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Sample records for brain neurons effet

  1. Interleukin 6 modulates acetylcholinesterase activity of brain neurons; Effet de l`interleukine 6 sur l`activite de l`acetylcholinesterase des neurones centraux

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    Clarencon, D.; Multon, E.; Galonnier, M.; Estrade, M.; Fournier, C.; Mathieu, J.; Mestries, J.C.; Testylier, G.; Fatome, M.

    1995-12-31

    Classically, radiation injuries results in a peripheral inflammatory process, and we have previously observed an early systemic interleukin 6 (IL-6) release following whole-body irradiation. Besides, we have demonstrated an early decrease of rat or primate brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity a gamma exposure. The object of the present study is to find possible IL-6 systemic effects on the brain AChE activity. We show that, though intravenous (i.v.) or intra-cerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 can induce a drop in rat brain AChE activity, this cytokine induces only a slight decrease of the AChE release in cultured brain cells. (author). 3 refs.

  2. Brain Neurons as Quantum Computers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Bershadskii, J.; Yadid, G.

    The question: whether quantum coherent states can sustain decoherence, heating and dissipation over time scales comparable to the dynamical timescales of brain neurons, has been actively discussed in the last years. A positive answer on this question is crucial, in particular, for consideration of brain neurons as quantum computers. This discussion was mainly based on theoretical arguments. In the present paper nonlinear statistical properties of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of genetically depressive limbic brain are studied in vivo on the Flinders Sensitive Line of rats (FSL). VTA plays a key role in the generation of pleasure and in the development of psychological drug addiction. We found that the FSL VTA (dopaminergic) neuron signals exhibit multifractal properties for interspike frequencies on the scales where healthy VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit bursting activity. For high moments the observed multifractal (generalized dimensions) spectrum coincides with the generalized dimensions spectrum calculated for a spectral measure of a quantum system (so-called kicked Harper model, actively used as a model of quantum chaos). This observation can be considered as a first experimental (in vivo) indication in the favor of the quantum (at least partially) nature of brain neurons activity.

  3. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether......Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...

  4. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...

  5. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABAA, glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABAB, as well as an adenosine A1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  6. Managing Brain Extracellular K(+) during Neuronal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Stoica, Anca; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    isoform compositions of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K(+) from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K...... characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K(+) from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity. Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoform combinations in K(+) management in the central nervous system might...

  7. [Brain and memory: new neurons to remember].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Alexandra; Veyrac, Alexandra; Laroche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    A defining characteristic of the brain is its remarkable capacity to undergo activity-dependent functional and structural remodelling via mechanisms of plasticity that form the basis of our capacity to encode and retain memories. The prevailing model of how our brain stores new information about relationships between events or new abstract constructs suggests it resides in activity-driven modifications of synaptic strength and remodelling of neural networks brought about by cellular and molecular changes within the neurons activated during learning. To date, the idea that a form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity known as long-term potentiation, or LTP, and the associated synaptic growth play a central role in the laying down of memories has received considerable support. Beyond this mechanism of plasticity at the synapse, adult neurogenesis, i.e. the birth and growth of new neurons, is another form of neural plasticity that occurs continuously in defined brain regions such as the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Here, based on work in the hippocampus, we review the processes and mechanisms of the generation and selection of new neurons in the adult brain and the accumulating evidence that supports the idea that this form of neural plasticity is essential to store and lead to retrievable hippocampal-dependent memories. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  8. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Neher, Jonas J.; Emmrich, Julius V.; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K.; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C.

    2013-01-01

    Brain ischemia is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, but the cellular mechanisms of delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia are poorly understood and thus currently untreatable. Surprisingly, we find that after cerebral ischemia, brain macrophages phagocytose viable and functional neurons, causing brain atrophy and motor dysfunction. Our data show that delayed neuronal death and functional impairment after cerebral ischemia can be prevented by blocking sp...

  9. Mesoscopic neurodynamics: from neuron to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W J

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent behavior is characterized by flexible and creative pursuit of endogenously defined goals. Intentionality is a key concept by which to link neuron and brain to goal-directed behavior through brain dynamics. An archetypal form of intentional behavior is an act of observation in space-time, by which information is sought for the guidance of future action to explore unpredictable and ever-changing environments. These acts are based in the brain dynamics that creates spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity, serving as images of goals, of command sequences by which to act to reach goals, and of expected changes in sensory input resulting from intended actions. Prediction of the sensory consequences of intended action and evaluation of performance is by reafference. An intentional act is completed upon modification of the system by itself through learning. These principles are well known among psychologists and philosophers. What is new is the development of nonlinear mesoscopic brain dynamics, by which the theory of chaos can be used to understand and simulate the constructions of meaningful patterns of neural activity that implement the process of observation. The design of neurobiological experiments, analysis of the resulting data, and synthesis of explanatory models require an understanding of the hierarchical nature of brain organization, here conceived as single neurons and neural networks at the microscopic level; clinically defined cortical and subcortical systems studied by brain imaging (for example, fMRI) at the macroscopic level, and self-organizing neural populations at an intermediate mesoscopic level, at which synaptic interactions create novel activity patterns through nonlinear state transitions. The constructive neurodynamics of sensory cortices, when they are engaged in pattern recognition, is revealed by learning-dependent spatial patterns of amplitude modulation and by newly discovered radially symmetric spatial gradients of the phase

  10. Intrinsic control of electroresponsive properties of transplanted mammalian brain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Yarom, Y

    1985-01-01

    The present study presents the first analysis of neurons in mammalian brain transplants based on intracellular recording. The results, obtained in brain slices including both donor and host tissue, showed that neuronal precursor cells in embryonic transplants retained their ability to complete th...

  11. Automatically tracking neurons in a moving and deforming brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C. elegans undergoing large motion and deformation. 3D volumetric fluorescent images of the animal's brain are straightened, aligned and registered, and the locations of neurons in the images are found via segmentation. Each neuron is then assigned an identity using a new time-independent machine-learning approach we call Neuron Registration Vector Encoding. In this approach, non-rigid point-set registration is used to match each segmented neuron in each volume with a set of reference volumes taken from throughout the recording. The way each neuron matches with the references defines a feature vector which is clustered to assign an identity to each neuron in each volume. Finally, thin-plate spline interpolation is used to correct errors in segmentation and check consistency of assigned identities. The Neuron Registration Vector Encoding approach proposed here is uniquely well suited for tracking neurons in brains undergoing large deformations. When applied to whole-brain calcium imaging recordings in freely moving C. elegans, this analysis pipeline located 156 neurons for the duration of an 8 minute recording and consistently found more neurons more quickly than manual or semi-automated approaches.

  12. Brain-on-a-chip integrated neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    The brain-on-a-chip technology aims to provide an efficient and economic in vitro platform for brain disease study. In the well-known literature on brain-on-a-chip systems, nonstructured surfaces were conventionally used for the cell attachment in a culture chamber, therefore the neuronal networks

  13. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  14. Neuronal and glial purinergic receptors functions in neuron development and brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, Ana; Wandosell, Francisco; Garrido, Juan José

    2013-10-28

    Brain development requires the interaction of complex signaling pathways, involving different cell types and molecules. For a long time, most attention has focused on neurons in a neuronocentric conceptualization of central nervous system development, these cells fulfilling an intrinsic program that establishes the brain's morphology and function. By contrast, glia have mainly been studied as support cells, offering guidance or as the cells that react to brain injury. However, new evidence is appearing that demonstrates a more fundamental role of glial cells in the control of different aspects of neuronal development and function, events in which the influence of neurons is at best weak. Moreover, it is becoming clear that the function and organization of the nervous system depends heavily on reciprocal neuron-glia interactions. During development, neurons are often generated far from their final destination and while intrinsic mechanisms are responsible for neuronal migration and growth, they need support and regulatory influences from glial cells in order to migrate correctly. Similarly, the axons emitted by neurons often have to reach faraway targets and in this sense, glia help define the way that axons grow. Moreover, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells ultimately envelop axons, contributing to the generation of nodes of Ranvier. Finally, recent publications show that astrocytes contribute to the modulation of synaptic transmission. In this sense, purinergic receptors are expressed widely by glial cells and neurons, and recent evidence points to multiple roles of purines and purinergic receptors in neuronal development and function, from neurogenesis to axon growth and functional axonal maturation, as well as in pathological conditions in the brain. This review will focus on the role of glial and neuronal secreted purines, and on the purinergic receptors, fundamentally in the control of neuronal development and function, as well as in diseases of the nervous

  15. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof-of-c......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies.......Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof...

  16. Bidirectional microglia-neuron communication in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyo, Ukpong B; Wu, Long-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i) neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii) classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii) chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i) direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii) microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  17. Bidirectional Microglia-Neuron Communication in the Healthy Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpong B. Eyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  18. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    Full Text Available It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans. The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum. These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  19. Biocytin staining of glia and neurons in brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian

    2014-09-02

    This protocol describes the use of biocytin to visualize and distinguish the morphology of glia and neurons in rat brain slices. Patch pipettes are used to load biocytin into different cell types. The slices are subsequently fixed, stained, and mounted in preparation for imaging. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. From spiking neurons to brain waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.

    2013-01-01

    No single model would be able to capture all processes in the brain at once, since its interactions are too numerous and too complex. Therefore, it is common practice to simplify the parts of the system. Typically, the goal is to describe the collective action of many underlying processes, without

  1. Why our brains cherish humanity: Mirror neurons and colamus humanitatem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Skoyles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, as it were, its perceived “refl ection,” when that same thing happens or is done by another individual. Thus, mirror neurons are both activated when an individual does a particular action, and when that individual perceives that same action done by another. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests we need to radically revise our notions of human nature since they offer a means by which we may not be so separated as we think. Humans unlike other apes are adapted to mirror interact nonverbally when together. Notably, our faces have been evolved to display agile and nimble movements. While this is usually explained as enabling nonverbal communication, a better description would be nonverbal commune based upon mirror neurons. I argue we cherish humanity, colamus humanitatem, because mirror neurons and our adapted mirror interpersonal interface blur the physical boundaries that separate us.

  2. Narratives and neurons: stories of damaged brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoyt, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Stories register in human memory in special ways, and stories about neurological cases can entertain and move a reader while simultaneously being an important part of any neuroscience curriculum. Here we describe a course taught in the context of the liberal arts curriculum of Baldwin-Wallace College. Students from a variety of disciplines learned basic neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neurochemistry and then used this information to help them understand published neurological case studies, which were analyzed for their literary as well as scientific qualities. Later in the course, students were paired with a person with a neurological disorder and they investigated their cases in some depth. The capstone experience was a monograph that aimed to be both good science and good story telling. Narratives and Neurons was team taught by faculty from the Neuroscience and English departments. However, the case studies were shaped and improved by all the class participants using writing workshop methods common to creative writing classes. Assessments of this course were very favorable, suggesting that students find that the work enhanced their resourcefulness and challenged their abilities to critically evaluate and problem solve. Some of the cases have found their way into the peer-reviewed literature. Moreover, the interaction between students and individuals with neurological disorders provided a diversity of experiences that enriched the lives of all the participants.

  3. Glial and neuronal control of brain blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwell, David; Buchan, Alastair M; Charpak, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now...... recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key role in regulating cerebral blood flow, that much of this control is mediated by astrocytes, that oxygen modulates blood flow regulation, and that blood flow may be controlled by capillaries as well as by arterioles. These conceptual shifts...... in our understanding of cerebral blood flow control have important implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches....

  4. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been te...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions....

  5. Area-specific migration and recruitment of new neurons in the adult songbird brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Gahr, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Neuron recruitment has been implicated in morphological and functional plasticity in the adult brain. Whereas mammals restrict neuron recruitment specifically to two regions of known plasticity, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, newborn neurons are found throughout the forebrain of adult...... toward the olfactory bulb showed high specificity, similar to the mammalian rostral migratory stream. Thus, different mechanisms appear to organize area-specific neuron recruitment in different recipients of the adult songbird brain, unrelated to global plasticity of brain regions....

  6. Brain extracellular matrix retains connectivity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbaev, Arthur; Frischknecht, Renato; Heine, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of connectivity are critically important for the processing and storage of information in neuronal networks. The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) appears during postnatal development and surrounds most neurons in the adult mammalian brain. Importantly, the removal of the ECM was shown to improve plasticity and post-traumatic recovery in the CNS, but little is known about the mechanisms. Here, we investigated the role of the ECM in the regulation of the network activity in dissociated hippocampal cultures grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). We found that enzymatic removal of the ECM in mature cultures led to transient enhancement of neuronal activity, but prevented disinhibition-induced hyperexcitability that was evident in age-matched control cultures with intact ECM. Furthermore, the ECM degradation followed by disinhibition strongly affected the network interaction so that it strongly resembled the juvenile pattern seen in naïve developing cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the ECM plays an important role in retention of existing connectivity in mature neuronal networks that can be exerted through synaptic confinement of glutamate. On the other hand, removal of the ECM can play a permissive role in modification of connectivity and adaptive exploration of novel network architecture. PMID:26417723

  7. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  8. The potential of multilateral analyses of neuronal activities in future brain-machine interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Current brain-machine interfaces are based on the implicit assumption that information encoded by neuronal activities does not change despite some recent physiological studies indicating that information encoded by neuronal activities changes. Here, we highlight the necessity for advanced decoding of neuronal activities. Especially, we discuss the advantages of multilateral analyses of neuronal activities, including synchronization and variability.

  9. Control of abdominal muscles by brain stem respiratory neurons in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Ezure, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the control of abdominal muscles by the brain stem respiratory neurons was investigated in decerebrate unanesthetized cats. First, it was determined which of the brain stem respiratory neurons project to the lumbar cord (from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation), by stimulating the neurons monopolarly. In a second part of the study, it was determined if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic connections with abdominal motoneurons; in these experiments, discriminate spontaneous spikes of antidromically acivated expiratory (E) neurons were used to trigger activity from both L1 and L2 nerves. A large projection was observed from E neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group to the contralateral upper lumber cord. However, cross-correlation experiments found only two (out of 47 neuron pairs tested) strong monosynaptic connections between brain stem neurons and abdominal motoneurons.

  10. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development.

  11. RNA Editing: A Contributor to Neuronal Dynamics in the Mammalian Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mikaela; Öhman, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Post-transcriptional RNA modification by adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing expands the functional output of many important neuronally expressed genes. The mechanism provides flexibility in the proteome by expanding the variety of isoforms, and is a requisite for neuronal function. Indeed, targets for editing include key mediators of synaptic transmission with an overall significant effect on neuronal signaling. In addition, editing influences splice-site choice and miRNA targeting capacity, and thereby regulates neuronal gene expression. Editing efficiency at most of these sites increases during neuronal differentiation and brain maturation in a spatiotemporal manner. This editing-induced dynamics in the transcriptome is essential for normal brain development, and we are only beginning to understand its role in neuronal function. In this review we discuss the impact of RNA editing in the brain, with special emphasis on the physiological consequences for neuronal development and plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spaces in the brain: From neurons to meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Balkenius

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spaces in the brain can refer either to psychological spaces, which are derived from similarity judgments, or to neurocognitive spaces, which are based on the activities of neural structures. We want to show how psychological spaces naturally emerge from the underlying neural spaces by dimension reductions that preserve similarity structures and the relevant categorizations. Some neuronal representational formats that may generate the psychological spaces are presented, compared and discussed in relation to the mathematical principles of monotonicity, continuity and convexity. In particular, we discuss the spatial structures involved in the connections between perception and action, for example eye-hand coordination, and argue that spatial organization of information makes such mappings more efficient.

  13. Origin and specification of the brain leucokinergic neurons of Drosophila: similarities to and differences from abdominal leucokinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pilar; Estacio-Gómez, Alicia; Moris-Sanz, Marta; Alvarez-Rivero, Javier; Diaz-Benjumea, Fernando J

    2014-03-01

    The Drosophila central nervous system contains many types of neurons that are derived from a limited number of progenitors as evidenced in the ventral ganglion. The situation is much more complex in the developing brain. The main neuronal structures in the adult brain are generated in the larval neurogenesis, although the basic neuropil structures are already laid down during embryogenesis. The embryonic factors involved in adult neuron origin are largely unknown. To shed light on how brain cell diversity is achieved, we studied the early temporal and spatial cues involved in the specification of lateral horn leucokinin peptidergic neurons (LHLKs). Our analysis revealed that these neurons have an embryonic origin. We identified their progenitor neuroblast as Pcd6 in the Technau and Urbach terminology. Evidence was obtained that a temporal series involving the transcription factors Kr, Pdm, and Cas participates in the genesis of the LHLK lineage, the Castor window being the one in which the LHLKs neurons are generated. It was also shown that Notch signalling and Dimmed are involved in the specification of the LHLKs. Serial homologies with the origin and factors involved in specification of the abdominal leucokinergic neurons (ABLKs) have been detected. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. From migration to settlement: the pathways, migration modes and dynamics of neurons in the developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    HATANAKA, Yumiko; ZHU, Yan; TORIGOE, Makio; KITA, Yoshiaki; MURAKAMI, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal migration is crucial for the construction of the nervous system. To reach their correct destination, migrating neurons choose pathways using physical substrates and chemical cues of either diffusible or non-diffusible nature. Migrating neurons extend a leading and a trailing process. The leading process, which extends in the direction of migration, determines navigation, in particular when a neuron changes its direction of migration. While most neurons simply migrate radially, certain neurons switch their mode of migration between radial and tangential, with the latter allowing migration to destinations far from the neurons’ site of generation. Consequently, neurons with distinct origins are intermingled, which results in intricate neuronal architectures and connectivities and provides an important basis for higher brain function. The trailing process, in contrast, contributes to the late stage of development by turning into the axon, thus contributing to the formation of neuronal circuits. PMID:26755396

  15. Thermosensory signaling by TRPM is processed by brain serotonergic neurons to produce planarian thermotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamashita, Taiga; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2014-11-19

    For most organisms, sensitive recognition of even slight changes in environmental temperature is essential for adjusting their behavioral strategies to ensure homeostasis and survival. However, much remains to be understood about the molecular and cellular processes that regulate thermosensation and the corresponding behavioral responses. Planarians display clear thermotaxis, although they have a relatively simple brain. Here, we devised a quantitative thermotaxis assay and unraveled a neural pathway involved in planarian thermotaxis by combinatory behavioral assays and RNAi analysis. We found that thermosensory neurons that expressed a planarian Dugesia japonica homolog of the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin family a (DjTRPMa) gene were required for the thermotaxis. Interestingly, although these thermosensory neurons are distributed throughout their body, planarians with a dysfunctional brain due to regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) of the synaptotagmin gene completely lost their thermotactic behavior. These results suggest that brain function is required as a central processor for the thermosensory response. Therefore, we investigated the type(s) of brain neurons involved in processing the thermal signals by gene knockdown of limiting enzymes for neurotransmitter biosynthesis in the brain. We found that serotonergic neurons with dendrites that were elongated toward DjTRPMa-expressing thermosensory neurons might be required for the processing of signals from thermosensory neurons that results in thermotaxis. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons in the brain may interact with thermosensory neurons activated by TRPM ion channels to produce thermotaxis in planarians. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415701-14$15.00/0.

  16. Neurons derived from different brain regions are inherently different in vitro: a novel multiregional brain-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauth, Stephanie; Maoz, Ben M; Sheehy, Sean P; Hemphill, Matthew A; Murty, Tara; Macedonia, Mary Kate; Greer, Angie M; Budnik, Bogdan; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2017-03-01

    Brain in vitro models are critically important to developing our understanding of basic nervous system cellular physiology, potential neurotoxic effects of chemicals, and specific cellular mechanisms of many disease states. In this study, we sought to address key shortcomings of current brain in vitro models: the scarcity of comparative data for cells originating from distinct brain regions and the lack of multiregional brain in vitro models. We demonstrated that rat neurons from different brain regions exhibit unique profiles regarding their cell composition, protein expression, metabolism, and electrical activity in vitro. In vivo, the brain is unique in its structural and functional organization, and the interactions and communication between different brain areas are essential components of proper brain function. This fact and the observation that neurons from different areas of the brain exhibit unique behaviors in vitro underline the importance of establishing multiregional brain in vitro models. Therefore, we here developed a multiregional brain-on-a-chip and observed a reduction of overall firing activity, as well as altered amounts of astrocytes and specific neuronal cell types compared with separately cultured neurons. Furthermore, this multiregional model was used to study the effects of phencyclidine, a drug known to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in vivo, on individual brain areas separately while monitoring downstream effects on interconnected regions. Overall, this work provides a comparison of cells from different brain regions in vitro and introduces a multiregional brain-on-a-chip that enables the development of unique disease models incorporating essential in vivo features.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Due to the scarcity of comparative data for cells from different brain regions in vitro, we demonstrated that neurons isolated from distinct brain areas exhibit unique behaviors in vitro. Moreover, in vivo proper brain function is dependent on the

  17. The epistemology of Deep Brain Stimulation and neuronal pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Erwin B.

    2012-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a remarkable therapy succeeding where all manner of pharmacological manipulations and brain transplants fail. The success of DBS has resurrected the relevance of electrophysiology and dynamics on the order of milliseconds. Despite the remarkable effects of DBS, its mechanisms of action are largely unknown. There has been an expanding catalogue of various neuronal and neural responses to DBS or DBS-like stimulation but no clear conceptual encompassing explanatory scheme has emerged despite the technological prowess and intellectual sophistication of the scientists involved. Something is amiss. If the scientific observations are sound, then why has there not been more progress? The alternative is that it may be the hypotheses that frame the questions are at fault as well as the methods of inference (logic) used to validate the hypotheses. An analysis of the past and current notions of the DBS mechanisms of action is the subject in order to identify the presuppositions (premises) and logical fallacies that may be at fault. The hope is that these problems will be avoided in the future so the DBS can realize its full potential quickly. In this regard, the discussion of the methods of inference and presuppositions that underlie many current notions is no different then a critique of experimental methods common in scientific discussions and consequently, examinations of the epistemology and logic are appropriate. This analysis is in keeping with the growing appreciation among scientists and philosophers of science, the scientific observations (data) to not “speak for themselves” nor is the scientific method self-evidently true and that consideration of the underlying inferential methods is necessary. PMID:23024631

  18. Water diffusion in brain cortex closely tracks underlying neuronal activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomokazu Tsurugizawa; Luisa Ciobanu; Denis Le Bihan

    2013-01-01

    ...). Here we establish that water molecular diffusion is directly modulated by underlying neuronal activity using a rat forepaw stimulation model under different conditions of neuronal stimulation and neurovascular coupling...

  19. Sound-sensitive neurons innervate the ventro-lateral protocerebrum of the heliothine moth brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Zhao, Xin Cheng; Ian, Elena

    2014-01-01

    -sensitive neurons in the moth brain. During intracellular recordings from the lateral protocerebrum in the brain of three noctuid moth species, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, we found an assembly of neurons responding to transient sound pulses of broad bandwidth. The majority...... of the auditory neurons ascended from the ventral cord and ramified densely within the anterior region of the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. The physiological and morphological characteristics of these auditory neurons were similar. We detected one additional sound-sensitive neuron, a brain interneuron with its......Many noctuid moth species perceive ultrasound via tympanic ears that are located at the metathorax. Whereas the neural processing of auditory information is well studied at the peripheral and first synaptic level, little is known about the features characterizing higher order sound...

  20. Neuronal subtypes and diversity revealed by single-nucleus RNA sequencing of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Blue B; Ai, Rizi; Kaeser, Gwendolyn E; Salathia, Neeraj S; Yung, Yun C; Liu, Rui; Wildberg, Andre; Gao, Derek; Fung, Ho-Lim; Chen, Song; Vijayaraghavan, Raakhee; Wong, Julian; Chen, Allison; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Kaper, Fiona; Shen, Richard; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Wei; Chun, Jerold; Zhang, Kun

    2016-06-24

    The human brain has enormously complex cellular diversity and connectivities fundamental to our neural functions, yet difficulties in interrogating individual neurons has impeded understanding of the underlying transcriptional landscape. We developed a scalable approach to sequence and quantify RNA molecules in isolated neuronal nuclei from a postmortem brain, generating 3227 sets of single-neuron data from six distinct regions of the cerebral cortex. Using an iterative clustering and classification approach, we identified 16 neuronal subtypes that were further annotated on the basis of known markers and cortical cytoarchitecture. These data demonstrate a robust and scalable method for identifying and categorizing single nuclear transcriptomes, revealing shared genes sufficient to distinguish previously unknown and orthologous neuronal subtypes as well as regional identity and transcriptomic heterogeneity within the human brain. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Efficient gene transfer into neurons in monkey brain by adeno-associated virus 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamizu, Yoshito; Okada, Takashi; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Yuasa, Shigeki; Nakahara, Kiyoshi

    2010-04-21

    Although the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a promising tool for gene transfer into neurons, especially for therapeutic purposes, neurotropism in primate brains is not fully elucidated for specific AAV serotypes. Here, we injected AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) vector carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene under a ubiquitous promoter into the cerebral cortex, striatum and substantia nigra of common marmosets. Robust neuronal EGFP expression was observed at all injected sites. Cell typing with immunohistochemistry confirmed efficient AAV8-mediated gene transfer into the pyramidal neurons in the cortex, calbindin-positive medium spiny neurons in the striatum and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The results indicate a preferential tropism of AAV8 for subsets of neurons, but not for glia, in monkey brains.

  2. Integrative Mechanisms of Oriented Neuronal Migration in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyukova, Irina; Plestant, Charlotte; Anton, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of functional neuronal connectivity in the developing cerebral cortex depends on neuronal migration. This process enables appropriate positioning of neurons and the emergence of neuronal identity so that the correct patterns of functional synaptic connectivity between the right types and numbers of neurons can emerge. Delineating the complexities of neuronal migration is critical to our understanding of normal cerebral cortical formation and neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from neuronal migration defects. For the most part, the integrated cell biological basis of the complex behavior of oriented neuronal migration within the developing mammalian cerebral cortex remains an enigma. This review aims to analyze the integrative mechanisms that enable neurons to sense environmental guidance cues and translate them into oriented patterns of migration toward defined areas of the cerebral cortex. We discuss how signals emanating from different domains of neurons get integrated to control distinct aspects of migratory behavior and how different types of cortical neurons coordinate their migratory activities within the developing cerebral cortex to produce functionally critical laminar organization. PMID:23937349

  3. Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foo...

  4. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    OpenAIRE

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent year...

  5. New neurons in the adult brain : The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistiberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a

  6. [Neuron reactions of brain structures suppressing motion during development of animal hypnosis in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileĭkovskiĭ, B Iu; Karmanova, I G; Oganesian, G A

    1998-01-01

    Multisensory and motor units are suppressed in hypnosis in the guinea pig giganto-cellular reticular nucleus and in the dorsolateral. pons. In contrast, inhibitory intexneuvons neurons and the ponto-medulla neurons are activated in hypnosis. The data obtained suggests a key role of the brain-stem structures in descending unspecific inhibition during hypnosis in animals.

  7. Domoic acid disrupts the activity and connectivity of neuronal networks in organotypic brain slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiolski, E M; Ito, S; Beggs, J M; Lefebvre, K A; Litke, A M; Smith, D R

    2016-09-01

    Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by algae and is found in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As a glutamate agonist, domoic acid inappropriately stimulates excitatory activity in neurons. At high doses, this leads to seizures and brain lesions, but it is unclear how lower, asymptomatic exposures disrupt neuronal activity. Domoic acid has been detected in an increasing variety of species across a greater geographical range than ever before, making it critical to understand the potential health impacts of low-level exposure on vulnerable marine mammal and human populations. To determine whether prolonged domoic acid exposure altered neuronal activity in hippocampal networks, we used a custom-made 512 multi-electrode array with high spatial and temporal resolution to record extracellular potentials (spikes) in mouse organotypic brain slice cultures. We identified individual neurons based on spike waveform and location, and measured the activity and functional connectivity within the neuronal networks of brain slice cultures. Domoic acid exposure significantly altered neuronal spiking activity patterns, and increased functional connectivity within exposed cultures, in the absence of overt cellular or neuronal toxicity. While the overall spiking activity of neurons in domoic acid-exposed cultures was comparable to controls, exposed neurons spiked significantly more often in bursts. We also identified a subset of neurons that were electrophysiologically silenced in exposed cultures, and putatively identified those neurons as fast-spiking inhibitory neurons. These results provide evidence that domoic acid affects neuronal activity in the absence of cytotoxicity, and suggest that neurodevelopmental exposure to domoic acid may alter neurological function in the absence of clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Downregulation of CREB expression in Alzheimer's brain and in Aβ-treated rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Serena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer's brain. Previous studies have reported downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription by oxidative stress and Aβ. The promoter for CREB itself contains cyclic AMP response elements. Therefore, we examined the expression of CREB in the hippocampal neurons of Tg2576 mice, AD post-mortem brain and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Aβ aggregates. Results Laser Capture Microdissection of hippocampal neurons from Tg2576 mouse brain revealed decreases in the mRNA levels of CREB and its target, BDNF. Immunohistochemical analysis of Tg2576 mouse brain showed decreases in CREB levels in hippocampus and cortex. Markers of oxidative stress were detected in transgenic mouse brain and decreased CREB staining was observed in regions showing abundance of astrocytes. There was also an inverse correlation between SDS-extracted Aβ and CREB protein levels in Alzheimer's post-mortem hippocampal samples. The levels of CREB-regulated BDNF and BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor, decreased and the active cleaved form of caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, was elevated in these samples. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to Aβ fibrils decreased CREB promoter activity. Decrease in CREB mRNA levels in Aβ-treated neurons was reversed by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Overexpression of CREB by adenoviral transduction led to significant protection against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chronic downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription results in decrease of CREB content in the hippocampal neurons of AD brain which may contribute to exacerbation of disease progression.

  9. Light-neuron interactions: key to understanding the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Mary Ann; Daria, Vincent R.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, advances in light-based technology have driven an ongoing optical revolution in neuroscience. Synergistic technologies in laser microscopy, molecular biology, organic and synthetic chemistry, genetic engineering and materials science have allowed light to overcome the limitations of and to replace many conventional tools used by physiologists to record from and to manipulate single cells or whole cellular networks. Here we review the different optical techniques for stimulating neurons, influencing neuronal growth, manipulating neuronal structures and neurosurgery.

  10. Brain scaling in mammalian evolution as a consequence of concerted and mosaic changes in numbers of neurons and average neuronal cell size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Manger, Paul R.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    Enough species have now been subject to systematic quantitative analysis of the relationship between the morphology and cellular composition of their brain that patterns begin to emerge and shed light on the evolutionary path that led to mammalian brain diversity. Based on an analysis of the shared and clade-specific characteristics of 41 modern mammalian species in 6 clades, and in light of the phylogenetic relationships among them, here we propose that ancestral mammal brains were composed and scaled in their cellular composition like modern afrotherian and glire brains: with an addition of neurons that is accompanied by a decrease in neuronal density and very little modification in glial cell density, implying a significant increase in average neuronal cell size in larger brains, and the allocation of approximately 2 neurons in the cerebral cortex and 8 neurons in the cerebellum for every neuron allocated to the rest of brain. We also propose that in some clades the scaling of different brain structures has diverged away from the common ancestral layout through clade-specific (or clade-defining) changes in how average neuronal cell mass relates to numbers of neurons in each structure, and how numbers of neurons are differentially allocated to each structure relative to the number of neurons in the rest of brain. Thus, the evolutionary expansion of mammalian brains has involved both concerted and mosaic patterns of scaling across structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first mechanistic model that explains the generation of brains large and small in mammalian evolution, and it opens up new horizons for seeking the cellular pathways and genes involved in brain evolution. PMID:25157220

  11. Brain scaling in mammalian evolution as a consequence of concerted and mosaic changes in numbers of neurons and average neuronal cell size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enough species have now been subject to systematic quantitative analysis of the relationship between the morphology and cellular composition of their brain that patterns begin to emerge and shed light on the evolutionary path that led to mammalian brain diversity. Based on an analysis of the shared and clade-specific characteristics of 41 modern mammalian species in 6 clades, and in light of the phylogenetic relationships among them, here we propose that ancestral mammal brains were composed and scaled in their cellular composition like modern afrotherian and glire brains: with an addition of neurons that is accompanied by a decrease in neuronal density and very little modification in glial cell density, implying a significant increase in average neuronal cell size in larger brains, and the allocation of approximately 2 neurons in the cerebral cortex and 8 neurons in the cerebellum for every neuron allocated to the rest of brain. We also propose that in some clades the scaling of different brain structures has diverged away from the common ancestral layout through clade-specific (or clade-defining changes in how average neuronal cell mass relates to numbers of neurons in each structure, and how numbers of neurons are differentially allocated to each structure relative to the number of neurons in the rest of brain. Thus, the evolutionary expansion of mammalian brains has involved both concerted and mosaic patterns of scaling across structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first mechanistic model that explains the generation of brains large and small in mammalian evolution, and it opens up new horizons for seeking the cellular pathways and genes involved in brain evolution.

  12. Impacts of brain serotonin deficiency following Tph2 inactivation on development and raphe neuron serotonergic specification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gutknecht

    Full Text Available Brain serotonin (5-HT is implicated in a wide range of functions from basic physiological mechanisms to complex behaviors, including neuropsychiatric conditions, as well as in developmental processes. Increasing evidence links 5-HT signaling alterations during development to emotional dysregulation and psychopathology in adult age. To further analyze the importance of brain 5-HT in somatic and brain development and function, and more specifically differentiation and specification of the serotonergic system itself, we generated a mouse model with brain-specific 5-HT deficiency resulting from a genetically driven constitutive inactivation of neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2. Tph2 inactivation (Tph2-/- resulted in brain 5-HT deficiency leading to growth retardation and persistent leanness, whereas a sex- and age-dependent increase in body weight was observed in Tph2+/- mice. The conserved expression pattern of the 5-HT neuron-specific markers (except Tph2 and 5-HT demonstrates that brain 5-HT synthesis is not a prerequisite for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of raphe neurons subjected to the developmental program of serotonergic specification. Furthermore, although these neurons are unable to synthesize 5-HT from the precursor tryptophan, they still display electrophysiological properties characteristic of 5-HT neurons. Moreover, 5-HT deficiency induces an up-regulation of 5-HT(1A and 5-HT(1B receptors across brain regions as well as a reduction of norepinephrine concentrations accompanied by a reduced number of noradrenergic neurons. Together, our results characterize developmental, neurochemical, neurobiological and electrophysiological consequences of brain-specific 5-HT deficiency, reveal a dual dose-dependent role of 5-HT in body weight regulation and show that differentiation of serotonergic neuron phenotype is independent from endogenous 5-HT synthesis.

  13. Exogenous anandamide protects rat brain against acute neuronal injury in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Stelt, M. van der; Veldhuis, W.B.; Haaften, G.W. van; Fezza, F.; Bisogno, T.; Bär, P.R; Veldink, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide [N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)] is thought to function as an endogenous protective factor of the brain against acute neuronal damage. However, this has never been tested in an in vivo model of acute brain injury. Here, we show in a longitudinal pharmacological

  14. Neuron-Type-Specific Utility in a Brain-Machine Interface: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Martha G; Bergquist, Austin J; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Nagai, Mary K; Zariffa, Jose; Marquez-Chin, Cesar; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-11-01

    Firing rates of single cortical neurons can be volitionally modulated through biofeedback (i.e. operant conditioning), and this information can be transformed to control external devices (i.e. brain-machine interfaces; BMIs). However, not all neurons respond to operant conditioning in BMI implementation. Establishing criteria that predict neuron utility will assist translation of BMI research to clinical applications. Single cortical neurons (n=7) were recorded extracellularly from primary motor cortex of a Long-Evans rat. Recordings were incorporated into a BMI involving up-regulation of firing rate to control the brightness of a light-emitting-diode and subsequent reward. Neurons were classified as 'fast-spiking', 'bursting' or 'regular-spiking' according to waveform-width and intrinsic firing patterns. Fast-spiking and bursting neurons were found to up-regulate firing rate by a factor of 2.43±1.16, demonstrating high utility, while regular-spiking neurons decreased firing rates on average by a factor of 0.73±0.23, demonstrating low utility. The ability to select neurons with high utility will be important to minimize training times and maximize information yield in future clinical BMI applications. The highly contrasting utility observed between fast-spiking and bursting neurons versus regular-spiking neurons allows for the hypothesis to be advanced that intrinsic electrophysiological properties may be useful criteria that predict neuron utility in BMI implementation.

