Klaus [University Hospital of Goettingen, Department of Medical Statistics, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Knauth, Michael; Schramm, Ramona; Psychogios, Marios Nikos; Schramm, Peter [University Hospital of Goettingen, Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, Goettingen (Germany); Erb, Gunter [Bracco Imaging Deutschland GmbH, Konstanz (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Validation of the feasibility and efficacy of volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) in the preoperative assessment of cerebral gliomas by applying a 128-slice CT covering the entire tumour. Forty-six patients (25 men, 21 women; mean age 52.8 years) with cerebral gliomas were evaluated with VPCT. Two readers independently evaluated VPCT data, drawing volumes of interest (VOIs) around the tumour according to maximum intensity projection volumes, which were mapped automatically onto the cerebral blood volume (CBV), flow (CBF) and permeability (Ktrans) perfusion datasets. As control, a second VOI was placed in the contralateral healthy cortex. Correlation among perfusion parameters, tumour grade, hemisphere and VOIs was assessed. The diagnostic power of perfusion parameters was analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve analyses. VPCT was feasible in the assessment of the entire tumour extent. Mean values of Ktrans, CBV, CBF in high-grade gliomas were significantly higher compared with low-grade (p < 0.01). Ktrans demonstrated the highest diagnostic (97% sensitivity), positive (100%) and negative (94%) prognostic values. VPCT was feasible in all subjects. All areas of different perfusion characteristics are depicted and quantified in colour-coded 3D maps. The derived parameters correlate well with tumour histopathology, differentiating low- from high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of brain perfusion with technetium-99m bicisate single-photon emission tomography in patients with depressive disorder before and after drug treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmur, M. [Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milcinski, M.; Budihna, N.V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1998-10-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric illnesses. Its influence on brain perfusion has been demonstrated, but conflicting data exist on follow-up after drug treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of antidepressant drugs on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with depression after 3 weeks and 6 months of drug therapy. Clinical criteria for depression without psychosis were met according to psychiatric evaluation. Severity of depression was evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) before every scintigraphic study. rCBF was assessed using technetium-99m bicisate (Neurolite) brain single-photon emission tomography in nine patients with severe depression before the beginning of antidepressant drug therapy and 3 weeks and six months after initiation of therapy. Only patients with no change in antidepressant medication during the study were included. No antipsychotic drugs were used. Cerebellum was used as the reference region. rCBF was evaluated for eight regions in each study in three consecutive transversal slices. Follow-up studies were compared with the baseline study. The mean HAMD score was 25.5 points initially, 16 at the second examination and 8.8 after 6 months. Global CBF was decreased compared with the reference region in drug-free patients. Perfusion of left frontal and temporal regions was significantly lower (P<0.005) in comparison with the contralateral side. After therapy, a moderate decrease in perfusion was seen in the right frontal region (P<0.05). Perfusion decreased further after 6 months in the right frontal (P<0.005) and temporal regions (P<0.01). The highly significant asymmetry in perfusion between the left and right frontal and temporal lobes almost disappeared during treatment. Our findings implicate dysfunction of the frontal and temporal cortex in clinically depressed patients before specific drug treatment. Clinical improvement and decreases in HAMD score after 3 weeks and after 6

  9. The role of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions: results from a cohort of 100 consecutive patients.

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    Valdeci Hélio Floriano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions that are detected by conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may be a challenge in routine practice. Brain perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI may be employed as a complementary non-invasive tool, providing relevant data on hemodynamic parameters, such as the degree of angiogenesis of lesions. We aimed to employ dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI to differentiate between infectious and neoplastic brain lesions by investigating brain microcirculation changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DSC-MRI perfusion studies of one hundred consecutive patients with non-cortical neoplastic (n = 54 and infectious (n = 46 lesions were retrospectively assessed. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. A preload of paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium was administered 30 seconds before acquisition of dynamic images, followed by a standard dose 10 seconds after starting imaging acquisitions. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV values were determined by calculating the regional cerebral blood volume in the solid areas of lesions, normalized to that of the contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine the cutoff point of rCBV values that would allow the differentiation of neoplastic from infectious lesions and to assess the corresponding diagnostic performance of rCBV when using this cutoff value. RESULTS: Neoplastic lesions had higher rCBV values (4.28±2.11 than infectious lesions (0.63±0.49 (p<0.001. When using an rCBV value <1.3 as the parameter to define infectious lesions, the sensitivity of the method was 97.8% and the specificity was 92.6%, with a positive predictive value of 91.8%, a negative predictive value of 98.0%, and an accuracy of 95.0%. CONCLUSION: PWI is a useful complementary tool in distinguishing between infectious and neoplastic brain

  10. Monitoring stroke progression: in vivo imaging of cortical perfusion, blood-brain barrier permeability and cellular damage in the rat photothrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Karl; Prager, Ofer; Vazana, Udi; Kamintsky, Lyn; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Figge, Lena; Chassidim, Yoash; Schellenberger, Eyk; Kovács, Richard; Heinemann, Uwe; Friedman, Alon

    2014-11-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia is among the main causes of death and disability worldwide. The ischemic core often progresses, invading the peri-ischemic brain; however, assessing the propensity of the peri-ischemic brain to undergo secondary damage, understanding the underlying mechanisms, and adjusting treatment accordingly remain clinically unmet challenges. A significant hallmark of the peri-ischemic brain is dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), yet the role of disturbed vascular permeability in stroke progression is unclear. Here we describe a longitudinal in vivo fluorescence imaging approach for the evaluation of cortical perfusion, BBB dysfunction, free radical formation and cellular injury using the photothrombosis vascular occlusion model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction propagated within the peri-ischemic brain in the first hours after photothrombosis and was associated with free radical formation and cellular injury. Inhibiting free radical signaling significantly reduced progressive cellular damage after photothrombosis, with no significant effect on blood flow and BBB permeability. Our approach allows a dynamic follow-up of cellular events and their response to therapeutics in the acutely injured cerebral cortex.

  11. Role of brain perfusion SPECT with 99mTc HMPAO in the assessment of response to drug therapy in patients with autoimmune vasculitis: A prospective study

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    Liberatore Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of vasculitis in the brain remains a quite difficult achievement. To the best of our knowledge, there is no imaging method reported in literature which is capable of reaching to a diagnosis of vasculitis with very high sensitivity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT can be usefully employed in monitoring the treatment of vasculitis, allowing treating only potentially responder patients and avoiding the side effects on patients who do not respond. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (two males and 18 females suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 5, Behcet′s disease (BD; n = 5, undifferentiated vasculitis (UV; n = 5, and Sjogren′s syndrome (SS; n = 5 were included in the study. All patients underwent a wide neurological anamnestic investigation, a complete objective neurological examination and SPECT of the brain with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO. The brain SPECT was then repeated after appropriate medical treatment. The neurological and neuropsychiatric follow-up was performed at 6 months after the start of the treatment. Results: Overall, the differences between the scintigraphic results obtained after and before the medical treatment indicated a statistically significant increase of the cerebral perfusion (CP. In 19 out of 200 regions of interest (ROI studied, the difference between pre- and post treatment percentages had negative sign, indicating a worsening of CP. This latter event has occurred six times (five in the same patients in the UV, 10 times (eight in the same patients in the SLE, never in BD, and three times (two in the same patient in the SS. Conclusion: The reported results seem to indicate the possibility of identifying, by the means of a brain SPECT, responder and nonresponder (unchanged or worsened CP patients, affected by autoimmune vasculitis, to the therapy.

  12. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  13. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

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    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  14. NCAM-deficient mice show prominent abnormalities in serotonergic and BDNF systems in brain - Restoration by chronic amitriptyline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Castrén, Eero; Rantamäki, Tomi; Stepanov, Vladimir; Järv, Jaak; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Mood disorders are associated with alterations in serotonergic system, deficient BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) signaling and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Increased degradation and reduced functions of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) have recently been associated with depression and NCAM deficient mice show depression-related behavior and impaired learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential changes in serotonergic and BDNF systems in NCAM knock-out mice. Serotonergic nerve fiber density and SERT (serotonin transporter) protein levels were robustly reduced in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult NCAM(-)(/-) mice. This SERT reduction was already evident during early postnatal development. [(3)H]MADAM binding experiments further demonstrated reduced availability of SERT in cell membranes of NCAM(-)(/-) mice. Moreover, the levels of serotonin and its major metabolite 5-HIAA were down regulated in the brains of NCAM(-)(/-) mice. NCAM(-)(/-) mice also showed a dramatic reduction in the BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This BDNF deficiency was associated with reduced phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB. Importantly, chronic administration of antidepressant amitriptyline partially or completely restored these changes in serotonergic and BDNF systems, respectively. In conclusion, NCAM deficiency lead to prominent and persistent abnormalities in brain serotonergic and BDNF systems, which likely contributes to the behavioral and neurobiological phenotype of NCAM(-/-) mice.

  15. Characterization of subtle brain abnormalities in a mouse model of Hedgehog pathway antagonist-induced cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Robert J; Holloway, Hunter T; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Ament, Jacob J; Pecevich, Stephen J; Cofer, Gary P; Budin, Francois; Everson, Joshua L; Johnson, G Allan; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2014-01-01

    Subtle behavioral and cognitive deficits have been documented in patient cohorts with orofacial clefts (OFCs). Recent neuroimaging studies argue that these traits are associated with structural brain abnormalities but have been limited to adolescent and adult populations where brain plasticity during infancy and childhood may be a confounding factor. Here, we employed high resolution magnetic resonance microscopy to examine primary brain morphology in a mouse model of OFCs. Transient in utero exposure to the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway antagonist cyclopamine resulted in a spectrum of facial dysmorphology, including unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, cleft of the secondary palate only, and a non-cleft phenotype marked by midfacial hypoplasia. Relative to controls, cyclopamine-exposed fetuses exhibited volumetric differences in several brain regions, including hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and olfactory bulbs, hyperplasia of the forebrain septal region, and expansion of the third ventricle. However, in affected fetuses the corpus callosum was intact and normal division of the forebrain was observed. This argues that temporally-specific Hh signaling perturbation can result in typical appearing OFCs in the absence of holoprosencephaly--a condition classically associated with Hh pathway inhibition and frequently co-occurring with OFCs. Supporting the premise that some forms of OFCs co-occur with subtle brain malformations, these results provide a possible ontological basis for traits identified in clinical populations. They also argue in favor of future investigations into genetic and/or environmental modulation of the Hh pathway in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial clefting.

  16. Which is the best advanced MR imaging protocol for predicting recurrent metastatic brain tumor following gamma-knife radiosurgery: focused on perfusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    High spatial resolution of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging allows characterization of heterogenous tumor microenvironment. Our purpose was to determine which is the best advanced MR imaging protocol, focused on additional MR perfusion method, for predicting recurrent metastatic brain tumor following gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Seventy-two consecutive patients with post-GKRS metastatic brain tumor were enrolled. Two readers independently calculated the percentile histogram cutoffs for normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging and initial area under the time signal-intensity curve (IAUC) from DCE imaging, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and interreader agreement were assessed. For differentiating tumor recurrence from therapy effect, adding DCE imaging to diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) significantly improved AUC from 0.79 to 0.95 for reader 1 and from 0.80 to 0.96 for reader 2, respectively. There was no significant difference of AUC between the combination of DWI with DSC imaging and the combination of DWI with DCE imaging for both readers. With the combination of DWI and DCE imaging, the sensitivity and specificity were 86.7 and 88.1 % for reader 1 and 90.0 and 85.7 % for reader 2, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between readers was highest for calculation of the 90th percentile histogram cutoffs for IAUC (ICC, 0.87). Adding perfusion MR imaging to DWI significantly improves the prediction of recurrent metastatic tumor; however, the diagnostic performance is not affected by selection of either DSC or DCE MR perfusion method. (orig.)