  15. Strategies to promote differentiation of newborn neurons into mature functional cells in Alzheimer brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Novaes, Barbara A; da Silva, Emanuelle R; Skaf, Heni D; Mendes-Neto, Alvaro G

    2009-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). New SGZ neurons migrate into the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG). New SVZ neurons seem to enter the association neocortex and entorhinal cortex besides the olfactory bulb. Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by neuron loss in the hippocampus (DG and CA1 field), entorhinal cortex, and association neocortex, which underlies the learning and memory deficits. We hypothesized that, if the AD brain can support neurogenesis, strategies to stimulate the neurogenesis process could have therapeutic value in AD. We reviewed the literature on: (a) the functional significance of adult-born neurons; (b) the occurrence of endogenous neurogenesis in AD; and (c) strategies to stimulate the adult neurogenesis process. We found that: (a) new neurons in the adult DG contribute to memory function; (b) new neurons are generated in the SGZ and SVZ of AD brains, but they fail to differentiate into mature neurons in the target regions; and (c) numerous strategies (Lithium, Glatiramer Acetate, nerve growth factor, environmental enrichment) can enhance adult neurogenesis and promote maturation of newly generated neurons. Such strategies might help to compensate for the loss of neurons and improve the memory function in AD.

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes Aberrant Migration of Adult-Born Neurons in the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sara; Hu, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaoting; Gao, Xiang; He, Chunyan; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-02-22

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) promotes neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) proliferation in an attempt to initiate innate repair mechanisms. However, all immature neurons in the CNS are required to migrate from their birthplace to their final destination to develop into functional neurons. Here we assessed the destination of adult-born neurons following TBI. We found that a large percentage of immature neurons migrated past their normal stopping site at the inner granular cell layer (GCL), and became misplaced in the outer GCL of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The aberrant migration of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus occurred 48 hours after TBI, and lasted for 8 weeks, resulting in a great number of newly generated neurons misplaced in the outer GCL in the hippocampus. Those misplaced neurons were able to become mature and differentiate into granular neurons, but located ectopically in the outer GCL with reduced dendritic complexity after TBI. The adult-born neurons at the misplaced position may make wrong connections with inappropriate nearby targets in the pre-existing neural network. These results suggest that although stimulation of endogenous NSCs following TBI might offer new avenues for cell-based therapy, additional intervention is required to further enhance successful neurogenesis for repairing the damaged brain.

  17. Cortical neurogenesis in adult rats after ischemic brain injury: most new neurons fail to mature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-quan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the hypothesis that endogenous neural progenitor cells isolated from the neocortex of ischemic brain can differentiate into neurons or glial cells and contribute to neural regeneration. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion to establish a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the cortex 1, 3, 7, 14 or 28 days after injury revealed that neural progenitor cells double-positive for nestin and sox-2 appeared in the injured cortex 1 and 3 days post-injury, and were also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. New neurons were labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and different stages of maturity were identified using doublecortin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neuronal nuclei antigen immunohistochemistry. Immature new neurons coexpressing doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the cortex at 3 and 7 days post-injury, and semi-mature and mature new neurons double-positive for microtubule-associated protein 2 and bromodeoxyuridine were found at 14 days post-injury. A few mature new neurons coexpressing neuronal nuclei antigen and bromodeoxyuridine were observed in the injured cortex 28 days post-injury. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/bromodeoxyuridine double-positive astrocytes were also found in the injured cortex. Our findings suggest that neural progenitor cells are present in the damaged cortex of adult rats with cerebral ischemic brain injury, and that they differentiate into astrocytes and immature neurons, but most neurons fail to reach the mature stage.

  18. Targeting Neuronal Networks with Combined Drug and Stimulation Paradigms Guided by Neuroimaging to Treat Brain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faingold, Carl L; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-10-01

    Improved therapy of brain disorders can be achieved by focusing on neuronal networks, utilizing combined pharmacological and stimulation paradigms guided by neuroimaging. Neuronal networks that mediate normal brain functions, such as hearing, interact with other networks, which is important but commonly neglected. Network interaction changes often underlie brain disorders, including epilepsy. "Conditional multireceptive" (CMR) brain areas (e.g., brainstem reticular formation and amygdala) are critical in mediating neuroplastic changes that facilitate network interactions. CMR neurons receive multiple inputs but exhibit extensive response variability due to milieu and behavioral state changes and are exquisitely sensitive to agents that increase or inhibit GABA-mediated inhibition. Enhanced CMR neuronal responsiveness leads to expression of emergent properties--nonlinear events--resulting from network self-organization. Determining brain disorder mechanisms requires animals that model behaviors and neuroanatomical substrates of human disorders identified by neuroimaging. However, not all sites activated during network operation are requisite for that operation. Other active sites are ancillary, because their blockade does not alter network function. Requisite network sites exhibit emergent properties that are critical targets for pharmacological and stimulation therapies. Improved treatment of brain disorders should involve combined pharmacological and stimulation therapies, guided by neuroimaging, to correct network malfunctions by targeting specific network neurons. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Acetyl-L-carnitine protects neuronal function from alcohol-induced oxidative damage in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rump, Travis J; Abdul Muneer, P M; Szlachetka, Adam M; Lamb, Allyson; Haorei, Catherine; Alikunju, Saleena; Xiong, Huangui; Keblesh, James; Liu, Jianuo; Zimmerman, Matthew C; Jones, Jocelyn; Donohue, Terrence M; Persidsky, Yuri; Haorah, James

    2010-11-30

    The studies presented here demonstrate the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) against alcohol-induced oxidative neuroinflammation, neuronal degeneration, and impaired neurotransmission. Our findings reveal the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of alcohol-induced oxidative damage in various types of brain cells. Chronic ethanol administration to mice caused an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine adduct formation in frontal cortical neurons but not in astrocytes from brains of these animals. Interestingly, alcohol administration caused a rather selective activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), which, in turn, enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 4-hydroxynonenal, but these were predominantly localized in astrocytes and microglia. Oxidative damage in glial cells was accompanied by their pronounced activation (astrogliosis) and coincident neuronal loss, suggesting that inflammation in glial cells caused neuronal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry studies indicated that alcohol consumption induced different oxidative mediators in different brain cell types. Thus, nitric oxide was mostly detected in iNOS-expressing neurons, whereas ROS were predominantly generated in NOX-expressing glial cells after alcohol ingestion. Assessment of neuronal activity in ex vivo frontal cortical brain tissue slices from ethanol-fed mice showed a reduction in long-term potentiation synaptic transmission compared with slices from controls. Coadministration of ALC with alcohol showed a significant reduction in oxidative damage and neuronal loss and a restoration of synaptic neurotransmission in this brain region, suggesting that ALC protects brain cells from ethanol-induced oxidative injury. These findings suggest the potential clinical utility of ALC as a neuroprotective agent that prevents alcohol-induced brain damage and development of neurological disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Rodrigo S.; Maldonado, José; Mota, Bruno; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore, and afrotherian brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share non-neuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are, however, distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires, and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25429261

  1. THE TOPOLOGICAL AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NEURONIC ENSEMBLES IN THE BRAIN AS PERCOLATING FRACTAL SETS

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    Sergey L’vovich Molchatsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine of neuronic ensembles in the brain. The research was based that neuronic ensembles of a brain are considered as the percolating clusters. In the basic part of the study the main concern was determination of the following parameters: fractal dimension on a passing threshold df; for geodetic lines on a fractal dθ and for trajectories of particles in a turbulence field dw. In the same part of a research the index of a compendency (θ of neuronic ensembles of animals and the human brain is defined. As well as it was supposed has a negative value θ 1. Numerical calculations with use of results of computer analysis frontal section images of a hypothalamus of a brain of animals and human are shown, that the considered objects can be ranked to the special class of fractal objects. Such class of objects is called asymptotically arcwise connected.

  2. Age-related neuronal loss in the rat brain starts at the end of adolescence

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    Morterá, Priscilla; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Aging-related changes in the brain have been mostly studied through the comparison of young adult and very old animals. However, aging must be considered a lifelong process of cumulative changes that ultimately become evident at old age. To determine when this process of decline begins, we studied how the cellular composition of the rat brain changes from infancy to adolescence, early adulthood, and old age. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine total numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in different brain areas, we find that a major increase in number of neurons occurs during adolescence, between 1 and 2–3 months of age, followed by a significant trend of widespread and progressive neuronal loss that begins as early as 3 months of age, when neuronal numbers are maximal in all structures, until decreases in numbers of neurons become evident at 12 or 22 months of age. Our findings indicate that age-related decline in the brain begins as soon as the end of adolescence, a novel finding has important clinical and social implications for public health and welfare. PMID:23112765

  3. Growth Factors Released from Gelatin Hydrogel Microspheres Increase New Neurons in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Kanako; Jinnou, Hideo; Kaneko, Naoko; Sawada, Masato; Hikita, Takao; Saitoh, Shinji; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that new neurons are continuously generated by endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain. Some of these new neurons migrate to injured brain tissues and differentiate into mature neurons, suggesting that such new neurons may be able to replace neurons lost to degenerative disease or injury and improve or repair neurological deficits. Here, we tested whether delivering growth factors via gelatin hydrogel microspheres would support neurogenesis in the SVZ. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons in the SVZ. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons migrating from the SVZ towards the injured striatum in a stroke model in mouse. These results suggest that the strategy of using gelatin hydrogel microspheres to achieve the sustained release of growth factors holds promise for the clinical regeneration of damaged brain tissues from endogenous neural stem cells in the adult SVZ. PMID:23093979

  4. Growth Factors Released from Gelatin Hydrogel Microspheres Increase New Neurons in the Adult Mouse Brain

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    Kanako Nakaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that new neurons are continuously generated by endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult mammalian brain. Some of these new neurons migrate to injured brain tissues and differentiate into mature neurons, suggesting that such new neurons may be able to replace neurons lost to degenerative disease or injury and improve or repair neurological deficits. Here, we tested whether delivering growth factors via gelatin hydrogel microspheres would support neurogenesis in the SVZ. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons in the SVZ. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-containing microspheres increased the number of new neurons migrating from the SVZ towards the injured striatum in a stroke model in mouse. These results suggest that the strategy of using gelatin hydrogel microspheres to achieve the sustained release of growth factors holds promise for the clinical regeneration of damaged brain tissues from endogenous neural stem cells in the adult SVZ.

  5. Relationships between neuronal cell adhesion molecule and LHRH neurons in the urodele brain: a developmental immunohistochemical study

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    S Gianola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysialic acid (PSA, a homopolymer attached to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM is considered a major hallmark of vertebrate cell migration. We studied the distribution of PSA-NCAM by immunohistochemistry, during brain development, in two urodele amphibians, Pleurodeles waltl and the neotenic newt Ambystoma mexicanum. In both species a gradual increase of immunolabelling was observed throughout the brain from developmental stage 30 to stage 52. At the onset of metamorphosis, some differences became evident: in Pleurodeles immunostaining was gradually restricted to the olfactory system while in Ambystoma, PSA-NCAM maintained a more extended distribution (for example throughout the telencephalic walls suggesting, for the brain of this latter species, a rather preserved neuronal plasticity. The aim of the present work was to correlate the above described PSA-NCAMimmunoreactivity (IR with the distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH containing neurons, which represent a well known example of neural elements migrating from the olfactory placode. LHRH-IR, undetectable till stage 30, was later found together with PSA-NCAM-IR in both the olfactory system and septo-hypothalamic areas. Such observations further support a role of PSA in providing a migration route toward the establishment of a part, at least, of the urodele LHRH system. The possible functional meaning of the LHRH-containing neurons localized between dorsal and ventral thalamus of Ambystoma, never reported before in this area, almost devoid of PSANCAM- IR, is discussed.

  6. Updated Neuronal Scaling Rules for the Brains of Glires (Rodents/Lagomorphs)

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    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Ribeiro, Pedro; Campos, Leandro; Valotta da Silva, Alexandre; Torres, Laila B.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    Brain size scales as different functions of its number of neurons across mammalian orders such as rodents, primates, and insectivores. In rodents, we have previously shown that, across a sample of 6 species, from mouse to capybara, the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and the remaining brain structures increase in size faster than they gain neurons, with an accompanying decrease in neuronal density in these structures [Herculano-Houzel et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:12138–12143]. Important remaining questions are whether such neuronal scaling rules within an order apply equally to all pertaining species, and whether they extend to closely related taxa. Here, we examine whether 4 other species of Rodentia, as well as the closely related rabbit (Lagomorpha), conform to the scaling rules identified previously for rodents. We report the updated neuronal scaling rules obtained for the average values of each species in a way that is directly comparable to the scaling rules that apply to primates [Gabi et al.: Brain Behav Evol 2010;76:32–44], and examine whether the scaling relationships are affected when phylogenetic relatedness in the dataset is accounted for. We have found that the brains of the spiny rat, squirrel, prairie dog and rabbit conform to the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the previous sample of rodents. The conformity to the previous rules of the new set of species, which includes the rabbit, suggests that the cellular scaling rules we have identified apply to rodents in general, and probably to Glires as a whole (rodents/lagomorphs), with one notable exception: the naked mole-rat brain is apparently an outlier, with only about half of the neurons expected from its brain size in its cerebral cortex and cerebellum. PMID:21985803

  7. Neuronal coupling by endogenous electric fields: cable theory and applications to coincidence detector neurons in the auditory brain stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwyn, Joshua H; Rinzel, John

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing activity of neurons generates a spatially and time-varying field of extracellular voltage (Ve). This Ve field reflects population-level neural activity, but does it modulate neural dynamics and the function of neural circuits? We provide a cable theory framework to study how a bundle of model neurons generates Ve and how this Ve feeds back and influences membrane potential (Vm). We find that these "ephaptic interactions" are small but not negligible. The model neural population can generate Ve with millivolt-scale amplitude, and this Ve perturbs the Vm of "nearby" cables and effectively increases their electrotonic length. After using passive cable theory to systematically study ephaptic coupling, we explore a test case: the medial superior olive (MSO) in the auditory brain stem. The MSO is a possible locus of ephaptic interactions: sounds evoke large (millivolt scale)Vein vivo in this nucleus. The Ve response is thought to be generated by MSO neurons that perform a known neuronal computation with submillisecond temporal precision (coincidence detection to encode sound source location). Using a biophysically based model of MSO neurons, we find millivolt-scale ephaptic interactions consistent with the passive cable theory results. These subtle membrane potential perturbations induce changes in spike initiation threshold, spike time synchrony, and time difference sensitivity. These results suggest that ephaptic coupling may influence MSO function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease in Stem-Cell-Derived Human Neurons Transplanted into Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espuny-Camacho, Ira; Arranz, Amaia M; Fiers, Mark; Snellinx, An; Ando, Kunie; Munck, Sebastian; Bonnefont, Jerome; Lambot, Laurie; Corthout, Nikky; Omodho, Lorna; Vanden Eynden, Elke; Radaelli, Enrico; Tesseur, Ina; Wray, Selina; Ebneth, Andreas; Hardy, John; Leroy, Karelle; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; De Strooper, Bart

    2017-03-08

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique entry to study species-specific aspects of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in vitro culture of neurons deprives them of their natural environment. Here we transplanted human PSC-derived cortical neuronal precursors into the brain of a murine AD model. Human neurons differentiate and integrate into the brain, express 3R/4R Tau splice forms, show abnormal phosphorylation and conformational Tau changes, and undergo neurodegeneration. Remarkably, cell death was dissociated from tangle formation in this natural 3D model of AD. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we observed upregulation of genes involved in myelination and downregulation of genes related to memory and cognition, synaptic transmission, and neuron projection. This novel chimeric model for AD displays human-specific pathological features and allows the analysis of different genetic backgrounds and mutations during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reelin signaling in the migration of ventral brain stem and spinal cord neurons

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    Sandra eBlaess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix protein Reelin is an important orchestrator of neuronal migration during the development of the central nervous system. While its role and mechanism of action have been extensively studied and reviewed in the formation of dorsal laminar brain structures like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, its functions during the neuronal migration events that result in the nuclear organization of the ventral central nervous system are less well understood. In an attempt to delineate an underlying pattern of Reelin action in the formation of neuronal cell clusters, this review highlights the role of Reelin signaling in the migration of neuronal populations that originate in the ventral brain stem and the spinal cord.

  10. The digital bee brain: integrating and managing neurons in a common 3D reference system

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    Jürgen Rybak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee standard brain (HSB serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/. The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1 The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron’s skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2 the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2 to the reconstructed neurons of step (1. The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology. Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations.

  11. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  12. Pipecolic acid enhancement of GABA response in single neurons of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, K; Hashimoto, T; Wang, M W; Akaike, N; Hitoshi, T; Okano, Y; Kasé, Y; Miyata, T

    1986-03-01

    Using unit recording and microelectrophoresis, influence of pipecolic acid (PA), a major metabolite of lysine in the brain, on GABA and glycine responses was studied in the cerebral cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons of rats. With small currents, PA had no effect on the single neuron activities but enhanced GABA response without affecting glycine response. The finding provides a new evidence that PA may have a connection with central GABA system.

  13. Asymmetry of Radial and Symmetry of Tangential Neuronal Migration Pathways in Developing Human Fetal Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Song, Jae W; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    The radial and tangential neural migration pathways are two major neuronal migration streams in humans that are critical during corticogenesis. Corticogenesis is a complex process of neuronal proliferation that is followed by neuronal migration and the formation of axonal connections. Existing histological assessments of these two neuronal migration pathways have limitations inherent to microscopic studies and are confined to small anatomic regions of interest (ROIs). Thus, little evidence is available about their three-dimensional (3-D) fiber pathways and development throughout the entire brain. In this study, we imaged and analyzed radial and tangential migration pathways in the whole human brain using high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography. We imaged ten fixed, postmortem fetal (17 gestational weeks (GW), 18 GW, 19 GW, three 20 GW, three 21 GW and 22 GW) and eight in vivo newborn (two 30 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW and four 40 GW) brains with no neurological/pathological conditions. We statistically compared the volume of the left and right radial and tangential migration pathways, and the volume of the radial migration pathways of the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. In specimens 22 GW or younger, the volume of radial migration pathways of the left hemisphere was significantly larger than that of the right hemisphere. The volume of posterior radial migration pathways was also larger when compared to the anterior pathways in specimens 22 GW or younger. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the radial migration pathways of brains older than 22 GW. Moreover, our study did not identify any significant differences in volumetric laterality in the tangential migration pathways. These results suggest that these two neuronal migration pathways develop and regress differently, and radial neuronal migration varies regionally based on hemispheric and anterior-posterior laterality, potentially explaining regional differences in

  14. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

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    Rodrigo eSiqueira Kazu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore and afrotherian brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share nonneuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are however distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  15. Seven-day ethanol administration influence on the rat brain histaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimatkin, Sergey M; Phedina, Ekaterina M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to clarify the effect of 7 days of ethanol administration upon brain histaminergic neurons in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 20% ethanol/saline (0.85% NaCl) daily, over 7 days, whereas control rats were given saline. The animals were decapitated 24 h after the 7th injection and samples of hypothalamus were prepared for light and electron microscopy, accompanied by morphometry to examine the histaminergic neurons. It was found that ethanol administration gradually decreased the duration of alcohol-induced sleep and decreased the total amount of histaminergic neurons and the amount of histologically normal neurons, but increased the amount of hypochromic neurons and shadow cells. The histaminergic neuron bodies and nuclei decreased in size. The ultrastructural changes in histaminergic neurons demonstrated activation of their nuclear apparatus, both destruction or hypertrophy and hyperplasia of organelles, especially lysosomes. The histochemical examination revealed the activation of lactate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase, and inhibition of NADH-, NADPhH, and succinate dehydrogenases. Following 7 days of ethanol administration, histaminergic neurons exhibit the structural signs of hyperactivity, which can be related to neuronal adaptation to the actions of ethanol, and increased behavioral tolerance to ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolvable neuronal paths: a novel basis for information and search in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Vasas, Vera; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We propose a previously unrecognized kind of informational entity in the brain that is capable of acting as the basis for unlimited hereditary variation in neuronal networks. This unit is a path of activity through a network of neurons, analogous to a path taken through a hidden Markov model. To prove in principle the capabilities of this new kind of informational substrate, we show how a population of paths can be used as the hereditary material for a neuronally implemented genetic algorithm, (the swiss-army knife of black-box optimization techniques) which we have proposed elsewhere could operate at somatic timescales in the brain. We compare this to the same genetic algorithm that uses a standard 'genetic' informational substrate, i.e. non-overlapping discrete genotypes, on a range of optimization problems. A path evolution algorithm (PEA) is defined as any algorithm that implements natural selection of paths in a network substrate. A PEA is a previously unrecognized type of natural selection that is well suited for implementation by biological neuronal networks with structural plasticity. The important similarities and differences between a standard genetic algorithm and a PEA are considered. Whilst most experiments are conducted on an abstract network model, at the conclusion of the paper a slightly more realistic neuronal implementation of a PEA is outlined based on Izhikevich spiking neurons. Finally, experimental predictions are made for the identification of such informational paths in the brain.

  17. Evolvable neuronal paths: a novel basis for information and search in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisantha Fernando

    Full Text Available We propose a previously unrecognized kind of informational entity in the brain that is capable of acting as the basis for unlimited hereditary variation in neuronal networks. This unit is a path of activity through a network of neurons, analogous to a path taken through a hidden Markov model. To prove in principle the capabilities of this new kind of informational substrate, we show how a population of paths can be used as the hereditary material for a neuronally implemented genetic algorithm, (the swiss-army knife of black-box optimization techniques which we have proposed elsewhere could operate at somatic timescales in the brain. We compare this to the same genetic algorithm that uses a standard 'genetic' informational substrate, i.e. non-overlapping discrete genotypes, on a range of optimization problems. A path evolution algorithm (PEA is defined as any algorithm that implements natural selection of paths in a network substrate. A PEA is a previously unrecognized type of natural selection that is well suited for implementation by biological neuronal networks with structural plasticity. The important similarities and differences between a standard genetic algorithm and a PEA are considered. Whilst most experiments are conducted on an abstract network model, at the conclusion of the paper a slightly more realistic neuronal implementation of a PEA is outlined based on Izhikevich spiking neurons. Finally, experimental predictions are made for the identification of such informational paths in the brain.

  18. Childhood obstructive sleep apnea associates with neuropsychological deficits and neuronal brain injury.

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    Ann C Halbower

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with neuropsychological deficits of memory, learning, and executive function. There is no evidence of neuronal brain injury in children with OSA. We hypothesized that childhood OSA is associated with neuropsychological performance dysfunction, and with neuronal metabolite alterations in the brain, indicative of neuronal injury in areas corresponding to neuropsychological function.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 31 children (19 with OSA and 12 healthy controls, aged 6-16 y group-matched by age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent polysomnography and neuropsychological assessments. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed on a subset of children with OSA and on matched controls. Neuropsychological test scores and mean neuronal metabolite ratios of target brain areas were compared. Relative to controls, children with severe OSA had significant deficits in IQ and executive functions (verbal working memory and verbal fluency. Children with OSA demonstrated decreases of the mean neuronal metabolite ratio N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left hippocampus (controls: 1.29, standard deviation [SD] 0.21; OSA: 0.91, SD 0.05; p = 0.001 and right frontal cortex (controls: 2.2, SD 0.4; OSA: 1.6, SD 0.4; p = 0.03.Childhood OSA is associated with deficits of IQ and executive function and also with possible neuronal injury in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. We speculate that untreated childhood OSA could permanently alter a developing child's cognitive potential.

  19. Whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity in the learned helplessness model of depression

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    Yongsoo eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals are resilient, whereas others succumb to despair in repeated stressful situations. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such divergent behavioral responses remain unclear. Here, we employed an automated method for mapping neuronal activity in search of signatures of stress responses in the entire mouse brain. We used serial two-photon tomography to detect expression of c-FosGFP – a marker of neuronal activation – in c-fosGFP transgenic mice subjected to the learned helplessness (LH procedure, a widely used model of stress-induced depression-like phenotype in laboratory animals. We found that mice showing helpless behavior had an overall brain-wide reduction in the level of neuronal activation compared with mice showing resilient behavior, with the exception of a few brain areas, including the locus coeruleus, that were more activated in the helpless mice. In addition, the helpless mice showed a strong trend of having higher similarity in whole brain activity profile among individuals, suggesting that helplessness is represented by a more stereotypic brain-wide activation pattern. This latter effect was confirmed in rats subjected to the LH procedure, using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to assess neural activity. Our findings reveal distinct brain activity markings that correlate with adaptive and maladaptive behavioral responses to stress, and provide a framework for further studies investigating the contribution of specific brain regions to maladaptive stress responses.

  20. Taurine enhances the growth of neural precursors derived from fetal human brain and promotes neuronal specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Reyna; Vangipuram, Sharada D; Ramos-Mandujano, Gerardo; Lyman, William D; Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is present at high concentrations in the fetal brain and is required for optimal brain development. Recent studies have reported that taurine causes increased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor neural cells (neural precursor cells, NPCs) obtained from embryonic and adult rodent brain. The present study is the first to show that taurine markedly increases cell numbers in cultures and neuronal generation from human NPCs (hNPCs). hNPCs obtained from 3 fetal brains (14-15 weeks of gestation) were cultured and expanded as neurospheres, which contained 76.3% nestin-positive cells. Taurine (5-20 mM) increased the number of hNPCs in culture, with maximal effect found at 10 mM and 4 days of culture. The taurine-induced increase ranged from 57 to 188% in the 3 brains examined. Taurine significantly enhanced the percentage of neurons formed from hNPCs under differentiating conditions, with increases ranging from 172 to 480% over controls without taurine. Taurine also increased the cell number and neuronal generation in cultures of the immortalized human cell line ReNcell VM. These results suggest that taurine has a positive influence on hNPC growth and neuronal formation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Synaptic inputs from stroke-injured brain to grafted human stem cell-derived neurons activated by sensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Daniel; Tsupykov, Oleg; Granmo, Marcus; Rodriguez, Cristina; Grønning-Hansen, Marita; Thelin, Jonas; Smozhanik, Ekaterina; Laterza, Cecilia; Wattananit, Somsak; Ge, Ruimin; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Grealish, Shane; Brüstle, Oliver; Skibo, Galina; Parmar, Malin; Schouenborg, Jens; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2017-03-01

    Transplanted neurons derived from stem cells have been proposed to improve function in animal models of human disease by various mechanisms such as neuronal replacement. However, whether the grafted neurons receive functional synaptic inputs from the recipient's brain and integrate into host neural circuitry is unknown. Here we studied the synaptic inputs from the host brain to grafted cortical neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells after transplantation into stroke-injured rat cerebral cortex. Using the rabies virus-based trans-synaptic tracing method and immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrate that the grafted neurons receive direct synaptic inputs from neurons in different host brain areas located in a pattern similar to that of neurons projecting to the corresponding endogenous cortical neurons in the intact brain. Electrophysiological in vivo recordings from the cortical implants show that physiological sensory stimuli, i.e. cutaneous stimulation of nose and paw, can activate or inhibit spontaneous activity in grafted neurons, indicating that at least some of the afferent inputs are functional. In agreement, we find using patch-clamp recordings that a portion of grafted neurons respond to photostimulation of virally transfected, channelrhodopsin-2-expressing thalamo-cortical axons in acute brain slices. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the host brain regulates the activity of grafted neurons, providing strong evidence that transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons can become incorporated into injured cortical circuitry. Our findings support the idea that these neurons could contribute to functional recovery in stroke and other conditions causing neuronal loss in cerebral cortex. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Activated brain mast cells contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction by evoking microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Hongquan; Li, Nana; Zhang, Susu; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning

    2016-05-31

    Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the occurrence and development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, has been increasingly recognized to contribute to neuroinflammation. Although brain mast cells (MCs) are the "first responder" in the brain injury rather than microglia, little is known about the functional aspects of MCs-microglia interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intracerebroventricular with MC stabilizer Cromolyn (100 μg/μl), MC stimulator C48/80 (1 μg/μl), or sterile saline 30 min before open tibial fracture surgery, and the levels of neuroinflammation and memory dysfunction were tested 1 and 3 days after surgery. In addition, the effect of activated MCs on microglia and neurons was determined in vitro. Tibial fracture surgery induced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, and inflammatory factors production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response and neuronal death and exhibited cognitive deficit. Site-directed preinjection of the "MCs stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (Cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, neuronal death, and improved cognitive function 24 h after the surgery. In vitro study, we found that the conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mast cells line (P815) could induce primary microglia activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In addition, the activated P815 could directly induce neuronal apoptosis and synapse injury with microglia independently. Cromolyn could inhibit P815 activation following improved microglia activation and neuronal loss. These results implicate that activated MCs could trigger microglia activation and neuronal damage, resulting in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, and

  3. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Nan eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available T-brain-1 (TBR1 is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1–/– mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+/– mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1–/– mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+/– mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity, two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+/– mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK-TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+/– mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules-including Ntng1, Cdh8 and Cntn2-are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD

  4. Age-related neuronal loss in the rat brain starts at the end of adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla eMorterá; Priscilla eMorterá; Suzana eHerculano-Houzel; Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2012-01-01

    Aging-related changes in the brain have been mostly studied through the comparison of young adult and very old animals. However, aging must be considered a lifelong process of cumulative changes that ultimately become evident at old age. To determine when this process of decline begins, we studied how the cellular composition of the rat brain changes from infancy to adolescence, early adulthood, and old age. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine total numbers of neuronal and non-neuro...

  5. Acute Lesioning and Rapid Repair of Hypothalamic Neurons outside the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernie Yulyaningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP are essential for feeding. The majority of these neurons are located outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB, allowing them to directly sense circulating metabolic factors. Here, we show that, in adult mice, AgRP neurons outside the BBB (AgRPOBBB were rapidly ablated by peripheral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG, whereas AgRP neurons inside the BBB and most proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons were spared. MSG treatment induced proliferation of tanycytes, the putative hypothalamic neural progenitor cells, but the newly proliferated tanycytes did not become neurons. Intriguingly, AgRPOBBB neuronal number increased within a week after MSG treatment, and newly emerging AgRP neurons were derived from post-mitotic cells, including some from the Pomc-expressing cell lineage. Our study reveals that the lack of protection by the BBB renders AgRPOBBB vulnerable to lesioning by circulating toxins but that the rapid re-emergence of AgRPOBBB is part of a reparative process to maintain energy balance.

  6. Simulation Neurotechnologies for Advancing Brain Research: Parallelizing Large Networks in NEURON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, William W; Seidenstein, Alexandra H; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; McDougal, Robert A; Schürmann, Felix; Hines, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Large multiscale neuronal network simulations are of increasing value as more big data are gathered about brain wiring and organization under the auspices of a current major research initiative, such as Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The development of these models requires new simulation technologies. We describe here the current use of the NEURON simulator with message passing interface (MPI) for simulation in the domain of moderately large networks on commonly available high-performance computers (HPCs). We discuss the basic layout of such simulations, including the methods of simulation setup, the run-time spike-passing paradigm, and postsimulation data storage and data management approaches. Using the Neuroscience Gateway, a portal for computational neuroscience that provides access to large HPCs, we benchmark simulations of neuronal networks of different sizes (500-100,000 cells), and using different numbers of nodes (1-256). We compare three types of networks, composed of either Izhikevich integrate-and-fire neurons (I&F), single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) cells, or a hybrid network with half of each. Results show simulation run time increased approximately linearly with network size and decreased almost linearly with the number of nodes. Networks with I&F neurons were faster than HH networks, although differences were small since all tested cells were point neurons with a single compartment.

  7. Neurons are the Primary Target Cell for the Brain-Tropic Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Hans K.; Nguyen, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Wes R.; Trivedi, Tapasya; Devineni, Asha; Koshy, Anita A.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, a common brain-tropic parasite, is capable of infecting most nucleated cells, including astrocytes and neurons, in vitro. Yet, in vivo, Toxoplasma is primarily found in neurons. In vitro data showing that interferon-γ-stimulated astrocytes, but not neurons, clear intracellular parasites suggest that neurons alone are persistently infected in vivo because they lack the ability to clear intracellular parasites. Here we test this theory by using a novel Toxoplasma-mouse model capable of marking and tracking host cells that directly interact with parasites, even if the interaction is transient. Remarkably, we find that Toxoplasma shows a strong predilection for interacting with neurons throughout CNS infection. This predilection remains in the setting of IFN-γ depletion; infection with parasites resistant to the major mechanism by which murine astrocytes clear parasites; or when directly injecting parasites into the brain. These findings, in combination with prior work, strongly suggest that neurons are not incidentally infected, but rather they are Toxoplasma’s primary in vivo target. PMID:26895155

  8. Administration of Protocatechuic Acid Reduces Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Neuronal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hwon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PCA was first purified from green tea and has shown numerous biological activities, including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. The effect of PCA on traumatic brain injury (TBI-induced neuronal death has not previously been evaluated. TBI is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile. TBI causes neuronal death in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of PCA on TBI-induced neuronal death. Here, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact model using rats. PCA (30 mg/kg was injected into the intraperitoneal (ip space immediately after TBI. Neuronal death was evaluated with Fluoro Jade-B (FJB staining at 24 h after TBI. Oxidative injury was detected by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE, glutathione (GSH concentration was analyzed by glutathione adduct with N-ethylmaleimide (GS-NEM staining at 24 h after TBI, and microglial activation in the hippocampus was detected by CD11b immunohistochemistry at one week after TBI. We found that the proportion of degenerating neurons, oxidative injury, GSH depletion, and microglia activation in the hippocampus and cortex were all reduced by PCA treatment following TBI. Therefore, our study suggests that PCA may have therapeutic potential in preventing TBI-induced neuronal death.

  9. How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Kassuba, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) uses a magnetic field to "carry" a short lasting electrical current pulse into the brain where it stimulates neurones, particularly in superficial regions of cerebral cortex. TMS can interfere with cognitive functions in two ways. A high intensity TMS pulse...

  10. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2010-09-08

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  11. Molecular fingerprint of neuropeptide S-producing neurons in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaobin; Zeng, Joanne; Zhou, Anni

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context...

  12. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Lane, S.; Korsak, A.; Paton, J. F. R.; Gourine, A. V.; Kasparov, S.; Teschemacher, A. G.

    2014-02-01

    Astrocytes produce and release L-lactate as a potential source of energy for neurons. Here we present evidence that L-lactate, independently of its caloric value, serves as an astrocytic signalling molecule in the locus coeruleus (LC). The LC is the principal source of norepinephrine to the frontal brain and thus one of the most influential modulatory centers of the brain. Optogenetically activated astrocytes release L-lactate, which excites LC neurons and triggers release of norepinephrine. Exogenous L-lactate within the physiologically relevant concentration range mimics these effects. L-lactate effects are concentration-dependent, stereo-selective, independent of L-lactate uptake into neurons and involve a cAMP-mediated step. In vivo injections of L-lactate in the LC evokes arousal similar to the excitatory transmitter, L-glutamate. Our results imply the existence of an unknown receptor for this ‘glio-transmitter’.

  13. Postresuscitative Changes of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF Protein Expression: Association With Neuronal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Avrushchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: to evaluate expression level of BDNF and its association with the postresuscitative neuronal death in highly hypoxia-sensitive brain regions.Materials and methods. Cardiac arrest in adult albino male rats was evoked by intrathoracic clamping of supracardiac bundle of vessels for 10 min. Pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum were analyzed at various time points after resuscitation (days 1, 4, 7, 14. Shame-operated rats served as controls. The expression of BDNF protein was immunohistochemically determined. The BDNF expression level was determined by evalution on the base of the average optical density. The number of neurons with different BDNF expression levels and the total number of neurons per 1 mm of the layer length were computed. Image analysis systems (Intel personal computer, Olympus BX-41 microscope, ImageScopeM, ImageJ 1,48v and MS Excel 2007 software packages were used in the study. Data statistical processing was performed with the aid of Statistica 7.0 program and Kolmogorov-Smirnov λ-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test.Results. The dynamics of postresuscitative shifts of BDNF immunoreactivity in neuronal populations of hippocampal pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells was established. It was shown that the level of BDNF expression within the two neuronal populations decreased, that was accompanied by neuronal death. In the Purkinje cell population the neuronal death occurred by the 4th day after resuscitation, while in the hippocampus, it occurs only by the 7th day. Notably, only BDNF-negative neurons or neurons with low level of BDNF expression died in both neuronal populations.Conclusion. The results of the study indicate the existence of an interrelation between the shifts in BDNF expression and the postresuscitative neuronal death. It was shown that only the cells with none or poor BDNF expression underwent death in highly hypoxia-sensitive neuronal

  14. The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehman, Lauren T; Stoilov, Peter; Maguire, Jamie; Damianov, Andrey; Lin, Chia-Ho; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Mody, Istvan; Black, Douglas L

    2011-05-29

    The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts, but its role in neuronal physiology is not clear. We show here that central nervous system-specific deletion of the gene encoding Rbfox1 results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording revealed a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole-transcriptome analyses identified multiple splicing changes in the Rbfox1(-/-) brain with few changes in overall transcript abundance. These splicing changes alter proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and membrane excitation. Thus, Rbfox1 directs a genetic program required in the prevention of neuronal hyperexcitation and seizures. The Rbfox1 knockout mice provide a new model to study the post-transcriptional regulation of synaptic function.

  15. Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bagó, Attila G

    2015-01-01

    SUCLA2 encodes the ATP-forming β subunit (A-SUCL-β) of succinyl-CoA ligase, an enzyme of the citric acid cycle. Mutations in SUCLA2 lead to a mitochondrial disorder manifesting as encephalomyopathy with dystonia, deafness and lesions in the basal ganglia. Despite the distinct brain pathology asso...

  16. Future Directions in Brain/Neuronal Computer Interaction (Future BNCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allison, Brandan; Millán, Jose del R.; Nijholt, Antinus; Dunne, Stephen; Leeb, Robert; Whitmer, Diane; Poel, Mannes; Neuper, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research has made great progress recently [1-3]. However, this progress has some negative side effects: growing fragmentation among different researchers, confusion about the best research directions, and ongoing disagreement over terms and definitions. Future BNCI is

  17. Neuronal activity and ion homeostasis in the hypoxic brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandt, B.

    2014-01-01

    The interruption of blood flow to the brain as occurs in cardiac arrest and stroke results within minutes in irreversible damage. The development of neuroprotective treatments that prevent cell damage after stroke has so far largely been unsuccessful, while we still have an incomplete understanding

  18. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McTaggart

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  19. Digital, three-dimensional average shaped atlas of the heliothis virescens brain with integrated gustatory and olfactory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Kvello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We use the moth Heliothis virescens as model organism for studying the neural network involved in chemosensory coding and learning. The constituent neurons are characterised by intracellular recordings combined with staining, resulting in a single neuron identified in each brain preparation. In order to spatially relate the neurons of different preparations a common brain framework was required. We here present an average shaped atlas of the moth brain. It is based on 11 female brain preparations, each stained with a fluorescent synaptic marker and scanned in confocal laser-scanning microscope. Brain neuropils of each preparation were manually reconstructed in the computer software AMIRA, followed by generating the atlas using the Iterative Shape Average Procedure. To demonstrate the application of the atlas we have registered two olfactory and two gustatory interneurons, as well as the axonal projections of gustatory receptor neurons into the atlas, visualising their spatial relationships. The olfactory interneurons, showing the typical morphology of inner-tract antennal lobe projection neurons, projected in the calyces of the mushroom body and laterally in the protocerebral lobe. The two gustatory interneurons, responding to sucrose and quinine respectively, projected in different areas of the brain. The wide projections of the quinine responding neuron included a lateral area adjacent to the projections of the olfactory interneurons. The sucrose responding neuron was confined to the suboesophageal ganglion with dendritic arborizations overlapping the axonal projections of the gustatory receptor neurons on the proboscis. By serving as a tool for the integration of neurons, the atlas offers visual access to the spatial relationship between the neurons in three dimensions, and thus facilitates the study of neuronal networks in the Heliothis virescens brain. The moth standard brain is accessible at http://www.nt.ntnu.no/users/kvello/H_virescens_standardbrain/

  20. Stress-induced activation of nitric oxide-producing neurons in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukoff, T L; Khalili, P

    1997-01-27

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter that may mediate a decrease in sympathetic output to the periphery. This implication predicts that NO-producing neurons in the brain are activated in animals experiencing increased levels of sympathetic activity. To test this prediction, we subjected three groups of experimental rats to differing levels of environmental stimulation for 1 hour: minimal stimulation, moderate stimulation, and restraint stress. NO-producing neurons were histochemically visualized in sections of the brain, and activation of these neurons was assessed according to the neuronal expression of the immediate early gene c-fos. Constitutive activation of NO-producing neurons was found in the hypothalamus (paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei), dorsal raphe nuclei, and spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve of minimally stimulated rats. When animals were subjected to a novel environment (moderate stimulation), additional NO-producing neurons were activated in the medial septum, medial amygdala, hypothalamic nuclei (lateral, periventricular, and posterior), colliculi, nucleus raphe obscurus, medial vestibular nucleus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and several components of the ventrolateral medulla. Restraint stress caused the activation of NO-producing neurons in all of these areas, often in increasing numbers, and the activation of additional NO-producing neurons in the diagonal band of Broca, lateral and medial preoptic areas, basomedial and basolateral amygdalar nuclei, hypothalamic nuclei (dorsomedial, retrochiasmatic supraoptic, and circularis), nucleus raphe pontus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, and pontine nuclei. Expressed as a proportion of NO-producing neurons per section, the largest percentages (>20%) of double-stained neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala (46%), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (35%), corpora quadrigemina (estimated at 40%), dorsal raphe (45%), nuclei raphe pontus (33%) and obscurus (63%), lateral

  1. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient Derived iPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0414 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient-Derived iPS...3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2013 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From... autism pathogenesis: early brain overgrowth and synaptogenesis defects. The goal of this project is to produce human cellular models of non

  2. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  3. Molecular fingerprint of neuropeptide S-producing neurons in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaobin; Zeng, Joanne; Zhou, Anni

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context....../EGFP-transgenic mice show anatomically correct and overlapping expression of both NPS and EGFP. A total number of ~500 NPS/EGFP-positive neurons are present in the mouse brain, located in the pericoerulear region and the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus. NPS and transgene expression is first detectable around E14, indicating...... a potential role for NPS in brain development. EGFP-positive cells were harvested by laser-capture microdissection, and mRNA was extracted for expression profiling by using microarray analysis. NPS was found co-localized with galanin in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus of the lateral parabrachial area. A dense...

  4. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  5. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  6. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.

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    Harsharan Singh Bhatia

    Full Text Available Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate (IRS. DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.

  8. Are dragon-king neuronal avalanches dungeons for self-organized brain activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, L.

    2012-05-01

    Recent experiments have detected a novel form of spontaneous neuronal activity both in vitro and in vivo: neuronal avalanches. The statistical properties of this activity are typical of critical phenomena, with power laws characterizing the distributions of avalanche size and duration. A critical behaviour for the spontaneous brain activity has important consequences on stimulated activity and learning. Very interestingly, these statistical properties can be altered in significant ways in epilepsy and by pharmacological manipulations. In particular, there can be an increase in the number of large events anticipated by the power law, referred to herein as dragon-king avalanches. This behaviour, as verified by numerical models, can originate from a number of different mechanisms. For instance, it is observed experimentally that the emergence of a critical behaviour depends on the subtle balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms acting in the system. Perturbing this balance, by increasing either synaptic excitation or the incidence of depolarized neuronal up-states causes frequent dragon-king avalanches. Conversely, an unbalanced GABAergic inhibition or long periods of low activity in the network give rise to sub-critical behaviour. Moreover, the existence of power laws, common to other stochastic processes, like earthquakes or solar flares, suggests that correlations are relevant in these phenomena. The dragon-king avalanches may then also be the expression of pathological correlations leading to frequent avalanches encompassing all neurons. We will review the statistics of neuronal avalanches in experimental systems. We then present numerical simulations of a neuronal network model introducing within the self-organized criticality framework ingredients from the physiology of real neurons, as the refractory period, synaptic plasticity and inhibitory synapses. The avalanche critical behaviour and the role of dragon-king avalanches will be discussed in

  9. Extrasynaptic neurotransmission in the modulation of brain function. Focus on the striatal neuronal-glial networks

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    Kjell eFuxe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. Receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR heteromers play a major role, on dendritic spines and nerve terminals including glutamate synapses, in the integrative processes of the extrasynaptic signaling. Heteromeric complexes between GPCR and ion-channel receptors play a special role in the integration of the synaptic and extrasynaptic signals. Changes in extracellular concentrations of the classical synaptic neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA found with microdialysis is likely an expression of the activity of the neuron-astrocyte unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the activity of neurons may be functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which may release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space where extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors do exist. Wiring transmission (WT and VT are fundamental properties of all neurons of the CNS but the balance between WT and VT varies from one nerve cell population to the other. The focus is on the striatal cellular networks, and the WT and VT and their integration via receptor heteromers are described in the GABA projection neurons, the glutamate, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and histamine striatal afferents, the cholinergic interneurons and different types of GABA interneurons. In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal

  10. Brain-region–specific alterations of the trajectories of neuronal volume growth throughout the lifespan in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Several morphometric studies have revealed smaller than normal neurons in the neocortex of autistic subjects. To test the hypothesis that abnormal neuronal growth is a marker of an autism-associated global encephalopathy, neuronal volumes were estimated in 16 brain regions, including various subcortical structures, Ammon’s horn, archicortex, cerebellum, and brainstem in 14 brains from individuals with autism 4 to 60 years of age and 14 age-matched control brains. This stereological study showed a significantly smaller volume of neuronal soma in 14 of 16 regions in the 4- to 8-year-old autistic brains than in the controls. Arbitrary classification revealed a very severe neuronal volume deficit in 14.3% of significantly altered structures, severe in 50%, moderate in 21.4%, and mild in 14.3% structures. This pattern suggests desynchronized neuronal growth in the interacting neuronal networks involved in the autistic phenotype. The comparative study of the autistic and control subject brains revealed that the number of structures with a significant volume deficit decreased from 14 in the 4- to 8-year-old autistic subjects to 4 in the 36- to 60-year-old. Neuronal volumes in 75% of the structures examined in the older adults with autism are comparable to neuronal volume in age-matched controls. This pattern suggests defects of neuronal growth in early childhood and delayed up-regulation of neuronal growth during adolescence and adulthood reducing neuron soma volume deficit in majority of examined regions. However, significant correction of neuron size but limited clinical improvements suggests that delayed correction does not restore functional deficits. PMID:24612906

  11. N-3 fatty acids, neuronal activity and energy metabolism in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbeby Emilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1 a lower brain glucose utilization, 2 a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3 a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action of DHA on the regulation of GLUT1 expression since rat brain endothelial cells cultured with physiological doses of DHA had an increased GLUT1 protein content and glucose transport when compared to non-supplemented cells. These experimental data highlight the impact of n-3 fatty acids on the use of brain glucose, thereby constituting a key factor in the control of synaptic activity. This emerging role suggests that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids can help to reduce the cognitive deficits in the elderly and possibly symptomatic cerebral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer disease by promoting brain glucose metabolism.

  12. Increased neural activity of a mushroom body neuron subtype in the brains of forager honeybees.

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    Taketoshi Kiya

    Full Text Available Honeybees organize a sophisticated society, and the workers transmit information about the location of food sources using a symbolic dance, known as 'dance communication'. Recent studies indicate that workers integrate sensory information during foraging flight for dance communication. The neural mechanisms that account for this remarkable ability are, however, unknown. In the present study, we established a novel method to visualize neural activity in the honeybee brain using a novel immediate early gene, kakusei, as a marker of neural activity. The kakusei transcript was localized in the nuclei of brain neurons and did not encode an open reading frame, suggesting that it functions as a non-coding nuclear RNA. Using this method, we show that neural activity of a mushroom body neuron subtype, the small-type Kenyon cells, is prominently increased in the brains of dancer and forager honeybees. In contrast, the neural activity of the two mushroom body neuron subtypes, the small-and large-type Kenyon cells, is increased in the brains of re-orienting workers, which memorize their hive location during re-orienting flights. These findings demonstrate that the small-type Kenyon cell-preferential activity is associated with foraging behavior, suggesting its involvement in information integration during foraging flight, which is an essential basis for dance communication.

  13. Effects of caffeine on neuronal apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicdag, Hasan; Daglioglu, Yusuf Kenan; Erdogan, Seyda; Zorludemir, Suzan

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in rat pups leads to strong activation of apoptosis, and apoptosis contributes significantly to cerebral damage in the perinatal period. Caffeine displays a broad array of actions on the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on neuronal apoptosis in a hypoxic-ischemic neonatal model. Twenty-four seven-day-old Wistar rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia for 2 h. Sham group (n = 8) had a median neck incision, but the rats were not subjected to ligation or hypoxia. The pups were treated with 20 mg/kg/day caffeine citrate (n = 8) or saline (n = 8) immediately before HI and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-hypoxia. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of both hemispheres. The numbers of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and parietal cortex were significantly higher in the saline group than they were in the sham group (p cells in the hippocampus (p caffeine-treated group than they were in the sham group, but the number of apoptotic cells decreased significantly in the caffeine-treated group compared with the saline group in the hippocampus (p caffeine administration in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury reduces neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain. We suggest that caffeine may be effective in reducing brain injury.

  14. LOTUS overexpression accelerates neuronal plasticity after focal brain ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hajime; Kurihara, Yuji; Yokoyama, Taka-Akira; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Takei, Kohtaro

    2017-01-01

    Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) and its ligands inhibit neuronal plasticity and limit functional recovery after brain damage such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) antagonizes NgR1-mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether LOTUS enhances neuronal plasticity and functional recovery after brain focal ischemia in adult mice. Focal ischemic infarcts were induced in wild-type and LOTUS-overexpressing transgenic mice via middle cerebral artery occlusion. Endogenous LOTUS expression was increased in brain and cervical spinal cord of the contralateral side of ischemia in the chronic phase after brain ischemia. LOTUS overexpression accelerated midline-crossing axonal sprouting from the contralateral side to the ipsilateral side of ischemia in the medullar reticular formation and gray matter of denervated cervical spinal cord. Importantly, LOTUS overexpression improved neurological score highly correlated with laterality ratio of corticoreticular fibers of the medulla oblongata, indicating that LOTUS overexpression may overcome the inhibitory environment induced by NgR1 signaling for damaged motor pathway reconstruction after ischemic stroke. Thus, our data suggest that LOTUS overexpression accelerates neuronal plasticity in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord after stroke and LOTUS administration is useful for future therapeutic strategies.

  15. Transcriptome analyses of adult mouse brain reveal enrichment of lncRNAs in specific brain regions and neuronal populations

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    Beena Mary Kadakkuzha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs in regulating biological functions, the expression profiles of lncRNAs in the sub-regions of the mammalian brain and neuronal populations remain largely uncharacterized. By analyzing RNASeq datasets, we demonstrate region specific enrichment of populations of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, the two major regions of the brain involved in memory storage and neuropsychiatric disorders. We identified 2,759 lncRNAs and 17,859 mRNAs in the hippocampus and 2561 lncRNAs and 17,464 mRNAs expressed in the PFC. The lncRNAs identified correspond to ~14% of the transcriptome of the hippocampus and PFC and ~70% of the lncRNAs annotated in the mouse genome (NCBIM37 and are localized along the chromosomes as varying numbers of clusters. Importantly, we also found that few of the tested lncRNA-mRNA pairs that share a genomic locus display specific co-expression in a region-specific manner. Furthermore, we find that sub-regions of the brain and specific neuronal populations have characteristic lncRNA expression signatures. These results reveal an unexpected complexity of the lncRNA expression in the mouse brain.

  16. Neuronal Organization of Deep Brain Opsin Photoreceptors in Adult Teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chong Yee; Kitahashi, Takashi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological impacts of light beyond vision, i.e., non-visual functions of light, signify the need to better understand light detection (or photoreception) systems in vertebrates. Photopigments, which comprise light-absorbing chromophores bound to a variety of G-protein coupled receptor opsins, are responsible for visual and non-visual photoreception. Non-visual opsin photopigments in the retina of mammals and extra-retinal tissues of non-mammals play an important role in non-image-forming functions of light, e.g., biological rhythms and seasonal reproduction. This review highlights the role of opsin photoreceptors in the deep brain, which could involve conserved neurochemical systems that control different time- and light-dependent physiologies in in non-mammalian vertebrates including teleost fish. PMID:27199680

  17. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim-Messeder, Débora; Lambert, Kelly; Noctor, Stephen; Pestana, Fernanda M; de Castro Leal, Maria E; Bertelsen, Mads F; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammad, Osama B; Manger, Paul R; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion) share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans), roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal composition of carnivoran

  18. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim-Messeder, Débora; Lambert, Kelly; Noctor, Stephen; Pestana, Fernanda M.; de Castro Leal, Maria E.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammad, Osama B.; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion) share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans), roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal composition of carnivoran

  19. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  20. Non-neuronal cell responses differ between normal and Down syndrome developing brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaumi, Takeshi; Milenkovic, Ivan; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Aronica, Eleonora; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, is characterized by reduced number of neurons and delayed myelination. Though non-neuronal cells in the brain are vital for the development, survival, and function of neurons, there is a paucity of comparative studies of normal development and DS, in particular in the temporal lobe, a region of interest for cognitive decline. We evaluated immunoreactivity for CD68 (macrophage), HLA-DR (microglia), Olig2 and TPPP/p25 (oligodendroglia), and GFAP (astroglia) in the germinal matrix (GM), temporal lobe white matter (TeWM) and hippocampus from 14 weeks of gestations to newborn in 28 DS patients and 30 age-matched controls. The rate of increase of CD68 positive cells in the GM, CA1 hippocampal subregion and subiculum was significantly higher in DS. The density of Olig2 positive cells in the GM was lower in DS brains at early stages, then showed a transient increase contrasting controls. Olig2 expression increased more in the TeWM in DS, suggesting an altered pattern of oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. GFAP-immunoreactivity in DS was significantly lower in the middle pregnancy period in the TeWM and did not increase between early and middle periods in the GM compared to controls, likely reflecting a defect in astrocyte production. The altered expression of non-neuronal cell markers during normal development and DS may play a role in, or reflect, defective neurogenesis, leading to reduced number of neurons and delayed myelination in the developing DS brain. This has implications for the understanding of the mental retardation in DS patients. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A signaling network for patterning of neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Srahna

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise number and pattern of axonal connections generated during brain development regulates animal behavior. Therefore, understanding how developmental signals interact to regulate axonal extension and retraction to achieve precise neuronal connectivity is a fundamental goal of neurobiology. We investigated this question in the developing adult brain of Drosophila and find that it is regulated by crosstalk between Wnt, fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptor, and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling, but independent of neuronal activity. The Rac1 GTPase integrates a Wnt-Frizzled-Disheveled axon-stabilizing signal and a Branchless (FGF-Breathless (FGF receptor axon-retracting signal to modulate JNK activity. JNK activity is necessary and sufficient for axon extension, whereas the antagonistic Wnt and FGF signals act to balance the extension and retraction required for the generation of the precise wiring pattern.

  2. A Diffusion MRI Tractography Connectome of the Mouse Brain and Comparison with Neuronal Tracer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Cofer, Gary; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Interest in structural brain connectivity has grown with the understanding that abnormal neural connections may play a role in neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Small animal connectivity mapping techniques are particularly important for identifying aberrant connectivity in disease models. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography can provide nondestructive, 3D, brain-wide connectivity maps, but has historically been limited by low spatial resolution, low signal-to-noise ratio, and the difficulty in estimating multiple fiber orientations within a single image voxel. Small animal diffusion tractography can be substantially improved through the combination of ex vivo MRI with exogenous contrast agents, advanced diffusion acquisition and reconstruction techniques, and probabilistic fiber tracking. Here, we present a comprehensive, probabilistic tractography connectome of the mouse brain at microscopic resolution, and a comparison of these data with a neuronal tracer-based connectivity data from the Allen Brain Atlas. This work serves as a reference database for future tractography studies in the mouse brain, and demonstrates the fundamental differences between tractography and neuronal tracer data. PMID:26048951

  3. Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S A; Nottebohm, F

    1983-01-01

    The vocal control nucleus designated HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis) of adult female canaries expands in response to systemic testosterone administration, which also induces the females to sing in a male-like manner. We became interested in the possibility of neurogenesis as a potential basis for this phenomenon. Intact adult female canaries were injected with [3H]thymidine over a 2-day period. Some birds were given testosterone implants at various times before thymidine. The birds were sacrificed 5 wk after hormone implantation, and their brains were processed for autoradiography. In parallel control experiments, some birds were given implants of cholesterol instead of testosterone. All birds showed considerable numbers of labeled neurons, glia, endothelia, and ventricular zone cells in and around HVc. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the identity of these labeled neurons. Cholesterol- and testosterone-treated birds had similar neuronal labeling indices, which ranged from 1.8% to 4.0% in HVc. Thus, neurogenesis occurred in these adults independently of exogenous hormone treatment. Conversely, both glial and endothelial proliferation rates were markedly stimulated by exogenous testosterone treatment. We determined the origin of the thymidine-incorporating neurons by sacrificing two thymidine-treated females soon after their thymidine injections, precluding any significant migration of newly labeled cells. Analysis of these brains revealed no cells of neuronal morphology present in HVc but a very heavily labeled ventricular zone overlying HVc. We conclude that neuronal precursors exist in the HVc ventricular zone that incorporate tritiated thymidine during the S phase preceding their mitosis; after division these cells migrate into, and to some extent beyond, HVc. This ventricular zone neurogenesis seems to be a normally occurring phenomenon in intact adult female canaries. Images PMID:6572982

  4. Neuronal inhibition and excitation, and the dichotomic control of brain hemodynamic and oxygen responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Mathiesen, Claus; Schaefer, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Brain's electrical activity correlates strongly to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)). Subthreshold synaptic processes correlate better than the spike rates of principal neurons to CBF, CMRO(2) and positive BOLD signals. Stimulation-induced ri......Brain's electrical activity correlates strongly to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)). Subthreshold synaptic processes correlate better than the spike rates of principal neurons to CBF, CMRO(2) and positive BOLD signals. Stimulation......-induced rises in CMRO(2) are controlled by the ATP turnover, which depends on the energy used to fuel the Na,K-ATPase to reestablish ionic gradients, while stimulation-induced CBF responses to a large extent are controlled by mechanisms that depend on Ca(2+) rises in neurons and astrocytes. This dichotomy...... and release vasodilators that evoke positive BOLD signals, while the mechanisms that control negative BOLD signals by activity-dependent vasoconstriction are less well understood. Activation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons produces rises in CBF and positive BOLD signals, while negative BOLD signals...

  5. Influence of probe flexibility and gelatin embedding on neuronal density and glial responses to brain implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Köhler

    Full Text Available To develop long-term high quality communication between brain and computer, a key issue is how to reduce the adverse foreign body responses. Here, the impact of probe flexibility and gelatine embedding on long-term (6w tissue responses, was analyzed. Probes of same polymer material, size and shape, flexible mainly in one direction, were implanted in rat cerebral cortex (nimplants = 3 x 8 in two orientations with respect to the major movement direction of the brain relative to the skull: parallel to (flex mode or transverse to (rigid mode. Flex mode implants were either embedded in gelatin or non-embedded. Neurons, activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using immunohistochemistry. The astrocytic reactivity, but not microglial response, was significantly lower to probes implanted in flex mode as compared to rigid mode. The microglial response, but not astrocytic reactivity, was significantly smaller to gelatin embedded probes (flex mode than non-embedded. Interestingly, the neuronal density was preserved in the inner zone surrounding gelatin embedded probes. This contrasts to the common reports of reduced neuronal density close to implanted probes. In conclusion, sheer stress appears to be an important factor for astrocytic reactivity to implanted probes. Moreover, gelatin embedding can improve the neuronal density and reduce the microglial response close to the probe.

  6. Physiological modulators of Kv3.1 channels adjust firing patterns of auditory brain stem neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maile R.; El-Hassar, Lynda; Zhang, Yalan; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Large, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Many rapidly firing neurons, including those in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brain stem, express “high threshold” voltage-gated Kv3.1 potassium channels that activate only at positive potentials and are required for stimuli to generate rapid trains of actions potentials. We now describe the actions of two imidazolidinedione derivatives, AUT1 and AUT2, which modulate Kv3.1 channels. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing rat Kv3.1 channels, we found that lower concentrations of these compounds shift the voltage of activation of Kv3.1 currents toward negative potentials, increasing currents evoked by depolarization from typical neuronal resting potentials. Single-channel recordings also showed that AUT1 shifted the open probability of Kv3.1 to more negative potentials. Higher concentrations of AUT2 also shifted inactivation to negative potentials. The effects of lower and higher concentrations could be mimicked in numerical simulations by increasing rates of activation and inactivation respectively, with no change in intrinsic voltage dependence. In brain slice recordings of mouse MNTB neurons, both AUT1 and AUT2 modulated firing rate at high rates of stimulation, a result predicted by numerical simulations. Our results suggest that pharmaceutical modulation of Kv3.1 currents represents a novel avenue for manipulation of neuronal excitability and has the potential for therapeutic benefit in the treatment of hearing disorders. PMID:27052580

  7. Assessing Neurodegenerative Phenotypes in Drosophila Dopaminergic Neurons by Climbing Assays and Whole Brain Immunostaining

    OpenAIRE

    Barone, Maria Cecilia; Bohmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model organism to study aging and pathological degenerative processes in the nervous system. The advantages of the fly as an experimental system include its genetic tractability, short life span and the possibility to observe and quantitatively analyze complex behaviors. The expression of disease-linked genes in specific neuronal populations of the Drosophila brain, can be used to model human neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's 5.

  8. From Blood to Brain: Adult-Born Neurons in the Crayfish Brain Are the Progeny of Cells Generated by the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Beltz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New neurons continue to be born and integrated into the brains of adult decapod crustaceans. Evidence in crayfish indicates that the 1st-generation neural precursors that generate these adult-born neurons originate in the immune system and travel to the neurogenic niche via the circulatory system. These precursors are attracted to the niche, become integrated amongst niche cells, and undergo mitosis within a few days; both daughters of this division migrate away from the niche toward the brain clusters where they will divide again and differentiate into neurons. In the crustacean brain, the rate of neuronal production is highly sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT levels. These effects are lineage-dependent, as serotonin's influence is limited to late 2nd-generation neural precursors and their progeny. Experiments indicate that serotonin regulates adult neurogenesis in the crustacean brain by multiple mechanisms: via direct effects of serotonin released from brain neurons into the hemolymph or by local release onto target cells, or by indirect influences via a serotonin-mediated release of agents from other regions, such as hormones from the sinus gland and cytokines from hematopoietic tissues. Evidence in crayfish also indicates that serotonin mediates the attraction of neural precursors generated by the immune system to the neurogenic niche. Thus, studies in the crustacean brain have revealed multiple roles for this monoamine in adult neurogenesis, and identified several pathways by which serotonin influences the generation of new neurons.

  9. Caffeine protects neuronal cells against injury caused by hyperoxia in the immature brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endesfelder, Stefanie; Zaak, Irina; Weichelt, Ulrike; Bührer, Christoph; Schmitz, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Caffeine administered to preterm infants has been shown to reduce rates of cerebral palsy and cognitive delay, compared to placebo. We investigated the neuroprotective potential of caffeine for the developing brain in a neonatal rat model featuring transient systemic hyperoxia. Using 6-day-old rat pups, we found that after 24 and 48h of 80% oxygen exposure, apoptotic (TUNEL(+)) cell numbers increased in the cortex, hippocampus, and central gray matter, but not in the hippocampus or dentate gyrus. In the dentate gyrus, high oxygen exposure led to a decrease in the number of proliferating (Ki67(+)) cells and the number of Ki67(+) cells double staining for nestin (immature neurons), doublecortin (progenitors), and NeuN (mature neurons). Absolute numbers of nestin(+), doublecortin(+), and NeuN(+) cells also decreased after hyperoxia. This was mirrored in a decline of transcription factors expressed in immature neurons (Pax6, Sox2), progenitors (Tbr2), and mature neurons (Prox1, Tbr1). Administration of a single dose of caffeine (10mg/kg) before high oxygen exposure almost completely prevented these effects. Our findings suggest that caffeine exerts protection for neonatal neurons exposed to high oxygen, possibly via its antioxidant capacity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. β1 integrin signaling promotes neuronal migration along vascular scaffolds in the post-stroke brain

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    Teppei Fujioka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration. To move toward the lesion, neuroblasts form chain-like aggregates and migrate along blood vessels, which are thought to increase their migration efficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these migration processes are largely unknown. Here we studied the role of β1-class integrins, transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, in these migrating neuroblasts. We found that the neuroblast chain formation and blood vessel-guided migration critically depend on β1 integrin signaling. β1 integrin facilitated the adhesion of neuroblasts to laminin and the efficient translocation of their soma during migration. Moreover, artificial laminin-containing scaffolds promoted neuroblast chain formation and migration toward the injured area. These data suggest that laminin signaling via β1 integrin supports vasculature-guided neuronal migration to efficiently supply neuroblasts to injured areas. This study also highlights the importance of vascular scaffolds for cell migration in development and regeneration.

  11. Characterization by immunocytochemistry of ionic channels in Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity.

  12. mTOR and neuronal cell cycle reentry: How impaired brain insulin signaling promotes Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Andrés; Wallrabe, Horst; McMahon, Lloyd; Silva, Antonia; Swanson, Eric; Khan, Shahzad S; Baerthlein, Daniel; Kodis, Erin; Oddo, Salvatore; Mandell, James W; Bloom, George S

    2017-02-01

    A major obstacle to presymptomatic diagnosis and disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is inadequate understanding of molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. For example, impaired brain insulin signaling is an AD hallmark, but whether and how it might contribute to the synaptic dysfunction and neuron death that underlie memory and cognitive impairment has been mysterious. Neuron death in AD is often caused by cell cycle reentry (CCR) mediated by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) and tau, the precursors of plaques and tangles. We now report that CCR results from AβO-induced activation of the protein kinase complex, mTORC1, at the plasma membrane and mTORC1-dependent tau phosphorylation, and that CCR can be prevented by insulin-stimulated activation of lysosomal mTORC1. AβOs were also shown previously to reduce neuronal insulin signaling. Our data therefore indicate that the decreased insulin signaling provoked by AβOs unleashes their toxic potential to cause neuronal CCR, and by extension, neuron death. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroserpin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroendocrine and neuronal plasticity : functional studies in (transgenic) Xenopus intermediate pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, D.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity, i.e. the capacity of the brain to continuously adapt its structural organization to new situations, remain largely unknown. In this thesis, we explored functional aspects of two proteins that presumably play a role in neuronal plasticity,

  14. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface

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    Yoshio eSakurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain–machine interface (BMI. We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  15. Cortical neurons and networks are dormant but fully responsive during isoelectric brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg-Boussac, Tristan; Schramm, Adrien E; Ballestero, Jimena; Grosselin, Fanny; Chavez, Mario; Lecas, Sarah; Baulac, Michel; Naccache, Lionel; Demeret, Sophie; Navarro, Vincent; Mahon, Séverine; Charpier, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus. Although altered sensory responses can be occasionally observed on an isoelectric electroencephalogram, the electrical membrane properties and synaptic responses of individual neurons during this cerebral state remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intracellular correlates of a barbiturate-induced isoelectric electroencephalogram and to analyse the sensory-evoked synaptic responses that can emerge from a brain deprived of spontaneous electrical activity. We first examined the sensory responsiveness from patients suffering from intractable status epilepticus and treated by administration of thiopental. Multimodal sensory responses could be evoked on the flat electroencephalogram, including visually-evoked potentials that were significantly amplified and delayed, with a high trial-to-trial reproducibility compared to awake healthy subjects. Using an analogous pharmacological procedure to induce prolonged electro-cerebral inactivity in the rat, we could describe its cortical and subcortical intracellular counterparts. Neocortical, hippocampal and thalamo-cortical neurons were all silent during the isoelectric state and displayed a flat membrane potential significantly hyperpolarized compared with spontaneously active control states. Nonetheless, all recorded neurons could fire action potentials in response to intracellularly injected depolarizing current pulses and their specific intrinsic

  16. New neurons in aging brains: molecular control by small non-coding RNAs

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    Marijn eSchouten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a process that continues in the adult and also aging brain. It generates functional neurons from neural stem cells present in specific brain regions. This phenomenon is largely confined to two main regions: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, in the hippocampus. With age, the hippocampus and particularly the dentate gyrus are affected. For instance, adult neurogenesis is decreased with aging, in both the number of proliferating cells as well as their neuronal differentiation, while in parallel an age-associated decline in cognitive performance is often seen. Surprisingly, the synaptogenic potential of adult-born neurons appears unaffected by aging. Therefore, although proliferation, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis of adult-born new neurons in the dentate gyrus are closely related to each other, they appear differentially regulated with aging. In this review we discuss the crucial role of a novel class of recently discovered regulators of gene expression, i.e. the small non-coding RNAs, in the development of adult neurogenesis from neural stem cells to functionally integrated neurons. In particular, a subgroup of the small non-coding RNAs, the microRNAs, fine-tune many events during adult neurogenesis progression. Moreover, multiple small non-coding RNAs are differentially expressed in the aged hippocampus. This makes small non-coding RNAs appealing candidates to orchestrate, and possibly correct or prevent, the functional alterations in adult neurogenesis and cognition associated with aging. Finally, we briefly summarize observations that link changes in circulating levels of steroid hormones with alterations in adult neurogenesis and subsequent vulnerability to psychopathology in advanced age, and discuss a possible role of microRNAs in stress-associated alterations in adult neurogenesis during aging.

  17. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

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    Caron AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimee M Caron, Richard Stephenson Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs (and concussion occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons, and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%. Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%, and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%. Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. Keywords: sleep deprivation, concussion, traumatic brain injury, dark neuron, neurodegeneration, rat cortex

  18. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Jardim-Messeder; Kelly Lambert; Stephen Noctor; Fernanda M. Pestana; Maria E. de Castro Leal; Mads F. Bertelsen; Abdulaziz N. Alagaili; Osama B. Mohammad; Paul R. Manger; Suzana Herculano-Houzel; Suzana Herculano-Houzel; Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2017-01-01

    Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constr...

  19. A mutual information approach to automate identification of neuronal clusters in Drosophila brain images

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    Nicolas Yvan Masse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping neural circuits can be accomplished by labeling a small number of neural structures per brain, and then combining these structures across multiple brains. This sparse labeling method has been particularly effective in Drosophila melanogaster, where clonally related clusters of neurons derived from the same neural stem cell (neuroblast clones are functionally related and morphologically highly stereotyped across animals. However identifying these neuroblast clones (approximately 180 per central brain hemisphere manually remains challenging and time consuming. Here, we take advantage of the stereotyped nature of neural circuits in Drosophila to automatically identify clones, requiring manual annotation of only an initial, smaller set of images. Our procedure starts by filtering the images to accentuate neural projections and cell bodies, and then skeletonises the projections with a dimension reduction algorithm. Images are then registered onto a common template brain, allowing us to determine which projections and cell bodies are shared across different brains. We then determine whether the presence of a cell body or projection is associated with the presence of a clone, allowing us identify the neural structures that can reliably indicate whether a brain contains a specific clone. This enables us to detect the presence of clones in novel images by mapping their cell bodies and projections and matching them against these informative neural structures. The approach is not limited to a specific labeling strategy and can be used to identify partial (e.g. individual neurons as well as complete matches. Furthermore this approach could be generalised to studies of neural circuits in other organisms.

  20. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  1. Visualizing the distribution of synapses from individual neurons in the mouse brain.

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    Ling Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Proper function of the mammalian brain relies on the establishment of highly specific synaptic connections among billions of neurons. To understand how complex neural circuits function, it is crucial to precisely describe neuronal connectivity and the distributions of synapses to and from individual neurons.In this study, we present a new genetic synaptic labeling method that relies on expression of a presynaptic marker, synaptophysin-GFP (Syp-GFP in individual neurons in vivo. We assess the reliability of this method and use it to analyze the spatial patterning of synapses in developing and mature cerebellar granule cells (GCs. In immature GCs, Syp-GFP is distributed in both axonal and dendritic regions. Upon maturation, it becomes strongly enriched in axons. In mature GCs, we analyzed synapses along their ascending segments and parallel fibers. We observe no differences in presynaptic distribution between GCs born at different developmental time points and thus having varied depths of projections in the molecular layer. We found that the mean densities of synapses along the parallel fiber and the ascending segment above the Purkinje cell (PC layer are statistically indistinguishable, and higher than previous estimates. Interestingly, presynaptic terminals were also found in the ascending segments of GCs below and within the PC layer, with the mean densities two-fold lower than that above the PC layer. The difference in the density of synapses in these parts of the ascending segment likely reflects the regional differences in postsynaptic target cells of GCs.The ability to visualize synapses of single neurons in vivo is valuable for studying synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity within individual neurons as well as information flow in neural circuits.

  2. Opposite rheological properties of neuronal microcompartments predict axonal vulnerability in brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevesse, Thomas; Dabiri, Borna E.; Parker, Kevin Kit; Gabriele, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    Although pathological changes in axonal morphology have emerged as important features of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanical vulnerability of the axonal microcompartment relative to the cell body is not well understood. We hypothesized that soma and neurite microcompartments exhibit distinct mechanical behaviors, rendering axons more sensitive to a mechanical injury. In order to test this assumption, we combined protein micropatterns with magnetic tweezer rheology to probe the viscoelastic properties of neuronal microcompartments. Creep experiments revealed two opposite rheological behaviors within cortical neurons: the cell body was soft and characterized by a solid-like response, whereas the neurite compartment was stiffer and viscous-like. By using pharmacological agents, we demonstrated that the nucleus is responsible for the solid-like behavior and the stress-stiffening response of the soma, whereas neurofilaments have a predominant contribution in the viscous behavior of the neurite. Furthermore, we found that the neurite is a mechanosensitive compartment that becomes softer and adopts a pronounced viscous state on soft matrices. Together, these findings highlight the importance of the regionalization of mechanical and rigidity-sensing properties within neuron microcompartments in the preferential damage of axons during traumatic brain injury and into potential mechanisms of axonal outgrowth after injury.