  17. The value of brain blood perfusion SPECT imaging in evaluation of the curative effect of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with ischemic brain injury%脑SPECT显像对高压氧治疗脑外伤后脑缺血疗效判断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉新; 李春梅; 刘琳; 黄彩英

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像对高压氧(HBO)治疗脑外伤继发脑缺血患者疗效判断的价值.方法 将65例脑外伤继发脑缺血患者按随机数字表法分为HBO治疗组和常规治疗组,在治疗前后分别进行脑血流灌注SPECT显像,应用计算机感兴趣区(ROI)技术,在横断面图像上采用局部镜像比值(Ra)法判断脑缺血病灶,Ra≤0.9视为异常.对治疗前后的脑血流灌注减低区Ra值进行比较.数据间的比较行t检验.结果 HBO治疗组治疗前后局部脑血流(Rcbf)减低区Ra值分别为0.58±0.11和0.82±0.12(t=7.327,P<0.01),常规治疗组治疗前后rCBF减低区R且值分别为0.61±0.13和0.73±0.12(t=2.153,P=0.038);HBO治疗组和常规治疗组缺血灶rCBF增加值分别为0.24±0.08和0.12±0.06(t=2.571,P=0.015).结论 SPECT脑血流灌注显像可灵敏地反映HBO治疗脑外伤后脑缺血前后rCBF变化,可用于HBO治疗疗效的评价.%Objective Brain blood flow SPECT perfusion can detect changes in brain blood flow. The obiective of this study was to explore the clinical value of SPECT perfusion imaging in brain ischemic injury due to tmumatic at before and after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)treatment.Methods Sixty-five cases of secondary ischemic brain injury patients were randomly divided into two groups.One was with HBO treat-ment group and the other was with conventional treatment.All had brain perfusion SPECT at before and after treatment.Computer region of interest(ROI)technology was applied in the cross-sectional images using lo-cat mirror ratio(Ra)method to determine cerebral ischemic lesions.The t-test was used to analyze the quantitative data.It would be considered as abnormal if the brain perfusion SPECT reduce Ra≤0.9 aftertreatment.Results In HBO treatment group.regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF)before and after treat-ment to reduce the district Ra values were 0.58±0.1l and 0.82±0.12(t=7.327,P<0.01).In con-ventional treatment group.Rcbf before and after treatment

  18. Association between flashbacks and structural brain abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Whalley, M.G.; Rugg, M.D.; Brewin, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reliably associated with reduced brain volume relative to healthy controls, in areas similar to those found in depression. We investigated whether in a PTSD sample brain volumes in these areas were related to reporting specific symptoms of PTSD or t

  19. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  20. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  1. The abnormal isoform of the prion protein accumulates in late-endosome-like organelles in scrapie-infected mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J E; Tipler, C; Laszlo, L; Hope, J; Landon, M; Mayer, R J

    1995-08-01

    The prion encephalopathies are characterized by accumulation in the brain of the abnormal form PrPsc of a normal host gene product PrPc. The mechanism and site of formation of PrPsc from PrPc are currently unknown. In this study, ME7 scrapie-infected mouse brain was used to show, both biochemically and by double-labelled immunogold electron microscopy, that proteinase K-resistant PrPsc is enriched in subcellular structures which contain the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, ubiquitin-protein conjugates, beta-glucuronidase, and cathepsin B, termed late endosome-like organelles. The glycosylinositol phospholipid membrane-anchored PrPc will enter such compartment for normal degradation and the organelles may therefore act as chambers for the conversion of PrPc into infectious PrPsc in this murine model of scrapie.

  2. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  3. Zika Virus Infection as a Cause of Congenital Brain Abnormalities and Guillain–Barré Syndrome: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Haefliger, Anina

    2017-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality. Methods and Findings The study had three linked components. First, in February 2016, we developed a causality framework that defined questions about the relationship between Zika virus infection and each of the two clinical outcomes in ten dimensions: temporality, biological plausibility, strength of association, alternative explanations, cessation, dose–response relationship, animal experiments, analogy, specificity, and consistency. Second, we did a systematic review (protocol number CRD42016036693). We searched multiple online sources up to May 30, 2016 to find studies that directly addressed either outcome and any causality dimension, used methods to expedite study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment, and summarised evidence descriptively. Third, WHO convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts who assessed the review findings and reached consensus statements to update the WHO position on causality. We found 1,091 unique items up to May 30, 2016. For congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, we included 72 items; for eight of ten causality dimensions (all except dose–response relationship and specificity), we found that more than half the

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in classification of congenital muscular dystrophies with brain abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKnaap, MS; Smit, LME; Barth, PG; CatsmanBerrevoets, CE; Brouwer, OF; Begeer, JH; deCoo, IFM; Valk, J.

    1997-01-01

    A survey was performed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 21 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (QID) with cerebral abnormalities to evaluate the contribution of MRI to the classification of CMD patients. In 5 patients with Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), MRI showed hydrocephalu

  5. Structural brain abnormalities in first episode schizophrenia. Is it just illness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rais, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroimaging studies consistently demonstrated brain volume alterations in patients with schizophrenia, confounding factors like age, IQ, duration of the illness, use of antipsychotic medication and drug (ab-)use might partly explain these results. Therefore, the relation between confoundin

  6. Divergent structural brain abnormalities between different genetic subtypes of children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoshe, Akvile; White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus N.; van der Lugt, Aad; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical foc...

  7. Statistical voxel-wise analysis of ictal SPECT reveals pattern of abnormal perfusion in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Análise estatística baseada em voxel do SPECT ictal revela um padrão de alteração perfusional em pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of perfusion abnormalities in ictal and interictal brain perfusion SPECT images (BSI from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: It was acquired interictal and ictal BSI from 24 patients with refractory TLE. BSIs were analyzed by visual inspection and statistical parametric mapping (SPM2. Statistical analysis compared the patients group to a control group of 50 volunteers. The images from patients with left-TLE were left-right flipped. RESULTS: It was not observed significant perfusional differences in interictal scans with SPM. Ictal BSI in SPM analysis revealed hyperperfusion within ipsilateral temporal lobe (epileptogenic focus and also contralateral parieto-occipital region, ipsilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital lobes and ipsilateral basal ganglia. Ictal BSI also showed areas of hypoperfusion. CONCLUSION: In a group analysis of ictal BSI of patients with TLE, voxel-wise analysis detects a network of distant regions of perfusional alteration which may play active role in seizure genesis and propagation.OBJETIVO: Investigar o padrão de anormalidades perfusionais no SPECT de perfusão cerebral (SPC ictal e interictal na epilepsia de lobo temporal (ELT. MÉTODO: Foram realizados SPCs ictal e interictal de 24 pacientes com ELT que foram analisados visualmente e com o statistical parametric mapping (SPM2. A análise estatística comparou o grupo de pacientes versus um grupo controle de 50 voluntários. RESULTADOS: Na análise do SPM não foram observadas diferenças significativas no grupo de SPC interictal. No grupo de SPC ictal o SPM revelou hiperperfusão no lobo temporal ipsilateral (foco epileptogênico e também na região parieto-occipital contralateral, porção posterior do cíngulo ipsilateral, lobos occipitais e núcleos da base ipsilateral. O SPC ictal também mostrou áreas de hipoperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: Em uma análise de grupo do SPC ictal de pacientes com ELT, a an

  8. Brain MRI abnormalities in the adult form of myotonic dystrophy type 1: A longitudinal case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Renata; de Cristofaro, Mario; Cristofano, Adriana; Brogna, Barbara; Sardaro, Angela; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Cirillo, Sossio; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to verify whether brain abnormalities, previously described in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), progressed over time and, if so, to characterize their progression. Thirteen DM1 patients, who had at least two MRI examinations, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. The mean duration (± standard deviation) of follow-up was 13.4 (±3.8) years, over a range of 7-20 years. White matter lesions (WMLs) were rated by semi-quantitative method, the signal intensity of white matter poster-superior to trigones (WMPST) by reference to standard images and brain atrophy by ventricular/brain ratio (VBR). At the end of MRI follow-up, the scores relative to lobar, temporal and periventricular WMLs, to WMPST signal intensity and to VBR were significantly increased compared to baseline, and MRI changes were more evident in some families than in others. No correlation was found between the MRI changes and age, onset, disease duration, muscular involvement, CTG repetition and follow-up duration. These results demonstrated that white matter involvement and brain atrophy were progressive in DM1 and suggested that progression rate varied from patient to patient, regardless of age, disease duration and genetic defect.

  9. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yaou [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Liang Peipeng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); International WIC institute, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100024 (China); Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  10. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  11. Acute caffeine administration impact on working memory-related brain activation and functional connectivity in the elderly: a BOLD and perfusion MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, S; Rodriguez, C; Moser, D; Toma, S; Hofmeister, J; Sinanaj, I; Van De Ville, D; Giannakopoulos, P; Lovblad, K-O

    2013-10-10

    In young individuals, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine receptors and vasoconstriction has direct repercussions on task-related activations, changes in functional connectivity, as well as global vascular effects. To date, no study has explored the effect of caffeine on brain activation patterns during highly demanding cognitive tasks in the elderly. This prospective, placebo-controlled crossover design comprises 24 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 68.8 ± 4.0 years, 17 females) performing a 2-back working memory (WM) task in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses include complimentary assessment of task-related activations (general linear model, GLM), functional connectivity (tensorial independent component analysis, TICA), and baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling). Despite a reduction in whole-brain global perfusion (-22.7%), caffeine-enhanced task-related GLM activation in a local and distributed network is most pronounced in the bilateral striatum and to a lesser degree in the right middle and inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula, left superior and inferior parietal lobule as well as in the cerebellum bilaterally. TICA was significantly enhanced (+8.2%) in caffeine versus placebo in a distributed and task-relevant network including the pre-frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the ventral premotor cortex and the parietal cortex as well as the occipital cortex (visual stimuli) and basal ganglia. The inverse comparison of placebo versus caffeine had no significant difference. Activation strength of the task-relevant-network component correlated with response accuracy for caffeine yet not for placebo, indicating a selective cognitive effect of caffeine. The present findings suggest that acute caffeine intake enhances WM-related brain activation as well as functional connectivity of blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI in elderly individuals.

  12. Simulating technetium-99m cerebral perfusion studies with a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. Collimator and filter selection in SPECT neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Joung; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Moon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Hee-Kyung [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Karp, J.S.; Mozley, P.D.; Kung, H.F.; Alavi, A.

    1996-02-01

    The choice of a collimator and the selection of a filter can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images of the brain. The compromises that 4 different collimators make between spatial resolution and sensitivity were studied by imaging a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. The planar data were acquired with each collimator on a three-headed SPECT system and were reconstructed with both a standard Butterworth filter and a Wiener pre-filter. The reconstructed images were then evaluated by specialists in nuclear medicine and were also quantitatively analyzed with specific regions of interest (ROI) in the brain. All observers preferred the Wiener filter reconstructed images regardless of the collimator used to acquire the planar images. With this filter, the ultrahigh-resolution fan-beam collimator was the most subjectively preferable and quantitatively produced the highest contrast ratios. The findings support suggestions that higher resolution collimators are preferable to higher sensitivity collimators, and indicate that fan-beam collimators are preferable to parallel-hole collimators for clinical SPECT studies of cerebral perfusion. The results also suggest that the Wiener filter enhances the quality of SPECT brain images regardless of which collimator is used to acquire the data. (author).

  13. Characterization of technetium-99m-L,L-ECD for brain perfusion imaging, Part 1: Pharmacology of technetium-99m ECD in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walovitch, R.C.; Hill, T.C.; Garrity, S.T.; Cheesman, E.H.; Burgess, B.A.; O' Leary, D.H.; Watson, A.D.; Ganey, M.V.; Morgan, R.A.; Williams, S.J. (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours Co., Inc., No. Billerica, MA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (({sup 99m}Tc)ECD) is a neutral, lipophilic complex which rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier. Brain retention and tissue metabolism of ({sup 99m}Tc)ECD is dependent upon the stereochemical configuration of the complex. While both L,L and D,D enantiomers are extracted by the brain, only the L,L but not the D,D form, is metabolized and retained in the monkey brain (4.7% injected dose initially, T 1/2 greater than 24 hr). Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies in one monkey indicates {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD to be distributed in a pattern consistent with regional cerebral blood flow for up to 16 hr postinjection. Dual-labeled {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine autoradiography studies performed 1 hr after administration show cortical gray to white matter ratios of both isotopes to be equivalent (approximately 4-5:1). These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD will be useful for the scintigraphic assessment of cerebral perfusion in humans.

  14. Three-dimensional whole-brain perfused blood volume imaging with multimodal CT for evaluation of acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J.; Zhang, M.; Cao, Y. [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Ma, Q. [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Chen, J. [Healthcare, Siemens Ltd. China, Beijing (China); Ji, X. [Department of Neurosurgery Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Li, K., E-mail: imaging@yeah.ne [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic value of integrating three-dimensional perfused blood volume (3D PBV) with multimodal computed tomography (CT) [non-enhanced CT (NECT), CT perfusion (CTP), and CT angiography (CTA)] in acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods: NECT, CTP, and CTA were performed in 25 acute ischaemic stroke patients. The ischaemia detection rate of 3D PBV was compared with the results of baseline NECT and CTP. The correlation of ischaemic lesion volume between 3D PBV, CTP images, and follow-up NECT were analysed. Results: NECT demonstrated ischaemic signs in 12 of 25 patients with proven infarction. CTP maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and time to peak (TTP) all demonstrated perfusion deficits in 21 of 25 patients. However, 3D PBV demonstrated perfusion deficits in all of the 25 patients. Among the 25 patients, a strong correlation was found between PBV and the follow-up NECT infarct (r = 0.858). The correlation between CTP and the follow-up NECT infarct as following: CBF (r = 0.718), CBV (r = 0.785), and TTP (r = 0.569). In 14 thrombolytic patients, strong correlation was found between the ischaemic volume on 3D PBV and follow-up NECT (r = 0.798). Conclusion: In acute stroke patients, the combination of 3D PBV and multimodal CT (NECT, CTP, and CTA) can improve the detection rate of ischaemia and enable assessment of the full extent of ischaemia, which correlates well with follow-up NECT.

  15. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Guo, Jie; Meng, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhijun; Yao, Yang; Yang, Jiajia; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution. PMID:27403202

  16. Imaging brain fatigue from sustained mental workload: an ASL perfusion study of the time-on-task effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Wu, Wen-Chau; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A; Dinges, David F; Rao, Hengyi

    2010-02-15

    During sustained periods of a taxing cognitive workload, humans typically display time-on-task (TOT) effects, in which performance gets steadily worse over the period of task engagement. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this study to investigate the neural correlates of TOT effects in a group of 15 subjects as they performed a 20-min continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). Subjects displayed significant TOT effects, as seen in progressively slower reaction times and significantly increased mental fatigue ratings after the task. Perfusion data showed that the PVT activates a right lateralized fronto-parietal attentional network in addition to the basal ganglia and sensorimotor cortices. The fronto-parietal network was less active during post-task rest compared to pre-task rest, and regional CBF decrease in this network correlated with performance decline. These results demonstrate the persistent effects of cognitive fatigue in the fronto-parietal network after a period of heavy mental work and indicate the critical role of this attentional network in mediating TOT effects. Furthermore, resting regional CBF in the thalamus and right middle frontal gyrus prior to task onset was predictive of subjects' subsequent performance decline, suggesting that resting CBF quantified by ASL perfusion fMRI may be a useful indicator of performance potential and a marker of the level of fatigue in the neural attentional system.

  17. Tinnitus perception and distress is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tinnitus perception are not well understood. Surprisingly, there have been no group studies comparing abnormalities in ongoing, spontaneous neuronal activity in individuals with and without tinnitus perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that the spontaneous neuronal activity of a group of individuals with tinnitus (n = 17 is characterised by a marked reduction in alpha (8-12 Hz power together with an enhancement in delta (1.5-4 Hz as compared to a normal hearing control group (n = 16. This pattern was especially pronounced for temporal regions. Moreover, correlations with tinnitus-related distress revealed strong associations with this abnormal spontaneous activity pattern, particularly in right temporal and left frontal areas. Overall, effects were stronger for the alpha than for the delta frequency band. A data stream of 5 min, recorded with a whole-head neuromagnetometer under a resting condition, was sufficient to extract the marked differences. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, there are arguments that the regional pattern of abnormal spontaneous activity we found could reflect a tinnitus-related cortical network. This finding, which suggests that a neurofeedback approach could reduce the adverse effects of this disturbing condition, could have important implications for the treatment of tinnitus.

  18. White Matter Abnormalities are Associated with Chronic Postconcussion Symptoms in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are non-specific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of co-morbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no-TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI−LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI+LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI+LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no-TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI+LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS. PMID:26497829

  19. White matter abnormalities are associated with chronic postconcussion symptoms in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are nonspecific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of comorbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no--TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI--LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI + LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI + LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no--TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI + LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS.

  20. Abnormalities in Human Brain Creatine Metabolism in Gulf War Illness Probed with MRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    31P-1H head coil (months 1-5)  The dual-tuned 31P-1H head coil was ordered from AIR on 12/18/2012 and delivered on 02/06/2013; the annular loading...preferably 50 or more. A logarithmic rather than linear spacing of TE values is preferred (12-14) as more efficient. The in vivo brain PCr:Cr ratio is...but preferably 50). A logarithmic rather than linear spacing of TE values is more efficient (5-7). The in vivo brain PCr:Cr ratio is near unity (1; 8

  1. Quantitative evaluation of benign meningioma and hemangiopericytoma with peritumoral brain edema by 64-slice CT perfusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guang; CHEN Shuang; WANG Yin; ZHU Rui-jiang; GENG Dao-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have a relentless tendency for local recurrence and metastases,differentiating between benign meningiomas and HPCs before surgery is important for both treatment planning and the prognosis appraisal.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density (MVD) in extra-axial tumors and the possible role of CT perfusion imaging in preoperatively differentiating benign meningiomas and HPCs.Methods Seventeen patients with benign meningiomas and peritumoral edema, 12 patients with HPCs and peritumoral edema underwent 64-slice CT perfusion imaging pre-operation.Perfusion was calculated using the Patlak method.The quantitative parameters, include cerebral blood volume (CBV), permeability surface (PS) of parenchyma, peritumoral edema among benign meningiomas and HPCs were compared respectively.CBV and PS in parenchyma, peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were also compared to that of the contrallateral normal white matter respectively.The correlations between CBV, PS of tumoral parenchyma and MVD were examined.Results The value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05), while the values of CBV and PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not significantly different (P >0.05).MVD in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05).There were positive correlations between CBV and MVD (r=0.648, P<0.05), PS and MVD (r=0.541, P<0.05) respectively.Furthermore, the value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly higher than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), the value of CBV in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly lower than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), while the value of PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not

  2. Motor cortex stimulation(MCS) for intractable complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II: PSM analysis of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Son, B. C.; Yoo, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, E. N.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    We had experienced a patient with intractable CRPS in whom statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of cerebral perfusion explained the mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old man presented spontaneous severe burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. After the electrodes for neuromodulation therapy were inserted in the central sulcus, the baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD were obtained within two days. The differences between the baseline and stimulation SPECT images, estimated at every voxel using t-statistics using SPM-99 software, were considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Among several areas significantly activated following pain relief with MCS, ipsilateral pyramidal tract in the cerebral peduncle might be related to the mechanism of pain control with MCS through efferent motor pathway. The result suggested that corticospinal neurons themselves or motor cortex efferent pathway maintained by the presence of intact corticospinal neurons could play an important role in producing pain control after MCS. This study would helpful in understanding of neurophysiology.

  3. Microstructural brain abnormalities in Huntington's disease : A two-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odish, Omar F F; Leemans, A; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; van den Bogaard, Simon J A; Dumas, Eve M.; Wolterbeek, Ron; Tax, Chantal M W; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Vincken, Koen L.; van der Grond, Jeroen; Roos, Raymund A C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate both cross-sectional and time-related changes of striatal and whole-brain microstructural properties in different stages of Huntington's disease (HD) using diffusion tensor imaging. Experimental design: From the TRACK-HD study, premanifest gene carriers (preHD), early mani

  4. Brief Report: Abnormal Association between the Thalamus and Brain Size in Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Girgis, Ragy R.; Adams, Jason; Gilbert, Andrew R.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between thalamic volume and brain size in individuals with Asperger's disorder (ASP). Volumetric measurements of the thalamus were performed on MRI scans obtained from 12 individuals with ASP (age range: 10-35 years) and 12 healthy controls (age range: 9-33 years). A positive correlation…

  5. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  6. Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

  7. Abnormal hemodynamic response to forepaw stimulation in rat brain after cocaine injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Park, Kicheon; Choi, Jeonghun; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous measurement of hemodynamics is of great importance to evaluate the brain functional changes induced by brain diseases such as drug addiction. Previously, we developed a multimodal-imaging platform (OFI) which combined laser speckle contrast imaging with multi-wavelength imaging to simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygenated- and deoxygenated- hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) from animal brain. Recently, we upgraded our OFI system that enables detection of hemodynamic changes in response to forepaw electrical stimulation to study potential brain activity changes elicited by cocaine. The improvement includes 1) high sensitivity to detect the cortical response to single forepaw electrical stimulation; 2) high temporal resolution (i.e., 16Hz/channel) to resolve dynamic variations in drug-delivery study; 3) high spatial resolution to separate the stimulation-evoked hemodynamic changes in vascular compartments from those in tissue. The system was validated by imaging the hemodynamic responses to the forepaw-stimulations in the somatosensory cortex of cocaine-treated rats. The stimulations and acquisitions were conducted every 2min over 40min, i.e., from 10min before (baseline) to 30min after cocaine challenge. Our results show that the HbO response decreased first (at ~4min) followed by the decrease of HbR response (at ~6min) after cocaine, and both did not fully recovered for over 30min. Interestingly, while CBF decreased at 4min, it partially recovered at 18min after cocaine administration. The results indicate the heterogeneity of cocaine's effects on vasculature and tissue metabolism, demonstrating the unique capability of optical imaging for brain functional studies.

  8. Absence of PTHrP nuclear localization and carboxyl terminus sequences leads to abnormal brain development and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gu

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1-84, a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.

  9. No abnormalities of intrinsic brain connectivity in the interictal phase of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, F M; Magon, S

    2015-01-01

    resting-state functional brain connectivity in migraineurs with aura outside of attacks using functional magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Forty patients suffering from migraine with visual aura and 40 individually age and gender matched healthy controls with no history or family history of migraine...... if cortical dysfunction is present at rest, i.e. in the absence of any external stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique for evaluating resting state functional connectivity, i.e. coherence of brain activity across cerebral areas. The objective of this study was to investigate......, and in a data-driven exploratory fashion (dual regression) in order to reveal any possible between-group differences of resting state networks. Age, gender, attack frequency and disease duration were included as nuisance variables. RESULTS: No differences of functional connectivity were found between patients...

  10. The effect of scatter correction on {sup 123}I-IMP brain perfusion SPET with the triple energy window method in normal subjects using SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, Tohru; Takano, Akihiro; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kubo, Naoki [Department of Radiological Technology, College of Medical Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kobayashi, Junko; Takeda, Yoji; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Koyama, Tsukasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Scatter correction (SC) using the triple energy window method (TEW) has recently been applied for brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scatter correction using TEW on N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPET in normal subjects. The study population consisted of 15 right-handed normal subjects. SPET data were acquired from 20 min to 40 min after the injection of 167 MBq of IMP, using a triple-head gamma camera. Images were reconstructed with and without SC. 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were also obtained with a 1.5-Tesla scanner. First, IMP images with and without SC were co-registered to the 3D MRI. Second, the two co-registered IMP images were normalised using SPM96. A t statistic image for the contrast condition effect was constructed. We investigated areas using a voxel-level threshold of 0.001, with a corrected threshold of 0.05. Compared with results obtained without SC, the IMP distribution with SC was significantly decreased in the peripheral areas of the cerebellum, the cortex and the ventricle, and also in the lateral occipital cortex and the base of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the IMP distribution with SC was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, the insular cortex and the medial part of the thalamus. It is concluded that differences in the IMP distribution with and without SC exist not only in the peripheral areas of the cerebellum, the cortex and the ventricle but also in the occipital lobe, the base of the temporal lobe, the insular cortex, the medial part of the thalamus, and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. This needs to be recognised for adequate interpretation of IMP brain perfusion SPET after scatter correction. (orig.)

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Tongxinluo Capsule(通心络胶囊) on Patients with Acute Small Cerebral Infarction and Its Influence on SPECT Brain Perfusion Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛年; 周国钰; 刘黎青

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of Tongxinluo capsule (TXL, 通心络胶囊) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography ( SPECT) brain perfusion imaging, and to observe the therapeutic effects of TXL on acute small cerebral infarction (ASCI).Methods: Thirty-four patients with ASCI were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: the control group ( n = 17) was treated with the conventional treatment, i.e. 1.0g of Citicoline added into 300 mi normal saline for intravenous dripping daily for 2 weeks and 0.8 g of Piracetam taken three times a day orally for 4 weeks, and the treatment group ( n = 17)was treated additionally with 4 TXL capsules three times a day for 4 weeks besides the conventional treatment. The 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after treatment to observe the change of rCBF, and the neurological deficit was evaluated by Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (SSS) scores and Barthel index (BI) at the same time. Results: After treatment, the rCBF in the treatment group was significantly improved ( P<0.01), while that in the control group remained unchanged, with the comparison of the rCBF in the two groups after treatment showing significant difference (P<0.01). In addition, the SSS score was significantly lower and BI significantly higher in the treatment group than those in the control group respectively after treatment. Conclusion: TXL could effectively improve rCBF and lessen the neurological deficit symptoms in patients with ASCI.

  12. Abnormal thalamocortical dynamics may be altered by deep brain stimulation: using magnetoencephalography to study phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, N J; Jenkinson, N; Kringelbach, M L; Hansen, P C; Pereira, E A; Brittain, J S; Holland, P; Holliday, I E; Owen, S; Stein, J; Aziz, T

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to alleviate chronic pain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the mechanisms of DBS for pain is difficult because of the artefact caused by the stimulator. We were able to record activity over the occipital lobe of a patient using DBS for phantom limb pain during presentation of a visual stimulus. This demonstrates that MEG can be used to study patients undergoing DBS provided control stimuli are used to check the reliability of the data. We then asked the patient to rate his pain during and off DBS. Correlations were found between these ratings and power in theta (6-9) and beta bands (12-30). Further, there was a tendency for frequencies under 25 Hz to correlate with each other after a period off stimulation compared with immediately after DBS. The results are interpreted as reflecting abnormal thalamocortical dynamics, previously implicated in painful syndromes.

  13. Higher frequency of brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li-Na; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder often co-exists with primary Sjögren's syndrome. We compared the clinical features of 16 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with (n = 6) or without primary Sjögren's syndrome (n = 10). All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, and MRI evaluations. There were no statistical differences in demographics or first neurological involvement at onset between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome. The laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding, serum C-reactive protein, antinuclear autoantibody, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibodies, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen B antibodies, and anti-Sm antibodies were significantly higher in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome than those without. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were detectable in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 60% (6/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome. More brain abnormalities were observed in patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome than in those with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Segments lesions (> 3 centrum) were noted in 50% (5/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These findings indicate that the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome are similar. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome have a high frequency of brain abnormalities.