  3. A Tyrosine-Hydroxylase Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Honey Bee Brain

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    Stevanus R. Tedjakumala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US. Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity (ir to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously. We found three main dopaminergic clusters, C1–C3, which had been previously described; the C1 cluster is located in a small region adjacent to the esophagus (ES and the antennal lobe (AL; the C2 cluster is situated above the C1 cluster, between the AL and the vertical lobe (VL of the mushroom body (MB; the C3 cluster is located below the calyces (CA of the MB. In addition, we found a novel dopaminergic cluster, C4, located above the dorsomedial border of the lobula, which innervates the visual neuropils of the bee brain. Additional smaller processes and clusters were found and are described. The profuse dopaminergic innervation of the entire bee brain and the specific connectivity of DA neurons, with visual, olfactory and gustatory circuits, provide a foundation for a deeper understanding of how these sensory modules are modulated by DA, and the DA-dependent value-based associations that occur during associative learning.

  4. The energy demand of fast neuronal network oscillations: insights from brain slice preparations

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    Oliver eKann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma range (30-100 Hz in the cerebral cortex have been implicated in higher cognitive functions such as sensual perception, working memory, and, perhaps, consciousness. However, little is known about the energy demand of gamma oscillations. This is mainly caused by technical limitations that are associated with simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity and energy metabolism in small neuronal networks and at the level of mitochondria in vivo. Thus recent studies have focused on brain slice preparations to address the energy demand of gamma oscillations in vitro. Here, reports will be summarized and discussed that combined electrophysiological recordings, oxygen sensor microelectrodes and live-cell fluorescence imaging in acutely prepared slices and organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus from both, mouse and rat. These reports consistently show that gamma oscillations can be reliably induced in hippocampal slice preparations by different pharmacological tools. They suggest that gamma oscillations are associated with high energy demand, requiring both rapid adaptation of oxidative energy metabolism and sufficient supply with oxygen and nutrients. These findings might help to explain the exceptional vulnerability of higher cognitive functions during pathological processes of the brain, such as circulatory disturbances, genetic mitochondrial diseases, and neurodegeneration.

  5. DCC Expression by Neurons Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in the Adult Brain

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    Katherine E. Horn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC and its ligand, netrin-1, regulate synaptogenesis during development, but their function in the mature central nervous system is unknown. Given that DCC promotes cell-cell adhesion, is expressed by neurons, and activates proteins that signal at synapses, we hypothesized that DCC expression by neurons regulates synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. We report that DCC is enriched in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice, and we demonstrate that selective deletion of DCC from neurons in the adult forebrain results in the loss of long-term potentiation (LTP, intact long-term depression, shorter dendritic spines, and impaired spatial and recognition memory. LTP induction requires Src activation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR function. DCC deletion severely reduced Src activation. We demonstrate that enhancing NMDAR function or activating Src rescues LTP in the absence of DCC. We conclude that DCC activation of Src is required for NMDAR-dependent LTP and certain forms of learning and memory.

  6. Analyzing topological characteristics of neuronal functional networks in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hu [School of Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Jiangsu University, Jiangsu 212003 (China); School of Computer Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, Shengtao [Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Yuqing [School of Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Jiangsu University, Jiangsu 212003 (China); Wei, Hui [School of Computer Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-08-28

    In this study, we recorded spike trains from brain cortical neurons of several behavioral rats in vivo by using multi-electrode recordings. An NFN was constructed in each trial, obtaining a total of 150 NFNs in this study. The topological characteristics of NFNs were analyzed by using the two most important characteristics of complex networks, namely, small-world structure and community structure. We found that the small-world properties exist in different NFNs constructed in this study. Modular function Q was used to determine the existence of community structure in NFNs, through which we found that community-structure characteristics, which are related to recorded spike train data sets, are more evident in the Y-maze task than in the DM-GM task. Our results can also be used to analyze further the relationship between small-world characteristics and the cognitive behavioral responses of rats. - Highlights: • We constructed the neuronal function networks based on the recorded neurons. • We analyzed the two main complex network characteristics, namely, small-world structure and community structure. • NFNs which were constructed based on the recorded neurons in this study exhibit small-world properties. • Some NFNs have community structure characteristics.

  7. Orthodenticle is necessary for survival of a cluster of clonally related dopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila larval and adult brain

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    Pandey Rahul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopaminergic (DA neurons present in the central brain of the Drosophila larva are spatially arranged in stereotyped groups that define clusters of bilaterally symmetrical neurons. These clusters have been classified according to anatomical criteria (position of the cell bodies within the cortex and/or projection pattern of the axonal tracts. However, information pertaining to the developmental biology, such as lineage relationship of clustered DA neurons and differential cell subtype-specific molecular markers and mechanisms of differentiation and/or survival, is currently not available. Results Using MARCM and twin-spot MARCM techniques together with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, we have analyzed the larval central brain DA neurons from a developmental point of view and determined their time of birth, their maturation into a DA neurotransmitter phenotype as well as their lineage relationships. In addition, we have found that the homeodomain containing transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd is present in a cluster of clonally related DA neurons in both the larval and adult brain. Taking advantage of the otd hypomorphic mutation ocelliless (oc and the oc2-Gal4 reporter line, we have studied the involvement of orthodenticle (otd in the survival and/or cell fate specification of these post-mitotic neurons. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence of the presence of seven neuroblast lineages responsible for the generation of the larval central brain DA neurons during embryogenesis. otd is expressed in a defined group of clonally related DA neurons from first instar larvae to adulthood, making it possible to establish an identity relationship between the larval DL2a and the adult PPL2 DA clusters. This poses otd as a lineage-specific and differential marker of a subset of clonally related DA neurons. Finally, we show that otd is required in those DA neurons for their survival.

  8. Regional and gender study of neuronal density in brain during aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

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    Jorge Tolivia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative processes affect men and women brains. Objective: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortex to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: Human brain tissues of different age and from both sexes, without neurological pathology and with different Braak’s stages of AD, were studied. Neuronal density was quantified using the optical dissector. Results: Our results showed the absence of a significant neuronal loss during aging in non-pathological brains in both sexes. However, we have demonstrated specific punctual significant variations in neuronal density related with the age and gender in some regions of these brains. In fact, we observed a higher neuronal density in CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of non-pathological brains of young men compared to women. During AD, we observed a negative correlation between Braak’s stages and neuronal density in hippocampus, specifically in CA1 for women and CA3 for men, and in frontal cortex for both, men and women. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in the neuronal vulnerability to degeneration which suggest the need to consider the gender of the individuals in future studies, regarding neuronal loss in aging and AD, in order to avoid problems in interpreting data.

  9. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic, crosses the blood-brain barrier and impairs iron-dependent hippocampal neuron dendrite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T W; Duck, K A; Michalopoulos, G C; Chen, M J; Liu, Z-J; Connor, J R; Lanier, L M; Sola-Visner, M C; Georgieff, M K

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Potential neurodevelopmental side effects of thrombopoietin mimetics need to be considered. The effects of eltrombopag (ELT) on neuronal iron status and dendrite development were assessed. ELT crosses the blood-brain barrier and causes iron deficiency in developing neurons. ELT blunts dendrite maturation, indicating a need for more safety studies before neonatal use. Background Thrombocytopenia is common in sick neonates. Thrombopoietin mimetics (e.g. eltrombopag [ELT]) might provide an alternative therapy for selected neonates with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia, and for infants and young children with different varieties of thrombocytopenia. However, ELT chelates intracellular iron, which may adversely affect developing organs with high metabolic requirements. Iron deficiency (ID) is particularly deleterious during brain development, impairing neuronal myelination, dopamine signaling and dendritic maturation and ultimately impairing long-term neurological function (e.g. hippocampal-dependent learning and memory). Objective To determine whether ELT crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), causes neuronal ID and impairs hippocampal neuron dendrite maturation. Methods ELT transport across the BBB was assessed using primary bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells. Embryonic mouse primary hippocampal neuron cultures were treated with ELT or deferoxamine (DFO, an iron chelator) from 7 days in vitro (DIV) through 14 DIV and assessed for gene expression and neuronal dendrite complexity. Results ELT crossed the BBB in a time-dependent manner. 2 and 6 μm ELT increased Tfr1 and Slc11a2 (iron-responsive genes involved in neuronal iron uptake) mRNA levels, indicating neuronal ID. 6 μm ELT, but not 2 μm ELT, decreased BdnfVI, Camk2a and Vamp1 mRNA levels, suggesting impaired neuronal development and synaptic function. Dendrite branch number and length were reduced in 6 μm ELT-treated neurons, resulting in blunted dendritic arbor complexity that

  10. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Selma; Khalil, Eltahir A; Khalid, Sami A; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Mohieldein, Abdlmarouf; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Farahna, Mohammed

    2013-08-29

    Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells' fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices.

  11. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake.

  12. Mouse brain distribution of a carbon-11 labeled vesamicol derivative: presynaptic marker of cholinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, M R; Jung, Y W; Haka, M S; Gildersleeve, D L; Kuhl, D E; Wieland, D M

    1990-01-01

    The regional mouse brain distribution of a new carbon-11 labeled derivative of vesamicol, [11C]-5-(N-methylamino)benzovesamicol [( 11C]MABV) is reported. Radiotracer concentrations in vivo are in the rank order of striatum greater than cortex greater than hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than cerebellum, consistent with reported distributions of other presynaptic cholinergic neuronal markers. In time course studies, striatum/cerebellum and cortex/cerebellum ratios for (-)-[11C]MABV continue to increase to values of 13 and 5, respectively, 75 min after i.v. injection of [11C]MABV. The specific binding in striatum and cortex is lowered by pretreatment with (+/-)-vesamicol, and shows stereoselectivity with lower uptake and lower ratios for the (+)-enantiomer. (-)-enantiomer. (-)-[11C]MABV is proposed as a positron-emitting radioligand for the in vivo study of presynaptic cholinergic neurons.

  13. Detectability of Neuronal Currents in Human Brain with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Howland D. T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Edward V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayer, Andrew R. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caprihan, Arvind [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gasparovic, Charles [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blagoev, Krastan B. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haaland, David M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used in a high-risk, high-payoff search for neuronal current (NC) signals in the free induction decay (FID) data from the visual cortex of human subjects during visual stimulation. If successful, this approach could make possible the detection of neuronal currents in the brain at high spatial and temporal resolution. Our initial experiments indicated the presence of a statistically significant change in the FID containing the NC relative to FIDs with the NC absent, and this signal was consistent with the presence of NC. Unfortunately, two follow-on experiments were not able to confirm or replicate the positive findings of the first experiment. However, even if the result from the first experiment were evidence of NC in the FID, it is clear that its effect is so small, that a true NC imaging experiment would not be possible with the current instrumentation and experimental protocol used here.

  14. BrainFrame: a node-level heterogeneous accelerator platform for neuron simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaragdos, Georgios; Chatzikonstantis, Georgios; Kukreja, Rahul; Sidiropoulos, Harry; Rodopoulos, Dimitrios; Sourdis, Ioannis; Al-Ars, Zaid; Kachris, Christoforos; Soudris, Dimitrios; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Strydis, Christos

    2017-12-01

    The advent of high-performance computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain studies through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC platforms can often deal with such challenges, the vast diversity of the modeling field does not permit for a homogeneous acceleration platform to effectively address the complete array of modeling requirements. In this paper we propose and build BrainFrame, a heterogeneous acceleration platform that incorporates three distinct acceleration technologies, an Intel Xeon-Phi CPU, a NVidia GP-GPU and a Maxeler Dataflow Engine. The PyNN software framework is also integrated into the platform. As a challenging proof of concept, we analyze the performance of BrainFrame on different experiment instances of a state-of-the-art neuron model, representing the inferior-olivary nucleus using a biophysically-meaningful, extended Hodgkin-Huxley representation. The model instances take into account not only the neuronal-network dimensions but also different network-connectivity densities, which can drastically affect the workload's performance characteristics. The combined use of different HPC technologies demonstrates that BrainFrame is better able to cope with the modeling diversity encountered in realistic experiments while at the same time running on significantly lower energy budgets. Our performance analysis clearly shows that the model directly affects performance and all three technologies are required to cope with all the model use cases. The BrainFrame framework is designed to transparently configure and select the appropriate back-end accelerator technology for use per simulation run. The PyNN integration provides a familiar bridge to the vast number of models already available. Additionally, it gives a clear roadmap for extending the platform support beyond the proof of concept, with improved

  15. Optimal and Local Connectivity Between Neuron and Synapse Array in the Quantum Dot/Silicon Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Assad, Christopher; Thakoor, Anikumar P.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is used to connect between synapse and neuron arrays using nanowire in quantum dot and metal in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology to enable the density of a brain-like connection in hardware. The hardware implementation combines three technologies: 1. Quantum dot and nanowire-based compact synaptic cell (50x50 sq nm) with inherently low parasitic capacitance (hence, low dynamic power approx.l0(exp -11) watts/synapse), 2. Neuron and learning circuits implemented in 50-nm CMOS technology, to be integrated with quantum dot and nanowire synapse, and 3. 3D stacking approach to achieve the overall numbers of high density O(10(exp 12)) synapses and O(10(exp 8)) neurons in the overall system. In a 1-sq cm of quantum dot layer sitting on a 50-nm CMOS layer, innovators were able to pack a 10(exp 6)-neuron and 10(exp 10)-synapse array; however, the constraint for the connection scheme is that each neuron will receive a non-identical 10(exp 4)-synapse set, including itself, via its efficacy of the connection. This is not a fully connected system where the 100x100 synapse array only has a 100-input data bus and 100-output data bus. Due to the data bus sharing, it poses a great challenge to have a complete connected system, and its constraint within the quantum dot and silicon wafer layer. For an effective connection scheme, there are three conditions to be met: 1. Local connection. 2. The nanowire should be connected locally, not globally from which it helps to maximize the data flow by sharing the same wire space location. 3. Each synapse can have an alternate summation line if needed (this option is doable based on the simple mask creation). The 10(exp 3)x10(exp 3)-neuron array was partitioned into a 10-block, 10(exp 2)x10(exp 3)-neuron array. This building block can be completely mapped within itself (10,000 synapses to a neuron).

  16. The α-Tubulin gene TUBA1A in Brain Development: A Key Ingredient in the Neuronal Isotype Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Aiken

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal polymers that mediate numerous, essential functions such as axon and dendrite growth and neuron migration throughout brain development. In recent years, sequencing has revealed dominant mutations that disrupt the tubulin protein building blocks of microtubules. These tubulin mutations lead to a spectrum of devastating brain malformations, complex neurological and physical phenotypes, and even fatality. The most common tubulin gene mutated is the α-tubulin gene TUBA1A, which is the most prevalent α-tubulin gene expressed in post-mitotic neurons. The normal role of TUBA1A during neuronal maturation, and how mutations alter its function to produce the phenotypes observed in patients, remains unclear. This review synthesizes current knowledge of TUBA1A function and expression during brain development, and the brain malformations caused by mutations in TUBA1A.

  17. The α-Tubulin gene TUBA1A in Brain Development: A Key Ingredient in the Neuronal Isotype Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Jayne; Buscaglia, Georgia; Bates, Emily A; Moore, Jeffrey K

    2017-09-01

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal polymers that mediate numerous, essential functions such as axon and dendrite growth and neuron migration throughout brain development. In recent years, sequencing has revealed dominant mutations that disrupt the tubulin protein building blocks of microtubules. These tubulin mutations lead to a spectrum of devastating brain malformations, complex neurological and physical phenotypes, and even fatality. The most common tubulin gene mutated is the α-tubulin gene TUBA1A, which is the most prevalent α-tubulin gene expressed in post-mitotic neurons. The normal role of TUBA1A during neuronal maturation, and how mutations alter its function to produce the phenotypes observed in patients, remains unclear. This review synthesizes current knowledge of TUBA1A function and expression during brain development, and the brain malformations caused by mutations in TUBA1A.

  18. Generative models of rich clubs in Hebbian neuronal networks and large-scale human brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-10-05

    Rich clubs arise when nodes that are 'rich' in connections also form an elite, densely connected 'club'. In brain networks, rich clubs incur high physical connection costs but also appear to be especially valuable to brain function. However, little is known about the selection pressures that drive their formation. Here, we take two complementary approaches to this question: firstly we show, using generative modelling, that the emergence of rich clubs in large-scale human brain networks can be driven by an economic trade-off between connection costs and a second, competing topological term. Secondly we show, using simulated neural networks, that Hebbian learning rules also drive the emergence of rich clubs at the microscopic level, and that the prominence of these features increases with learning time. These results suggest that Hebbian learning may provide a neuronal mechanism for the selection of complex features such as rich clubs. The neural networks that we investigate are explicitly Hebbian, and we argue that the topological term in our model of large-scale brain connectivity may represent an analogous connection rule. This putative link between learning and rich clubs is also consistent with predictions that integrative aspects of brain network organization are especially important for adaptive behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We recruited 8 ASD patients with quantitative MRI-validated early brain enlargement ranging from mild to macrencephaly and 5 age/ gender -matched...Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0415 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS...pathogenesis: early brain overgrowth and synaptogenesis defects. The goal of this project is to produce human cellular models of non-syndromic ASD. We used

  20. Pyruvate treatment attenuates cerebral metabolic depression and neuronal loss after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima S; Harris, Neil G; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to produce an acute increase in cerebral glucose utilization, followed rapidly by a generalized cerebral metabolic depression. The current studies determined effects of single or multiple treatments with sodium pyruvate (SP; 1000mg/kg, i.p.) or ethyl pyruvate (EP; 40mg/kg, i.p.) on cerebral glucose metabolism and neuronal injury in rats with unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In Experiment 1 a single treatment was given immediately after CCI. SP significantly improved glucose metabolism in 3 of 13 brain regions while EP improved metabolism in 7 regions compared to saline-treated controls at 24h post-injury. Both SP and EP produced equivalent and significant reductions in dead/dying neurons in cortex and hippocampus at 24h post-CCI. In Experiment 2 SP or EP were administered immediately (time 0) and at 1, 3 and 6h post-CCI. Multiple SP treatments also significantly attenuated TBI-induced reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism (in 4 brain regions) 24h post-CCI, as did multiple injections of EP (in 4 regions). The four pyruvate treatments produced significant neuroprotection in cortex and hippocampus 1day after CCI, similar to that found with a single SP or EP treatment. Thus, early administration of pyruvate compounds enhanced cerebral glucose metabolism and neuronal survival, with 40mg/kg of EP being as effective as 1000mg/kg of SP, and multiple treatments within 6h of injury did not improve upon outcomes seen following a single treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Upregulation of 3-MST Relates to Neuronal Autophagy After Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyang; Shan, Haiyan; Chang, Pan; Ma, Lu; Chu, Yang; Shen, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Zufeng; Luo, Chengliang; Wang, Tao; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2017-03-01

    3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) was a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme that may be involved in cyanide degradation and in thiosulfate biosynthesis. Over recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the biochemistry and molecular biology of H2S-synthesizing enzyme. In contrast, there have been few concerted attempts to investigate the changes in the expression of the H2S-synthesizing enzymes with disease states. To investigate the changes of 3-MST after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its possible role, mice TBI model was established by controlled cortical impact system, and the expression and cellular localization of 3-MST after TBI was investigated in the present study. Western blot analysis revealed that 3-MST was present in normal mice brain cortex. It gradually increased, reached a peak on the first day after TBI, and then reached a valley on the third day. Importantly, 3-MST was colocalized with neuron. In addition, Western blot detection showed that the first day post injury was also the autophagic peak indicated by the elevated expression of LC3. Importantly, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that injury-induced expression of 3-MST was partly colabeled by LC3. However, there was no colocalization of 3-MST with propidium iodide (cell death marker) and LC3 positive cells were partly colocalized with propidium iodide. These data suggested that 3-MST was mainly located in living neurons and may be implicated in the autophagy of neuron and involved in the pathophysiology of brain after TBI.

  2. The dynamic brain: from spiking neurons to neural masses and cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Deco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cortex is a complex system, characterized by its dynamics and architecture, which underlie many functions such as action, perception, learning, language, and cognition. Its structural architecture has been studied for more than a hundred years; however, its dynamics have been addressed much less thoroughly. In this paper, we review and integrate, in a unifying framework, a variety of computational approaches that have been used to characterize the dynamics of the cortex, as evidenced at different levels of measurement. Computational models at different space-time scales help us understand the fundamental mechanisms that underpin neural processes and relate these processes to neuroscience data. Modeling at the single neuron level is necessary because this is the level at which information is exchanged between the computing elements of the brain; the neurons. Mesoscopic models tell us how neural elements interact to yield emergent behavior at the level of microcolumns and cortical columns. Macroscopic models can inform us about whole brain dynamics and interactions between large-scale neural systems such as cortical regions, the thalamus, and brain stem. Each level of description relates uniquely to neuroscience data, from single-unit recordings, through local field potentials to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, electroencephalogram (EEG, and magnetoencephalogram (MEG. Models of the cortex can establish which types of large-scale neuronal networks can perform computations and characterize their emergent properties. Mean-field and related formulations of dynamics also play an essential and complementary role as forward models that can be inverted given empirical data. This makes dynamic models critical in integrating theory and experiments. We argue that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the

  3. When larger brains do not have more neurons: increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Messeder, Débora J.; Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Pantoja, Nilma A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease. PMID:26082686

  4. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  6. Presence of tissue transglutaminase in granular endoplasmic reticulum is characteristic of melanized neurons in Parkinson's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha M M; Verhaar, Robin; Andringa, Gerda; Bol, John G J M; Cras, Patrick; Shan, Ling; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; Drukarch, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates and degeneration of melanized neurons. The tissue transglutaminase (tTG) enzyme catalyzes molecular protein cross-linking. In PD brain, tTG-induced cross-links have been identified in α-synuclein monomers, oligomers and α-synuclein aggregates. However, whether tTG and α-synuclein occur together in PD affected neurons remains to be established. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, we observed a granular distribution pattern of tTG, characteristic of melanized neurons in PD brain. Apart from tTG, these granules were also positive for typical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperones, that is, protein disulphide isomerase, ERp57 and calreticulin, suggesting a direct link to the ER. Additionally, we observed the presence of phosphorylated pancreatic ER kinase (pPERK), a classical ER stress marker, in tTG granule positive neurons in PD brain, although no subcellular colocalization of tTG and pPERK was found. Our data therefore suggest that tTG localization to granular ER compartments is specific for stressed melanized neurons in PD brain. Moreover, as also α-synuclein aggregates were observed in tTG granule positive neurons, these results provide a clue to the cellular site of interaction between α-synuclein and tTG.

  7. Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S Onaivi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addiction and major depression are mental health problems associated with stressful events in life with high relapse and reoccurrence even after treatment. Many laboratories were not able to detect the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2-Rs in healthy brains, but there has been demonstration of CB2-R expression in rat microglial cells and other brain associated cells during inflammation. Therefore, neuronal expression of CB2-Rs had been ambiguous and controversial and its role in depression and substance abuse is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of CB2 gene might be associated with depression in a human population and that alteration in CB2 gene expression may be involved in the effects of abused substances including opiates, cocaine and ethanol in rodents. Here we demonstrate that a high incidence of (Q63R but not (H316Y polymorphism in the CB2 gene was found in Japanese depressed subjects. CB2-Rs and their gene transcripts are expressed in the brains of naïve mice and are modulated following exposure to stressors and administration of abused drugs. Mice that developed alcohol preference had reduced CB2 gene expression and chronic treatment with JWH015 a putative CB2-R agonist, enhanced alcohol consumption in stressed but not in control mice. The direct intracerebroventricular microinjection of CB2 anti-sense oligonucleotide into the mouse brain reduced mouse aversions in the plus-maze test, indicating the functional presence of CB2-Rs in the brain that modifies behavior. We report for the using electron microscopy the sub cellular localization of CB2-Rs that are mainly on post-synaptic elements in rodent brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate the functional expression of CB2-Rs in brain that may provide novel targets for the effects of cannabinoids in depression and substance abuse disorders beyond neuro-immunocannabinoid activity.

  8. Augmenting brain metabolism to increase macro- and chaperone-mediated autophagy for decreasing neuronal proteotoxicity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ben; Klionsky, Daniel J; Wong, Esther

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in the nerve cells is a hallmark of neuronal diseases and brain aging. Mechanisms to enhance neuronal surveillance to improve neuronal proteostasis have a direct impact on promoting neuronal health and forestalling age-related decline in brain function. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway pivotal for neuronal protein quality control. Different types of autophagic mechanisms participate in protein handling in neurons. Macroautophagy targets misfolded and aggregated proteins in autophagic vesicles to the lysosomes for destruction, while chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) degrades specific soluble cytosolic proteins delivered to the lysosomes by chaperones. Dysfunctions in macroautophagy and CMA contribute to proteo- and neuro-toxicity associated with neurodegeneration and aging. Thus, augmenting or preserving both autophagic mechanisms pose significant benefits in delaying physiological and pathological neuronal demises. Recently, life-style interventions that modulate metabolite ketone bodies, energy intake by caloric restriction and energy expenditure by exercise have shown to enhance both autophagy and brain health. However, to what extent these interventions affect neuronal autophagy to promote brain fitness remains largely unclear. Here, we review the functional connections of how macroautophagy and CMA are affected by ketone bodies, caloric restriction and exercise in the context of neurodegeneration. A concomitant assessment of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is performed to reveal the conserved nature of such autophagic responses to substrate perturbations. In doing so, we provide novel insights and integrated evidence for a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy to intervene in the neuronal decline in neurodegenerative diseases by controlling both macroautophagy and CMA fluxes favorably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 14-3-3 Proteins in Brain Development: Neurogenesis, Neuronal Migration and Neuromorphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cornell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved, multifunctional proteins that are highly expressed in the brain during development. Cumulatively, the seven 14-3-3 isoforms make up approximately 1% of total soluble brain protein. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated implicating the importance of the 14-3-3 protein family in the development of the nervous system, in particular cortical development, and have more recently been recognized as key regulators in a number of neurodevelopmental processes. In this review we will discuss the known roles of each 14-3-3 isoform in the development of the cortex, their relation to human neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the challenges and questions that are left to be answered. In particular, we focus on the 14-3-3 isoforms and their involvement in the three key stages of cortical development; neurogenesis and differentiation, neuronal migration and neuromorphogenesis and synaptogenesis.

  10. Glycogen metabolism in brain and neurons - astrocytes metabolic cooperation can be altered by pre- and neonatal lead (Pb) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chibowska, Karina; Goschorska, Marta; Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB). Moreover, the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was evaluated to analyze whether Pb poisoning during the early phase of life may affect the neuron-astrocytes' metabolic cooperation. This work shows for the first time that exposure to Pb in early life can impair brain energy metabolism by reducing the amount of glycogen and decreasing the rate of its metabolism. This reduction in brain glycogen level was accompanied by a decrease in Gys1 expression. We noted a reduction in the immunoreactivity and the gene expression of both PYGB and PYGM isoform, as well as an increase in the expression of PHKB in Pb-treated rats. Moreover, exposure to Pb induced decrease in connexin 43 immunoexpression in all the brain structures analyzed, both in astrocytes as well as in neurons. Our data suggests that exposure to Pb in the pre- and neonatal periods results in a decrease in the level of brain glycogen and a reduction in the rate of its metabolism, thereby reducing glucose availability, which as a further consequence may lead to the impairment of brain energy metabolism and the metabolic cooperation between neurons and astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Progesterone promotes neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in culture conditions that mimic the brain microenvironment★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianying; Wu, Honghai; Xue, Gai; Hou, Yanning

    2012-01-01

    In this study, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells from full-term neonates born by vaginal delivery were cultured in medium containing 150 mg/mL of brain tissue extracts from Sprague-Dawley rats (to mimic the brain microenvironment). Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the cells differentiated into neuron-like cells. To evaluate the effects of progesterone as a neurosteroid on the neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, we cultured the cells in medium containing progesterone (0.1, 1, 10 μM) in addition to brain tissue extracts. Reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometric analysis of neuron specific enolase-positive cells revealed that the percentages of these cells increased significantly following progesterone treatment, with the optimal progesterone concentration for neuron-like differentiation being 1 μM. These results suggest that progesterone can enhance the neuronal differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in culture medium containing brain tissue extracts to mimic the brain microenvironment. PMID:25624820

  12. EAAC1 Gene Deletion Increases Neuronal Death and Blood Brain Barrier Disruption after Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EAAC1 is important in modulating brain ischemic tolerance. Mice lacking EAAC1 exhibit increased susceptibility to neuronal oxidative stress in mice after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1 was first described as a glutamate transporter but later recognized to also function as a cysteine transporter in neurons. EAAC1-mediated transport of cysteine into neurons contributes to neuronal antioxidant function by providing cysteine substrates for glutathione synthesis. Here we evaluated the effects of EAAC1 gene deletion on hippocampal blood vessel disorganization after transient cerebral ischemia. EAAC1−/− female mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by common carotid artery occlusion for 30 min exhibited twice as much hippocampal neuronal death compared to wild-type female mice as well as increased reduction of neuronal glutathione, blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, a membrane-permeant cysteine prodrug, increased basal glutathione levels in the EAAC1−/− female mice and reduced ischemic neuronal death, BBB disruption and vessel disorganization. These findings suggest that cysteine uptake by EAAC1 is important for neuronal antioxidant function under ischemic conditions.

  13. Neurobiological study of fish brains gives insights into the nature of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1-3 neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi eKarigo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that up to three different molecular species of GnRH peptides encoded by different paralogs of gnrh genes are expressed by anatomically distinct groups of GnRH neurons in the brain of one vertebrate species. They are called gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Recent evidence from molecular, anatomical, and physiological experiments strongly suggests that each GnRH system functions differently. Here, we review recent advancement in the functional studies of the three different GnRH neuron systems, mainly focusing on the electrophysiological analysis of the GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic animals. The introduction of GFP transgenic animals for the electrophysiological analysis of GnRH neurons greatly advanced our knowledge on their anatomy and electrophysiology, especially of gnrh1 neurons, which has long defied detailed electrophysiological analysis of single neurons because of their small size and scattered distribution. Based on the results of recent studies, we propose that different electrophysiological properties, especially the spontaneous patterns of electrical activities and their time-dependent changes, and the axonal projections characterize the different functions of GnRH1-3 neurons; GnRH1 neurons act as hypophysiotropic neuroendocrine regulators, and GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons act as neuromodulators in wide areas of the brain.

  14. Neuronal over-expression of ACE2 protects brain from ischemia-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Zhao, Yuhui; Chen, Shuzhen; Wang, Jinju; Xiao, Xiang; Ma, Xiaotang; Penchikala, Madhuri; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang

    2014-04-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II exaggerates cerebral injury in ischemic damage. Angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) converts Ang II into Ang (1-7) and thus, may protect against the effects of Ang II. We hypothesized that neuronal ACE2 over-expression decreases ischemic stroke in mice with Ang II overproduction. Human renin and angiotensinogen double transgenic (RA) mice and RA mice with neuronal over-expression of ACE2 (SARA) were used for the study. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated from telemetry-recorded blood pressure (BP). SARA mice were infused peripherally with Norepinephrine to "clamp" the BP, or intracerebroventricularly-infused with a Mas receptor antagonist (A-779). Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery was performed to induce permanent focal ischemic stroke. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurological function were determined. Two days after surgery, brain samples were collected for various analyses. Results showed: 1) When compared to chronically hypertensive RA mice, SARA mice had lower basal MAP, less MCAO-induced infarct volume, and increased CBF, neurological function and cerebral microvascular density in the peri-infarct area; 2) These changes in SARA mice were not altered after MAP "clamping", but partially reversed by brain infusion of A-779; 3) Ang (1-7)/Ang II ratio, angiogenic factors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide production were increased, whereas, NADPH oxidase subunits and reactive oxygen species were decreased in the brain of SARA mice. ACE2 protects brain from ischemic injury via the regulation of NADPH oxidase/eNOS pathways by changing Ang (1-7)/Ang II ratio, independently of MAP changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  16. Mechanisms in the induction of neuronal heterotopiae following prenatal cytotoxic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Collier, P A; Ashwell, K W

    1995-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to several neuroteratogens, such as ionizing radiation, ethanol, and cytotoxic drugs, induces the development of clusters of abnormally positioned neurons within the brain. These abnormalities have always been presumed to result from interference with normal neuronal migration, presumably via effects on radial glia. In our study, pregnant rats were injected with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) on either E13, E14, or E15. Computerised reconstruction techniques, Golgi and immunocytochemical staining as well as electron microscopy were used to detect structural abnormalities of radial glia which might be responsible for the production of heterotopiae. Several structural abnormalities such as microcavitation, involvement of radial glial elements in rosettes, disturbance of the normal ventricular lining, and disruption of the attachment of radial glial endfeet to the pial surface were identified. We propose that periventricular heterotopiae result from disruption of the palisade arrangement of neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone and the involvement of radial glial elements in rosettes. Layer I heterotopiae may arise from abnormalities of the distal segments of radial glia and their attachment to the pia. No prenatal abnormalities in radial glia of the hippocampus were noted following MAM exposure at any of the 3 ages, consistent with the proposition that hippocampal heterotopiae arise by postnatal movements of pyramidal neurons without radial glial involvement.

  17. Control of Neuronal Development by T-Box Genes in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, A B; Hevner, R F

    2017-01-01

    T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons. At each stage, Tbr2 and Tbr1 regulate laminar and regional identity of cortical projection neurons, cell migration, and axon guidance. In the OB, Tbr1 subfamily genes regulate neurogenesis of mitral and tufted cells, and glutamatergic juxtaglomerular interneurons. Tbr2 is also prominent in the development of retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming pathways. Other regions that require Tbr2 or Tbr1 in development or adulthood include the cerebellum and adult dentate gyrus. In humans, de novo mutations in TBR1 are important causes of sporadic autism and intellectual disability. Further studies of T-box transcription factors will enhance our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders and inform approaches to new therapies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal neuronal activity in Tourette syndrome and its modulation using deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Michal; Loewenstern, Yocheved

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common childhood-onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics that are typically accompanied by a multitude of comorbid symptoms. Pharmacological treatment options are limited, which has led to the exploration of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a possible treatment for severe cases. Multiple lines of evidence have linked TS with abnormalities in the motor and limbic cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) pathways. Neurophysiological data have only recently started to slowly accumulate from multiple sources: noninvasive imaging and electrophysiological techniques, invasive electrophysiological recordings in TS patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery, and animal models of the disorder. These converging sources point to system-level physiological changes throughout the CBG pathway, including both general altered baseline neuronal activity patterns and specific tic-related activity. DBS has been applied to different regions along the motor and limbic pathways, primarily to the globus pallidus internus, thalamic nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. In line with the findings that also draw on the more abundant application of DBS to Parkinson's disease, this stimulation is assumed to result in changes in the neuronal firing patterns and the passage of information through the stimulated nuclei. We present an overview of recent experimental findings on abnormal neuronal activity associated with TS and the changes in this activity following DBS. These findings are then discussed in the context of current models of CBG function in the normal state, during TS, and finally in the wider context of DBS in CBG-related disorders. PMID:25925326

  19. Synergy between growth factors and transmitters required for catecholamine differentiation in brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1995-07-01

    The phenotypically plastic neurons of the embryonic mouse striatum were used to explore mechanisms of catecholamine differentiation in culture. De novo transcription and translation of the CA biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was induced in striatal neurons exposed, simultaneously or sequentially, to the growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a catecholamine. Although dopamine was the most potent aFGF partner (ED50 = 4 microM), a number of substances, including dopamine (D1) receptor agonists, beta-adrenoceptor agonists, and dopamine uptake inhibitors also trigger TH induction when accompanied by aFGF. However, since none of the receptor antagonists nor transport blockers tested could inhibit dopamine's action, the mechanism remains obscure. Structure-activity analysis suggests that effective aFGF partners all contain an amine group separated from a catechol nucleus by two carbons. Thus, TH expression can be novelly induced by the synergistic interaction of aFGF, and to a lesser extent basic FGF, and a variety of CA-containing partner molecules. We speculate that a similar association between growth factor and transmitter may be required in development for the differentiation of a CA phenotype in brain neurons.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  1. High LRRK2 levels fail to induce or exacerbate neuronal alpha-synucleinopathy in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Herzig

    Full Text Available The G2019S mutation in the multidomain protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 is one of the most frequently identified genetic causes of Parkinson's disease (PD. Clinically, LRRK2(G2019S carriers with PD and idiopathic PD patients have a very similar disease with brainstem and cortical Lewy pathology (α-synucleinopathy as histopathological hallmarks. Some patients have Tau pathology. Enhanced kinase function of the LRRK2(G2019S mutant protein is a prime suspect mechanism for carriers to develop PD but observations in LRRK2 knock-out, G2019S knock-in and kinase-dead mutant mice suggest that LRRK2 steady-state abundance of the protein also plays a determining role. One critical question concerning the molecular pathogenesis in LRRK2(G2019S PD patients is whether α-synuclein (aSN has a contributory role. To this end we generated mice with high expression of either wildtype or G2019S mutant LRRK2 in brainstem and cortical neurons. High levels of these LRRK2 variants left endogenous aSN and Tau levels unaltered and did not exacerbate or otherwise modify α-synucleinopathy in mice that co-expressed high levels of LRRK2 and aSN in brain neurons. On the contrary, in some lines high LRRK2 levels improved motor skills in the presence and absence of aSN-transgene-induced disease. Therefore, in many neurons high LRRK2 levels are well tolerated and not sufficient to drive or exacerbate neuronal α-synucleinopathy.