  14. Higher frequency of brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Gu; Min Zhang; Hui Zhu; Jing-yao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder otfen co-exists with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. We compared the clinical features of 16 neuro-myelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with (n = 6) or without primary Sjögren’s syndrome (n = 10). All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, and MRI evaluations. hTere were no statistical differences in demographics or ifrst neurological involvement at onset between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren’s syndrome. The laboratory findings of cerebrospinal lfuid oligoclonal banding, serum C-reactive protein, antinuclear autoantibody, anti-Sjögren’s-syndrome-related antigen A an-tibodies, anti-Sjögren’s-syndrome-related antigen B antibodies, and anti-Sm antibodies were signiifcantly higher in patients with primary Sjö gren’s syndrome than those without. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were detectable in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and in 60% (6/10) of patients without primary Sjögren’s syndrome. More brain abnormalities were observed in patients without primary Sjögren’s syndrome than in those with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Segments lesions (> 3 centrum) were noted in 50% (5/10) of patients without primary Sjögren’s syndrome and in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. hTese ifndings indicate that the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren’s syndrome are similar. However, neu-romyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren’s syndrome have a high frequency of brain abnormalities.

  15. Large-scale brain network abnormalities in Huntington's disease revealed by structural covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkova, Lora; Eickhoff, Simon B; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Kaller, Christoph P; Peter, Jessica; Scheller, Elisa; Lahr, Jacob; Roos, Raymund A; Durr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be diagnosed with certainty decades before symptom onset. Studies using structural MRI have identified grey matter (GM) loss predominantly in the striatum, but also involving various cortical areas. So far, voxel-based morphometric studies have examined each brain region in isolation and are thus unable to assess the changes in the interrelation of brain regions. Here, we examined the structural covariance in GM volumes in pre-specified motor, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social-affective networks in 99 patients with manifest HD (mHD), 106 presymptomatic gene mutation carriers (pre-HD), and 108 healthy controls (HC). After correction for global differences in brain volume, we found that increased GM volume in one region was associated with increased GM volume in another. When statistically comparing the groups, no differences between HC and pre-HD were observed, but increased positive correlations were evident for mHD, relative to pre-HD and HC. These findings could be explained by a HD-related neuronal loss heterogeneously affecting the examined network at the pre-HD stage, which starts to dominate structural covariance globally at the manifest stage. Follow-up analyses identified structural connections between frontoparietal motor regions to be linearly modified by disease burden score (DBS). Moderator effects of disease load burden became significant at a DBS level typically associated with the onset of unequivocal HD motor signs. Together with existing findings from functional connectivity analyses, our data indicates a critical role of these frontoparietal regions for the onset of HD motor signs.

  16. Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Françoise S; Merke, Deborah P; Schroth, Elizabeth A; Keil, Margaret F; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2008-02-01

    Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effects of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12-14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30min after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development.

  17. Abnormality Segmentation and Classification of Brain MR Images using Combined Edge, Texture Region Features and Radial basics Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Balakumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI are widely used in the diagnosis of Brain tumor. In this study we have developed a new approach for automatic classification of the normal and abnormal non-enhanced MRI images. The proposed method consists of four stages namely Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature reduction and classification. In the first stage anisotropic filter is applied for noise reduction and to make the image suitable for extracting the features. In the second stage, Region growing base segmentation is used for partitioning the image into meaningful regions. In the third stage, combined edge and Texture based features are extracted using Histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM from the segmented image. In the next stage PCA is used to reduce the dimensionality of the Feature space which results in a more efficient and accurate classification. Finally, in the classification stage, a supervised Radial Basics Function (RBF classifier is used to classify the experimental images into normal and abnormal. The obtained experimental are evaluated using the metrics sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. For comparison, the performance of the proposed technique has significantly improved the tumor detection accuracy with other neural network based classifier SVM, FFNN and FSVM.

  18. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  19. Brain capillary transit time heterogeneity in healthy volunteers measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Vestergaard, Mark B; Lindberg, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    impulse response function was compatible with the adiabatic tissue homogeneity model. In two patients with complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery and in the patient with a brain tumor CTH was increased with values up to 6 s in the affected brain tissue, with an exponential like residue impulse...

  20. Perfusion MRI in neuro-psychiatric systemic lupus erthemathosus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmer, B.J.; Osch, M.J. van; Wu, O.; Steup-Beekman, G.M.; Steens, S.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; Buchem, M.A. van; Grond, J. van der

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To use perfusion weighted MR to quantify any perfusion abnormalities and to determine their contribution to neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI in 15 active NPSLE, 26 i

  1. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  2. Quantification of perfusion and risk stratification by myocardial perfusion SPECT; Quantifizierung der Perfusion und Risikostratifizierung durch die Myokardperfusions-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Bernd [Ueberoertliche Gemeinschaft (GbR) fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin (DIRANUK), Bielefeld (Germany); Klinikum Bielefeld-Mitte (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schaefer, W.M. [Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Moenchengladbach (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-06-15

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT detects flow-limiting coronary artery disease with high sensitivity and specificity, enables semiquantification of severity and extensiveness of myocardial ischemia, and furthermore enables reliable assessment of future cardiac events independently of other clinical and diagnostic parameters. A normal myocardial perfusion SPECT is associated with a favorable prognosis and warrants restrictive patient management. Cardiac risk increases in relation to the severity of perfusion abnormalities. Differentiated analysis of quantitative parameters derived from myocardial perfusion SPECT provides effective risk stratification of patients with a large variety of risk factors. (orig.)

  3. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  4. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems.

  5. Facial emotion recognition impairments are associated with brain volume abnormalities in individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S; Walker, Keenan A; Cohen, Ronald A; Devlin, Kathryn N; Folkers, Anna M; Pina, Matthew J; Tashima, Karen T

    2015-04-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV-associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities.

  6. Post-contrast FLAIR MR imaging of the brain in children: normal and abnormal intracranial enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Choi, Choong-Gon [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the normally enhancing intracranial structures on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and evaluate the usefulness of postcontrast FLAIR images of the brain in the assessment of enhancing lesions by comparing postcontrast FLAIR imaging with postcontrast T1-weighted (T1-W) imaging in children. In 218 children, 249 pre- and postcontrast FLAIR MRI examinations of the brain were obtained consecutively between August 2001 and April 2002. The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR imaging were assessed in 77 MRI studies of 74 children who showed normal intracranial imaging findings. In 86 MRI studies in 68 children who showed enhancing intracranial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was compared with that on postcontrast T1-W imaging for all lesions (n=107), intra-axial lesions (n=40), or extra-axial lesions (n=67). The normally enhancing intracranial structures on FLAIR MRI were the choroid plexus (99%, 76/77), pituitary stalk (84%, 65/77), pineal gland (71%, 55/77), dural sinuses (26%, 20/77), and cortical veins (9%, 7/77). Of all the enhancing lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better than postcontrast T1-weighted imaging in 42, equal in 28, and worse in 37. Of 40 intra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuousness on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 6, equal in 10, and worse in 24. Of 67 extra-axial lesions, lesion conspicuity on postcontrast FLAIR imaging was better in 36, equal in 18, and worse in 13. Conspicuousness of extra-axial lesions was significantly better than that of intra-axial lesions on postcontrast FLAIR imaging (P<0.001). The choroid plexus, pituitary stalk, pineal gland, dural sinuses, and cortical veins show normal enhancement on postcontrast FLAIR MRI in children, and postcontrast FLAIR imaging appears better than postcontrast T1-W imaging in the assessment of extra-axial enhancing lesions in children. (orig.)

  7. Novel molecular pathways elicited by mutant FGFR2 may account for brain abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Yeh

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome (AS, the most severe form craniosynostosis, is characterized by premature fusion of coronal sutures. Approximately 70% of AS patients carry S252W gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2. Besides the cranial phenotype, brain dysmorphologies are present and are not seen in other FGFR2-asociated craniosynostosis, such as Crouzon syndrome (CS. Here, we hypothesized that S252W mutation leads not only to overstimulation of FGFR2 downstream pathway, but likewise induces novel pathological signaling. First, we profiled global gene expression of wild-type and S252W periosteal fibroblasts stimulated with FGF2 to activate FGFR2. The great majority (92% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs were divergent between each group of cell populations and they were regulated by different transcription factors. We than compared gene expression profiles between AS and CS cell populations and did not observe correlations. Therefore, we show for the first time that S252W mutation in FGFR2 causes a unique cell response to FGF2 stimulation. Since our gene expression results suggested that novel signaling elicited by mutant FGFR2 might be associated with central nervous system (CNS development and maintenance, we next investigated if DEGs found in AS cells were also altered in the CNS of an AS mouse model. Strikingly, we validated Strc (stereocilin in newborn Fgfr2(S252W/+ mouse brain. Moreover, immunostaining experiments suggest a role for endothelial cells and cerebral vasculature in the establishment of characteristic CNS dysmorphologies in AS that has not been proposed by previous literature. Our approach thus led to the identification of new target genes directly or indirectly associated with FGFR2 which are contributing to the pathophysiology of AS.

  8. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  9. [Pharmacological assessment of ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution for cerebrospinal surgery based on glucose incorporation activity in primary cultures of rat brain cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Doi, Kazuhisa; Naito, Shinsaku

    2010-01-01

    ARTCEREB irrigation and perfusion solution (Artcereb) is typically used as an artificial fluid for applications inside the skull and spinal cavity. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effects of Artcereb in cultures of rat fetal brain cells. Cell function following exposure to Artcereb was evaluated by measuring (3)H-deoxy-D-glucose incorporation activity. Cell function was significantly reduced in primary cultures of rat fetal brain cells at 0 h and 24 h after 1-h or 3-h exposure to normal saline as compared with Artcereb. Cell function was also significantly reduced at 24 h after 3-h exposure to lactated Ringer's solution as compared with Artcereb. Furthermore, cell function was significantly reduced at 24 h after 3-h exposure to a modified Artcereb formulation lacking either HCO(3)(-) or Mg(2+) as compared with Artcereb, while cell function was unaffected at 24 h after exposure to lactated Ringer's solution with HCO(3)(-) or normal saline with HCO(3)(-) as compared with Artcereb. These findings suggest the importance of the presence of HCO(3)(-) and Mg(2+) in the formulation of Artcereb.

  10. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eUmeda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS, a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5-10 times ascommon as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with voxel-based morphometry (VBM applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited eleven patients with established PoTS and twenty-three age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of grey matter volume revealed diminished grey matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients.

  11. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5-10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

  13. LIPID ABNORMALITIES IN SUCCINATE SEMIALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (Aldh5a1−/−) DEFICIENT MOUSE BRAIN PROVIDE ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE FOR MYELIN ALTERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelo-Coblijn, G.; Murphy, E.J.; Mills, K.; Winchester, B; Jakobs, C.; Snead, O.C.; Gibson, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Lipid abnormalities in succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (aldh5a1-/-) deficient mouse brain provide additional evidence for myelin alterations correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 412 692 7608; fax: +1 412 692 7816. (Gibson, K.M.) (Gibson, K.M.) Department of Pharmacology - Physiology--> , and Therapeutics--> , School of Medicine and Health Sciences--> , University of North Dakota--...

  14. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT in children with minor head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Alharthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. Results: No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, ′fall′ as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA, more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Conclusion: Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings.

  15. Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C; Cryan, Jane B; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Haas, Elisabeth A; Mena, Othon J; Minter, Megan; Journey, Kelley W; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Goldstein, Richard D; Armstrong, Dawna D

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death.

  16. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Koyama, Masamichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Seiro; Sato, Kazunori; Ono, Shuichi; Goto, Ryoi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer

    1996-01-01

    A single photon emitter labeled tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD), has now been used for rCBF studies with SPECT. However, normal distribution pattern of this agent in the brain still remains unclear. Therefore, the specific purpose of this study was to investigate the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT image. Regional cerebral distribution was measured with SPECT and 984{+-}17 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in ten normal subjects. During the SPECT measurement, subjects were placed comfortably in a supine position with their eyes closed. Each SPECT image was anatomically standardized using a computerized brain atlas system of Roland et al. (HBA: Human Brain Atlas) and X-CT image. Anatomically standardized SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Then, the mean and SD images of brain SPECT were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. The highest radioactivity was found in the medial aspect of the occipital lobe. The results indicate that the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in the human brain may be not simply reflect the regional cerebral blood flow. (author).

  17. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with panic disorder using serial {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Song, Ho Chun; Yang, Jong Chul; Lee, Byeong Il; Heo, Young Jun; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Jin [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Although several neuroanatomical models of panic disorder have been proposed, little is known regarding the neurological mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. This study was performed to identify the brain structures that show changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after CBT in patients with panic disorder. Seven patients who were diagnosed as panic disorder by DSM-IV were treated with CBT for 8 weeks and twelve healthy volunteers joined in this study. Serial {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT images were aquisited and PDSS-SR (Self-Report version of Panic Disorder Severity Scale) and ACQ (Agoraphobic Cognitive Question) scores were measured just before and after CBT in all patients. Data were analyzed using SPM2. Subjective symptoms were improved, and PDSS-SR and ACQ scores were significantly reduced (14.9 {+-} 3.9 vs. 7.0 {+-} 1.8, {rho} < 0.05; 30.3 {+-} 8.5 vs. 21.6 {+-} 3.4, {rho} < 0.05, respectively) after CBT in panic patients. Before CBT, a significant increase of rCBF was found in the cingulate gylus, thalamus, midbrain, both medial frontal and temporal lobes of the panic patients compared to the normal volunteers. After CBT, we observed a significant rCBF decrease in the left parahippocamus, right insula and cingulate gyrus, both frontal and temporal lobes, and a significant rCBF increase in both the occipital lobes, left insula, both frontal and left parietal lobes. These data suggested that CBT is effective for panic disorder and diminish the activity of the brain areas associated with fear in panic disorder.

  18. Long term evaluation of brain perfusion with magnetic resonance in high flow extracranial-intracranial saphenous graft bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzao, Alessandro [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, II Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Fasoli, Fabrizio; Finocchi, Vanina; Romano, Andrea; Fantozzi, Luigi M. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, II Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Santoro, Giuseppe [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neurosurgery, I Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    Assessment was made of the cerebral vascular haemodynamic parameters in patients with a high-flow extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass performed for therapeutic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Sixteen patients with ICA occlusion and EC-IC bypass (time interval from surgery 1-6 years) underwent MRI. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PW-MRI) sequences were performed without the use of an arterial input function. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (MTT) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were evaluated in all patients at the level of the basal ganglia, centrum semiovale and cortex in both hemispheres. Statistically significant differences (P<0.005) were observed in the haemodynamic parameters, indicating increased rCBV in the basal ganglia and decreased rCBF and rCBV in the cortex of the hemisphere supplied by the graft with respect to the contralateral. Patients with occlusion of the ICA and high flow EC-IC bypass do have altered vascular haemodynamic status between the hemispheres. In particular, rCBF is impaired in the surgical hemisphere at the level of the cortex. These patients should be followed-up to rule out chronic ischemia. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging without contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjoerg; Schick, Fritz [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Boss, Andreas; Schraml, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina F.; Claussen, Claus D. [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Principles of magnetic resonance imaging techniques providing perfusion-related contrast weighting without administration of contrast media are reported and analysed systematically. Especially common approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging allowing quantitative assessment of specific perfusion rates are described in detail. The potential of ASL for perfusion imaging was tested in several types of tissue. After a systematic comparison of technical aspects of continuous and pulsed ASL techniques the standard kinetic model and tissue properties of influence to quantitative measurements of perfusion are reported. For the applications demonstrated in this paper a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation approach followed by true fast imaging with steady precession (true FISP) data recording was developed and implemented on whole-body scanners operating at 0.2, 1.5 and 3 T for quantitative perfusion measurement in various types of tissue. ASL imaging provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of tissue perfusion rates in vivo. Images recorded from kidney, lung, brain, salivary gland and thyroid gland provide a spatial resolution of a few millimetres and sufficient signal to noise ratio in perfusion maps after 2-5 min of examination time. Newly developed ASL techniques provide especially high image quality and quantitative perfusion maps in tissues with relatively high perfusion rates (as also present in many tumours). Averaging of acquisitions and image subtraction procedures are mandatory, leading to the necessity of synchronization of data recording to breathing in abdominal and thoracic organs. (orig.)

  20. 儿童SPECT脑灌注显像护理的配合及探讨%The study and cooperation of children's care during brain perfusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红艳; 石宇; 高宙; 贾少微

    2003-01-01

    Objective Taking good care is a very important part and quality assurance to make a successful study during children's nuclear examination for nervous system. This paper aims at summarizing the caring experience so as to coordinate the SPECT examination better. Methods 140 children underwent brain perfusion imaging in our department. The main procedures are as follows: take psychological care, orally take potassium chlorate 400mg and block out the vision and hearing. Then inject 99mTc-ECD 14.8MBq/kg intravenously.Sedate those in-cooperated patients. The equipment for the examination is SIEMENS E. CAM/ICON SPECT. Results In the 140 cases of brain perfusion imaging, 138 cases were successful, while 2 patients moved their head during the examination. Conclusion Through the care of the 140 patients during the examination, we realize that it is very important to communicate with the children actively to get their cooperation. To those autistic children, the operation should be quick and precise. After the administration of sedative, more attention should be paid to the children's respiration and pulse. Make sure that the imaging reagents are injected into the vessel entirely.%目的探讨儿童神经系统核医学检查中的护理方法,总结护理经验,以更好地配合SPECT检查的需要.方法研究对象为我科140例SPECT脑灌注显像患儿,对患儿进行心理护理,口服过氯酸钾400mg,行视听封闭,静脉注射99mTc-ECD,不配合者使用镇静剂.结果140例患儿行SPECT脑灌注显像,138例检查成功,2例在检查中头部位置移动.结论积极和儿童交流,取得配合.对于Autism的患儿,操作做到既准又快.使用镇静剂后,注意观察患儿的呼吸与脉搏情况;注射时保证显像剂全部注入血管内.

  1. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Laura K.; Renken, Remco J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Willemsen, Antoon T.; van Osch, Matthias J.; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Under normal conditions, the spatial distribution of resting cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose are closely related. A relatively new magnetic resonance (MR) technique, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), can be used to measure regional brain perfu

  2. Feasibility of {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET for evaluation of brain ischaemia and misery perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Makoto; Arai, Yoshikazu; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukui (Japan); Kiyono, Yasushi; Okazawa, Hidehiko [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); University of Fukui, Research and Education Program for Life Science, Fukui (Japan); Kudo, Takashi; Mori, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Rikiya [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    [{sup 62}Cu]Diacetyl-bis(N {sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazone) ({sup 62}Cu-ATSM) was used to evaluate brain haemodynamic impairment in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) as a simplified evaluation method. The tracer distribution was compared with haemodynamic parameters obtained by {sup 15}O positron emission tomography (PET). Ten patients with major cerebral arterial occlusive disease (aged 66 {+-} 7 years) underwent PET with {sup 62}Cu-ATSM and {sup 15}O tracers ({sup 15}O-water, {sup 15}O{sub 2} and C{sup 15}O). Seven healthy volunteers also underwent {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET as normal controls. After the injection of {sup 62}Cu-ATSM, 20-min dynamic PET data acquisition was started. Early- and delayed-phase images of {sup 62}Cu-ATSM were obtained by averaging the initial 3-min and the last 10-min frame data, which were used for perfusion and retention images. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume, metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured by {sup 15}O-gas and water studies and compared with early- and delayed-phase {sup 62}Cu-ATSM images and delayed to early (D/E) ratio. Regional values were compared after all parametric images were coregistered to individual MRI. The asymmetry index (AI) was also calculated for OEF and Cu-ATSM D/E ratio, and diagnostic ability for detecting misery perfusion was compared. In the affected hemisphere of the patients, the mean values of haemodynamic parameters were CBF = 33.8 {+-} 5.9 ml/100 g per min, CMRO{sub 2} = 2.6 {+-} 0.3 ml/100 g per min and OEF = 48 {+-} 7%. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) for {sup 62}Cu-ATSM in early and delayed phases were 2.00 {+-} 0.13 and 1.04 {+-} 0.09 in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 2.13 {+-} 0.14 and 1.04 {+-} 0.08 in the contralateral hemisphere, respectively. The early-phase {sup 62}Cu-ATSM images corresponded well to CBF images, and the D/E ratio images were similar to OEF images. Regional values obtained from D/E ratio images were

  3. Perfusão da artéria pulmonar não melhora os índices de fator natriurético cerebral (BNP em estudo experimental em suínos Pulmonary artery perfusion does not improve brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in suine experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmo Atique Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    controlled perfusion over cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB modifies BNP levels expressed by the ventricular myocardium. METHODS: Experimental research involving 32 pigs, divided into two groups according to CPB strategy - group I (cardioplegia and group II (beating heart. Both groups were allocated into three subgroups according to lung perfusion strategy - subgroup A (control: no lung perfusion, subgroup B (lung perfusion with arterial blood and subgroup C (lung perfusion with venous blood. In subgroups B and C, lung was perfused for 30 minutes, using preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP as perfusion pressure, which was monitored through manometer. MPAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR were measured after coming off CPB using Swan-Ganz catheter. At preoperative time and 30 minutes after lung perfusion, specimens were taken from the right ventricular myocardium aiming to assess brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and histologic pattern. Immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin techniques were used to determine, respectively, BNP expression and inflammatory myocardial lesions. RESULTS: In animals submitted to controlled lung perfusion, there was a postoperative reduction of MPAP (P=0.03 and PVR (P=0.005.There was no differences among subgroups within the group, I (P=0.228 and subgroups within group II (P=0.325 as to postoperative BNP expression. There were no differences among subgroups with and without lung perfusion as to postoperative inflammatory lesions (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Main pulmonary artery controlled perfusion for 30 minutes did not yield substantial modifications in BNP expression and histologic pattern of the right ventricular myocardium.

  4. Abnormal expression of stathmin 1 in brain tissue of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fenghua; Hu, Yida; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaogang; Luo, Jing; Xu, Yali; Wang, Xuefeng

    2012-09-01

    Microtubule dynamics have been shown to contribute to neurite outgrowth, branching, and guidance. Stathmin 1 is a potent microtubule-destabilizing factor that is involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics and plays an essential role in neurite elongation and synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigate the expression of stathmin 1 in the brain tissues of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and experimental animals using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. We obtained 32 temporal neocortex tissue samples from patients with intractable TLE and 12 histologically normal temporal lobe tissues as controls. In addition, 48 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, including one control group and five groups with epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. Hippocampal and temporal lobe tissues were obtained from control and epileptic rats on Days 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 after kindling. Stathmin 1 was mainly expressed in the neuronal membrane and cytoplasm in the human controls, and its expression levels were significantly higher in patients with intractable TLE. Moreover, stathmin 1 was also expressed in the neurons of both the control and the experimental rats. Stathmin 1 expression was decreased in the experimental animals from 1 to 14 days postseizure and then significantly increased at Days 30 and 60 compared with the control group. Many protruding neuronal processes were observed in the TLE patients and in the chronic stage epileptic rats. These data suggest that stathmin 1 may participate in the abnormal network reorganization of synapses and contribute to the pathogenesis of TLE.

  5. Differentiation of brain abscesses from glioblastomas and metastatic brain tumors: comparisons of diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging before and after mathematic contrast leakage correction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong Toh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI before and after mathematic contrast leakage correction in differentiating pyogenic brain abscesses from glioblastomas and/or metastatic brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cerebral blood volume (CBV, leakage-corrected CBV and leakage coefficient K2 were measured in enhancing rims, perifocal edema and contralateral normal appearing white matter (NAWM of 17 abscesses, 19 glioblastomas and 20 metastases, respectively. The CBV and corrected CBV were normalized by dividing the values in the enhancing rims or edema to those of contralateral NAWM. For each study group, a paired t test was used to compare the K2 of the enhancing rims or edema with those of NAWM, as well as between CBV and corrected CBV of the enhancing rims or edema. ANOVA was used to compare CBV, corrected CBV and K2 among three lesion types. The diagnostic performance of CBV and corrected CBV was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: The CBV and correction CBV of enhancing rim were 1.45±1.17 and 1.97±1.01 for abscesses, 3.85±2.19 and 4.39±2.33 for glioblastomas, and 2.39±0.90 and 2.97±0.78 for metastases, respectively. The CBV and corrected CBV in the enhancing rim of abscesses were significantly lower than those of glioblastomas and metastases (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively. In differentiating abscesses from glioblastomas and metastases, the AUC values of corrected CBV (0.822 were slightly higher than those of CBV (0.792. CONCLUSIONS: Mathematic leakage correction slightly increases the diagnostic performance of CBV in differentiating pyogenic abscesses from necrotic glioblastomas and cystic metastases. Clinically, DSC perfusion MRI may not need mathematic leakage correction in differentiating abscesses from glioblastomas and/or metastases.

  6. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  7. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  8. Contrast adaptive total p-norm variation minimization approach to CT reconstruction for artifact reduction in reduced-view brain perfusion CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hyo

    2011-03-01

    Perfusion CT (PCT) examinations are getting more frequently used for diagnosis of acute brain diseases such as hemorrhage and infarction, because the functional map images it produces such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and mean transit time (MTT) may provide critical information in the emergency work-up of patient care. However, a typical PCT scans the same slices several tens of times after injection of contrast agent, which leads to much increased radiation dose and is inevitability of growing concern for radiation-induced cancer risk. Reducing the number of views in projection in combination of TV minimization reconstruction technique is being regarded as an option for radiation reduction. However, reconstruction artifacts due to insufficient number of X-ray projections become problematic especially when high contrast enhancement signals are present or patient's motion occurred. In this study, we present a novel reconstruction technique using contrast-adaptive TpV minimization that can reduce reconstruction artifacts effectively by using different p-norms in high contrast and low contrast objects. In the proposed method, high contrast components are first reconstructed using thresholded projection data and low p-norm total variation to reflect sparseness in both projection and reconstruction spaces. Next, projection data are modified to contain only low contrast objects by creating projection data of reconstructed high contrast components and subtracting them from original projection data. Then, the low contrast projection data are reconstructed by using relatively high p-norm TV minimization technique, and are combined with the reconstructed high contrast component images to produce final reconstructed images. The proposed algorithm was applied to numerical phantom and a clinical data set of brain PCT exam, and the resultant images were compared with those using filtered back projection (FBP) and conventional TV

  9. Pre and post betahistine therapy 99m Tc - HMPAO brain spect studies in patients with vertigo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna B

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertebro basilar insufficiency (VBI is a well known cause of vertigo. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT is an important diagnostic tool to detect and to quantitate the perfusion abnormalities in different areas of the brain. Effect of an antivertigo drug Betahistine on improving the hypoperfusion in different areas of the brain in vertigo patients was studied using brain SPECT. Betahistine at a dose of 16 mg three times daily was shown to improve perfusion in the hypoperfused areas of the brain resulting in relief from symptoms of vertigo. The cerebellar region, which is the most important area involved in vertigo patients with vascular pathology, showed almost complete normalisation of perfusion following Betahistine therapy.