  2. Human Brain Networks: Spiking Neuron Models, Multistability, Synchronization, Thermodynamics, Maximum Entropy Production, and Anesthetic Cascade Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2014-07-01

    theoretical foundation for general anesthesia using the network properties of the brain. Finally, we present some key emergent properties from the fields of thermodynamics and electromagnetic field theory to qualitatively explain the underlying neuronal mechanisms of action for anesthesia and consciousness.

  3. Neural correlates of olfactory learning paradigms in an identified neuron in the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauelshagen, J

    1993-02-01

    1. Sensitization and classical odor conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex were functionally analyzed by repeated intracellular recordings from a single identified neuron (PE1-neuron) in the central bee brain. This neuron belongs to the class of "extrinsic cells" arising from the pedunculus of the mushroom bodies and has extensive arborizations in the median and lateral protocerebrum. The recordings were performed on isolated bee heads. 2. Two different series of physiological experiments were carried out with the use of a similar temporal succession of stimuli as in previous behavioral experiments. In the first series, one group of animals was used for a single conditioning trial [conditioned stimulus (CS), carnation; unconditioned stimulus (US), sucrose solution to the antennae and proboscis), a second group was used for sensitization (sensitizing stimulus, sucrose solution to the antennae and/or proboscis), and the third group served as control (no sucrose stimulation). In the second series, a differential conditioning paradigm (paired odor CS+, carnation; unpaired odor CS-, orange blossom) was applied to test the associative nature of the conditioning effect. 3. The PE1-neuron showed a characteristic burstlike odor response before the training procedures. The treatments resulted in different spike-frequency modulations of this response, which were specific for the nonassociative and associative stimulus paradigms applied. During differential conditioning, there are dynamic up and down modulations of spike frequencies and of the DC potentials underlying the responses to the CS+. Overall, only transient changes in the minute range were observed. 4. The results of the sensitization procedures suggest two qualitatively different US pathways. The comparison between sensitization and one-trial conditioning shows differential effects of nonassociative and associative stimulus paradigms on the response behavior of the PE1-neuron. The results of the differential

  4. Electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories of three types of inspiratory neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1996-01-01

    with the aim of extending the classification of inspiratory neurons to include analysis of active membrane properties. 2. The slice generated a regular rhythmic motor output recorded as burst of action potentials on a XII nerve root with a peak to peak time of 11.5 +/- 3.4 s and a duration of 483 +/- 54 ms......1. The electrophysiological properties of inspiratory neurons were studied in a rhythmically active thick-slice preparation of the newborn mouse brain stem maintained in vitro. Whole cell patch recordings were performed from 60 inspiratory neurons within the rostral ventrolateral part of the slice...... (means +/- SD, n = 50). Based on the electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories throughout the respiratory cycle, three types of inspiratory neurons could be distinguished. 3. Type-1 neurons were spiking in the interval between the inspiratory potentials (n = 9) or silent...

  5. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Kukoamine a against Radiation-induced Rat Brain Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Cheng, Zhihua; Wang, Changli; Ma, Hongda; Meng, Weihong; Zhao, Qingchun

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a prominent side effect of radiotherapy for cranial tumors. Kukoamine A (KuA) has the ability of anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether KuA would prevent the detrimental effect of ionizing radiation on hippocampal neurons. For this study, male Wistar rats were received either sham irradiation or whole brain irradiation (30 Gy single dose of X-rays) followed by the immediate injection of either KuA or vehicle intravenously. The dose of KuA was 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively. The protective effects of KuA were assessed by Nissl staining. The levels of oxidative stress marker and antioxidants activities were assayed by kits. TUNEL staining was performed to detect the level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins as well as the brain-derived neurophic factor (BDNF) was evaluated by western blot. Whole brain irradiation led to the neuronal abnormality and it was alleviated by KuA. KuA decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome C, Bax and Bcl-2. Additionally, KuA increased the expression of BDNF. These data indicate that KuA has neuroprotective effects against RIBI through inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  7. Neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria sensitive to polarized light at low stimulus elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome Beetz, M; Pfeiffer, Keram; Homberg, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) sense the plane of dorsally presented polarized light through specialized dorsal eye regions that are likely adapted to exploit the polarization pattern of the blue sky for spatial orientation. Receptive fields of these dorsal rim photoreceptors and polarization-sensitive interneurons are directed toward the upper sky but may extend to elevations below 30°. Behavioral data, however, suggests that S. gregaria is even able to detect polarized light from ventral directions but physiological evidence for this is still lacking. In this study we characterized neurons in the locust brain showing polarization sensitivity at low elevations down to the horizon. In most neurons polarization sensitivity was absent or weak when stimulating from the zenith. All neurons, including projection and commissural neurons of the optic lobe and local interneurons of the central brain, are novel cell types, distinct from polarization-sensitive neurons studied so far. Painting dorsal rim areas in both eyes black to block visual input had no effect on the polarization sensitivity of these neurons, suggesting that they receive polarized light input from the main eye. A possible role of these neurons in flight stabilization or the perception of polarized light reflected from bodies of water or vegetation is discussed.

  8. An isogenic blood-brain barrier model comprising brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Scott G; Stebbins, Matthew J; Morales, Bethsymarie Soto; Asai, Shusaku W; Vatine, Gad D; Svendsen, Clive N; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2017-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical in maintaining a physical and metabolic barrier between the blood and the brain. The BBB consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that line the brain vasculature and combine with astrocytes, neurons and pericytes to form the neurovascular unit. We hypothesized that astrocytes and neurons generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could induce BBB phenotypes in iPSC-derived BMECs, creating a robust multicellular human BBB model. To this end, iPSCs were used to form neural progenitor-like EZ-spheres, which were in turn differentiated to neurons and astrocytes, enabling facile neural cell generation. The iPSC-derived astrocytes and neurons induced barrier tightening in primary rat BMECs indicating their BBB inductive capacity. When co-cultured with human iPSC-derived BMECs, the iPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes significantly elevated trans-endothelial electrical resistance, reduced passive permeability, and improved tight junction continuity in the BMEC cell population, while p-glycoprotein efflux transporter activity was unchanged. A physiologically relevant neural cell mixture of one neuron: three astrocytes yielded optimal BMEC induction properties. Finally, an isogenic multicellular BBB model was successfully demonstrated employing BMECs, astrocytes, and neurons from the same donor iPSC source. It is anticipated that such an isogenic facsimile of the human BBB could have applications in furthering understanding the cellular interplay of the neurovascular unit in both healthy and diseased humans. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 843. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. MHC class I protein is expressed by neurons and neural progenitors in mid-gestation mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Marcelo A; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) are known for their role in the vertebrate adaptive immune response, and are required for normal postnatal brain development and plasticity. However, it remains unknown if MHCI proteins are present in the mammalian brain before birth. Here, we show that MHCI proteins are widely expressed in the developing mouse central nervous system at mid-gestation (E9.5-10.5). MHCI is strongly expressed in several regions of the prenatal brain, including the neuroepithelium and olfactory placode. MHCI is expressed by neural progenitors at these ages, as identified by co-expression in cells positive for neuron-specific class III β-tubulin (Tuj1) or for Pax6, a marker of neural progenitors in the dorsal neuroepithelium. MHCI is also co-expressed with nestin, a marker of neural stem/progenitor cells, in olfactory placode, but the co-localization is less extensive in other regions. MHCI is detected in the small population of post-mitotic neurons that are present at this early stage of brain development, as identified by co-expression in cells positive for neuronal microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2). Thus MHCI protein is expressed during the earliest stages of neuronal differentiation in the mammalian brain. MHCI expression in neurons and neural progenitors at mid-gestation, prior to the maturation of the adaptive immune system, is consistent with MHCI performing non-immune functions in prenatal brain development. These results raise the possibility that disruption of the levels and/or patterns of MHCI expression in the prenatal brain could contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Upper motor neuron and extra-motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A clinical and brain imaging review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, M. M.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; Baas, F.; de Visser, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion whether ALS is primarily a disease of upper motor neurons or lower motor neurons. We undertook a review to assess how new insights have contributed to solve this controversy. For this purpose we selected relevant publications from 1995 onwards focussing on (1) primary

  11. Neuronal LRP1 regulates glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Jin; Tsai, Chih-Wei; Yue, Mei; Melrose, Heather L; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2015-04-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by profound memory loss and progressive dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, significantly increases the risk for developing AD. Whereas amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are major histological hallmarks of AD, impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism precedes these pathological changes during the early stage of AD and likely triggers or exacerbates AD pathology. However, the mechanisms linking disturbed insulin signaling/glucose metabolism and AD pathogenesis remain unclear. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a major apolipoprotein E receptor, plays critical roles in lipoprotein metabolism, synaptic maintenance, and clearance of Aβ in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that LRP1 interacts with the insulin receptor β in the brain and regulates insulin signaling and glucose uptake. LRP1 deficiency in neurons leads to impaired insulin signaling as well as reduced levels of glucose transporters GLUT3 and GLUT4. Consequently, glucose uptake is reduced. By using an in vivo microdialysis technique sampling brain glucose concentration in freely moving mice, we further show that LRP1 deficiency in conditional knock-out mice resulted in glucose intolerance in the brain. We also found that hyperglycemia suppresses LRP1 expression, which further exacerbates insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and AD pathology. As loss of LRP1 expression is seen in AD brains, our study provides novel insights into insulin resistance in AD. Our work also establishes new targets that can be explored for AD prevention or therapy. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355851-09$15.00/0.

  12. Brain Region Specific Degeneration with Disease Progression in Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (CLN2 Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, JP; Sondhi, D; Voss, HU; Yohay, K; Hollmann, C; Mancenido, D; Kaminsky, SM; Heier, LA; Rudser, KD; Kosofsky, B; Casey, BJ; Crystal, RG; Ballon, D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease) is a uniformly fatal lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations in the CLN2 gene. Our hypothesis was that regional analysis of cortical brain degeneration may identify brain regions that are affected earliest as well as most severely by the disease. Materials and Methods Fifty-two high resolution 3.0 Tesla MRI data sets were prospectively acquired on thirty-eight subjects with CLN2. A retrospective cohort of fifty-two disease free children served as a control population. The FreeSurfer software suite was used for calculation of cortical thickness. Results An increased rate of global cortical thinning in CLN2 versus control subjects was the primary finding in this study. Three distinct patterns were observed across brain regions. In the first, CLN2 subjects exhibited differing rates of cortical thinning versus age. This was true in 22 and 26 of 34 regions in the left and right hemisphere respectively, and was also clearly discernable when considering brain lobes as a whole and Brodmann’s regions. The second pattern exhibited a difference in thickness from normal controls but with no discernable change with age (9 left hemisphere; 5 right hemisphere). In the third pattern there was no difference in either the rate of cortical thinning or the mean cortical thickness between groups (3 left hemisphere; 3 right hemisphere). Conclusions This study demonstrates that CLN2 causes differential rates of degeneration across the brain. Anatomical and functional regions that degenerate sooner and more severely than others compared to normal controls may offer targets for directed therapies. The information gained may also provide neurobiological insights regarding the mechanisms underlying disease progression. PMID:26822727

  13. BrainFrame: a node-level heterogeneous accelerator platform for neuron simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaragdos, Georgios; Chatzikonstantis, Georgios; Kukreja, Rahul; Sidiropoulos, Harry; Rodopoulos, Dimitrios; Sourdis, Ioannis; Al-Ars, Zaid; Kachris, Christoforos; Soudris, Dimitrios; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Strydis, Christos

    2017-12-01

    Objective. The advent of high-performance computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain studies through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC platforms can often deal with such challenges, the vast diversity of the modeling field does not permit for a homogeneous acceleration platform to effectively address the complete array of modeling requirements. Approach. In this paper we propose and build BrainFrame, a heterogeneous acceleration platform that incorporates three distinct acceleration technologies, an Intel Xeon-Phi CPU, a NVidia GP-GPU and a Maxeler Dataflow Engine. The PyNN software framework is also integrated into the platform. As a challenging proof of concept, we analyze the performance of BrainFrame on different experiment instances of a state-of-the-art neuron model, representing the inferior-olivary nucleus using a biophysically-meaningful, extended Hodgkin–Huxley representation. The model instances take into account not only the neuronal-network dimensions but also different network-connectivity densities, which can drastically affect the workload’s performance characteristics. Main results. The combined use of different HPC technologies demonstrates that BrainFrame is better able to cope with the modeling diversity encountered in realistic experiments while at the same time running on significantly lower energy budgets. Our performance analysis clearly shows that the model directly affects performance and all three technologies are required to cope with all the model use cases. Significance. The BrainFrame framework is designed to transparently configure and select the appropriate back-end accelerator technology for use per simulation run. The PyNN integration provides a familiar bridge to the vast number of models already available. Additionally, it gives a clear roadmap for extending the platform

  14. Tetanus toxin modulates serotonin transport in rat-brain neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, P; Gil, C; Najib, A; Sarri, E; Picatoste, F; Aguilera, J

    2001-12-01

    As has been previously described, tetanus toxin (TeTx) and its H(C) fragment inhibit the sodium-dependent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake in rat-brain synaptosomes, probably through a kinase mechanism affecting the 5-HT transporter. Now, the inhibition of 5-HT uptake in neurons in primary culture by TeTx in a dose-dependent manner is described in this work. This effect is also produced by the nontoxic C-terminal fragment of the TeTx heavy chain (H(C)-fragment), indicating that 5-HT uptake inhibition is a consequence of the toxin binding to the plasmatic membrane and not to its catalytic activity. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the 5-HT accumulation was not inhibited by the light chain of TeTx or the toxoid, and was even potentiated by botulinum neurotoxin A. These results correlate with the activation of phosphoinositide-phospholipase C activity in the cultures used in this study, this activity only being enhanced by TeTx and by its Hc-fragment. On the other hand, the use of tyrosine phosphorylation modulators indicates that both Na3VO4 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) produce an enhancement of 5-HT uptake in this system, which is also sensitive to TeTx inhibition. On the other hand, genistein alone is able to reduce the 5-HT transport in cultured neurons, and this effect did not appear to be additive to that elicited by TeTx. This result suggests that TeTx and genistein may share some events in their respective mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the incubation at different concentrations of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) confirms the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in 5-HT transport modulation in rat-brain neuronal primary cultures. In summary, we shall demonstrate in this work that TeTx induces, through its Hc fragment, an inhibition of both basal and stimulated serotonin uptakes in primary neuronal cultures, in parallel to the activation of phosphoinositide-phospholipase C activity and PKC activation.

  15. Optimal control of directional deep brain stimulation in the parkinsonian neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qingyun

    2016-07-01

    The effect of conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) on debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be limited because it can only yield the spherical field. And, some side effects are clearly induced with influencing their adjacent ganglia. Recent experimental evidence for patients with Parkinson's disease has shown that a novel DBS electrode with 32 independent stimulation source contacts can effectively optimize the clinical therapy by enlarging the therapeutic windows, when it is applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is due to the selective activation in clusters of various stimulation contacts which can be steered directionally and accurately on the targeted regions of interest. In addition, because of the serious damage to the neural tissues, the charge-unbalanced stimulation is not typically indicated and the real DBS utilizes charge-balanced bi-phasic (CBBP) pulses. Inspired by this, we computationally investigate the optimal control of directional CBBP-DBS from the proposed parkinsonian neuronal network of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. By appropriately tuning stimulation for different neuronal populations, it can be found that directional steering CBBP-DBS paradigms are superior to the spherical case in improving parkinsonian dynamical properties including the synchronization of neuronal populations and the reliability of thalamus relaying the information from cortex, which is in a good agreement with the physiological experiments. Furthermore, it can be found that directional steering stimulations can increase the optimal stimulation intensity of desynchronization by more than 1 mA compared to the spherical case. This is consistent with the experimental result with showing that there exists at least one steering direction that can allow increasing the threshold of side effects by 1 mA. In addition, we also simulate the local field potential (LFP) and dominant frequency (DF) of the STN neuronal population induced by the activation

  16. Microglia under psychosocial stressors along the aging trajectory: Consequences on neuronal circuits, behavior, and brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Hui, Chin Wai; Bisht, Kanchan; Tan, Yunlong; Sharma, Kaushik; Chen, Song; Zhang, Xiangyang; Tremblay, Marie-Eve

    2017-10-03

    Mounting evidence indicates the importance of microglia for proper brain development and function, as well as in complex stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline along the aging trajectory. Considering that microglia are resident immune cells of the brain, a homeostatic maintenance of their effector functions that impact neuronal circuitry, such as phagocytosis and secretion of inflammatory factors, is critical to prevent the onset and progression of these pathological conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which microglial functions can be properly regulated under healthy and pathological conditions are still largely unknown. We aim to summarize recent progress regarding the effects of psychosocial stress and oxidative stress on microglial phenotypes, leading to neuroinflammation and impaired microglia-synapse interactions, notably through our own studies of inbred mouse strains, and most importantly, to discuss about promising therapeutic strategies that take advantage of microglial functions to tackle such brain disorders in the context of adult psychosocial stress or aging-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organotins in Neuronal Damage, Brain Function, and Behavior: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ferraz da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants have shown significant effects on brain function and behavior in different experimental models. The endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC present various classes of pollutants with potential neurotoxic actions, such as organotins (OTs. OTs have received special attention due to their toxic effects on the central nervous system, leading to abnormal mammalian neuroendocrine axis function. OTs are organometallic pollutants with a tin atom bound to one or more carbon atoms. OT exposure may occur through the food chain and/or contaminated water, since they have multiple applications in industry and agriculture. In addition, OTs have been used with few legal restrictions in the last decades, despite being highly toxic. In addition to their action as EDC, OTs can also cross the blood–brain barrier and show relevant neurotoxic effects, as observed in several animal model studies specifically involving the development of neurodegenerative processes, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this short review is to summarize the toxic effects of the most common OT compounds, such as trimethyltin, tributyltin, triethyltin, and triphenyltin, on the brain with a focus on neuronal damage as a result of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. We also aim to present evidence for the disruption of behavioral functions, neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine pathways caused by OTs.

  18. Inflammatory responses are not sufficient to cause delayed neuronal death in ATP-induced acute brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey-Kyeong Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutely caused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH(+ and Iba-1(+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1(+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (∼80% of that in the contralateral side did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. CONCLUSIONS: Different cellular

  19. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  20. DPP4-inhibitor improves neuronal insulin receptor function, brain mitochondrial function and cognitive function in rats with insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Pintana, Hiranya; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2013-03-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been demonstrated to cause peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, and brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Although the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, is known to improve peripheral insulin sensitivity, its effects on neuronal insulin resistance and brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by a HFD are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that vildagliptin prevents neuronal insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, learning and memory deficit caused by HFD. Male rats were divided into two groups to receive either a HFD or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks, after which rats in each group were fed with either vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 21 days. The cognitive function was tested by the Morris Water Maze prior to brain removal for studying neuronal insulin receptor (IR) and brain mitochondrial function. In HFD rats, neuronal insulin resistance and brain mitochondrial dysfunction were demonstrated, with impaired learning and memory. Vildagliptin prevented neuronal insulin resistance by restoring insulin-induced long-term depression and neuronal IR phosphorylation, IRS-1 phosphorylation and Akt/PKB-ser phosphorylation. It also improved brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive function. Vildagliptin effectively restored neuronal IR function, increased glucagon-like-peptide 1 levels and prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction, thus attenuating the impaired cognitive function caused by HFD. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for axonal growth of selective groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guey-Ying; Bouyer, Karine; Kamitakahara, Anna; Sahibzada, Niaz; Wang, Chien-Hua; Rutlin, Michael; Simerly, Richard B; Xu, Baoji

    2015-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development, and the Bdnf gene produces two populations of transcripts with either a short or long 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Deficiencies in BDNF signaling have been shown to cause severe obesity in humans; however, it remains unknown how BDNF signaling impacts the organization of neuronal circuits that control energy balance. We examined the role of BDNF on survival, axonal projections, and synaptic inputs of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), a structure critical for the control of energy balance, using Bdnf (klox/klox) mice, which lack long 3' UTR Bdnf mRNA and develop severe hyperphagic obesity. We found that a small fraction of neurons that express the receptor for BDNF, TrkB, also expressed proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the ARH. Bdnf(klox/klox) mice had normal numbers of POMC, NPY, and TrkB neurons in the ARH; however, retrograde labeling revealed a drastic reduction in the number of ARH axons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in these mice. In addition, fewer POMC and AgRP axons were found in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and the lateral part of PVH, respectively, in Bdnf (klox/klox) mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the impact of BDNF deficiency on inputs to ARH neurons. We found that excitatory inputs onto POMC and NPY neurons were increased and decreased, respectively, in Bdnf (klox/klox) mice, likely due to a compensatory response to marked hyperphagia displayed by the mutant mice. This study shows that the majority of TrkB neurons in the ARH are distinct from known neuronal populations and that BDNF plays a critical role in directing projections from these neurons to the DMH and PVH. We propose that hyperphagic obesity due to BDNF deficiency is in part attributable to impaired axonal growth of TrkB-expressing ARH neurons.

  2. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes are coupled with distinct signal-transduction mechanisms in neurons and astrocytes from rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumners, C.; Wei Tang; Zelezna, B.; Raizada, M.K. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Both neurons and astrocytes contain specific receptors for angiotensin II (AII). The authors used selective ligands for the AT{sub 1} and AT{sub 2} types of AII receptors to investigate the expression of functional receptor subtypes in astrocyte cultures and neuron cultures from 1-day-old (neonatal) rat brain. In astrocyte cultures, competition of {sup 125}I-labeled AII ({sup 125}I-AII) specific binding with AT{sub 1} (DuP753) or AT{sub 2} {l brace}PD123177, CGP42112A, (Phe(p-NH{sub 2}){sup 6})AII{r brace} selective receptor ligands revealed a potency series of AII > DuP753 > > > CGP42112A > (Phe(p-NH{sub 2}){sup 6})AII > PD123177. These results suggest a predominance of the AT{sub 1} receptor subtype in neonatal astrocytes. {sup 125}I-AII specific binding to neonate neuronal cultures was reduced 73-84% by 1 {mu} MPD123177, and the residual {sup 125}I-AII specific binding was eliminated by DuP753. The results suggest that astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat brains contain predominantly AT{sub 1} receptors that are coupled to a stimulation of inositophospholipid hydrolysis. In contrast, neuron cultures from neonatal rat brain contain mostly AT{sub 2} receptors that are coupled to a reduction in basal cGMP levels, but a smaller population of AT{sub 1} receptors is also present in these neurons.

  3. BDNF and its pro-peptide are stored in presynaptic dense core vesicles in brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Sandra; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Dekkers, Martijn; Rauskolb, Stefanie; Ionescu, Mihai S; Deogracias, Ruben; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Kojima, Masami; Nestel, Sigrun; Frotscher, Michael; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2012-03-19

    Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates numerous and complex biological processes including memory retention, its extremely low levels in the mature central nervous system have greatly complicated attempts to reliably localize it. Using rigorous specificity controls, we found that antibodies reacting either with BDNF or its pro-peptide both stained large dense core vesicles in excitatory presynaptic terminals of the adult mouse hippocampus. Both moieties were ~10-fold more abundant than pro-BDNF. The lack of postsynaptic localization was confirmed in Bassoon mutants, a seizure-prone mouse line exhibiting markedly elevated levels of BDNF. These findings challenge previous conclusions based on work with cultured neurons, which suggested activity-dependent dendritic synthesis and release of BDNF. They instead provide an ultrastructural basis for an anterograde mode of action of BDNF, contrasting with the long-established retrograde model derived from experiments with nerve growth factor in the peripheral nervous system.

  4. Brain without mind: Computer simulation of neural networks with modifiable neuronal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John W.; Rafelski, Johann; Winston, Jeffrey V.

    1985-07-01

    Aspects of brain function are examined in terms of a nonlinear dynamical system of highly interconnected neuron-like binary decision elements. The model neurons operate synchronously in discrete time, according to deterministic or probabilistic equations of motion. Plasticity of the nervous system, which underlies such cognitive collective phenomena as adaptive development, learning, and memory, is represented by temporal modification of interneuronal connection strengths depending on momentary or recent neural activity. A formal basis is presented for the construction of local plasticity algorithms, or connection-modification routines, spanning a large class. To build an intuitive understanding of the behavior of discrete-time network models, extensive computer simulations have been carried out (a) for nets with fixed, quasirandom connectivity and (b) for nets with connections that evolve under one or another choice of plasticity algorithm. From the former experiments, insights are gained concerning the spontaneous emergence of order in the form of cyclic modes of neuronal activity. In the course of the latter experiments, a simple plasticity routine (“brainwashing,” or “anti-learning”) was identified which, applied to nets with initially quasirandom connectivity, creates model networks which provide more felicitous starting points for computer experiments on the engramming of content-addressable memories and on learning more generally. The potential relevance of this algorithm to developmental neurobiology and to sleep states is discussed. The model considered is at the same time a synthesis of earlier synchronous neural-network models and an elaboration upon them; accordingly, the present article offers both a focused review of the dynamical properties of such systems and a selection of new findings derived from computer simulation.

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor represses brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in neuron-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Lombès, Marc; Le Menuet, Damien

    2017-04-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in many functions such as neuronal growth, survival, synaptic plasticity and memorization. Altered expression levels are associated with many pathological situations such as depression, epilepsy, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is also crucial for neuron functions, via binding of glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). GR actions largely overlap those of BDNF. It has been proposed that GR could be a regulator of BDNF expression, however the molecular mechanisms involved have not been clearly defined yet. Herein, we analyzed the effect of a GC agonist dexamethasone (DEX) on BDNF expression in mouse neuronal primary cultures and in the newly characterized, mouse hippocampal BZ cell line established by targeted oncogenesis. Mouse Bdnf gene exhibits a complex genomic structure with 8 untranslated exons (I to VIII) splicing onto one common and unique coding exon IX. We found that DEX significantly downregulated total BDNF mRNA expression by around 30%. Expression of the highly expressed exon IV and VI containing transcripts was also reduced by DEX. The GR antagonist RU486 abolished this effect, which is consistent with specific GR-mediated action. Transient transfection assays allowed us to define a short 275 bp region within exon IV promoter responsible for GR-mediated Bdnf repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated GR recruitment onto this fragment, through unidentified transcription factor tethering. Altogether, GR downregulates Bdnf expression through direct binding to Bdnf regulatory sequences. These findings bring new insights into the crosstalk between GR and BDNF signaling pathways both playing a major role in physiology and pathology of the central nervous system.

  6. Abnormal neuronal activity in Tourette syndrome and its modulation using deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Michal; Loewenstern, Yocheved; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2015-07-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common childhood-onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics that are typically accompanied by a multitude of comorbid symptoms. Pharmacological treatment options are limited, which has led to the exploration of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a possible treatment for severe cases. Multiple lines of evidence have linked TS with abnormalities in the motor and limbic cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) pathways. Neurophysiological data have only recently started to slowly accumulate from multiple sources: noninvasive imaging and electrophysiological techniques, invasive electrophysiological recordings in TS patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery, and animal models of the disorder. These converging sources point to system-level physiological changes throughout the CBG pathway, including both general altered baseline neuronal activity patterns and specific tic-related activity. DBS has been applied to different regions along the motor and limbic pathways, primarily to the globus pallidus internus, thalamic nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. In line with the findings that also draw on the more abundant application of DBS to Parkinson's disease, this stimulation is assumed to result in changes in the neuronal firing patterns and the passage of information through the stimulated nuclei. We present an overview of recent experimental findings on abnormal neuronal activity associated with TS and the changes in this activity following DBS. These findings are then discussed in the context of current models of CBG function in the normal state, during TS, and finally in the wider context of DBS in CBG-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Correlation of Nr4a2 expression with the neuron progenitors in adult zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Luo, Guang Rui; Li, Ting; Liu, Ting Xi; Le, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study showed that although Nr4a2b transcripts have little co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the posterior tuberculum area, knockdown of Nr4a2 caused a decrease in the number of TH-positive (TH(+)) neurons in the posterior tuberculum area. It suggests that Nr4a2 expression in the progenitors may play an important role in regulating differentiation rather than survival of TH(+) progenitors in the posterior tuberculum area during early zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we determined the correlation between TH and Nr4a2 in adult zebrafish brain and found that Nr4a2b was co-localized with the spindle-shaped TH(+) cells in the posterior tuberculum area and some small round TH(+) cells in the pretectum area, but not with large pear-shaped TH(+) cells in adult zebrafish diencephalon. In the pretectum area, Nr4a2(+) cells were localized next to the dorsal side of TH(+) cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nr4a2 was co-expressed with nestin in the progenitors of pretectum area and caudal periventricular hypothalamic zones with a lateral symmetry pattern beside the diencephalic ventricle. Co-expression of Nr4a2 and nestin in these areas was remarkably declined with aging. These findings indicate that Nr4a2 is expressed in the neuronal progenitors and plays a crucial role in the differentiation process of dopamine neuron from the stem cell. The change in Nr4a2 expression with aging suggests its possible association with neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Long term ex-vivo culturing of Drosophila brain as a method to live image pupal brains: insights into the cellular mechanisms of neuronal remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eRabinovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Holometabolous insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, undergo complete metamorphosis that includes a pupal stage. During metamorphosis, the Drosophila nervous system undergoes massive remodeling and growth, that include cell death and large-scale axon and synapse elimination as well as neurogenesis, developmental axon regrowth and formation of new connections. Neuronal remodeling is an essential step in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Research on the stereotypic remodeling of Drosophila mushroom body (MB γ neurons has contributed to our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of remodeling but our knowledge of the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. A major hurdle in understanding various dynamic processes that occur during metamorphosis is the lack of time-lapse resolution. The pupal case and opaque fat bodies that enwrap the central nervous system (CNS make live-imaging of the central brain in-vivo impossible. We have established an ex-vivo long-term brain culture system that supports the development and neuronal remodeling of pupal brains. By optimizing culture conditions and dissection protocols, we have observed development in culture at kinetics similar to what occurs in vivo. Using this new method, we have obtained the first time-lapse sequence of MB γ neurons undergoing remodeling in up to a single cell resolution. We found that axon pruning is initiated by blebbing, followed by one-two nicks that seem to initiate a more widely spread axon fragmentation. As such, we have set up some of the tools and methodologies needed for further exploration of the cellular mechanisms of neuronal remodeling, not limited to the MB. The long-term ex-vivo brain culture system that we report here could be used to study dynamic aspects of neurodevelopment of any Drosophila neuron.

  9. Heterotopically transplanted CVO neural stem cells generate neurons and migrate with SVZ cells in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lori B; Cai, Jingli; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-05-07

    Production of new neurons throughout adulthood has been well characterized in two brain regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The neurons produced from these regions arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) found in highly regulated stem cell niches. We recently showed that midline structures called circumventricular organs (CVOs) also contain NSCs capable of neurogenesis and/or astrogliogenesis in vitro and in situ (Bennett et al.). The present study demonstrates that NSCs derived from two astrogliogenic CVOs, the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis of the nestin-GFP mouse, possess the potential to integrate into the SVZ and differentiate into cells with a neuronal phenotype. These NSCs, following expansion and BrdU-labeling in culture and heterotopic transplantation into a region proximal to the SVZ in adult mice, migrate caudally to the SVZ and express early neuronal markers (TUC-4, PSA-NCAM) as they migrate along the rostral migratory stream. CVO-derived BrdU(+) cells ultimately reach the olfactory bulb where they express early (PSA-NCAM) and mature (NeuN) neuronal markers. Collectively, these data suggest that although NSCs derived from the ME and OVLT CVOs are astrogliogenic in situ, they produce cells phenotypic of neurons in vivo when placed in a neurogenic environment. These findings may have implications for neural repair in the adult brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Receptive fields of locust brain neurons are matched to polarization patterns of the sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2014-09-22

    Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation [1]. In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation [7], it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies neuronal plasticity in the brain reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Ayuso, Eduard; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Bosch, Fatima; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-02-01

    Palatability enhances food intake by hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities. Different studies have demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system in controlling food hedonic value and consumption. We hypothesize that the endogenous cannabinoid system could also be involved in the development of food-induced behavioral alterations, such as food-seeking and binge-eating, by a mechanism that requires neuroplastic changes in the brain reward pathway. For this purpose, we evaluated the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) in the behavioral and neuroplastic changes induced by operant training for standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food using different genetics, viral and pharmacological approaches. Neuroplasticity was evaluated by measuring changes in dendritic spine density in neurons previously labeled with the dye DiI. Only operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food induced neuroplastic changes in neurons of the nucleus accumbens shell and prefrontal cortex that were associated to changes in food-seeking behavior. These behavioral and neuroplastic modifications induced by highly palatable isocaloric food were dependent on the activity of the CB1-R. Neuroplastic changes induced by highly palatable isocaloric food are similar to those produced by some drugs of abuse and may be crucial in the alteration of food-seeking behavior leading to overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Phencyclidine rapidly decreases neuronal mRNA of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanuma, Yusuke; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Odaka, Haruki; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin family, has been implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. However, detailed mechanisms of its reduction in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. Here, using cultured cortical neurons, we monitored BDNF mRNA levels following acute application of phencyclidine [PCP; an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker], which is known to produce schizophrenia-like symptoms. We found that PCP rapidly caused a reduction in total amount of BDNF transcripts without effect on cell viability, while mRNA levels of nerve growth factor was intact. Actinomycin-D (ActD), an RNA synthesis inhibitor, decreased total BDNF mRNA levels similar to PCP, and coapplication of ActD with PCP did not show further reduction in BDNF mRNA compared with solo application of each drug. Among BDNF exons I, IV, and VI, the exon IV, which is positively regulated by neuronal activity, was highly sensitive to PCP. Furthermore, PCP inactivated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB; a regulator of transcriptional activity of exon IV). The inactivation of CREB was also achieved by an inhibitor for Ca(2+) /calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), although coapplication with PCP induced no further inhibition on the CREB activity. It is possible that PCP decreases BDNF transcription via blocking the NMDA receptor/CaMKII/CREB signaling. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exocytosis of norepinephrine at axon varicosities and neuronal cell bodies in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, Zohreh; Teschemacher, Anja G

    2007-08-01

    Norepinephrine secretion from central neurons was widely assumed to occur by exocytosis, but the essential characteristics of this process remained unknown. We developed an approach to study it directly by amperometry using carbon fiber microelectrodes in organotypic rat brainstem slice cultures. Noradrenergic neurons from areas A1 and A2 were fluorescently labeled by an adenoviral vector with noradrenergic-specific promoter. Quantal events, consistent with exocytotic release of norepinephrine, were registered at noradrenergic axonal varicosities as well as at cell bodies. According to their charge integrals, events were grouped into two populations. The majority (approximately 40 fC) were compatible with full exocytotic fusion of small clear and dense core vesicles shown in previous morphometric studies. The quantal size distribution was modulated by treatment with reserpine and amitriptyline. In addition, much larger quantal events (>1 pC) occurred at predominantly axonal release sites. The time course of signals was severalfold faster than in adrenal chromaffin cells, suggesting profound differences in the release machinery between these cell types. Tetrodotoxin eliminated the majority of events, indicating that release was partially, but not entirely, action potential driven. In conclusion, central norepinephrine release has unique characteristics, distinguishing it from those of other monoaminergic cells in periphery and brain.

  14. Presence of Tissue Transglutaminase in Granular Endoplasmic Reticulum is Characteristic of Melanized Neurons in Parkinson's Disease Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelmus, M.M.; Verhaar, R.; Andringa, G.; Bol, J.G.J.M.; Cras, P.; Shan, L.; Hoozemans, J.J.; Drukarch, B.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates and degeneration of melanized neurons. The tissue transglutaminase (tTG) enzyme catalyzes molecular protein cross-linking. In PD brain, tTG-induced cross-links have been identified in α-synuclein monomers,

  15. The brain-specific factor FEZ1 is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haedicke, Juliane

    2009-08-18

    Neurons are one of the few cell types in the human body that do not support HIV type-1 (HIV-1) replication. Although the lack of key receptors is a major obstacle to infection, studies suggest that additional functions inhibit virus replication to explain the exquisite resistance of neurons to HIV-1. However, specific neuronal factors that may explain this resistance remain to be discovered. In a screen for antiviral factors using a fibroblast line chemically mutagenized and selected for resistance to retroviral infection, we recently identified induction of rat FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1), a brain-specific protein, as the cause of this resistance. When exogenously expressed in nonneuronal cell lines rat FEZ1 blocked nuclear entry of retroviral DNA. Here, we demonstrate that among human brain cells, neurons naturally express high levels of FEZ1 compared to astrocytes or microglia cells and are correspondingly less susceptible to infection with pseudotyped HIV-1 that bypasses receptor-mediated viral entry. Demonstrating that endogenous FEZ1 was functionally important in the resistance of neurons to HIV-1 infection, siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous FEZ1 increased the infectivity of neurons while sensitive brain cell types like microglia became more resistant upon FEZ1 overexpression. In addition, FEZ1 expression was not induced in response to IFN treatment. As such, in contrast to other widely expressed, IFN-inducible antiviral factors, FEZ1 appears to represent a unique neuron-specific determinant of cellular susceptibility to infection in a cell type that is naturally resistant to HIV-1.