  10. 急性脑梗死320排 CT 脑灌注成像分析%The analysis of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging with 320-detector row CT in acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮志兵; 段庆红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging with 320-detector row CT in early acute cerebral infarction.Methods The CTP parameters(CBF,CBV,MTT,TTP)and its pseudo color map of 25 patients with early acute cerebral infarction were retrospectively analysed and compared between infarction area,ischemic penumbra (IP)and the con-tralateral normal region.Results The abnormal perfusion area were found on CTP in 25 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. CTP showed cerebral blood flow (CBF)and cerebral blood volume (CBV)decreased significantly,mean transit time (MTT)short-ened significantly,time to peak (TTP)was significantly longer than those of the contralateral normal region in 7 cases of acute cere-bral infarct core.18 cases of IP lesions showed CBF decreased slightly,CBV increased slightly or maintain normal,MTT and TTP extension compared with contralateral.CBF,CBV,MTT,TTP values had significantly differences between infarct region and the contralateral corresponding normal region,between the infarct core area and IP of acute cerebral infarction (P 0.05)between IP region and the contralateral corresponding normal region,but showed a downward trend in blood flow.Parameter color maps of CTP could di-rectly,clearly and sensitively show abnormal changes region about cerebral blood flow.In particular,MTT and TTP maps shows ab-normal region clearer and sensitively.Follow-up 18 cases of IP,active lesions deduced in 6 cases,the lesions disappeared in 5 pa-tients (CT/ MRI showed no abnormal,and the clinical symptoms disappeared)after thrombolytic therapy,7 cases of MRI and CT scans confirmed infarction stove.Conclusion Whole-brain CTP with 320-detector row CT can early show the acute cerebral infarc-tion and its ischemic penumbra,it has significant important clinical value for early acute cerebral infarction.%目的:探讨320排 CT 全脑灌注成像(CTP)在早期急性脑梗死中的临床应用价值。方法回顾性分析25

  11. Brain imaging and blood biomarker abnormalities in children with autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Y.T.; Schultz, A.; Chen, K.; Protas, H.; Brickhouse, M.; Fleisher, A.S.; Langbaum, J.B.; Thiyyagura, P.; Fagan, A.M.; Shah, A.R.; Muniz, M.; Arboleda-Velasquez, JF; Munoz, C.; Garcia, G.; Acosta-Baena, N.; Giraldo, M.; Tirado, V.; Ramirez, D.; Tariot, PN; Dickerson, B.C.; Sperling, R.A.; Lopera, F.; Reiman, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    -carrying children demonstrated increased functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with medial temporal lobe regions (mean [SD] parameter estimates were 0.038 [0.070] for noncarriers and 0.190 [0.057] for carriers), as well as greater gray matter volumes in temporal regions (eg, left parahippocampus; P < . 049, corrected for multiple comparisons). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Children at genetic risk for ADAD have functional and structural brain changes and abnormal levels of plasma Aβ1-42. The extent to which the underlying brain changes are either neurodegenerative or developmental remains to be determined. This study provides additional information about the earliest known biomarker changes associated with ADAD. PMID:26121081

  12. Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes in Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease Using Probabilistic Maps on Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Stress Brain Perfusion SPECT

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    Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seung Ki; Wang, Kyu Chang; Cho, Byung Kyu; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the hemodynamic changes and the predictive factors of the clinical outcome in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, we analyzed pre/post basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT with automated volume of interest (VOIs) method. Total fifty six (M:F=33:24, age 6.7{+-}3.2 years) pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, who underwent basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT within 6 before and after revascularization surgery (encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) with frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis (EGS) and EDAS only followed on contralateral hemisphere), and followed-up more than 6 months after post-operative SPECT, were included. A mean follow-up period after post-operative SPECT was 33{+-}21 months. Each patient's SPECT image was spatially normalized to Korean template with the SPM2. For the regional count normalization, the count of pons was used as a reference region. The basal/acetazolamide-stressed cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral vascular reserve index (CVRI), and the extent of area with significantly decreased basal/acetazolamide- stressed rCBF than age-matched normal control were evaluated on both medial frontal, frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and whole brain in each patient's images. The post-operative clinical outcome was assigned as good, poor according to the presence of transient ischemic attacks and/or fixed neurological deficits by pediatric neurosurgeon. In a paired t-test, basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI were significantly improved after revascularization (p<0.05). The significant difference in the pre-operative basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI between the hemispheres where EDAS with frontal EGS was performed and their contralateral counterparts where EDAS only was done disappeared after operation (p<0.05). In an independent student t-test, the pre-operative basal rCBF in the medial frontal gyrus, the post-operative CVRI in the frontal lobe and the parietal

  13. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  14. Large national series of patients with Xq28 duplication involving MECP2: Delineation of brain MRI abnormalities in 30 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chehadeh, Salima; Faivre, Laurence; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Malan, Valérie; Amiel, Jeanne; Nizon, Mathilde; Touraine, Renaud; Prieur, Fabienne; Pasquier, Laurent; Callier, Patrick; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Marle, Nathalie; Dubourg, Christèle; Julia, Sophie; Sarret, Catherine; Francannet, Christine; Laffargue, Fanny; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; David, Albert; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Leheup, Bruno; Lambert, Laetitia; Philippe, Christophe; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Andrieux, Joris; Plessis, Ghislaine; Toutain, Annick; Goldenberg, Alice; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rio, Marlène; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Thevenon, Julien; Echenne, Bernard; Journel, Hubert; Afenjar, Alexandra; Burglen, Lydie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Addor, Marie-Claude; Lebon, Sébastien; Martinet, Danièle; Baumann, Clarisse; Perrin, Laurence; Drunat, Séverine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Devillard, Françoise; Coutton, Charles; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Philip, Nicole; Moncla, Anne; Badens, Catherine; Perreton, Nathalie; Masurel, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Des Portes, Vincent; Guibaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.

  15. 青少年首发精神分裂症患者脑结构异常及其相关因素研究%structural brain abnormalities and clinical features in childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春林; 潘伟刚; 马俊芳; 李军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and structural brain abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Methods Retrospective analysis clinical features and brain CT images of 379 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia from January 2013 to April 2016. The patients were divided into 2 groups;with(n = 39)and without(n = 340)structural brain abnormalities. Socio-demographic and clinical data were compared between two groups. To observe the abnormality rate of structure CT and the types of structural brain abnormalities and analyze the clinical features in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results The abnormality rate of structure CT scan was 10. 3% . There were 17 cases with ventricular dilatation,11 cases with broadening of cerebral sulci,7 cases with enlarged cisterna magna,4 cases with arachnoid cyst. Compared to without structural brain abnormalities,childhood-onset schizophrenia with structural brain abnormalities significantly had younger age,more fre-quent abnormal maternal pregnancy( P 0.05).结论 青少年首发精神分裂症脑结构异常检出率较高,并且脑结构异常者起病年龄更小、母孕期异常更多,青少年精神分裂症脑结构异常可能为其神经生物学基础.

  16. Unusual MRI findings of dural arteriovenous fistula: Isolated perfusion lesions mimicking TIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong-Won

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA based on clinical history and objective findings, even including multiparametric MRI, can be misleading. We report two patients who presented with TIA-like deficits with isolated perfusion lesions in corresponding areas but were finally diagnosed as transient neurological symptoms associated with dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF. Case presentation Two patients presented with transient focal neurological symptoms lasting less than one hour. An isolated perfusion deficit with no diffusion change in the clinically relevant area was shown on brain MRI, indicating transient ischemia as the most plausible cause of neurological symptoms. However, cerebral angiography let to diagnosis of dAVF in both cases. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred after the initial diagnosis of TIA in one patient, and the small area of perfusion abnormality accompanied by the enlarged cortical vein in the other case helped to identify the dAVF through the further investigation. The pattern of perfusion-weighted imaging in both cases revealed increase of mean transit time and relative cerebral blood volume denoting the venous congestion in a clinically corresponding area. Conclusion Reported cases are uncommon clinical presentation of a dAVF, which can be misdiagnosed as TIA on clinical grounds. In rare cases, the isolated perfusion deficits could be attributable to venous congestion, despite the similar pattern of clinical presentation, such as with TIA.

  17. Serial cerebral hemodynamic change after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery: evaluated by acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT(acz-SPECT)

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    Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Jae Seung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Im, Ki Chun; Kim, Euy Nyong; Mun, Dae Hyeog [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated serial cerebral hemodynamic changes after EC-IC bypass surgery in symptomatic pts with atherosclerotic occlusion of internal carotid (lCA) or mid-cerebral artery (MCA) using Acz-SPECT. 25 symptomatic pts (M/F 19/6, 53{+-}10 y) with ICA and MCA occlusion (16 uni - and 9 bilateral) prospectively underwent Acz-SPECT using Tc-99m ECD before and 1 week after EC-IC bypass surgery. Of these, 16 underwent additional f/u Acz-SPECT 5 mo later. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve of MCA territory were evaluated visually and SPECT findings were classified into 4 groups: N/N; R/N; N/R; and R/R (perfusion/perfusion reserve: N = normal, R = reduced). For semiquantitative analysis, all SPECT images were normalized to MNI template and mean counts of MCA territory and cerebellum were obtained by AAL. Cerebral perfusion index (PI =C{sub region}/C{sub cere}) and perfusion reserve index (RI = (PI{sub Acz} - PI{sub basal}) /Pl{sub basal}) were calculated. Preop SPECT findings of ipsilateral MCA in 25 pts were R/N (4%), N/R (12%), and R/R (84% ). Early postop SPECT showed improvement of perfusion (26%) and/or reserve (68%) in ipsilateral MCA. Of 16 pts with 5mo f/u SPECT, 6 (38%) showed further improvement of perfusion or reserve. However, 4 (25%) showed aggravation of perfusion and one of these underwent revision surgery. Preop PI (1.1{+-}0.1) and RI (0.11{+-}0.07) of ipsilateral MCA were significantly lower than those of contralateral hemispheres (p<0.05). After surgery, PIs of bilateral MCA did not change at early postop period but improved in ipsilateral MCA at 5mo. Rls of ipsilateral MCA increased significantly (68%) at early postop period (P<0.001) and then did not changed. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve changed with different manner during 5 mo after bypass surgery and perfusion reserve changed more dramatically than perfusion. Acz-SPECT is a feasible method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamic change after EC-IC bypass surgery.

  18. In vitro growth environment produces lipidomic and electron transport chain abnormalities in mitochondria from non-tumorigenic astrocytes and brain tumours

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    Thomas N Seyfried

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial lipidome influences ETC (electron transport chain and cellular bioenergetic efficiency. Brain tumours are largely dependent on glycolysis for energy due to defects in mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, we used shotgun lipidomics to compare the lipidome in highly purified mitochondria isolated from normal brain, from brain tumour tissue, from cultured tumour cells and from non-tumorigenic astrocytes. The tumours included the CT-2A astrocytoma and an EPEN (ependymoblastoma, both syngeneic with the C57BL/6J (B6 mouse strain. The mitochondrial lipidome in cultured CT-2A and EPEN tumour cells were compared with those in cultured astrocytes and in solid tumours grown in vivo. Major differences were found between normal tissue and tumour tissue and between in vivo and in vitro growth environments for the content or composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The mitochondrial lipid abnormalities in solid tumours and in cultured cells were associated with reductions in multiple ETC activities, especially Complex I. The in vitro growth environment produced lipid and ETC abnormalities in cultured non-tumorigenic astrocytes that were similar to those associated with tumorigenicity. It appears that the culture environment obscures the boundaries of the Crabtree and the Warburg effects. These results indicate that in vitro growth environments can produce abnormalities in mitochondrial lipids and ETC activities, thus contributing to a dependency on glycolysis for ATP production.

  19. MR灌注成像在正常肾和肾脏疾病中的应用价值%The value of MR perfusion weighted imaging in normal and abnormal kidneys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史浩; 段瑞萍; 孙永平; 邢义勇; 丁红宇

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics and the clinical application of MR perfusion weighted imaging(PWI)in the normal kidneys and the renal diseases.Methods Thirty-one subjects including 9 cases without urinary diseases,14 cases with renal carcinoma,6 cases with renal cyst and 2 cases witll renal tuberculosis who had been examined with T1WI,T2WI and PWI were analyzed retrospectively.All the data were processed by a workstation to obtain time-signal intensity curves,color perfusion maps and relative perfusion value.The relative renal blood volume(RBV),relative renal blood flow(RBF),mean transition time(MTT)and the time to peak(TTP)in the normal renal cortex and medulla and the renal lesions were calculated.Comparisons between the right and the left normal kidneys,and between the cortex and the medulla of the normal kidneys were performed using t test,and comparisons between the normal and the abnormal kidneys were performed using q test.Results Relative RBV and relative RBF of the cortex were 1.33±0.08 and 1.44±0.09 respectively,and for medulla were 0.58±0.05 and 0.78±0.13 respectively(t=9.2241 and 5.0336,P<0.01);MTT(1.11±0.08)and TTP (1.04±0.06)of the cortex has no difference with that of the medulla(0.97±0.04 and 0.94±0.03)in the normal kidneys(t=2.2551 and 2.2613.P>0.05).The values of relative RBF of the renal carcinoma (1.35±0.34)were significantly higher than that of the normal tissues(1.02±0.06)(q=3.0882,P<0.01).Conclusion PWI is able to demonstrate the hemodynamic change of the normal renal tissues and the renal lesions,and it maybe an ideal method for showing the functional changes of the kidney and for differentiating the renal diseases.%目的 探讨正常肾脏及常见肾脏疾病MR灌注加权成像(PWI)的主要表现特征和临床应用价值.方法 搜集共31例患者行MR PWI,其中9例非泌尿系统疾病患者作为正常肾对照组,肾癌14例,肾囊肿6例,肾结核2例.31例均行冠状面常规T1WI、T2WI与PWI.原始

  20. 动脉留置针在大鼠体脑组织灌注中的应用%In Vivo Perfusion Method of Artery Remaining Needle Applied to Rat Brain Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦晓勇; 陆波; 闵红星; 王毅; 李军

    2015-01-01

    目的:拟寻求一种更好的大鼠体脑组织灌注方法以提高灌注固定效果。方法:健康雄性SD大鼠经10%水合氯醛进行麻醉,暴露心脏和主动脉弓,以小动脉夹夹闭胸主动脉,用动脉留置针在大鼠心尖波动最明显处进针,进入约0.5 cm时,边退出针芯,边将套管自左侧心室推送至升主动脉直至套管针尾部,并关闭套管针尾端的开关,防止血液外溢,连接输液管,剪破右心耳,依次从心脏灌注0.9%复方氯化钠注射液和4%多聚甲醛固定脑组织。结果:脑组织灌注所需的灌注液减少,灌注插管时间及总灌注时间均缩短,且灌注后脑组织更硬、色泽更白。结论:采用此种灌注方法后,其灌注固定效果明显提高,且操作过程简单易行,值得推广。%Objective:To seek a better method for in vivo perfusion of rat brain tissues and improve the efficiency of perfusion fixation.Method:The healthy male SD rat was anesthetized by 10% chloral hydrate,exposed the heart and aortic arch,clipping the thoracic aorta with small arteries clip,with artery remaining needle in the tip of the heart of the rat fluctuation most obviously needled into about 0.5 cm,exited the needle core,at the same time pushed the cannula from the left ventricle to the aorta until the trocar tail,and closed the cannula needle end of the switch to prevent blood spills,then connected with the infusion pipe and cuted the right auricle,fixation brain tissue from the heart perfused sequentially with 0.9%compound sodium chloride injection and 4% paraformaldehyde.Result:The required perfusion fluid of Cerebral tissue perfusion was reduced, perfusion intubation time and total perfusion time was shortened,and the brain tissue after the infusion was harder,the color was more white.Conclusion:By this method of perfusion,the perfusion fixation effect is obviously improved and the operation process is simple and easy to operate,which is worthy

  1. Initial experience of whole-brain perfusion imaging performed with 256-slice CT%256层螺旋CT全脑灌注成像的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐健; 姜建威; 常军; 侯海燕; 姜旭栋; 堵红群

    2011-01-01

    目的:初步评价256层螺旋CT全脑灌注成像对正常脑血流动力学测定的可行性和价值.方法:从拟诊缺血性脑病行头颅平扫、头颅灌注成像及头颈部血管成像的114例患者中选取检查结果正常者35例,记录头颅灌注成像的辐射剂量,由两名高年资神经放射科医生分别对灌注图像进行分析,选择基底节层面和侧脑室体部层面的两侧大脑中动脉供血区的颞叶皮质进行测定,通过手动勾画选定层面的感兴趣区,CT灌注软件自动生成感兴趣区的脑血流量(CBF)、脑血容量(CBV)、平均通过时间(MTr)、达峰时间(TTP)值,测得的灌注参数均值进行单因素方差分析.结果:35例正常人的辐射剂量为(2.307±0.008)mSv.2名分析者所测得侧脑室体部层面和基底节层面的颞叶灰质的CBF、CBV、MTr、TTP值之间无明显统计学差异(P>0.05).2名分析者测得的两个层面的颞叶灰质的CBV、CBF值之间均有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:256层螺旋CT全脑灌注成像辐射剂量低,脑灌注参数稳定,能够更真实的反应全脑血流动力学改变.%Objective;To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and potential values of whole-brain perfusion imaging performed with 256-slice CT to assess normal adult cerebral hemodynamics. Methods; Thirty-five normal results were selected from one hundred and fourteen patients who underwent brain CT unenhanced scan.CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography in head and neck for suspicion of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The radiation dosage of CT perfusion imaging was recorded. Two senior neuroradiologic doctors independently analyzed the CT perfusion maps. Region of interest (ROI) was placed on bilateral temporal gray matter of two slices (the basal ganglia slice and body of lateral cerebral ventricle slice) supplied by middle cerebral artery,and the cerebral blood flow(CBF),cerebral blood volume(CBV),mean transiting time(MTT), and time to peak(TTP) values of ROI

  2. Technetium-99m HM-PAO-SPECT study of regional cerebral perfusion in early Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perani, D.; Di Piero, V.; Vallar, G.; Cappa, S.; Messa, C.; Bottini, G.; Berti, A.; Passafiume, D.; Scarlato, G.; Gerundini, P.

    1988-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO) in sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early clinical phase and in 16 healthy elderly controls. In all patients transmission computed tomography (TCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show focal brain abnormalities. Relative to normal subjects, AD patients showed significant reductions in cortical/cerebellar activity ratio: cortical perfusion was globally depressed with the largest reductions in frontal and posterior temporo-parietal cortices. Asymmetries of relative perfusion between cerebral hemispheres were also demonstrated when language was affected or visuospatial functions were unevenly impaired. In patients with early AD, SPECT provides functional information to be compared with clinical and psychometric data.

  3. Intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebral perfusion pressure estimation, and ICP/CPP-guided therapy: a standard of care or optional extra after brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, M A; Smith, M

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) is used to derive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and to guide targeted therapy of acute brain injury (ABI) during neurointensive care. Here we provide a narrative review of the evidence for ICP monitoring, CPP estimation, and ICP/CPP-guided therapy after ABI. Despite its widespread use, there is currently no class I evidence that ICP/CPP-guided therapy for any cerebral pathology improves outcomes; indeed some evidence suggests that it makes no difference, and some that it may worsen outcomes. Similarly, no class I evidence can currently advise the ideal CPP for any form of ABI. 'Optimal' CPP is likely patient-, time-, and pathology-specific. Further, CPP estimation requires correct referencing (at the level of the foramen of Monro as opposed to the level of the heart) for MAP measurement to avoid CPP over-estimation and adverse patient outcomes. Evidence is emerging for the role of other monitors of cerebral well-being that enable the clinician to employ an individualized multimodality monitoring approach in patients with ABI, and these are briefly reviewed. While acknowledging difficulties in conducting robust prospective randomized studies in this area, such high-quality evidence for the utility of ICP/CPP-directed therapy in ABI is urgently required. So, too, is the wider adoption of multimodality neuromonitoring to guide optimal management of ICP and CPP, and a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the different forms of ABI and what exactly the different monitoring tools used actually represent.

  4. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

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    Hwang Jong-Hee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap, effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase, synapse remodeling (Complement 1q, and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of

  5. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

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    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  6. Efeitos da fisioterapia respiratória na pressão intracraniana e pressão de perfusão cerebral no traumatismo cranioencefálico grave Effects of respiratory physiotherapy on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in severe traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Após um traumatismo cranioencefálico, a hipertensão intracraniana representa a maior causa de mortalidade, além da possibilidade de seqüelas funcionais, comportamentais e cognitivas. A escassez de estudos sobre os efeitos da fisioterapia respiratória nestes pacientes pode levar à condutas contraditórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de manobras usuais de fisioterapia respiratória sobre a pressão intracraniana e a pressão de perfusão cerebral em pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico grave. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico, prospectivo, em pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico, ventilados mecanicamente e com medida contínua da pressão intracraniana. Foram avaliados os efeitos das manobras de vibrocompressão manual e aspiração intratraqueal sem e com instilação de soro fisiológico, sobre as medidas de pressão intracraniana e de pressão de perfusão cerebral, entre o primeiro e o terceiro dia após a lesão cerebral. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidos os dados de 11 pacientes com idade de 41anos (mediana APACHE II de 19,5 ± 5. A manobra de vibrocompressão manual não determinou aumento da pressão intracraniana em nenhum dos dias avaliados. A pressão intracraniana aumentou significativamente após manobras de aspiração intratraqueal em relação à medida basal (dia 1, 9,5 ± 0,9 mm Hg vs 18,0 ± 3,2 mm Hg; dia 2, 10,6 ± 1,7 mm Hg vs 21,4 ± 3,8 mm Hg; dia 3, 14,4 ± 1,0 vs 24,9 ± 2,7 mm Hg; pOBJECTIVE: After brain injury intracranial hypertension is the major cause of mortality, in addition to the possibility of functional, behavioral and cognitive sequels. Scarcity of studies on the effects of respiratory physiotherapy on these patients may lead to contradictory performances. This study aimed to assess the effects of customary respiratory physiotherapy maneuvers on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures in patients with severe brain injury. METHODS: Clinical, prospective trial with

  7. Association of brain amyloid-β with cerebral perfusion and structure in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Tosun, Duygu; Insel, Philip S; Simonson, Alix; Jack, Clifford R; Beckett, Laurel A; Donohue, Michael; Jagust, William; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W

    2014-05-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease have reduced cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging, but it is unclear how this is related to amyloid-β pathology. Using 182 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative we tested associations of amyloid-β with regional cerebral blood flow in healthy controls (n = 51), early (n = 66) and late (n = 41) mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease with dementia (n = 24). Based on the theory that Alzheimer's disease starts with amyloid-β accumulation and progresses with symptoms and secondary pathologies in different trajectories, we tested if cerebral blood flow differed between amyloid-β-negative controls and -positive subjects in different diagnostic groups, and if amyloid-β had different associations with cerebral blood flow and grey matter volume. Global amyloid-β load was measured by florbetapir positron emission tomography, and regional blood flow and volume were measured in eight a priori defined regions of interest. Cerebral blood flow was reduced in patients with dementia in most brain regions. Higher amyloid-β load was related to lower cerebral blood flow in several regions, independent of diagnostic group. When comparing amyloid-β-positive subjects with -negative controls, we found reductions of cerebral blood flow in several diagnostic groups, including in precuneus, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus (dementia), inferior parietal cortex (late mild cognitive impairment and dementia), and inferior temporal cortex (early and late mild cognitive impairment and dementia). The associations of amyloid-β with cerebral blood flow and volume differed across the disease spectrum, with high amyloid-β being associated with greater cerebral blood flow reduction in controls and greater volume reduction in late mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In addition to disease stage, amyloid-β pathology affects cerebral blood flow across the span from controls to

  8. Evaluation of a multiple spin- and gradient-echo (SAGE) EPI acquisition with SENSE acceleration: applications for perfusion imaging in and outside the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jack T; Robison, Ryan K; Elder, Christopher P; Newton, Allen T; Damon, Bruce M; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-12-01

    Perfusion-based changes in MR signal intensity can occur in response to the introduction of exogenous contrast agents and endogenous tissue properties (e.g. blood oxygenation). MR measurements aimed at capturing these changes often implement single-shot echo planar imaging (ssEPI). In recent years ssEPI readouts have been combined with parallel imaging (PI) to allow fast dynamic multi-slice imaging as well as the incorporation of multiple echoes. A multiple spin- and gradient-echo (SAGE) EPI acquisition has recently been developed to allow measurement of transverse relaxation rate (R2 and R2(*)) changes in dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI experiments in the brain. With SAGE EPI, the use of PI can influence image quality, temporal resolution, and achievable echo times. The effect of PI on dynamic SAGE measurements, however, has not been evaluated. In this work, a SAGE EPI acquisition utilizing SENSE PI and partial Fourier (PF) acceleration was developed and evaluated. Voxel-wise measures of R2 and R2(*) in healthy brain were compared using SAGE EPI and conventional non-EPI multiple echo acquisitions with varying SENSE and PF acceleration. A conservative SENSE factor of 2 with PF factor of 0.73 was found to provide accurate measures of R2 and R2(*) in white (WM) (rR2=[0.55-0.79], rR2*=[0.47-0.71]) and gray (GM) matter (rR2=[0.26-0.59], rR2*=[0.39-0.74]) across subjects. The combined use of SENSE and PF allowed the first dynamic SAGE EPI measurements in muscle, with a SENSE factor of 3 and PF factor of 0.6 providing reliable relaxation rate estimates when compared to multi-echo methods. Application of the optimized SAGE protocol in DSC-MRI of high-grade glioma patients provided T1 leakage-corrected estimates of CBV and CBF as well as mean vessel diameter (mVD) and simultaneous measures of DCE-MRI parameters K(trans) and ve. Likewise, application of SAGE in a muscle reperfusion model allowed dynamic measures of R2', a parameter that has been shown to correlate

  9. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in the Study of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of various uses of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in the investigation of brain/language relationships. The reviewed studies illustrate how perfusion imaging can reveal areas of brain where dysfunction due to low blood flow is associated with specific language deficits, and where restoration of blood flow…