  16. UV-laser microdissection and mRNA expression analysis of individual neurons from postmortem Parkinson's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Jan; Schlaudraff, Falk; Liss, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is essential to avoid tissue sample related artifacts, in particular when the relative number of target cells present in the compared tissues varies dramatically, e.g., when comparing dopamine neurons in midbrain tissues from control subjects with those from Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Here, we describe a detailed protocol that combines contact-free UV-laser microdissection and quantitative PCR of reverse-transcribed RNA of individual neurons from postmortem human midbrain tissue from PD patients and unaffected controls. Among expression changes in a variety of dopamine neuron marker, maintenance, and cell-metabolism genes, we found that α-synuclein mRNA levels were significantly elevated in individual neuromelanin-positive dopamine midbrain neurons from PD brains when compared to those from matched controls.

  17. Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2483-2492, 1997. The nucleus ambiguus contains vagal and glossopharyngeal motoneurons and preganglionic neurons involved in respiration, swallowing, vocalization......, and control of heart beat. Here we show that the rostral compact formation's ambiguus neurons, which control the esophageal phase of swallowing, display calcium-dependent plateau potentials in response to tetanic orthodromic stimulation or current injection. Whole cell recordings were made from visualized...... neurons in the rostral nucleus ambiguus using a slice preparation from the newborn mouse. Biocytin-labeling revealed dendritic trees with pronounced rostrocaudal orientations confined to the nucleus ambiguus, a morphological profile matching that of vagal motoneurons projecting to the esophagus. Single...

  18. Multiple signaling pathways direct the initiation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in cultured brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1997-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the synergistic interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a second co-activator molecule can novelly induce expression of the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in non-TH expressing neurons of the striatum. Several co-activators have been identified, including substances present in L6 muscle cell extract (X. Du et al., J. Neurosci. 14 (1994) 7688-7694) catecholamines, such as dopamine (DA) (X. Du and L. Iacovitti, J. Neurosci. 15 (1995) 5420-5427; X. Du et al., Brain Res. 680 (1995) 229-233) and activators of protein kinase C (PKC) such as TPA (X. Du and L. Iacovitti, J. Neurochem. 68 (1997) 564-569). In the present study, we investigated whether activators of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway also serve as effective co-activators of aFGF in the induction of TH gene expression. In addition, the combinatorial effects of the various TH-inducing agents were also evaluated. We found that, as with other co-activating molecules, the PKA stimulants IBMX and forskolin had no TH-inducing capacity when administered alone. However, co-treatment of 10 ng/ml aFGF with either (250 microM) IBMX or (10 microM) forskolin resulted in the novel expression of TH in 25% of plated neurons. The number of TH-expressing neurons was increased to 55% in aFGF-treated cultures co-incubated with aFGF and both (250 microM) IBMX and (10 microM) forskolin. Time course studies indicated that TH induction was rapid (peaking within 24 h) and enduring (lasting 4 days in culture). Induction of TH by aFGF and IBMX/forskolin was partially blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase, such as H7, H8 and H89, as well as pretreatment with protein (cyclohexamide) or RNA synthesis (amanitin and actinomycin D) inhibitors. The concomitant addition of combinations of co-activator molecules (DA, TPA and IBMX/forskolin) and aFGF resulted in the additive induction of TH. Maximal expression of TH (80% of striatal neurons) was accomplished when

  19. The metabolism of C-glucose by neurons and astrocytes in brain subregions following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoren, Anna E; Helps, Stephen C; Nilsson, Michael; Sims, Neil R

    2006-05-01

    To provide insights into the effects of temporary focal ischemia on the function of neurons and astrocytes in vivo, we measured the incorporation of radiolabel from [U-14C]glucose into both glutamate and glutamine in brain subregions at 1 h of reperfusion following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 or 3 h. Under the experimental conditions used, 14C-glutamate is mainly produced in neurons whereas 14C-glutamine is generated in astrocytes from 14C-glutamate of both neuronal and astrocytic origin. Radiolabel incorporation into both amino acids was greatly decreased. The change in 14C-glutamate accumulation provides strong evidence for substantial reductions in neuronal glucose metabolism. The resulting decrease in delivery of 14C-glutamate from the neurons to astrocytes was probably also the major contributor to the change in 14C-glutamine content. These alterations probably result in part from a marked depression of glycolytic activity in the neurons, as suggested by previous studies assessing deoxyglucose utilization. Alterations in 14C-glucose metabolism were not restricted to tissue that would subsequently become infarcted. Thus, these changes did not inevitably lead to death of the affected cells. The ATP : ADP ratio and phosphocreatine content were essentially preserved during recirculation following 2 h of ischemia and showed at most only moderate losses in some subregions following 3 h of ischemia. This retention of energy reserves despite the decreases in 14C-glucose metabolism in neurons suggests that energy needs were substantially reduced in the post-ischemic brain. Marked increases in tissue lactate accumulation during recirculation, particularly following 3 h of ischemia, provided evidence that impaired pyruvate oxidation probably also contributed to the altered 14C-glucose metabolism. These findings indicate the presence of complex changes in energy metabolism that are likely to greatly influence the responses of neurons and astrocytes to

  20. The system of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons. Its supposed role in the nonsynaptic signal transmission of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vígh, B; Manzano e Silva, M J; Frank, C L; Vincze, C; Czirok, S J; Szabó, A; Lukáts, A; Szél, A

    2004-04-01

    Recent investigations confirm the importance of nonsynaptic signal transmission in several functions of the nervous tissue. Present in various periventricular brain regions of vertebrates, the system of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons seems to have a special role in taking up, transforming and emitting nonsynaptic signals mediated by the internal and external CSF and intercellular fluid of the brain. Most of the CSF-contacting nerve cells send dendritic processes into the internal CSF of the brain ventricles or central canal where they form terminals bearing stereocilia and a 9+0-, or 9+2-type cilium. Some of these neurons resemble known sensory cells of chemoreceptor-type, others may be sensitive to the pressure or flow of the CSF, or to the illumination of the brain tissue. The axons of the CSF-contacting neurons transmit information taken up by dendrites and perikarya to synaptic zones of various brain areas. By forming neurohormonal terminals, axons also contact the external CSF space and release various bioactive substances there. Some perikarya send their axons into the internal CSF, and form free endings there, or synapses on intraventricular dendrites, perikarya and/or on the ventricular surface of ependymal cells. Contacting the intercellular space, sensory-type cilia were also demonstrated on nerve cells situated in the brain tissue subependymally or farther away from the ventricles. Among neuronal elements entering the internal CSF-space, the hypothalamic CSF-contacting neurons are present in the magnocellular and parvicellular nuclei and in some circumventricular organs like the paraventricular organ and the vascular sac. The CSF-contacting dendrites of all these areas bear a solitary 9 x 2+0-type cilium and resemble chemoreceptors cytologically. In electrophysiological experiments, the neurons of the paraventricular organ are highly sensitive to the composition of the ventricular CSF. The axons of the CSF-contacting neurons terminate not

  1. Cadherin-13 Deficiency Increases Dorsal Raphe 5-HT Neuron Density and Prefrontal Cortex Innervation in the Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Forero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: During early prenatal stages of brain development, serotonin (5-HT-specific neurons migrate through somal translocation to form the raphe nuclei and subsequently begin to project to their target regions. The rostral cluster of cells, comprising the median and dorsal raphe (DR, innervates anterior regions of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex. Differential analysis of the mouse 5-HT system transcriptome identified enrichment of cell adhesion molecules in 5-HT neurons of the DR. One of these molecules, cadherin-13 (Cdh13 has been shown to play a role in cell migration, axon pathfinding, and synaptogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of Cdh13 to the development of the murine brain 5-HT system.Methods: For detection of Cdh13 and components of the 5-HT system at different embryonic developmental stages of the mouse brain, we employed immunofluorescence protocols and imaging techniques, including epifluorescence, confocal and structured illumination microscopy. The consequence of CDH13 loss-of-function mutations on brain 5-HT system development was explored in a mouse model of Cdh13 deficiency.Results: Our data show that in murine embryonic brain Cdh13 is strongly expressed on 5-HT specific neurons of the DR and in radial glial cells (RGCs, which are critically involved in regulation of neuronal migration. We observed that 5-HT neurons are intertwined with these RGCs, suggesting that these neurons undergo RGC-guided migration. Cdh13 is present at points of intersection between these two cell types. Compared to wildtype controls, Cdh13-deficient mice display increased cell densities in the DR at embryonic stages E13.5, E17.5, and adulthood, and higher serotonergic innervation of the prefrontal cortex at E17.5.Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence for a role of CDH13 in the development of the serotonergic system in early embryonic stages. Specifically, we indicate that Cdh13 deficiency affects the cell

  2. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin R

    2014-04-14

    Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. This study provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed on protein-level events, this study also provides significant insight into detailed roles for individual modified proteins in the developing brain, helping to advance the understanding of the complex protein-driven processes that underlie development. Finally, the use of a novel bioinformatic analytical tool provides information regarding aspects of the PTMome which are not normally examined, and illuminates the role of PTMs on a more detailed, protein-centric and site-specific level in a biological context. The widespread yet uneven distributions observed will be relevant to those readers with an interest in the mechanisms of distribution of PTMS and their functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uptake of 3-hydroxykynurenine measured in rat brain slices and in a neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, C L; Guilarte, T R; Lever, J R

    1992-07-03

    The uptake of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), a tryptophan metabolite with reported convulsant and cytotoxic properties, has been investigated in a neuronally derived hybrid cell line and in tissue slices prepared from rat brain. In both systems, the observed uptake was temperature-dependent and inhibited in the presence of large neutral amino acids. The apparent Km and Vmax determined for 3HK uptake into N18-RE-105 cells were 1.65 mM and 25.5 nmol/(min x mg protein), respectively. The uptake of 3HK into rat brain slices could be resolved into two components on the basis of their requirements for sodium. Kinetic analyses performed using hippocampal slices revealed a Km of 1.1 mM and Vmax of 18.8 nmol/(h x mg protein) for the sodium-independent process and a Km of 4.8 mM and Vmax of 54.5 nmol/(h x mg protein) for the sodium-dependent process. While sodium-dependent uptake was abolished following treatment with metabolic inhibitors, sodium-independent uptake was only slightly impaired. Sodium-independent uptake was inhibited in the presence of the non-metabolizable amino acids, aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), but not by N-methylated amino acid substrates. Sodium-dependent uptake was insensitive to AIB and was completely abolished by BCH. These results indicate that an uptake process for 3HK is present in the mammalian brain, and suggest that the sodium-dependent component of 3HK transport may be mediated by a system which has not previously been described in CNS tissue.

  4. Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer’s pathology by molecular tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid β protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid β protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid β protein, including ∼80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ∼2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid β protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid β protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID

  5. Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer's pathology by molecular tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A; Grassi, Claudio; Bitan, Gal

    2012-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid β protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid β protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer's disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid β protein, including ∼80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood-brain barrier at ∼2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid β protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid β protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

  6. Brains are not just neurons. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by Fitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    This comment addresses the first component of Fitch's framework: the computational power of single neurons [3]. Although I agree that traditional models of neural computation have vastly underestimated the computational power of single neurons, I am hesitant to follow him completely. The exclusive focus on neurons is likely to underestimate the importance of other cells in the brain. In the last years, two such cell types have received appropriate attention by neuroscientists: interneurons and glia. Interneurons are small, tightly packed cells involved in the control of information processing in learning and memory. Rather than transmitting externally (like motor or sensory neurons), these neurons process information within internal circuits of the brain (therefore also called 'relay neurons'). Some specialized interneuron subtypes temporally regulate the flow of information in a given cortical circuit during relevant behavioral events [4]. In the human brain approx. 100 billion interneurons control information processing and are implicated in disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson's.

  7. An AAV promoter-driven neuropeptide Y gene delivery system using Sendai virosomes for neurons and rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P; de Fiebre, C M; Millard, W J; King, M A; Wang, S; Bryant, S O; Gao, Y P; Martin, E J; Meyer, E M

    1996-03-01

    An adeno-associated virus (AAV)-derived construct (pJDT95npy) containing rat neuropeptide Y (NPY) cDNA inserted downstream of endogenous AAV promoters was used to investigate AAV-driven NPY expression in postmitotic neurons in vitro and in the brain. NPY mRNA was expressed in NT2/N and rat brain primary neuronal cultures after transfection. There was a corresponding increase in the number of neurons staining for NPY-like immunoreactivity and an increase in NPY release during depolarization in the primary cultures. Injections of Sendai-virosome encapsulated pJDT95npy into neocortex increased NPY-like immunoreactivity in neurons but not glia indicating that the latter cell type did not have the translational, post-translational or storage capacity to accumulate the peptide. Injections into the rat hypothalamic para-ventricular nucleus increased body weight and food intake for 21 days, though NPY-like immunoreactivity remained elevated for at least 50 days. These studies demonstrate that AAV-derived constructs may be useful for delivering genes into post-mitotic neurons, and that Sendai virosomes are effective for delivering these constructs in vivo.

  8. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Anderson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed.

  9. Dexmedetomidine Protects Mouse Brain from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Autophagy through Up-Regulating HIF-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death in China and produces a heavy socio-economic burden in the past decades. Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia. However, the role of autophagy during DEX-mediated neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In this study, we found that post-conditioning with DEX and DEX+3-methyladenine (3-MA (autophagy inhibitor reduced brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits compared with DEX+RAPA (autophagy inducer 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery artery occlusion (tMCAO model in mice. DEX inhibited the neuronal autophagy in the peri-ischemic brain, and increased viability and decreased apoptosis of primary cultured neurons in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD model. DEX induced expression of Bcl-1 and p62, while reduced the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3 and Beclin 1 in primary cultured neurons through inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. Meanwhile, DEX promoted the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α both in vivo and in vitro, and 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, could reverse DEX-induced autophagic inhibition. In conclusion, our study suggests that post-conditioning with DEX at the beginning of reperfusion protects mouse brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury via inhibition of neuronal autophagy by upregulation of HIF-1α, which provides a potential therapeutic treatment for acute ischemic injury.

  10. Neurons but not glial cells overexpress ubiquitin in the rat brain following focused ultrasound-induced opening of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A; Reinz, E; Fatar, M; Jenne, J; Hennerici, M G; Meairs, S

    2010-08-11

    Focused ultrasound-induced opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents is a promising strategy for a targeted drug delivery to the brain. The aim of our study was to identify whether brain molecular stress pathways are targeted by ultrasound treatment. Using an upper level of acoustic pressures in combination with microbubbles, which have been previously reported as reliable for BBB opening without causing tissue damage, we found that ultrasound leads to an increased ubiquitinylation of proteins in neuronal (11+/-3 ubiquitin-overexpressing cells per optical field) but not glial cells 6 h post-insonation, increasing to 16 (+/-4) labelled cells after 24 h. No changes in the expression of Hsp70 and Hsc70 were detected over 24 h. Ultrasound treatment was followed by limited apoptosis after 24 h (32+/-6 cleaved-caspase 3-positive cells per optical field) in the insonated areas. Only neurons were identified in the apoptotic population. Although these observations may not be applicable for all acoustic parameters useful for BBB opening, they demonstrate that insonation of the rat brain with the parameters used in our experiments is a useful tool for BBB opening and induces specific cellular stress response restricted to neuronal cells. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of GSM and UMTS mobile telephony signals on neuron degeneration and blood-brain barrier permeation in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Masuda, Hiroshi; Billaudel, Bernard; Poque-Haro, Emmanuelle; Hurtier, Annabelle; Lévêque, Philippe; Ruffié, Gilles; Taxile, Murielle; Veyret, Bernard; Lagroye, Isabelle

    2017-11-14

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation and neuron degeneration were assessed in the rat brain following exposure to mobile communication radiofrequency (RF) signals (GSM-1800 and UMTS-1950). Two protocols were used: (i) single 2 h exposure, with rats sacrificed immediately, and 1 h, 1, 7, or 50 days later, and (ii) repeated exposures (2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks) with the effects assessed immediately and 50 days after the end of exposure. The rats' heads were exposed at brain-averaged specific absorption rates (BASAR) of 0.026, 0.26, 2.6, and 13 W/kg. No adverse impact in terms of BBB leakage or neuron degeneration was observed after single exposures or immediately after the end of repeated exposure, with the exception of a transient BBB leakage (UMTS, 0.26 W/kg). Fifty days after repeated exposure, the occurrence of degenerating neurons was unchanged on average. However, a significant increased albumin leakage was detected with both RF signals at 13 W/kg. In this work, the strongest, delayed effect was induced by GSM-1800 at 13 W/kg. Considering that 13 W/kg BASAR in the rat head is equivalent to 4 times as much in the human head, deleterious effects may occur following repeated human brain exposure above 50 W/kg.

  12. Rosiglitazone attenuates inflammation and CA3 neuronal loss following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hao; Rose, Marie E. [Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center, V.A. Pittsburgh Healthcare System, PA (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States); Culver, Sherman; Ma, Xiecheng; Dixon, C. Edward [Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center, V.A. Pittsburgh Healthcare System, PA (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15216 (United States); Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15216 (United States); Graham, Steven H., E-mail: Steven.Graham@va.gov [Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center, V.A. Pittsburgh Healthcare System, PA (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Rosiglitazone, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, has been shown to confer neuroprotective effects in stroke and spinal cord injury, but its role in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still controversial. Using a controlled cortical impact model in rats, the current study was designed to determine the effects of rosiglitazone treatment (6 mg/kg at 5 min, 6 h and 24 h post injury) upon inflammation and histological outcome at 21 d after TBI. In addition, the effects of rosiglitazone upon inflammatory cytokine transcription, vestibulomotor behavior and spatial memory function were determined at earlier time points (24 h, 1–5 d, 14–20 d post injury, respectively). Compared with the vehicle-treated group, rosiglitazone treatment suppressed production of TNFα at 24 h after TBI, attenuated activation of microglia/macrophages and increased survival of CA3 neurons but had no effect on lesion volume at 21 d after TBI. Rosiglitazone-treated animals had improved performance on beam balance testing, but there was no difference in spatial memory function as determined by Morris water maze. In summary, this study indicates that rosiglitazone treatment in the first 24 h after TBI has limited anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in rat traumatic injury. Further study using an alternative dosage paradigm and more sensitive behavioral testing may be warranted. - Highlights: • Effects of rosiglitazone after CCI were evaluated using a rat TBI model. • Rosiglitazone suppressed production of TNFα at 24 h after CCI. • Rosiglitazone inhibited microglial activation at 21 d after CCI. • Rosiglitazone increased survival of CA3 neurons at 21 d after CCI. • Rosiglitazone-treated animals had improved performance in beam balance testing.

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... of contact for receiving impulses on a neuron, branching off from the cell body. dopamine —A neurotransmitter ...

  15. Bmi1 is down-regulated in the aging brain and displays antioxidant and protective activities in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdouh

    Full Text Available Aging increases the risk to develop several neurodegenerative diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Inactivation of the Polycomb group gene Bmi1 in mice results in growth retardation, cerebellar degeneration, and development of a premature aging-like phenotype. This progeroid phenotype is characterized by formation of lens cataracts, apoptosis of cortical neurons, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, owing to p53-mediated repression of antioxidant response (AOR genes. Herein we report that Bmi1 expression progressively declines in the neurons of aging mouse and human brains. In old brains, p53 accumulates at the promoter of AOR genes, correlating with a repressed chromatin state, down-regulation of AOR genes, and increased oxidative damages to lipids and DNA. Comparative gene expression analysis further revealed that aging brains display an up-regulation of the senescence-associated genes IL-6, p19(Arf and p16(Ink4a, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Noxa, as seen in Bmi1-null mice. Increasing Bmi1 expression in cortical neurons conferred robust protection against DNA damage-induced cell death or mitochondrial poisoning, and resulted in suppression of ROS through activation of AOR genes. These observations unveil that Bmi1 genetic deficiency recapitulates aspects of physiological brain aging and that Bmi1 over-expression is a potential therapeutic modality against neurodegeneration.

  16. A gustatory second-order neuron that connects sucrose-sensitive primary neurons and a distinct region of the gnathal ganglion in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takaaki; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Ito, Kei; Lee, Chi-Hon; Stopfer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although the gustatory system provides animals with sensory cues important for food choice and other critical behaviors, little is known about neural circuitry immediately following gustatory sensory neurons (GSNs). Here, we identify and characterize a bilateral pair of gustatory second-order neurons (G2Ns) in Drosophila. Previous studies identified GSNs that relay taste information to distinct subregions of the primary gustatory center (PGC) in the gnathal ganglia (GNG). To identify candidate G2Ns, we screened ∼5,000 GAL4 driver strains for lines that label neural fibers innervating the PGC. We then combined GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners) with presynaptic labeling to visualize potential synaptic contacts between the dendrites of the candidate G2Ns and the axonal terminals of Gr5a-expressing GSNs, which are known to respond to sucrose. Results of the GRASP analysis, followed by a single-cell analysis by FLP-out recombination, revealed a pair of neurons that contact Gr5a axon terminals in both brain hemispheres and send axonal arborizations to a distinct region outside the PGC but within the GNG. To characterize the input and output branches, respectively, we expressed fluorescence-tagged acetylcholine receptor subunit (Dα7) and active-zone marker (Brp) in the G2Ns. We found that G2N input sites overlaid GRASP-labeled synaptic contacts to Gr5a neurons, while presynaptic sites were broadly distributed throughout the neurons' arborizations. GRASP analysis and further tests with the Syb-GRASP method suggested that the identified G2Ns receive synaptic inputs from Gr5a-expressing GSNs, but not Gr66a-expressing GSNs, which respond to caffeine. The identified G2Ns relay information from Gr5a-expressing GSNs to distinct regions in the GNG, and are distinct from other, recently identified gustatory projection neurons, which relay information about sugars to a brain region called the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). Our findings suggest

  17. Nutritional n-3 PUFAs deficiency during perinatal periods alters brain innate immune system and neuronal plasticity-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Charlotte; Nadjar, Agnès; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Sere, A; Aubert, A; Portal, Céline; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2014-10-01

    Low dietary intake of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a causative factor of neurodevelopmental disorders. However the mechanisms linking n-3 PUFAs low dietary intake and neurodevelopmental disorders are poorly understood. Microglia, known mainly for their immune function in the injured or infected brain, have recently been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in regulating maturation of neuronal circuits during normal brain development. Disruption of this role during the perinatal period therefore could significantly contribute to psychopathologies with a neurodevelopmental neurodevelopmental component. N-3 PUFAs, essential lipids and key structural components of neuronal membrane phospholipids, are highly incorporated in cell membranes during the gestation and lactation phase. We previously showed that in a context of perinatal n-3 PUFAs deficiency, accretion of these latter is decreased and this is correlated to an alteration of endotoxin-induced inflammatory response. We thus postulated that dietary n-3 PUFAs imbalance alters the activity of microglia in the developing brain, leading to abnormal formation of neuronal networks. We first confirmed that mice fed with a n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed decreased n-3 PUFAs levels in the brain at post-natal days (PND)0 and PND21. We then demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs deficiency altered microglia phenotype and motility in the post-natal developing brain. This was paralleled by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression at PND21 and to modification of neuronal plasticity-related genes expression. Overall, our findings show for the first time that a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency from the first day of gestation leads to the development of a pro-inflammatory condition in the central nervous system that may contribute to neurodevelopmental alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1 h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135 mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400 mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI.

  19. Mammalian Brains Are Made of These: A Dataset of the Numbers and Densities of Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cells in the Brain of Glires, Primates, Scandentia, Eulipotyphlans, Afrotherians and Artiodactyls, and Their Relationship with Body Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Catania, Kenneth; Manger, Paul R; Kaas, Jon H

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies amongst extant species are one of the pillars of evolutionary neurobiology. In the 20th century, most comparative studies remained restricted to analyses of brain structure volume and surface areas, besides estimates of neuronal density largely limited to the cerebral cortex. Over the last 10 years, we have amassed data on the numbers of neurons and other cells that compose the entirety of the brain (subdivided into cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and rest of brain) of 39 mammalian species spread over 6 clades, as well as their densities. Here we provide that entire dataset in a format that is readily useful to researchers of any area of interest in the hope that it will foster the advancement of evolutionary and comparative studies well beyond the scope of neuroscience itself. We also reexamine the relationship between numbers of neurons, neuronal densities and body mass, and find that in the rest of brain, but not in the cerebral cortex or cerebellum, there is a single scaling rule that applies to average neuronal cell size, which increases with the linear dimension of the body, even though there is no single scaling rule that relates the number of neurons in the rest of brain to body mass. Thus, larger bodies do not uniformly come with more neurons--but they do fairly uniformly come with larger neurons in the rest of brain, which contains a number of structures directly connected to sources or targets in the body. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Preservation of the blood brain barrier and cortical neuronal tissue by liraglutide, a long acting glucagon-like-1 analogue, after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hakon

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a common complication following moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, and a significant risk factor for development of neuronal death and deterioration of neurological outcome. To this date, medical approaches that effectively alleviate cerebral edema and neuronal death after TBI are not available. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 has anti-inflammatory properties on cerebral endothelium and exerts neuroprotective effects. Here, we investigated the effects of GLP-1 on secondary injury after moderate and severe TBI. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected either to TBI by Controlled Cortical Impact (CCI or sham surgery. After surgery, vehicle or a GLP-1 analogue, Liraglutide, were administered subcutaneously twice daily for two days. Treatment with Liraglutide (200 μg/kg significantly reduced cerebral edema in pericontusional regions and improved sensorimotor function 48 hours after CCI. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier was markedly preserved in Liraglutide treated animals, as determined by cerebral extravasation of Evans blue conjugated albumin. Furthermore, Liraglutide reduced cortical tissue loss, but did not affect tissue loss and delayed neuronal death in the thalamus on day 7 post injury. Together, our data suggest that the GLP-1 pathway might be a promising target in the therapy of cerebral edema and cortical neuronal injury after moderate and severe TBI.

  1. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on ischemia and neuronal damage in an experimental traumatic brain-injury model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanci Volkan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head trauma is one of the most important clinical issues that not only can be fatal and disabling, requiring long-term treatment and care, but also can cause heavy financial burden. Formation or distribution of free oxygen radicals should be decreased to enable fixing of poor neurological outcomes and to prevent neuronal damage secondary to ischemia after trauma. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is a strong antioxidant that plays a role in membrane stabilization. In this study, the role of CoQ10 in the treatment of head trauma is researched by analyzing the histopathological and biochemical effects of CoQ10 administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats. A traumatic brain-injury model was created in all rats. Trauma was inflicted on rats by the free fall of an object of 450 g weight from a height of 70 cm on the frontoparietal midline onto a metal disc fixed between the coronal and the lambdoid sutures after a midline incision was carried out. Results In the biochemical tests, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly higher in the traumatic brain-injury group compared to the sham group (p 10 after trauma was shown to be protective because it significantly lowered the increased MDA levels (p 10 group had SOD levels ranging between those of sham group and traumatic brain-injury group, and no statistically significant increase was detected. Histopathological results showed a statistically significant difference between the CoQ10 and the other trauma-subjected groups with reference to vascular congestion, neuronal loss, nuclear pyknosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, cytoplasmic eosinophilia, and axonal edema (p Conclusion Neuronal degenerative findings and the secondary brain damage and ischemia caused by oxidative stress are decreased by CoQ10 use in rats with traumatic brain injury.

  2. Culturing of PC12 Cells, Neuronal Cells, Astrocytes Cultures and Brain Slices in an Open Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya; Rømer Sørensen, Ane

    The brain is the center of the nervous system, where serious neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s are products of functional loss in the neural cells (1). Typical techniques used to investigate these diseases lack precise control of the cellular surroundings...... cells, neuronal cells, astrocytes cultures and brain slices. The microfluidic system provides efficient nutrient delivery, waste removal, access to oxygen, fine control over the neurochemical environment and access to modern microscopy. Additionally, the setup consists of an in vitro culturing...... and electrochemical sensor system that enables real time detection of metabolites, e.g. dopamine from cell cultures and brain slices. In summary we present results on culturing of brain slices and cells in the microfluidic system as well as on the incorporation of an electrochemical sensor system for characterization...

  3. [Component analysis of the reactions of neuronal populations in the human brain during the memorizing of visual stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropotov, Iu D

    1984-07-01

    The components of the evoked impulse activity of neurons and neuronal populations were studied in different nuclei of the thalamus and strio-pallidar system of the human brain, in patients treated with indwelled electrodes. The impulse activity was recorded during recognition of polygonal shapes with and without semantic meaning, during memorizing of visual stimuli without meaning. Peri-stimulus-time histograms for the cases of presentations of familiar and unfamiliar patterns, for the cases of stimulus presentation in the initial and terminal parts of the memorizing were computed and compared with each other. In some neuronal populations, a group of late components was revealed, altering during learning and depending upon subject evaluation of the meaning of the stimulus.

  4. Integration of the antennal lobe glomeruli and three projection neurons in the standard brain atlas of the moth Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte B Løfaldli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, standard brain atlases of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens standard brain atlas exclusively included the glomerular layer of the antennal lobe. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female standard brain atlas with a new model of the antennal lobe glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens antennal lobe model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the antennal lobe atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male antennal lobe was necessary. This required a new male antennal lobe atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three antennal lobe projection neurons of different preparations, the new standard brain atlas with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum.

  5. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0 and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1 clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.

  6. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Issa, Abdul-Raouf; Seugnet, Laurent; Birman, Serge; Klarsfeld, André

    2017-01-01

    Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing) than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1) clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.

  7. Roles for the pro-neurotrophin receptor sortilin in neuronal development, aging and brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Pernille; Giehl, Klaus; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2007-01-01

    apoptosis of sympathetic neurons, it did prevent their age-dependent degeneration. Furthermore, in an injury protocol, lesioned corticospinal neurons in Sort1(-/-) mice were protected from death. Thus, the sortilin pathway has distinct roles in pro-neurotrophin-induced apoptotic signaling in pathological...... conditions, but also in specific stages of neuronal development and aging. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  8. Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage in 7-Days-Old Rats: Early Neuronal Changes and the Long-Term Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ota Nakasone, Arturo; Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia Escuela de Medicina de Miyazaki Miyazaki, Japón; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia Escuela de Medicina de Miyazaki Miyazaki, Japón; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia Escuela de Medicina de Miyazaki Miyazaki, Japóni; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia Escuela de Medicina de Miyazaki Miyazaki, Japón; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Departamento de Anatomía Escuela de Medicina de Miyazaki Miyazaki, Japón

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the changes after hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and to observe both, the vulnerability of the different regions of the brain to HI and the heat shock protein-72 kDa (HSP72) induction and its efects on the neuronal cell. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 7-days-old rats were exposed to left carotid artery ligation followed by 2 h of HI and then they were sacrificed at different time points. Brains extracted at 1-72 h were immunohistochemically study using the HSP-72 and the microtubule assoc...

  9. Brain overgrowth in autism during a critical time in development: implications for frontal pyramidal neuron and interneuron development and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Eric; Pierce, Karen

    2005-01-01

    While abnormalities in head circumference in autism have been observed for decades, it is only recently that scientists have begun to focus in on the developmental origins of such a phenomenon. In this article we review past and present literature on abnormalities in head circumference, as well as recent developmental MRI studies of brain growth in this disorder. We hypothesize that brain growth abnormalities are greatest in frontal lobes, particularly affecting large neurons such as pyramidal cells, and speculate how this abnormality might affect neurofunctional circuitry in autism. The relationship to clinical characteristics and other disorders of macrencephaly are discussed.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MITOCHONDRIA ISOLATED FROM NEURON-ENRICHED AND GLIA-ENRICHED FRACTIONS OF RABBIT AND BEEF BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, Anders; Blomstrand, Christian; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1970-01-01

    Fractions enriched in neuronal and glial cells were obtained from dispersions of whole beef brain and rabbit cerebral cortex by large-scale density gradient centrifugation procedures. The fractions were characterized by appropriate microscopic observation. Mitochondria were then isolated from these fractions by differential centrifugation of their homogenates. The two different types of mitochondria were characterized with respect to certain enzyme activities, respiratory rate, rate of protein synthesis, and their buoyant density in sucrose gradients. The mitochondria from the neuron-enriched fraction were distinguished by a higher rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein, higher cytochrome oxidase activity, and a higher buoyant density in sucrose density gradients. Mitochondria from the glia-enriched fraction showed relatively high monoamine oxidase and Na+- and K+-stimulated ATPase activities. The rates of oxidation of various substrates and the acceptor control ratios did not differ appreciably between the two types of mitochondria. The difference in the buoyant density of mitochondria isolated from the neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cell fractions was utilized in attempts to separate neuronal and glial mitochondria from the mixed mitochondria obtained from whole brain homogenates in shallow sucrose gradients. The appearance of two peaks of cytochrome oxidase, monoamine oxidase, and protein concentration in such gradients shows the potential feasibility of such an approach. PMID:5513605

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to neuronal dysfunction in a model of allergic airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Armin; Lommatzsch, Marek; Neuhaus-Steinmetz, Ulrich; Quarcoo, David; Glaab, Thomas; McGregor, Gerard P; Fischer, Axel; Renz, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate molecule for mediating functional neuronal changes in allergic bronchial asthma. Recently, enhanced production of BDNF during allergic airway inflammation caused by infiltrating T-cells and macrophages as well as by resident airway epithelial cells has been described. It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of enhanced BDNF levels on lung function and airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic inflammation.Ovalbumin-...

  12. Faster scaling of visual neurons in cortical areas relative to subcortical structures in non-human primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. E.; Leitch, D. B.; Wong, P.; Kaas, J. H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Cortical expansion, both in absolute terms and in relation to subcortical structures, is considered a major trend in mammalian brain evolution with important functional implications, given that cortical computations should add complexity and flexibility to information processing. Here, we investigate the numbers of neurons that compose 4 structures in the visual pathway across 11 non-human primate species to determine the scaling relationships that apply to these structures and among them. We...

  13. Effects of Microphallus papillorobustus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) on serotonergic immunoreactivity and neuronal architecture in the brain of Gammarus insensibilis (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helluy, S; Thomas, F

    2003-01-01

    The larval flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus encysts in the protocerebrum of its intermediate host, Gammarus insensibilis, and changes the gammarid's responses to mechanical and photic stimuli. The resulting aberrant escape behaviour renders infected gammarids more susceptible to predation by birds, the definitive hosts of the parasite. We used immunocytochemical methods to explore the mechanisms underlying these subtle behavioural modifications. Whole mounts of gammarid brains were labelled with fluorescent anti-serotonin and anti-synapsin antibodies and viewed using confocal microscopy. Two types of change were observed in infected brains: the intensity of the serotonergic label was altered in specific regions of the brain, and the architecture of some serotonergic tracts and neurons was affected. A morphometric analysis of the distribution of the label showed that serotonergic immunoreactivity was decreased significantly (by 62%) in the optic neuropils, but not in the olfactory lobes, in the presence of the parasite. In addition, the optic tracts and the tritocerebral giant neurons were stunted in parasitized individuals. Published evidence demonstrates changes in serotonin levels in hosts ranging from crustaceans to mammals infected by parasites as diverse as protozoans and helminths. The present study suggests that the degeneration of discrete sets of serotonergic neurons might underlie the serotonergic imbalance and thus contribute to host manipulation. PMID:12769454

  14. Genetic targeting and anatomical registration of neuronal populations in the zebrafish brain with a new set of BAC transgenic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Dominique; Arnold-Ammer, Irene; Laurell, Eva; Barker, Alison J; Fernandes, António M; Finger-Baier, Karin; Filosa, Alessandro; Helmbrecht, Thomas O; Kölsch, Yvonne; Kühn, Enrico; Robles, Estuardo; Slanchev, Krasimir; Thiele, Tod R; Baier, Herwig; Kubo, Fumi

    2017-07-12

    Genetic access to small, reproducible sets of neurons is key to an understanding of the functional wiring of the brain. Here we report the generation of a new Gal4- and Cre-driver resource for zebrafish neurobiology. Candidate genes, including cell type-specific transcription factors, neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes and neuropeptides, were selected according to their expression patterns in small and unique subsets of neurons from diverse brain regions. BAC recombineering, followed by Tol2 transgenesis, was used to generate driver lines that label neuronal populations in patterns that, to a large but variable extent, recapitulate the endogenous gene expression. We used image registration to characterize, compare, and digitally superimpose the labeling patterns from our newly generated transgenic lines. This analysis revealed highly restricted and mutually exclusive tissue distributions, with striking resolution of layered brain regions such as the tectum or the rhombencephalon. We further show that a combination of Gal4 and Cre transgenes allows intersectional expression of a fluorescent reporter in regions where the expression of the two drivers overlaps. Taken together, our study offers new tools for functional studies of specific neural circuits in zebrafish.