  10. Abnormal spontaneous regional brain activity in primary insomnia: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chao Li,1 Xiaofen Ma,2 Mengshi Dong,2 Yi Yin,1 Kelei Hua,1 Meng Li,2 Changhong Li,2 Wenfeng Zhan,2 Cheng Li,2,3 Guihua Jiang2 1Department of Medical Imaging, The Affiliated Guangdong No 2 Provincial People’s Hospital of Southern Medical University, The Third Clinical Medical College of Southern Medical University, 2Department of Medical Imaging, 3Department of Renal Transplantation, The Affiliated Guangdong No 2 Provincial People’s Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: Investigating functional specialization is crucial for a complete understanding of the neural mechanisms of primary insomnia (PI. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a useful tool to explore the functional specialization of PI. However, only a few studies have focused on the functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI and results of these studies were far from consistent. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs algorithm. Methods: In this study, 55 PI patients and 44 healthy controls were included. ALFF values were compared between the two groups using two-sample t-test. The relationship of abnormal ALFF values with clinical characteristics and duration of insomnia was investigated using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results: PI patients showed lower ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, while higher ALFF values in the right middle/inferior temporal that extended to the right occipital lobe. In addition, we found that the duration of PI negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left

  11. The oral administration of D-galactose induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budni, Josiane; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; da Silva, Sabrina; Luz, Aline Pereira da; Schiavo, Gustavo Luiz; Batista-Silva, Hemily; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emílio Luiz; Quevedo, João

    2017-02-24

    D-Galactose (D-gal) chronic administration via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes has been used as a model of aging and Alzheimer disease in rodents. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of D-gal causes memory impairments, a reduction in the neurogenesis of adult mice, an increase in the levels of the amyloid precursor protein and oxidative damage; However, the effects of oral D-gal remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral administration of D-gal induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain of rats. Male Wistar rats (4 months old) received D-gal (100 mg/kg v.o.), during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th or 8th weeks by oral gavage. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was measured in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks after the administration of D-gal. The activity of the respiratory chain complex I was found to have increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 6th and 8th weeks, while the activity of the respiratory chain complex II increased in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the hippocampus and in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the prefrontal cortex. The activity of complex II-III increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in each week of oral D-gal treatment. The activity of complex IV increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 8th weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment the activity increased only in hippocampus. In conclusion, the present study showed that the oral administration of D-gal increased the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III and IV in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the administration of D-gal via the oral route seems to cause the alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory complexes observed in brain neurodegeneration.

  12. 精神分裂症大脑结构异常的CT表现%CT features of brain structure in schizophrenia abnormal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐元光; 贾严珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:to analyze the schizophrenia patients with abnormal brain structure CT.Methods:224 patients were selected in our hospital received schizophrenia patients meet the criteria of CCMD-3 for schizophrenia,the clinical data were analyzed by CT,the structure of the brain in patients with visual abnormalities of the CT type,including cortical brain atrophy,simple ventricular enlargement and diffuse cerebral atrophy in three a.Results:CT showed that brain structure in schizophrenia and the abnormal rate of 57.58%.CT classification:cortical atrophy in 122 cases,single ventricle enlargement in 71 cases,there were 31 cases with diffuse brain atrophy.The brain structure in patients with abnormal course within 10 years a total of 168 cases (75%),at the age of 22~55 patients with a total of 184 cases (82.14%).Conclusion:schizophrenic brain structure abnormality in patients with a higher detection rate,all kinds of structural brain abnormalities of patients in 10 years,and in the youth group for.%目的:分析精神分裂症患者大脑结构异常的CT表现。方法:选取某医院所接收精神分裂症患者中满足CCMD-3精神分裂症诊断标准的患者224例,采用临床CT资料进行分析,通过目测法将患者大脑结构形态异常情况进行CT分型,包括皮层脑萎缩、单纯脑室扩大、弥漫性脑萎缩三种。结果:CT检查结果显示,精神分裂症患者的脑结构异常检出率57.58%。CT分型情况:皮层脑萎缩122例,单纯脑室扩大71例,弥漫性脑萎缩31例。脑结构异常患者的病程在10年以内的共168例(75.00%),年龄在22~55岁患者共184例(82.14%)。结论:精神分裂症患者大脑结构异常检出率较高,各类脑结构异常患者病程以10年内为主,而且以中青年群体为多。

  13. Synthesis, labeling with {sup 99m}Tc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals; Sintese, marcacao com {sup 99m}Tc e biocinetica de radiofarmacos perfusorios diaminoditiolicos para cintilografias cerebrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-07-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been

  14. SPECT abnormalities with unilateral arm dystonia in a young mentally retarded apprentice cook: contralateral thalamo-cortical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Arai, Kimihito; Kikkawa, Yuriko; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-06-01

    We report a young, mentally retarded apprentice cook with a 2-month history of right upper extremity dystonia, for whom diazepam therapy was efficacious. We evaluated brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) before and after diazepam treatment. The abnormal hyperperfusion in the left thalamus and hypoperfusion in the left frontal cortex were normalized on the second SPECT under the successful diazepam treatment. These findings were indicative of functional changes in the left thalamus and left frontal cortex.

  15. An alternative approach to estimation of the brain perfusion index for measurement of cerebral blood flow using technetium-99m compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ikezoe, Junpei [Dept. of Radiology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Shigenobu-cho (Japan); Inoue, Takeshi; Fujioka, Hiroyoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Akamune, Akihisa [Dept. of Radiology, Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ohte-machi, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Yamamoto, Yuji [Department of Neurosurgery, Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ohte-machi, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been quantified non-invasively using the brain perfusion index (BPI) determined from radionuclide angiographic data generated by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) or technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD). The BPI is generally calculated using graphical analysis (GA). In the present study, BPI was measured using spectral analysis (SA), and its usefulness evaluated in comparison with GA. The BPI was calculated from the sum of spectral data obtained by SA. We applied this method to radionuclide angiographic data collected from the bilateral brain hemispheres of 20 patients with various brain diseases using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and from those of 20 patients using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. We also measured BPI using GA. The BPI values obtained by SA (BPI{sup S}) (x) and by GA (BPI{sup G}) (y) correlated closely (y=0.708x+0.038, r=0.945 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and y=0.559x+0.093, r=0.931 for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD). However, the BPI{sup G} values were underestimated by 22.9%{+-}6.6% (mean{+-}SD) for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and by 27.9%{+-}7.5% for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD as compared with the BPI{sup S} values. The extent of underestimation tended to increase with increasing BPI{sup S} values. These findings were considered to be a result of the BPI{sup G} values being affected by the first-pass extraction fraction of the tracer. We also compared the BPI{sup S} and BPI{sup G} values with those of CBF measured using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (CBF{sup IMP}) in 16 patients (six for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and ten for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD). Although both BPI{sup S} and BPI{sup G} values correlated significantly with the CBF{sup IMP} values, the correlation coefficient in BPI{sup S} was always better than that in BPI{sup G} (r=0.869 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and r=0.929 for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in BPI{sup S}, r=0.629 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and r=0.856 for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in BPI{sup G}). These results suggest that SA can provide a more

  16. Retina restored and brain abnormalities ameliorated by single-copy knock-in of human NR2E1 in null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmouth, J-F; Banks, K G; Mathelier, A; Gregory-Evans, C Y; Castellarin, M; Holt, R A; Gregory-Evans, K; Wasserman, W W; Simpson, E M

    2012-04-01

    Nr2e1 encodes a stem cell fate determinant of the mouse forebrain and retina. Abnormal regulation of this gene results in retinal, brain, and behavioral abnormalities in mice. However, little is known about the functionality of human NR2E1. We investigated this functionality using a novel knock-in humanized-mouse strain carrying a single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). We also documented, for the first time, the expression pattern of the human BAC, using an NR2E1-lacZ reporter strain. Unexpectedly, cerebrum and olfactory bulb hypoplasia, hallmarks of the Nr2e1-null phenotype, were not fully corrected in animals harboring one functional copy of human NR2E1. These results correlated with an absence of NR2E1-lacZ reporter expression in the dorsal pallium of embryos and proliferative cells of adult brains. Surprisingly, retinal histology and electroretinograms demonstrated complete correction of the retina-null phenotype. These results correlated with appropriate expression of the NR2E1-lacZ reporter in developing and adult retina. We conclude that the human BAC contained all the elements allowing correction of the mouse-null phenotype in the retina, while missing key regulatory regions important for proper spatiotemporal brain expression. This is the first time a separation of regulatory mechanisms governing NR2E1 has been demonstrated. Furthermore, candidate genomic regions controlling expression in proliferating cells during neurogenesis were identified.

  17. Downstream targets of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and their abnormal expression in the frontal cortex of the human Rett syndrome brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchenko Dimitri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rett Syndrome (RTT brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. Results Using microarrays and quantitative PCR, the mRNA expression profiles of these two neuroanatomical regions were compared in postmortem brain tissue from RTT patients and normal controls. A subset of genes was differentially expressed in the frontal cortex of RTT brains, some of which are known to be associated with neurological disorders (clusterin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 or are involved in synaptic vesicle cycling (dynamin 1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of MeCP2 in vitro, followed by further expression analysis demonstrated that the same direction of abnormal expression was recapitulated with MeCP2 knockdown, which for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was associated with a functional respiratory chain defect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis showed that MeCP2 associated with the promoter regions of some of these genes suggesting that loss of MeCP2 function may be responsible for their overexpression. Conclusions This study has shed more light on the subset of aberrantly expressed genes that result from MECP2 mutations. The mitochondrion has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of RTT, however it has not been at the forefront of RTT research interest since the discovery of MECP2 mutations. The functional consequence of the underexpression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 indicates that this is an area that should be revisited.

  18. 兔VX2脑瘤血管生成的灌注CT研究%Experimental study on angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 brain tumor using perfusion CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康立清; 张云亭; 孙世梅

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the perfusion CT features of rabbit VX2 brain tumor with correlation to MVD and VEGF, and to validate perfusion CT for reflection of tumor angiogenesis. Methods: Rabbit VX2 brain tumor model was established by injection of 100 μL viable tumor cells (107/mL) through a 2 mm-hole 5 mm to the right of the sagittal suture and 5 mm posterior to the coronal suture bored by dental drill. MRI was performed every 2 days after seven days of implantation to evaluate the growth of the tumor. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits with tumor size over 3 mm in diameter were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the tumor growth time with those less than 3 weeks as group 1 and those more than 3 weeks as group 2, and perfusion CT were performed accordingly. CT measurements of BV, BF and PS from tumor, peritumor and contralateral normal tissue regions were obtained. After that the animals were sacrificed and 2% Evans blue (2 mL/kg) was given intravenously in 16 of these animals 1 h prior to sacrifice to detect breakdown of the blood brain barrier. VEGF and MVD were evaluated in immunohistochemical examination of the specimens. Results: Tumor had significantly higher BV, BF and PS (P=0.000) than peritumor and normal tissue region. Tumor BV, BF and MVD in group 2 were significantly higher than that in group 1 (P<0.01).Significant linear correlation was found between MVD and BV (t=0.915, P=0.000), MVD and BF (r=0.901, P=0.000), and MVD and PS (r=0.459, P=0.042). We also found a rank correlation between PS and blue stain of tumor (rs=0.861, P=0.000). Conclusion: Perfusion CT can distinguish tumor from peritumor and normal tissue clearly, reflect tumor angiogenesis accurately, and provide useful information for the evaluation of brain tumor.

  19. Is the cerebellum the optimal reference region for intensity normalization of perfusion MR studies in early Alzheimer's disease?

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    María Lacalle-Aurioles

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is the region most commonly used as a reference when normalizing the intensity of perfusion images acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in Alzheimer's disease (AD studies. In addition, the cerebellum provides unbiased estimations with nuclear medicine techniques. However, no reports confirm the cerebellum as an optimal reference region in MRI studies or evaluate the consequences of using different normalization regions. In this study, we address the effect of using the cerebellum, whole-brain white matter, and whole-brain cortical gray matter in the normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF parametric maps by comparing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI, patients with AD and healthy controls. According to our results, normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter enables more sensitive detection of perfusion abnormalities in AD patients and reveals a larger number of affected regions than data normalized by the cerebellum or whole-brain white matter. Therefore, the cerebellum is not the most valid reference region in MRI studies for early stages of AD. After normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter, we found a significant decrease in CBF in both parietal lobes and an increase in CBF in the right medial temporal lobe. We found no differences in perfusion between patients with stable MCI and healthy controls either before or after normalization.

  20. Is the Cerebellum the Optimal Reference Region for Intensity Normalization of Perfusion MR Studies in Early Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan Adán; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Olazarán, Javier; Mateos-Pérez, José María; Martino, María Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum is the region most commonly used as a reference when normalizing the intensity of perfusion images acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies. In addition, the cerebellum provides unbiased estimations with nuclear medicine techniques. However, no reports confirm the cerebellum as an optimal reference region in MRI studies or evaluate the consequences of using different normalization regions. In this study, we address the effect of using the cerebellum, whole-brain white matter, and whole-brain cortical gray matter in the normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) parametric maps by comparing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with AD and healthy controls. According to our results, normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter enables more sensitive detection of perfusion abnormalities in AD patients and reveals a larger number of affected regions than data normalized by the cerebellum or whole-brain white matter. Therefore, the cerebellum is not the most valid reference region in MRI studies for early stages of AD. After normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter, we found a significant decrease in CBF in both parietal lobes and an increase in CBF in the right medial temporal lobe. We found no differences in perfusion between patients with stable MCI and healthy controls either before or after normalization. PMID:24386081