  15. TrkB gene transfer does not alter hippocampal neuronal loss and cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Valeria; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Watson, Deborah J; Fujimoto, Scott; Royo, Nicolas C; Marklund, Niklas; Stocchetti, Nino; McIntosh, Tracy K

    2008-01-01

    The ability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to attenuate secondary damage and influence behavioral outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Because TBI can result in decreased expression of the trkB receptor, thereby preventing BDNF from exerting potential neuroprotective effects, the contribution of both BDNF and its receptor trkB to hippocampal neuronal loss and cognitive dysfunction were evaluated. Full-length trkB was overexpressed in the left hippocampus of adult C57Bl/6 mice using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 (rAAV 2/5). EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) expression was present at two weeks after AAV-EGFP injection and remained sustained up to four weeks after the injection. At 2 weeks following gene transduction, mice were subjected to parasagittal controlled cortical impact (CCI) brain injury, followed by either BDNF or PBS infusion into the hippocampus. No differences were observed in learning ability at two weeks post-injury or in motor function from 48 hours to two weeks among treatment groups. The number of surviving pyramidal neurons in the CA2-CA3 region of the hippocampus was also not different among treatment groups. These data suggest that neither overexpression of trkB, BNDF infusion or their combination affects neuronal survival or behavioral outcome following experimental TBI in mice.

  16. Influence of acute ethanol intoxication on neuronal apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression after severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Liu, Wei-Guo; Wen, Liang; Du, Hang-Gen; Yin, Li-Chun; Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence and mechanism of acute ethanol intoxication (AEI) on rat neuronal apoptosis after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, AEI-only, TBI-only and TBI+AEI (n equal to 24 for each). Severe TBI model was developed according to Feeney's method. Rats in TBI+AEI group were firstly subjected to AEI, and then suffered head trauma. In each group, animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h after TBI. The level of neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 protein were determined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Apoptotic cells mainly distributed in the cortex and white matter around the damaged area. Neuronal apoptosis significantly increased at 6 h after trauma and peaked at 72 h. Both the level of neuronal apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 protein in TBI-only group and TBI+AEI group were higher than those in control group (P less than 0.05). Compared with TBI-only group, the two indexes were much higher in TBI+AEI group at all time points (P less than 0.05). Our findings suggest that AEI can increase neuronal apoptosis after severe TBI.

  17. Fingolimod phosphate attenuates oligomeric amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity via increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Doi

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative processes that underlie Alzheimer's disease are mediated, in part, by soluble oligomeric amyloid β, a neurotoxic protein that inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation, disrupts synaptic plasticity, and induces the production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptor (S1PR agonist fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P-a new oral drug for multiple sclerosis-protects neurons against oligomeric amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity. We confirmed that primary mouse cortical neurons express all of the S1P receptor subtypes and FTY720-P directly affects the neurons. Treatment with FTY720-P enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neurons. Moreover, blocking BDNF-TrkB signaling with a BDNF scavenger, TrkB inhibitor, or ERK1/2 inhibitor almost completely ablated these neuroprotective effects. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of FTY720-P are mediated by upregulated neuronal BDNF levels. Therefore, FTY720-P may be a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Influence of acute ethanol intoxication on neuronal apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression after severe traumatic brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Min

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the influence and mechanism of acute ethanol intoxication (AEI on rat neu-ronal apoptosis after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were ran-domly divided into four groups: normal control, AEI-only, TBI-only and TBI+AEI (n=24 for each. Severe TBI model was developed according to Feeney’s method. Rats in TBI+AEI group were firstly subjected to AEI, and then suf-fered head trauma. In each group, animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h after TBI. The level of neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 protein were deter-mined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Results: Apoptotic cells mainly distributed in the cortex and white matter around the damaged area. Neuronal apoptosis significantly increased at 6 h after trauma and peaked at 72 h. Both the level of neuronal apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 protein in TBI-only group and TBI+AEI group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05. Compared with TBI-only group, the two indexes were much higher in TBI+AEI group at all time points (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AEI can increase neuronal apoptosis after severe TBI. Key words: Craniocerebral trauma; Apoptosis; Alcoholism

  19. Effects of dose, sex, and long-term abstention from use on toxic effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on brain serotonin neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, L.; Booij, J.; de Bruin, K.; Reitsma, J. B.; de Wolff, F. A.; Gunning, W. B.; den Heeten, G. J.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug that has been shown to damage brain serotonin neurons in high doses. However, effects of moderate MDMA use on serotonin neurons have not been studied, and sex differences and the long-term effects of MDMA

  20. Investigating the changes in Inhibitory Neurons following two different models of Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Carron, Simone Francina

    2017-01-01

    Different forms of Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupt brain excitation/inhibition balance. This thesis examined changes in brain inhibition following two different types of brain injury and its consequences on behaviour. A key finding of this thesis is that particular forms of inhibition are altered after trauma confirming that susceptibility of brain inhibitory cells to trauma is brain area specific, injury type and time dependent. These findings have important implicatio...

  1. The Vertebrate Brain, Evidence of Its Modular Organization and Operating System: Insights into the Brain's Basic Units of Structure, Function, and Operation and How They Influence Neuronal Signaling and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is a complex organ made up of neurons and several other cell types, and whose role is processing information for use in eliciting behaviors. However, the composition of its repeating cellular units for both structure and function are unresolved. Based on recent descriptions of the brain's physiological "operating system", a function of the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) for supply of energy, and on the nature of "neuronal words and languages" for intercellular communication, insights into the brain's modular structural and functional units have been gained. In this article, it is proposed that the basic structural unit in brain is defined by its physiological operating system, and that it consists of a single neuron, and one or more astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular system endothelial cells. It is also proposed that the basic functional unit in the brain is defined by how neurons communicate, and consists of two neurons and their interconnecting dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field. Since a functional unit is composed of two neurons, it requires two structural units to form a functional unit. Thus, the brain can be envisioned as being made up of the three-dimensional stacking and intertwining of myriad structural units which results not only in its gross structure, but also in producing a uniform distribution of binary functional units. Since the physiological NAA-NAAG operating system for supply of energy is repeated in every structural unit, it is positioned to control global brain function.

  2. Managing brain extracellular K+ during neuronal activity: The physiological role of the Na+/K+-ATPase subunit isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roland eLarsen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDuring neuronal activity in the brain, extracellular K+ rises and is subsequently removed to prevent a widespread depolarization. One of the key players in regulating extracellular K+ is the Na+/K+-ATPase, although the relative involvement and physiological impact of the different subunit isoform compositions of the Na+/K+-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K+ from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K+ absorbers as activity ends. The kinetic characteristics of the catalytic α subunit isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase are, partly, determined by the accessory β subunit with which they combine. The isoform combinations expressed by astrocytes and neurons, respectively, appear to be in line with the kinetic characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K+ from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity.Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na+/K+-ATPase isoform combinations in K+ management in the central nervous system might reveal insights into pathological conditions such as epilepsy, migraine, and spreading depolarization following cerebral ischemia. In addition, particular neurological diseases occur as a result of mutations in the α2- (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 and α3 isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism/alternating hemiplegia of childhood. This review addresses aspects of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of extracellular K+ in the central nervous system as well as the related pathophysiology. Understanding the physiological setting in non-pathological tissue would provide a better understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease.

  3. The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gehman, Lauren T; Stoilov, Peter; Maguire, Jamie; Damianov, Andrey; Lin, Chia-Ho; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Mody, Istvan; Black, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts but their role in neuronal physiology is not clear 1 . We show here that central nervous system (CNS)-specific deletion of the Rbfox1 gene results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording reveals a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole transcriptome analyses ...

  4. Mitochondria modify exercise-induced development of stem cell-derived neurons in the adult brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steib, Kathrin; Schäffner, Iris; Jagasia, Ravi; Ebert, Birgit; Lie, D Chichung

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian hippocampus continuously generate new functional neurons, which modify the hippocampal network and significantly contribute to cognitive processes and mood regulation...

  5. Memory formation orchestrates the wiring of adult-born hippocampal neurons into brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsophonsakul, Petnoi; Richetin, Kevin; Andraini, Trinovita; Roybon, Laurent; Rampon, Claire

    2017-08-01

    During memory formation, structural rearrangements of dendritic spines provide a mean to durably modulate synaptic connectivity within neuronal networks. New neurons generated throughout the adult life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contribute to learning and memory. As these neurons become incorporated into the network, they generate huge numbers of new connections that modify hippocampal circuitry and functioning. However, it is yet unclear as to how the dynamic process of memory formation influences their synaptic integration into neuronal circuits. New memories are established according to a multistep process during which new information is first acquired and then consolidated to form a stable memory trace. Upon recall, memory is transiently destabilized and vulnerable to modification. Using contextual fear conditioning, we found that learning was associated with an acceleration of dendritic spines formation of adult-born neurons, and that spine connectivity becomes strengthened after memory consolidation. Moreover, we observed that afferent connectivity onto adult-born neurons is enhanced after memory retrieval, while extinction training induces a change of spine shapes. Together, these findings reveal that the neuronal activity supporting memory processes strongly influences the structural dendritic integration of adult-born neurons into pre-existing neuronal circuits. Such change of afferent connectivity is likely to impact the overall wiring of hippocampal network, and consequently, to regulate hippocampal function.

  6. Gene expression Analysis of Neurons and Astrocytes Isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection from Frozen Human Brain Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Tagliafierro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Different cell types and multiple cellular connections characterize the human brain. Gene expression analysis using a specific population of cells is more accurate than conducting analysis of the whole tissue homogenate, particularly in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, where a specific subset of cells is affected by the different pathology. Due to the difficulty to obtain homogenous cell populations, gene expression in specific cell-types (neurons, astrocytes, etc. has been understudied. To leverage the use of archive resources of frozen human brains in studies of neurodegenerative diseases, we developed and calibrated a method to quantify cell-type specific – neuronal, astrocytes – expression profiles of genes implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Archive human frozen brain tissues were used to prepare slides for rapid immunostaining using cell-specific antibodies. The immunoreactive-cells were isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM. The enrichment for a particular cell-type of interest was validated in post-analysis stage by the expression of cell-specific markers. We optimized the technique to preserve the RNA integrity, so that the RNA was suitable for downstream expression analyses. Following RNA extraction, the expression levels were determined digitally using nCounter Single Cell Gene Expression assay (NanoString Technologies®. The results demonstrated that using our optimized technique we successfully isolated single neurons and astrocytes from human frozen brain tissues and obtained RNA of a good quality that was suitable for mRNA expression analysis. We present here new advancements compared to previous reported methods, which improve the method’s feasibility and its applicability for a variety of downstream molecular analyses. Our new developed method can be implemented in genetic and functional genomic research of neurodegenerative diseases and has the

  7. The metabolic trinity, glucose-glycogen-lactate, links astrocytes and neurons in brain energetics, signaling, memory, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2017-01-10

    Glucose, glycogen, and lactate are traditionally identified with brain energetics, ATP turnover, and pathophysiology. However, recent studies extend their roles to include involvement in astrocytic signaling, memory consolidation, and gene expression. Emerging roles for these brain fuels and a readily-diffusible by-product are linked to differential fluxes in glycolytic and oxidative pathways, astrocytic glycogen dynamics, redox shifts, neuron-astrocyte interactions, and regulation of astrocytic activities by noradrenaline released from the locus coeruleus. Disproportionate utilization of carbohydrate compared with oxygen during brain activation is influenced by catecholamines, but its physiological basis is not understood and its magnitude may be affected by technical aspects of metabolite assays. Memory consolidation and gene expression are impaired by glycogenolysis blockade, and prevention of these deficits by injection of abnormally-high concentrations of lactate was interpreted as a requirement for astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling in memory and gene expression. However, lactate transport was not measured and evidence for presumed shuttling is not compelling. In fact, high levels of lactate used to preserve memory consolidation and induce gene expression are sufficient to shut down neuronal firing via the HCAR1 receptor. In contrast, low lactate levels activate a receptor in locus coeruleus that stimulates noradrenaline release that may activate astrocytes throughout brain. Physiological relevance of exogenous concentrations of lactate used to mimic and evaluate metabolic, molecular, and behavioral effects of lactate requires close correspondence with the normal lactate levels, the biochemical and cellular sources and sinks, and specificity of lactate delivery to target cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution and postnatal development of Gpr54 gene expression in mouse brain and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Allan E; de Tassigny, Xavier d'Anglemont; Doran, Joanne; Colledge, William H

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptin and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) are now acknowledged to play essential roles in the neural regulation of fertility. Using a transgenic Gpr54 LacZ knock-in mouse model, this study aimed to provide 1) a detailed map of cells expressing Gpr54 in the mouse brain and 2) an analysis of Gpr54 expression in GnRH neurons across postnatal development. The highest density of Gpr54-expressing cells in the mouse central nervous system was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus beginning on postnatal d 6 (P6). Abundant Gpr54 expression was also noted in the septum, rostral preoptic area (rPOA), anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, posterior hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, supramammillary and pontine nuclei, and dorsal cochlear nucleus. No Gpr54 expression was detected in the arcuate and rostral periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. Dual-labeling experiments showed that essentially all Gpr54-expressing cells in the rPOA were GnRH neurons. Analyses of mice at birth, P1, P5, P20, and P30 and as adults revealed a gradual increase in the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing Gpr54 from approximately 40% at birth through to approximately 70% from P20 onward. Whereas GnRH neurons located in the septum displayed a consistent increase across this time, GnRH neurons in the rPOA showed a sharp reduction in Gpr54 expression after birth (to approximately 10% at P5) before increasing to the 70% expression levels by P20. Together these findings provide an anatomical basis for the exploration of Gpr54 actions outside the reproductive axis and reveal a complex temporal and spatial pattern of Gpr54 gene expression in developing GnRH neurons.

  9. Regulatory consequences of neuronal ELAV-like protein binding to coding and non-coding RNAs in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, Claudia; Drapeau, Elodie; Frias, Maria A; Park, Christopher Y; Fak, John; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Kou, Yan; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal ELAV-like (nELAVL) RNA binding proteins have been linked to numerous neurological disorders. We performed crosslinking-immunoprecipitation and RNAseq on human brain, and identified nELAVL binding sites on 8681 transcripts. Using knockout mice and RNAi in human neuroblastoma cells, we showed that nELAVL intronic and 3' UTR binding regulates human RNA splicing and abundance. We validated hundreds of nELAVL targets among which were important neuronal and disease-associated transcripts, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) transcripts. We therefore investigated RNA regulation in AD brain, and observed differential splicing of 150 transcripts, which in some cases correlated with differential nELAVL binding. Unexpectedly, the most significant change of nELAVL binding was evident on non-coding Y RNAs. nELAVL/Y RNA complexes were specifically remodeled in AD and after acute UV stress in neuroblastoma cells. We propose that the increased nELAVL/Y RNA association during stress may lead to nELAVL sequestration, redistribution of nELAVL target binding, and altered neuronal RNA splicing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10421.001 PMID:26894958

  10. A novel, primate-specific, brain isoform of KCNH2 impacts cortical physiology, cognition, neuronal repolarization and risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Stephen J.; Chen, Jingshan; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Sambataro, Fabio; Yang, Feng; Mattay, Venkata; Lipska, Barbara K.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Song, Jian; Rujescu, Daniel; Giegling, Ina; Mayilyan, Karine; Proust, Morgan J.; Soghoyan, Armen; Caforio, Grazia; Callicott, Joseph H.; Bertolino, Alessandro; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Chang, Jay; Ji, Yuanyuan; Egan, Michael F.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Lu, Bai; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Organized neuronal firing is critical for cortical processing and is disrupted in schizophrenia. Using 5’ RACE in human brain, we identified a primate-specific isoform (3.1) of the K+-channel KCNH2 that modulates neuronal firing. KCNH2-3.1 mRNA levels are comparable to KCNH2-1A in brain, but 1000-fold lower in heart. In schizophrenic hippocampus, KCNH2-3.1 expression is 2.5-fold greater than KCNH2-1A. A meta-analysis of 5 clinical samples (367 families, 1158 unrelated cases, 1704 controls) shows association of SNPs in KCNH2 with schizophrenia. Risk-associated alleles predict lower IQ scores and speed of cognitive processing, altered memory-linked fMRI signals, and increased KCNH2-3.1 expression in post-mortem hippocampus. KCNH2-3.1 lacks a domain critical for slow channel deactivation. Overexpression of KCNH2-3.1 in primary cortical neurons induces a rapidly deactivating K+ current and a high-frequency, non-adapting firing pattern. These results identify a novel KCNH2 channel involved in cortical physiology, cognition, and psychosis, providing a potential new psychotherapeutic drug target. PMID:19412172

  11. Spatiotemporal computations of an excitable and plastic brain: neuronal plasticity leads to noise-robust and noise-constructive computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Hazem; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    It is a long-established fact that neuronal plasticity occupies the central role in generating neural function and computation. Nevertheless, no unifying account exists of how neurons in a recurrent cortical network learn to compute on temporally and spatially extended stimuli. However, these stimuli constitute the norm, rather than the exception, of the brain's input. Here, we introduce a geometric theory of learning spatiotemporal computations through neuronal plasticity. To that end, we rigorously formulate the problem of neural representations as a relation in space between stimulus-induced neural activity and the asymptotic dynamics of excitable cortical networks. Backed up by computer simulations and numerical analysis, we show that two canonical and widely spread forms of neuronal plasticity, that is, spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and intrinsic plasticity, are both necessary for creating neural representations, such that these computations become realizable. Interestingly, the effects of these forms of plasticity on the emerging neural code relate to properties necessary for both combating and utilizing noise. The neural dynamics also exhibits features of the most likely stimulus in the network's spontaneous activity. These properties of the spatiotemporal neural code resulting from plasticity, having their grounding in nature, further consolidate the biological relevance of our findings.

  12. Genomic mosaicism with increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number in single neurons from sporadic Alzheimer's disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Diane M; Kaeser, Gwendolyn E; Siddoway, Benjamin; Westra, Jurgen W; Rivera, Richard R; Rehen, Stevens K; Yung, Yun C; Chun, Jerold

    2015-02-04

    Previous reports have shown that individual neurons of the brain can display somatic genomic mosaicism of unknown function. In this study, we report altered genomic mosaicism in single, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons characterized by increases in DNA content and amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number. AD cortical nuclei displayed large variability with average DNA content increases of ~8% over non-diseased controls that were unrelated to trisomy 21. Two independent single-cell copy number analyses identified amplifications at the APP locus. The use of single-cell qPCR identified up to 12 copies of APP in sampled neurons. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting APP, combined with super-resolution microscopy detected primarily single fluorescent signals of variable intensity that paralleled single-cell qPCR analyses. These data identify somatic genomic changes in single neurons, affecting known and unknown loci, which are increased in sporadic AD, and further indicate functionality for genomic mosaicism in the CNS.

  13. Patch-clamp recordings of rat neurons from acute brain slices of the somatosensory cortex during magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashut, Tamar; Magidov, Dafna; Ben-Porat, Hana; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Perel, Eli; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a popular tool for both basic research and clinical applications, its actions on nerve cells are only partially understood. We have previously predicted, using compartmental modeling, that magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. The simulations also predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Here we tested these theoretical predictions by combining in vitro patch-clamp recordings from rat brain slices with magnetic stimulation and compartmental modeling. In agreement with the modeling, our recordings demonstrate the dependence of magnetic stimulation-triggered action potentials on the type and state of the neuron and its orientation within the magnetic field. Our results suggest that the observed effects of TMS are deeply rooted in the biophysical properties of single neurons in the central nervous system and provide a framework both for interpreting existing TMS data and developing new simulation-based tools and therapies.

  14. Patch-clamp recordings of rat neurons from acute brain slices of the somatosensory cortex during magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar ePashut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a popular tool for both basic research and clinical applications, its actions on nerve cells are only partially understood. We have previously predicted, using compartmental modeling, that magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. The simulations also predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Here we tested these theoretical predictions by combining in vitro patch-clamp recordings from rat brain slices with magnetic stimulation and compartmental modeling. In agreement with the modeling, our recordings demonstrate the dependence of magnetic stimulation-triggered action potentials on the type and state of the neuron and its orientation within the magnetic field. Our results suggest that the observed effects of TMS are deeply rooted in the biophysical properties of single neurons in the central nervous system and provide a framework both for interpreting existing TMS data and developing new simulation-based tools and therapies.

  15. Cellular resilience: 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice retain normal firing behavior despite the lack of brain 5-HT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Alberto; Waider, Jonas; Barbieri, Mario; Baytas, Ozan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence links dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transmission to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by compromised "social" cognition and emotion regulation. It is well established that the brain 5-HT system is under autoregulatory control by its principal transmitter 5-HT via its effects on activity and expression of 5-HT system-related proteins. To examine whether 5-HT itself also has a crucial role in the acquisition and maintenance of characteristic rhythmic firing of 5-HT neurons, we compared their intrinsic electrophysiological properties in mice lacking brain 5-HT, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase-2 null mice (Tph2(-/-)) and their littermates, Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+), by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in a brainstem slice preparation and single unit recording in anesthetized animals. We report that the active properties of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons in vivo (firing rate magnitude and variability; the presence of spike doublets) and in vitro (firing in response to depolarizing current pulses; action potential shape) as well as the resting membrane potential remained essentially unchanged across Tph2 genotypes. However, there were subtle differences in subthreshold properties, most notably, an approximately 25% higher input conductance in Tph2(-/-) mice compared with Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+) littermates (presilience to complete brain 5-HT deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. The search for true numbers of neurons and glial cells in the human brain: A review of 150 years of cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Bahney, Jami; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2016-12-15

    For half a century, the human brain was believed to contain about 100 billion neurons and one trillion glial cells, with a glia:neuron ratio of 10:1. A new counting method, the isotropic fractionator, has challenged the notion that glia outnumber neurons and revived a question that was widely thought to have been resolved. The recently validated isotropic fractionator demonstrates a glia:neuron ratio of less than 1:1 and a total number of less than 100 billion glial cells in the human brain. A survey of original evidence shows that histological data always supported a 1:1 ratio of glia to neurons in the entire human brain, and a range of 40-130 billion glial cells. We review how the claim of one trillion glial cells originated, was perpetuated, and eventually refuted. We compile how numbers of neurons and glial cells in the adult human brain were reported and we examine the reasons for an erroneous consensus about the relative abundance of glial cells in human brains that persisted for half a century. Our review includes a brief history of cell counting in human brains, types of counting methods that were and are employed, ranges of previous estimates, and the current status of knowledge about the number of cells. We also discuss implications and consequences of the new insights into true numbers of glial cells in the human brain, and the promise and potential impact of the newly validated isotropic fractionator for reliable quantification of glia and neurons in neurological and psychiatric diseases. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3865-3895, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Search for True Numbers of Neurons and Glial Cells in the Human Brain: A Review of 150 Years of Cell Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, Christopher S.; Bahney, Jami; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    For half a century, the human brain was believed to contain about 100 billion neurons and one trillion glial cells, with a glia:neuron ratio of 10:1. A new counting method, the isotropic fractionator, has challenged the notion that glia outnumber neurons and revived a question that was widely thought to have been resolved. The recently validated isotropic fractionator demonstrates a glia:neuron ratio of less than 1:1 and a total number of less than 100 billion glial cells in the human brain. A survey of original evidence shows that histological data always supported a 1:1 ratio of glia to neurons in the entire human brain, and a range of 40–130 billion glial cells. We review how the claim of one trillion glial cells originated, was perpetuated, and eventually refuted. We compile how numbers of neurons and glial cells in the adult human brain were reported and we examine the reasons for an erroneous consensus about the relative abundance of glial cells in human brains that persisted for half a century. Our review includes a brief history of cell counting in human brains, types of counting methods that were and are employed, ranges of previous estimates, and the current status of knowledge about the number of cells. We also discuss implications and consequences of the new insights into true numbers of glial cells in the human brain, and the promise and potential impact of the newly validated isotropic fractionator for reliable quantification of glia and neurons in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:27187682

  18. Noisy Neurons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Nerves are fibres that conduct electrical signals and hence pass on information from and to the brain. Nerves are made of nerve cells called neurons (Figure 1). Instructions in our body are sent via electrical signals that present themselves as variations in the potential across neuronal membranes. These potential differences ...

  19. Neurons in Vulnerable Regions of the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Display Reduced ATM Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuting; Chen, Jianmin; Li, Jiali; Kofler, Julia; Herrup, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystemic disease caused by mutations in the ATM (A-T mutated) gene. It strikes before 5 years of age and leads to dysfunctions in many tissues, including the CNS, where it leads to neurodegeneration, primarily in cerebellum. Alzheimer's disease (AD), by contrast, is a largely sporadic neurodegenerative disorder that rarely strikes before the 7th decade of life with primary neuronal losses in hippocampus, frontal cortex, and certain subcortical nuclei. Despite these differences, we present data supporting the hypothesis that a failure of ATM signaling is involved in the neuronal death in individuals with AD. In both, partially ATM-deficient mice and AD mouse models, neurons show evidence for a loss of ATM. In human AD, three independent indices of reduced ATM function-nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 4, trimethylation of histone H3, and the presence of cell cycle activity-appear coordinately in neurons in regions where degeneration is prevalent. These same neurons also show reduced ATM protein levels. And though they represent only a fraction of the total neurons in each affected region, their numbers significantly correlate with disease stage. This previously unknown role for the ATM kinase in AD pathogenesis suggests that the failure of ATM function may be an important contributor to the death of neurons in AD individuals.

  20. Picroside II Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Improves the Morphology and Structure of Brain Tissue following Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wang

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to explore the protective effects of picroside II against the neuronal apoptosis and changes in morphology and structure that follow cerebral ischemic injury in rats. A focal cerebral ischemic model was established by inserting a monofilament thread to achieve middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in 60 Wistar rats, and intraperitoneal injections of picroside II (20 mg/kg were administered. The neurobehavioral functions were evaluated with the modified neurological severity score (mNSS test. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with tetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cortical brain tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The apoptotic cells were counted with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometry, and pERK1/2 expression was determined by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. The results indicated that neurological behavioral malfunctions and cerebral infarcts were present in the MCAO rats. In the model group, the damage to the structures of the neurons and the blood brain barrier (BBB in the cortex was more severe, and the numbers of apoptotic cells, the early apoptotic ratio (EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly increased in this group compared to the control group (P<0.05. In the treatment group, the neurological behavioral function and the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were improved including the number of Mi increased and relative area of condensed chromosome and basement (BM thickness descreased, and the cerebral infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells, the EAR and pERK1/2 expression were significantly decreased compared to the model group (P<0.05. These results suggest that picroside II reduced apoptosis and improved the morphology and ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB and that these effects resulted in the

  1. Astrocytic Ca(2+) waves mediate activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons to aggravate brain damage during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi-Ping; He, Jing-Quan; Chai, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Excitotoxicity plays a central role in the neuronal damage during ischemic stroke. Although growing evidence suggests that activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors initiates neuronal death, no direct evidence demonstrated their activation during ischemia. Using rat hippocampal slices, we detected oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced slow inward currents (SICs) mediated by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Moreover, Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA dialysis into astrocytic network decreased the frequency of OGD induced SICs, indicating that the activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors depended on astrocytic Ca(2+) activity. To further demonstrate the importance of astrocytic Ca(2+) activity, we tested hippocampal slices from inositol triphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) knock-out mice which abolished the astrocytic Ca(2+) activity. As expected, the frequency of OGD induced SICs was reduced. Using two-photon Ca(2+) imaging, we characterized the astrocytic Ca(2+) dynamics. By controlling Ca(2+) level in the individual astrocytes using targeted photolysis, we found that OGD facilitated the propagation of intercellular Ca(2+) waves, which were inhibited by gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX). CBX also inhibited the Ca(2+) activity of the astrocytic network and decreased the SIC frequency during OGD. Functionally, the infarct volumes from brain ischemia were reduced in IP3R2 knock-out mice and in rat intracerebrally delivered with CBX. Our results demonstrate that enhanced Ca(2+) activity of the astrocytic network plays a key role on the activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons, which enhances brain damage during ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "Celebration of the Neurons": The Application of Brain Based Learning in Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate approaches and techniques related to how brain based learning used in classroom atmosphere. This general purpose were answered following the questions: (1) What is the aim of brain based learning? (2) What are general approaches and techniques that brain based learning used? and (3) How should be used…

  3. Reduced neuronal cell death after experimental brain injury in mice lacking a functional alternative pathway of complement activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Lang Markus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroprotective strategies for prevention of the neuropathological sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI have largely failed in translation to clinical treatment. Thus, there is a substantial need for further understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways which lead to secondary neuronal cell death in the injured brain. The intracerebral activation of the complement cascade was shown to mediate inflammation and tissue destruction after TBI. However, the exact pathways of complement activation involved in the induction of posttraumatic neurodegeneration have not yet been assessed. In the present study, we investigated the role of the alternative complement activation pathway in contributing to neuronal cell death, based on a standardized TBI model in mice with targeted deletion of the factor B gene (fB-/-, a "key" component required for activation of the alternative complement pathway. Results After experimental TBI in wild-type (fB+/+ mice, there was a massive time-dependent systemic complement activation, as determined by enhanced C5a serum levels for up to 7 days. In contrast, the extent of systemic complement activation was significantly attenuated in fB-/- mice (P fB-/- vs. fB+/+; t = 4 h, 24 h, and 7 days after TBI. TUNEL histochemistry experiments revealed that posttraumatic neuronal cell death was clearly reduced for up to 7 days in the injured brain hemispheres of fB-/- mice, compared to fB+/+ littermates. Furthermore, a strong upregulation of the anti-apoptotic mediator Bcl-2 and downregulation of the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor was detected in brain homogenates of head-injured fB-/- vs. fB+/+ mice by Western blot analysis. Conclusion The alternative pathway of complement activation appears to play a more crucial role in the pathophysiology of TBI than previously appreciated. This notion is based on the findings of (a the significant attenuation of overall complement activation in head-injured fB-/- mice, as

  4. Enhancing action of LSD on neuronal responsiveness to serotonin in a brain structure involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghoul, Tarek; Blier, Pierre

    2003-03-01

    Potent serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors are the only drugs that consistently exert a therapeutic action in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given that some hallucinogens were reported to exert an anti-OCD effect outlasting their psychotomimetic action, possible modifications of neuronal responsiveness to 5-HT by LSD were examined in two rat brain structures: one associated with OCD, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and another linked to depression, the hippocampus. The effects of concurrent microiontophoretic application of LSD and 5-HT were examined on neuronal firing rate in the rat OFC and hippocampus under chloral hydrate anaesthesia. In order to determine whether LSD could also exert a modification of 5-HT neuronal responsiveness upon systemic administration, after a delay when hallucinosis is presumably no longer present, it was given once daily (100 microg/kg i.p.) for 4 d and the experiments were carried out 24 h after the last dose. LSD attenuated the firing activity of OFC neurons, and enhanced the inhibitory effect of 5-HT when concomitantly ejected on the same neurons. In the hippocampus, LSD also decreased firing rate by itself but decreased the inhibitory action of 5-HT. The inhibitory action of 5-HT was significantly greater in the OFC, but smaller in the hippocampus, when examined after subacute systemic administration of LSD. It is postulated that some hallucinogens could have a beneficial action in OCD by enhancing the responsiveness to 5-HT in the OFC, and not necessarily in direct relation to hallucinosis. The latter observation may have theoretical implications for the pharmacotherapy of OCD.

  5. Overexpression of STIM1 in neurons in mouse brain improves contextual learning and impairs long-term depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Łukasz; Maciąg, Filip; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Wasilewska, Iga; Wiera, Grzegorz; Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Kuznicki, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    STIM1 is an endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor that is involved in several processes in neurons, including store-operated calcium entry. STIM1 also inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels, such as Cav1.2 and Cav3.1, and is thus considered a multifunctional protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the ways in which transgenic neuronal overexpression of STIM1 in FVB/NJ mice affects animal behavior and the electrophysiological properties of neurons in acute hippocampal slices. We overexpressed STIM1 from the Thy1.2 promoter and verified neuronal expression by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Mature primary hippocampal cultures expressed STIM1 but exhibited no changes in calcium homeostasis. Basal synaptic transmission efficiency and short-term plasticity were comparable in slices that were isolated from transgenic mice, similarly as the magnitude of long-term potentiation. However, long-term depression that was induced by the glutamate receptor 1/5 agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine was impaired in STIM1 slices. Interestingly, transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and improvements in contextual learning. In summary, our data indicate that STIM1 overexpression in neurons in the brain perturbs metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling, leading to impairments in long-term depression and alterations in animal behavior. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuron-glia interaction as a possible glue to translate the mind-brain gap: A novel multi-dimensional approach toward psychology and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro A. Kato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons and synapses have long been the dominant focus of neuroscience, thus the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has come to be understood within the neuronal doctrine. However, the majority of cells in the brain are not neurons but glial cells including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Traditionally, neuroscientists regarded glial functions as simply providing physical support and maintenance for neurons. Thus, in this limited role glia had been long ignored. Recently, glial functions have been gradually investigated, and increasing evidence has suggested that glial cells perform important roles in various brain functions. Digging up the glial functions and further understanding of these crucial cells, and the interaction between neurons and glia may shed new light on clarifying many unknown aspects including the mind-brain gap, and conscious-unconscious relationships. We briefly review the current situation of glial research in the field, and propose a novel translational research with a multi-dimensional model, combining various experimental approaches such as animal studies, in vitro & in vivo neuron-glia studies, a variety of human brain imaging investigations, and psychometric assessments.

  7. Halothane depresses glutamatergic neurotransmission to brain stem inspiratory premotor neurons in a decerebrate dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucke, Astrid G; Zuperku, Edward J; Tonkovic-Capin, Viseslav; Tonkovic-Capin, Mislav; Hopp, Francis A; Kampine, John P; Stuth, Eckehard A E

    2003-04-01

    Inspiratory bulbospinal neurons in the caudal ventral medulla are premotor neurons that drive phrenic motoneurons and ultimately the diaphragm. Excitatory drive to these neurons is mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors and modulated by an inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A))ergic input. The authors investigated the effect of halothane on these synaptic mechanisms in decerebrate dogs. Studies were performed in decerebrate, vagotomized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated dogs during hypercapnic hyperoxia. The effect of 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) halothane on extracellularly recorded neuronal activity was measured during localized picoejection of the GABA(A) receptor blocker bicuculline and the glutamate agonists AMPA and NMDA. Complete blockade of the GABA(A)ergic mechanism by bicuculline allowed differentiation between the effects of halothane on overall GABA(A)ergic inhibition and on overall glutamatergic excitation. The neuronal responses to exogenous AMPA and NMDA were used to estimate the anesthetic effect on postsynaptic glutamatergic neurotransmission. Halothane, 1 MAC, depressed the spontaneous activity of 21 inspiratory neurons by 20.6 +/- 18.0% (mean +/- SD; P = 0.012). Overall glutamatergic excitation was depressed 15.4 +/- 20.2% (P = 0.001), while overall GABA(A)ergic inhibition did not change. The postsynaptic responses to exogenous AMPA and NMDA were also depressed by 18.6 +/- 35.7% (P = 0.03) and 22.2 +/- 26.2% (P = 0.004), respectively. Halothane, 1 MAC, depressed the activity of inspiratory premotor neurons by a reduction of glutamatergic excitation. Overall inhibitory drive did not change. The postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptor response was significantly reduced. These findings contrast with studies in expiratory premotor neurons in which overall inhibition was significantly increased by halothane and there was no reduction in the

  8. Serum neuron-specific enolase as a predictor of short-term outcome and its correlation with Glasgow Coma Scale in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Aslan; Er, Uygur; Tatli, Mehmet; Aluclu, Ufuk; Ozkan, Umit; Duzenli, Yucel; Satici, Omer; Guzel, Ebru; Kemaloglu, Serdar; Ceviz, Adnan; Kaplan, Abdurrahman

    2008-10-01

    Elevated serum neuron-specific enolase levels are correlated with brain cell damage. Low scores according to Glasgow Coma Scale are also considered as serious poor prognostic factor. The aims of the study were to investigate whether there is a correlation between the two measurements in patients with traumatic brain injury and whether serum neuron-specific enolase levels have potential as a screening test to predict outcome. A total of 169 consecutive patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to our clinic between 2002 and 2005 are included in this study. Those patients, who had any major health problem before trauma, were excluded from the study. However, patients with isolated head injury were included in the study. Serial serum neuron-specific enolase concentrations taken at the first 2, 24, and 48 h after traumatic brain injury were analyzed. A computed tomography was performed on each patient on admission. Their Glasgow Coma Scale scores were recorded serially. The relationship between Glasgow Coma Scale scores and the serum neuron-specific enolase levels were assessed by statistical methods. There was a significant negative correlation between the serum neuron-specific enolase levels and Glasgow Coma Scale scores. The levels of neuron-specific enolase were significantly higher in the patients who died in 30 days after trauma and whose scores were lower than or equal to 8 points in Glasgow Coma Scale. Although there are several serious limitations of the use of neuron-specific enolase as a biomarker in traumatic brain injury (i.e., hypoperfusion, extracranial trauma, bleeding, liver, or kidney damage also increase the level of neuron-specific enolase), its concentrations may be useful as a practical and helpful screening test to identify neurotrauma patients who are at increased risk and may provide supplementary estimation with radiological and clinical findings.

  9. ESTIMATION OF NEURONAL ACTIVITY AND BRAIN DYNAMICS USING A DUAL KALMAN FILTER WITH PHYSIOLOGYCAL BASED LINEAR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research article a dynamic estimation of neuronal activity and brain dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG signals is presented using a dual Kalman filter. The dynamic model for brain behavior is evaluated using physiological-based linear models. Filter performance is analyzed for simulated and clinical EEG data, over several noise conditions. As a result a better performance on the solution of the dynamic inverse problem is achieved, in case of time varying parameters compared with the system with fixed parameters and the static case. An evaluation of computational load is performed when predicted dynamic cases, estimated using the Kalman filter, are up to ten times faster than the static case.

  10. Induction of neuronal damage in guinea pig brain by intratracheal infusion of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsden-Gray, Jessica; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Das, Salil K

    2012-01-01

    Intratracheal infusion of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a mustard gas analog and a chemical warfare agent is known to cause massive damage to lung. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intratracheal CEES infusion causes neuronal damage. Histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot studies indicated that CEES treatment caused dose-dependent increases in blood cell aggregation, microglial cell number, microglial activation, and brain inflammation. In addition, an increased expression of α-synuclein and a decreased expression of the dopamine transporter were observed. The results indicate that intratracheal CEES infusion is associated with changes in brain morphology mediated by an increase in α-synuclein expression, leading to neurotoxicity in a guinea pig model. These changes may be mediated by oxidative stress. Furthermore, the present study indicates for the first time that intratracheal infusion of a single dose of CEES can cause neuroinflammation, which may lead to neurological disorders in later part of life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of a novel differentiation factor on the development of catecholamine traits in noncatecholamine neurons from various regions of the rat brain: studies in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, L

    1991-08-01

    The muscle-derived differentiation factor called MDF initiated expression of the catecholamine (CA) enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in non-CA neurons isolated from a variety of regions in the rat brain. Specifically, subpopulations of neurons from the striatum, collicular plate, and cerebellum were TH-immunoreactive after an overnight exposure to MDF in culture. The number of immunopositive cells was greatest in the striatum, where more than half of all plated neurons expressed the enzyme. In contrast, MDF had no effect on the central neurons of the hippocampus or on peripheral sensory neurons. In 3H-thymidine studies, only brain neurons that had already withdrawn from mitosis expressed TH. These cells remained open to the epigenetic influence of MDF only during a brief and defined critical period that appears to be timed intrinsically. Without daily replenishment of MDF, expression of the enzyme disappeared after several days in culture, suggesting that MDF was rapidly depleted or degraded in vitro. However, in the continued presence of MDF, TH expression was maintained indefinitely, thus producing a permanent alteration in phenotype. Moreover, a single exposure to MDF during the critical period was sufficient to render neurons permanently receptive to the molecule so that TH expression could be reinitiated many days later. It is postulated that a memory of this biochemical interaction was established in these neurons, making transmitter phenotypic plasticity possible at later stages.

  12. Implications of the Dependence of Neuronal Activity on Neural Network States for the Design of Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeri, Stefano; Safaai, Houman; De Feo, Vito; Vato, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state) that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brain. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately.

  13. Implications of the dependence of neuronal activity on neural network states for the design of brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePanzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brains. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately.

  14. Chemical and radiological effects of chronic ingestion of uranium in the rat brain: biochemical impairment of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neuro-transmissions; Effets chimique et radiologique d'une ingestion chronique d'uranium sur le cerveau du rat. Effets sur les neurotransmissions dopaminergique, serotoninergique et cholinergique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussy, C

    2005-09-15

    Uranium is an environmental ubiquitous metal-trace element. It has both chemical and radiological toxicity. After chronic ingestion, uranium can distribute in any part of the body and accumulate in the brain. The aims of this study was 1) to determine and estimate the effects of uranium on dopaminergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems and 2) to measure the uranium amount in the brain, after chronic exposure by ingestion of depleted (D.U.) or enriched (E.U.) uranium during 1.5 to 18 months at 40 mg.L{sup -1} (40 ppm) in different rat brain areas. At any time of exposure, the results show that both the neurotransmission alterations and the uranium brain accumulation were moderate, area specific, time-evolutive and depended on uranium specific activity. After D.U. exposure, monoamine perturbations are chronic and progressive. On the contrary, monoamine alterations occurred only after long term of E.U. exposure. These mono-aminergic modifications are not always dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas. Moreover, although the cholinergic system was not affected at both 1.5 and 9 months of D.U. exposure, the alteration of ChE activity after E.U. exposure are both dependent on uranium accumulation in brain areas and on uranium specific activity. After E.U. exposure, cholinergic modification and uranium accumulation in hippocampus could partially explain the short-term memory disturbances which have been previously reported. (author)

  15. Ablation of the mTORC2 component rictor in brain or Purkinje cells affects size and neuron morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Venus; Angliker, Nico; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Lustenberger, Regula M; Schweighauser, Manuel; Oliveri, Filippo; Suzuki, Noboru; Rüegg, Markus A

    2013-04-15

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multi-protein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. Whereas mTORC1 is known to regulate cell and organismal growth, the role of mTORC2 is less understood. We describe two mouse lines that are devoid of the mTORC2 component rictor in the entire central nervous system or in Purkinje cells. In both lines neurons were smaller and their morphology and function were strongly affected. The phenotypes were accompanied by loss of activation of Akt, PKC, and SGK1 without effects on mTORC1 activity. The striking decrease in the activation and expression of several PKC isoforms, the subsequent loss of activation of GAP-43 and MARCKS, and the established role of PKCs in spinocerebellar ataxia and in shaping the actin cytoskeleton strongly suggest that the morphological deficits observed in rictor-deficient neurons are mediated by PKCs. Together our experiments show that mTORC2 has a particularly important role in the brain and that it affects size, morphology, and function of neurons.

  16. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  17. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu K Madathil

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI.

  18. Brain innate immunity regulates hypothalamic arcuate neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H; Stern, Javier E

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexigenic agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons, whereas it increased the activity of the majority of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons. Lipopolysaccharide effects in agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y (but not in proopiomelanocortin) neurons were occluded by inhibiting microglia function or by blocking TLR4 receptors. Finally, we report that inhibition of hypothalamic microglia altered basal food intake, also preventing central orexigenic responses to ghrelin. Our studies support a major role for a TLR4-mediated microglia signaling pathway in the control of ARC neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

  19. Uptake of silica nanoparticles in the brain and effects on neuronal differentiation using different in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducray, Angélique D; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Möller, Anja; Stoffel, Michael H; Widmer, Hans-Rudolf; Frenz, Martin; Mevissen, Meike

    2017-04-01

    Nanomedicine offers a promising tool for therapies of brain diseases, but they may be associated with potential adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of silica-nanoparticles engineered for laser-tissue soldering in the brain using SH-SY5Y cells, dissociated and organotypic slice cultures from rat hippocampus. Nanoparticles were predominantly taken up by microglial cells in the hippocampal cultures but nanoparticles were also found in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. The uptake was time- and concentration-dependent in primary hippocampal cells. Transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated nanoparticle aggregates and single particles in the cytoplasm. Nanoparticles were found in the endoplasmic reticulum, but not in other cellular compartments. Nanoparticle exposure did not impair cell viability and neuroinflammation in primary hippocampal cultures at all times investigated. Neurite outgrowth was not significantly altered in SH-SY5Y cells, but the neuronal differentiation markers indicated a reduction in neuronal differentiation induction after nanoparticle exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Divergent neuronal circuitries underlying acute orexigenic effects of peripheral or central ghrelin: critical role of brain accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; Valdivia, Spring; Fernandez, Gimena; Reynaldo, Mirta; Perello, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that potently and rapidly increases food intake. The orexigenic action of ghrelin involves the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is accessible to plasma ghrelin and expresses high levels of the ghrelin receptor. Local administration of ghrelin in a variety of other brain nuclei also increases food intake. It is currently unclear, however, if these non-ARC ghrelin brain targets are impacted by physiological increases of plasma ghrelin. Thus, the current study was designed to clarify which ghrelin brain targets participate in the short-term orexigenic actions of ghrelin. First, c-Fos induction into mouse brains centrally or peripherally treated with ghrelin was analyzed. It was confirmed that peripherally administered ghrelin dose dependently increases food intake and mainly activates c-Fos in ARC neurons. In contrast, centrally administered ghrelin activates c-Fos in a larger number of brain nuclei. To determine which nuclei are directly accessible to ghrelin, mice were centrally or peripherally injected with a fluorescent ghrelin tracer. It was found that peripherally injected tracer mainly accesses the ARC while centrally injected tracer reaches most brain areas known to express ghrelin receptors. Following that, ghrelin effects in ARC-ablated mice were tested and it was found that these mice failed to increase food intake in response to peripherally administered ghrelin but fully responded to centrally administered ghrelin. ARC-ablated mice showed similar patterns of ghrelin-induced c-Fos expression as seen in control mice with the exception of the ARC, where no c-Fos was found. Thus, peripheral ghrelin mainly accesses the ARC, which is required for the orexigenic effects of the hormone. Central ghrelin accesses a variety of nuclei, which can mediate the orexigenic effects of the hormone even in the absence of an intact ARC. PMID:24888783

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... neuron's point of contact for receiving chemical and electrical signals called impulses from neighboring neurons. Axon which ... from one neuron to another as chemical or electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group ...

  2. Targeted Gene Inactivation of Calpain-1 Suppresses Cortical Degeneration Due to Traumatic Brain Injury and Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kaori H.; Kozlowski, Dorothy A.; Seidl, Stacey E.; Lance, Steven; Wieschhaus, Adam J.; Sundivakkam, Premanand; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Chishti, Imran; Herman, Ira M.; Kuchay, Shafi M.; Chishti, Athar H.

    2012-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-regulated cysteine proteases that have been implicated in the regulation of cell death pathways. Here, we used our calpain-1 null mouse model to evaluate the function of calpain-1 in neural degeneration following a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. In vivo, calpain-1 null mice show significantly less neural degeneration and apoptosis and a smaller contusion 3 days post-injury than wild type littermates. Protection from traumatic brain injury corroborated with the resistance of calpain-1 neurons to apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Biochemical analysis revealed that caspase-3 activation, extracellular calcium entry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria are partially blocked in the calpain-1 null neurons. These findings suggest that the calpain-1 knock-out mice may serve as a useful model system for neuronal protection and apoptosis in traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative disorders in which oxidative stress plays a role. PMID:22367208

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate with each other. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mdash; ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... the body's response to stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  6. Processing of sub- and supra-second intervals in the primate brain results from the calibration of neuronal oscillators via sensory, motor and feedback processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Shankar Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of the physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time-dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. The proposed oscillators include the pacemaker neurons, tonic inputs and synchronized excitation and inhibition of inter-connected neurons. Oscillators, which are built inside various circuits of brain, help to form modular clocks, processing time intervals or other temporal characteristics specific to functions of a circuit. Relative or absolute duration is represented within neuronal oscillators by ‘neural temporal unit’, defined as the interval between regularly occurring spikes or spike bursts. Oscillator output is processed to produce changes in activities of neurons, named frequency modulator neuron, wired within a separate module, represented by the rate of change in frequency, and frequency of activities, proposed to encode time intervals. Inbuilt oscillators are calibrated by (a feedback processes (b input of time intervals resulting from rhythmic external sensory stimulation and (c synchronous effects of feedback processes and evoked sensory activity. A single active clock is proposed per circuit, which is calibrated by one or more mechanisms. Multiple calibration mechanisms, inbuilt oscillators and the presence of modular connections prevent a complete loss of interval timing functions of the brain.

  7. Binding characteristics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to its receptors on neurons from the chick embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.

    1988-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations.

  8. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against neuronal cell death and improves cerebral function after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Ito, Akihiko; Satou, Takao

    2011-12-01

    A major component of green tea, a widely consumed beverage, is (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which has strong antioxidant properties. Our previous study has indicated that free radical production following rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces neural degeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects of EGCG on cerebral function and morphology following TBI. Six-week-old male Wistar rats that had access to normal drinking water, or water containing 0.1% (w/v) EGCG ad libitum, received TBI with a pneumatic controlled injury device at 10 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry and lipid peroxidation studies revealed that at 1, 3 and 7 days post-TBI, the number of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive cells, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) around the damaged area after TBI, significantly decreased in the EGCG treatment group compared with the water group (P water group co-localized with neuronal cells. However, in the EGCG treatment group, few ssDNA-positive cells co-localized with neurons. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of surviving neuronal cells and an improvement in cerebral dysfunction after TBI in the EGCG treatment group compared with the water group (P consumption of water containing EGCG pre- and post-TBI inhibits free radical-induced neuronal degeneration and apoptotic cell death around the damaged area, resulting in the improvement of cerebral function following TBI. In summary, consumption of green tea may be an effective therapy for TBI patients.

  9. Tomato (Lycopersicum commune Juice and Physical Exercise Increase Number of Neurons and ERβ expression in Post-Ovariectomy Rats Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estrogen deficiency condition can degrade the quality of life, decline in cognitive function will be more severe trough age. Phytoestrogen compounds can be found in pegaga leaf extract, tomatoes and papaya is an easy and inexpensive way to increase estrogen levels in post menopause women through extra gonadal estrogen induction. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the effect of tomato juice, physical exercise, and combination of these treatments on promoting neurons and ERβ expression in somatosensory cortex that contribute to cognitive function of post-ovariectomy rats. Method: Twenty-eight female healthy Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus, 8-10 weeks old, from Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University include in this experiment. The animals were housed in the animal-care facility with ad libitum food and water. The temperatur was maintained at 18°C-24°C.  The treatments were done 2 weeks after ovariectomy. Tomato were made in Laboratory of  Pharmacognocy  and Phytochemistry, Faculty of  Pharmacy, Airlangga University, from inner part of the tomato fruits (mucous like substance with freeze dry method (-40°C. Results: The weight of white rat Rattus norvegicus post ovariectomy in this study was between 133-170 gram with a mean weight 154.32 ± 9.72 gram. Hematoxylin/eosin staining showed neuronal deficit in the control rats brain. In figure 1, the tomato group showed the largest of neurons number (145.43 ± 17.728, followed the combination group (140.57 ± 22.449, the exercise group (136.86 ± 23.104 and the smallest number in the control group (96.43± 28.965. Four weeks after treatments the number of neurons increased significant in the tomato group (p=0.001, exercise group (p=0.004 and combination group (p=0.002 from the control group.  This study showed no significant different between tomato and exercise group (p=0.500, tomato and combination group (p=0.701 and between exercise and

  10. Human FGF1 promoter is active in ependymal cells and dopaminergic neurons in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Shu; Lin, Hua-Kuo; Chiu, Hsun; Lee, Don-Ching; Chung, Yu-Fen; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2015-03-01

    FGF1 is involved in multiple biological functions and exhibits the importance in neuroprotective effects. Our previous studies indicated that, in human brain and retina, the FGF1B promoter controlled the expression of FGF1. However, the exact function and regulation of FGF1 in brain is still unclear. Here, we generated F1B-GFP transgenic mice that expressed the GFP reporter gene under the control of human FGF1B promoter (-540 to +31). Using the fresh brain sections of F1B-GFP transgenic mice, we found that the F1B-GFP cells expressed strong fluorescent signals in the ventricular system throughout the brain. The results of immunohistochemistry further showed that two distinct populations of F1B-GFP(+) cells existed in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice. We demonstrated that one population of F1B-GFP(+) cells was ependymal cells, which distributed along the entire ventricles, and the second population of F1B-GFP(+) cells was neuronal cells that projected their long processes into multiple directions in specific areas of the brain. The double labeling of F1B-GFP(+) cells and tyrosine hydroxylase indicated that a subpopulation of F1B-GFP(+) -neuronal cells was dopaminergic neurons. Importantly, these F1B-GFP(+) /TH(+) cells were distributed in the main dopaminergic neuronal groups including hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, and raphe nuclei. These results suggested that human FGF1B promoter was active in ependymal cells, neurons, and a portion of dopaminergic neurons. Thus, the F1B-GFP transgenic mice provide an animal model not only for studying FGF1 gene expression in vivo but also for understanding the role of FGF1 contribution in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The Authors Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Connecting Neurons, Concepts, and People: Brain Development and Its Implications. Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has seen an upsurge in public understanding of early brain development. News reports, statements by policymakers, and commercial marketing of products for infants and young children have all contributed to a widespread understanding of the explosive growth of the brain in the early years and that stimulation acts as a catalyst to…

  12. From Neurons to Brainpower: Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janet M.

    2005-01-01

    We have learned more about the brain in the past five years than the previous 100. Neuroimaging, lesion studies, and animal studies have revealed the intricate inner workings of the brain and learning. Synaptogenesis, pruning, sensitive periods, and plasticity have all become accepted concepts of cognitive neuroscience that are now being applied…

  13. Involvement of the JNK/FOXO3a/Bim Pathway in Neuronal Apoptosis after Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage in Neonatal Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyuan Li

    Full Text Available c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK plays a key role in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. Previous studies have revealed that forkhead transcription factor (FOXO3a is a critical effector of JNK-mediated tumor suppression. However, it is not clear whether the JNK/FOXO3a pathway is involved in neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat brain after hypoxia-ischemia (HI. In this study, we generated an HI model using postnatal day 7 rats. Fluorescence immunolabeling and Western blot assays were used to detect the distribution and expression of total and phosphorylated JNK and FOXO3a and the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and CC3. We found that JNK phosphorylation was accompanied by FOXO3a dephosphorylation, which induced FOXO3a translocation into the nucleus, resulting in the upregulation of levels of Bim and CC3 proteins. Furthermore, we found that JNK inhibition by AS601245, a specific JNK inhibitor, significantly increased FOXO3a phosphorylation, which attenuated FOXO3a translocation into the nucleus after HI. Moreover, JNK inhibition downregulated levels of Bim and CC3 proteins, attenuated neuronal apoptosis and reduced brain infarct volume in the developing rat brain. Our findings suggest that the JNK/FOXO3a/Bim pathway is involved in neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat brain after HI. Agents targeting JNK may offer promise for rescuing neurons from HI-induced damage.

  14. Whole brain-based analysis of regional white matter tract alterations in rare motor neuron diseases by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrath, Alexander; Müller, Hans-Peter; Riecker, Axel; Ludolph, Albert C; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Kassubek, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Different motor neuron disorders (MNDs) are mainly defined by the clinical presentation based on the predominance of upper or lower motor neuron impairment and the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mostly serves as a tool to exclude other pathologies, but novel approaches such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have begun to add information on the underlying pathophysiological processes of these disorders in vivo. The present study was designed to investigate three different rare MNDs, i.e., primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, N = 25), hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP, N = 24), and X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy (X-SBMA, N = 20), by use of whole-brain-based DTI analysis in comparison with matched controls. This analysis of white matter (WM) impairment revealed widespread and characteristic patterns of alterations within the motor system with a predominant deterioration of the corticospinal tract (CST) in HSP and PLS patients according to the clinical presentation and also in patients with X-SBMA to a lesser degree, but also WM changes in projections to the limbic system and within distinct areas of the corpus callosum (CC), the latter both for HSP and PLS. In summary, DTI was able to define a characteristic WM pathoanatomy in motor and extra-motor brain areas, such as the CC and the limbic projectional system, for different MNDs via whole brain-based FA assessment and quantitative fiber tracking. Future advanced MRI-based investigations might help to provide a fingerprint-identification of MNDs. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Radial and tangential neuronal migration pathways in the human fetal brain: anatomically distinct patterns of diffusion MRI coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, James; Takahashi, Emi; Stevens, Allison A.; Benner, Thomas; Fischl, Bruce; Zöllei, Lilla; Grant, P. Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Corticogenesis is underpinned by a complex process of subcortical neuroproliferation, followed by highly orchestrated cellular migration. A greater appreciation of the processes involved in human fetal corticogenesis is vital to gaining an understanding of how developmental disturbances originating in gestation could establish a variety of complex neuropathology manifesting in childhood, or even in adult life. Magnetic resonance imaging modalities offer a unique insight into anatomical structure, and increasingly infer information regarding underlying microstructure in the human brain. In this study we applied a combination of high-resolution structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to a unique cohort of three post-mortem fetal brain specimens, aged between 19 and 22 post-conceptual weeks. Specifically, we sought to assess patterns of diffusion coherence associated with subcortical neuroproliferative structures: the pallial ventricular/subventricular zone and subpallial ganglionic eminence. Two distinct three-dimensional patterns of diffusion coherence were evident: a clear radial pattern originating in ventricular/subventricular zone, and a tangentio-radial patterns originating in ganglionic eminence. These patterns appeared to regress in a caudo-rostral and lateral-ventral to medial-dorsal direction across the short period of fetal development under study. Our findings demonstrate for the first time distinct patterns of diffusion coherence associated with known anatomical proliferative structures. The radial pattern associated with dorsopallial ventricular/subventricular zone and the tangentio-radial pattern associated with subpallial ganglionic eminence are consistent with reports of radial-glial mediated neuronal migration pathways identified during human corticogenesis, supported by our prior studies of comparative fetal diffusion MRI and histology. The ability to assess such pathways in the fetal brain using MR imaging offers a unique

  16. Fluorescent protein tagging of endogenous protein in brain neurons using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in and in utero electroporation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Mori, Takuma; Kurihara, Taiga; Kawase, Shiori; Koike, Rie; Satoga, Michiru; Cao, Xueshan; Li, Xue; Yanagawa, Toru; Sakurai, Takayuki; Shindo, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-26

    Genome editing is a powerful technique for studying gene functions. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knock-in has recently been applied to various cells and organisms. Here, we successfully knocked in an EGFP coding sequence at the site immediately after the first ATG codon of the β-actin gene in neurons in the brain by the combined use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and in utero electroporation technique, resulting in the expression of the EGFP-tagged β-actin protein in cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. We detected EGFP fluorescence signals in the soma and neurites of EGFP knock-in neurons. These signals were particularly abundant in the head of dendritic spines, corresponding to the localization of the endogenous β-actin protein. EGFP knock-in neurons showed no detectable changes in spine density and basic electrophysiological properties. In contrast, exogenously overexpressed EGFP-β-actin showed increased spine density and EPSC frequency, and changed resting membrane potential. Thus, our technique provides a potential tool to elucidate the localization of various endogenous proteins in neurons by epitope tagging without altering neuronal and synaptic functions. This technique can be also useful for introducing a specific mutation into genes to study the function of proteins and genomic elements in brain neurons.

  17. The Vertebrate Brain, Evidence of Its Modular Organization and Operating System: Insights into the Brain's Basic Units of Structure, Function, and Operation and How They Influence Neuronal Signaling and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H.

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is a complex organ made up of neurons and several other cell types, and whose role is processing information for use in eliciting behaviors. However, the composition of its repeating cellular units for both structure and function are unresolved. Based on recent descriptions of the brain's physiological “operating system”, a function of the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) for supply of energy, and on the nature of “neuronal words and languages” for intercellular communication, insights into the brain's modular structural and functional units have been gained. In this article, it is proposed that the basic structural unit in brain is defined by its physiological operating system, and that it consists of a single neuron, and one or more astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular system endothelial cells. It is also proposed that the basic functional unit in the brain is defined by how neurons communicate, and consists of two neurons and their interconnecting dendritic–synaptic–dendritic field. Since a functional unit is composed of two neurons, it requires two structural units to form a functional unit. Thus, the brain can be envisioned as being made up of the three-dimensional stacking and intertwining of myriad structural units which results not only in its gross structure, but also in producing a uniform distribution of binary functional units. Since the physiological NAA–NAAG operating system for supply of energy is repeated in every structural unit, it is positioned to control global brain function. PMID:21720525

  18. PTPBR7 binding proteins in myelinating neurons of the mouse brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesini, I.M.; Debyser, G.; Croes, H.J.E.; Dam, G.B. ten; Devreese, B.; Stoker, A.W.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPBR7 is a receptor-like, transmembrane protein that is localized on the surface of neuronal cells. Its protein phosphatase activity is reduced upon multimerization, and PTPBR7-deficient mice display motor coordination defects. Extracellular molecules that may

  19. Plumes of neuronal activity propagate in three dimensions through the nuclear avian brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; van der Meij, Jacqueline; Lesku, John A.; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In mammals, the slow-oscillations of neuronal membrane potentials (reflected in the electroencephalogram as high-amplitude, slow-waves), which occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep and anesthesia, propagate across the neocortex largely as two-dimensional traveling waves. However, it

  20. Phencyclidine inhibits the activity of thalamic reticular gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano-Rodriguez, Eva; Lladó-Pelfort, Laia; Santana, Noemi; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2014-12-15

    The neurobiological basis of action of noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists is poorly understood. Electrophysiological studies indicate that phencyclidine (PCP) markedly disrupts neuronal activity with an overall excitatory effect and reduces the power of low-frequency oscillations (LFO; <4 Hz) in thalamocortical networks. Because the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RtN) provides tonic feed-forward inhibition to the rest of the thalamic nuclei, we examined the effect of PCP on RtN activity, under the working hypothesis that NMDA-R blockade in RtN would disinhibit thalamocortical networks. Drug effects (PCP followed by clozapine) on the activity of RtN (single unit and local field potential recordings) and prefrontal cortex (PFC; electrocorticogram) in anesthetized rats were assessed. PCP (.25-.5 mg/kg, intravenous) reduced the discharge rate of 19 of 21 RtN neurons to 37% of baseline (p < .000001) and the power of LFO in RtN and PFC to ~20% of baseline (p < .001). PCP also reduced the coherence between PFC and RtN in the LFO range. A low clozapine dose (1 mg/kg intravenous) significantly countered the effect of PCP on LFO in PFC but not in RtN and further reduced the discharge rate of RtN neurons. However, clozapine administration partly antagonized the fall in coherence and phase-locking values produced by PCP. PCP activates thalamocortical circuits in a bottom-up manner by reducing the activity of RtN neurons, which tonically inhibit thalamic relay neurons. However, clozapine reversal of PCP effects is not driven by restoring RtN activity and may involve a cortical action. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estrogen Modulates ubc9 Expression and Synaptic Redistribution in the Brain of APP/PS1 Mice and Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Jie; Liu, Lu; Hu, Xiao-Tong; He, Ling; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Estrogen exerts multiple actions in the brain and is an important neuroprotective factor in a number of neuronal disorders. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies demonstrate that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (ubc9) has an integral role in synaptic plasticity and may contribute to the pathology of neuronal disorders. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on ubc9 and in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Ubc9 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice with enhanced SUMOylation. Systemic estrogen administration led to reduced ubc9 expression in ovariectomized APP/PS1 mice and reduced SUMOylation. The inhibition of ubc9 expression by estrogen was found to be dose-dependent in cultured neurons. However, estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 did not block the inhibition of ubc9 expression by estrogen. Furthermore, the reduced expression of ubc9 was not mediated by ERα or ERβ agonists alone or in combination, but by the membrane-impermeable ER agonist E2-bovine serum albumin. The activation of the G protein-coupled ER mediated the inhibition of ubc9 expression of estrogen. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, rather than an extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, blocked the inhibition of ubc9 by estrogen. Estrogen treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, which suggests that activation of the PI3K pathway by estrogen is required for ubc9 regulation. Further, ubc9 interacted with the synaptic proteins post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and synaptophysin. Estrogen decreased the interaction of ubc9 with post-synaptic PSD95, but increased the interaction of ubc9 with pre-synaptic synaptophysin. These results suggest that a membrane-bound ER might mediate the estrogen inhibition of ubc9 in cortical neurons, where PI3K plays an important role. We also show that ubc9 can interact with synaptic proteins, which are subject to estrogen regulation.

  2. Blocking systemic nitric oxide production alters neuronal activation in brain structures involved in cardiovascular regulation during polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Fernando Henrique Pascoti; Corrêa, Pollyanna Barbosa Farias; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela Ravanelli; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2009-04-10

    In a previous study, we concluded that overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the late phase of sepsis prevents hypothalamic activation, blunts vasopressin secretion and contributes to hypotension, irreversible shock and death. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate if the same neuronal activation pattern happens in brain structures related to cardiovascular functions. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, or saline 30 min before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgeries. The animals were perfused 6 or 24h after the surgeries and the brains were removed and processed for Fos immunocytochemistry. We observed an increase (Pafter CLP in the area postrema (AP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), ventral lateral medulla (VLM), locus coeruleus (LC) and parabrachial nucleus (PB). At 24h after CLP, however, c-fos expression was strongly decreased in all these nuclei (Pafter CLP, but showed an opposite effect at 24h, with an increase in the AP, NTS, and also in the VLM. No such effect was observed in the LC and PB at 6 or 24h. In all control animals, c-fos expression was minimal or absent. We conclude that in the early phase of sepsis iNOS-derived NO may be partially responsible for the activation of brain structures related to cardiovascular regulation. During the late phase, however, this activation is reduced or abolished.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Three Major Forms of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Reveals Potential Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleat, David E; Tannous, Abla; Sohar, Istvan; Wiseman, Jennifer A; Zheng, Haiyan; Qian, Meiqian; Zhao, Caifeng; Xin, Winnie; Barone, Rosemary; Sims, Katherine B; Moore, Dirk F; Lobel, Peter

    2017-10-06

    Clinical trials have been conducted for the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a group of neurodegenerative lysosomal diseases that primarily affect children. Whereas clinical rating systems will evaluate long-term efficacy, biomarkers to measure short-term response to treatment would be extremely valuable. To identify candidate biomarkers, we analyzed autopsy brain and matching CSF samples from controls and three genetically distinct NCLs due to deficiencies in palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (CLN1 disease), tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (CLN2 disease), and CLN3 protein (CLN3 disease). Proteomic and biochemical methods were used to analyze lysosomal proteins, and, in general, we find that changes in protein expression compared with control were most similar between CLN2 disease and CLN3 disease. This is consistent with previous observations of biochemical similarities between these diseases. We also conducted unbiased proteomic analyses of CSF and brain using isobaric labeling/quantitative mass spectrometry. Significant alterations in protein expression were identified in each NCL, including reduced STXBP1 in CLN1 disease brain. Given the confounding variable of post-mortem changes, additional validation is required, but this study provides a useful starting set of candidate NCL biomarkers for further evaluation.

  4. Kv2 Ion Channels Determine the Expression and Localization of the Associated AMIGO-1 Cell Adhesion Molecule in Adult Brain Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah I. Bishop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated K+ (Kv channels play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability. Kv channels comprise four principal α subunits, and transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic auxiliary subunits that modify diverse aspects of channel function. AMIGO-1, which mediates homophilic cell adhesion underlying neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during development, has recently been shown to be an auxiliary subunit of adult brain Kv2.1-containing Kv channels. We show that AMIGO-1 is extensively colocalized with both Kv2.1 and its paralog Kv2.2 in brain neurons across diverse mammals, and that in adult brain, there is no apparent population of AMIGO-1 outside of that colocalized with these Kv2 α subunits. AMIGO-1 is coclustered with Kv2 α subunits at specific plasma membrane (PM sites associated with hypolemmal subsurface cisternae at neuronal ER:PM junctions. This distinct PM clustering of AMIGO-1 is not observed in brain neurons of mice lacking Kv2 α subunit expression. Moreover, in heterologous cells, coexpression of either Kv2.1 or Kv2.2 is sufficient to drive clustering of the otherwise uniformly expressed AMIGO-1. Kv2 α subunit coexpression also increases biosynthetic intracellular trafficking and PM expression of AMIGO-1 in heterologous cells, and analyses of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 knockout mice show selective loss of AMIGO-1 expression and localization in neurons lacking the respective Kv2 α subunit. Together, these data suggest that in mammalian brain neurons, AMIGO-1 is exclusively associated with Kv2 α subunits, and that Kv2 α subunits are obligatory in determining the correct pattern of AMIGO-1 expression, PM trafficking and clustering.

  5. Modulation of light-driven arousal by LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Apterous in large PDF-positive lateral neurons of the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Naoto; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-11-17

    Apterous (Ap), the best studied LIM-homeodomain transcription factor in Drosophila, cooperates with the cofactor Chip (Chi) to regulate transcription of specific target genes. Although Ap regulates various developmental processes, its function in the adult brain remains unclear. Here, we report that Ap and Chi in the neurons expressing PDF, a neuropeptide, play important roles in proper sleep/wake regulation in adult flies. PDF-expressing neurons consist of two neuronal clusters: small ventral-lateral neurons (s-LNvs) acting as the circadian pacemaker and large ventral-lateral neurons (l-LNvs) regulating light-driven arousal. We identified that Ap localizes to the nuclei of s-LNvs and l-LNvs. In light-dark (LD) cycles, RNAi knockdown or the targeted expression of dominant-negative forms of Ap or Chi in PDF-expressing neurons or l-LNvs promoted arousal. In contrast, in constant darkness, knockdown of Ap in PDF-expressing neurons did not promote arousal, indicating that a reduced Ap function in PDF-expressing neurons promotes light-driven arousal. Furthermore, Ap expression in l-LNvs showed daily rhythms (peaking at midnight), which are generated by a direct light-dependent mechanism rather than by the endogenous clock. These results raise the possibility that the daily oscillation of Ap expression in l-LNvs may contribute to the buffering of light-driven arousal in wild-type flies.

  6. Imagining and Imaging the Social Brain: The Case of Mirror Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, Susan

    In a contemporary setting in which all things "neuro" have great cultural sway, an analysis of the ways in which neuroscience is indebted to the methods and findings of the social sciences has received less attention. Indeed, in the new specialization of social neuroscience, neuroscientists now collaborate with contemporary psychologists and invoke historical psychological theories to help theorize empathy and social understanding. This article examines the overlap between psychological frameworks of social emotion and neuroscience in the case of mirror neurons, discovered in the 1990s. Some neuroscientists purport that mirror neurons underlie the social behaviours of imitation and empathy, and have found support for this view of theories of simulation and embodied cognition. They have also invoked pragmatic and phenomenological approaches to mind and behaviour dating back to the early 20 th century. Neuroscientists have thus imported, adapted, and interpreted psychological models to help define social understanding, empathy, and imitation in many imaging studies.

  7. Evolutionary insights into the steroid sensitive kiss1 and kiss2 neurons in the vertebrate brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji eKanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin was originally found as a peptide product of Kiss1gene and is now supposed to be an essential central regulator of reproduction in mammals. However, there is now a growing body of evidence to suggest that kiss2, the paralogous gene for kiss1, evolved in parallel during vertebrate lineage, and the kiss2 product also activates the GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, it is now widely accepted that both kiss1 and kiss2 are the kisspeptin genes. Interestingly, either kiss1 or kiss2 or both have been lost during evolution in many vertebrate species, and the functional significance of kiss1 or kiss2 for the central regulation of reproduction is suggested to vary according to the species. Here, we argue that the steroid sensitivity of the kiss1 or kiss2 neurons has been well conserved during evolution among tetrapods and teleosts, and thus it may be the key to understanding the functional homologies of certain populations of kisspeptin (kiss1 or kiss2 neurons among different species of vertebrates. In the present review, we will first introduce recent advances in the study of steroid sensitive kiss1 and kiss2 systems in vertebrates and effects of peptide administrations in vivo. By comparing the similarities and differences between kiss1 and kiss2 of neuronal localization and sensitivity to gonadal steroids in various tetrapods and teleosts, we discuss the evolution of kisspeptin neuronal systems after gene duplication of ancestral kisspeptin genes to give rise to kiss1 and kiss2.

  8. Evolutionary Insights into the Steroid Sensitive kiss1 and kiss2 Neurons in the Vertebrate Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Shinji; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin was originally found as a peptide product of Kiss1 gene and is now supposed to be an essential central regulator of reproduction in mammals. However, there is now a growing body of evidence to suggest that kiss2, the paralogous gene for kiss1, evolved in parallel during vertebrate lineage, and the kiss2 product also activates the GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor) signaling pathways. Therefore, it is now widely accepted that both kiss1 and kiss2 are the kisspeptin genes. Interestingly, either kiss1 or kiss2 or both have been lost during evolution in many vertebrate species, and the functional significance of kiss1 or kiss2 for the central regulation of reproduction is suggested to vary according to the species. Here, we argue that the steroid sensitivity of the kiss1 or kiss2 neurons has been well conserved during evolution among tetrapods and teleosts, and thus it may be the key to understanding the functional homologies of certain populations of kisspeptin (kiss1 or kiss2) neurons among different species of vertebrates. In the present review, we will first introduce recent advances in the study of steroid sensitive kiss1 and kiss2 systems in vertebrates and effects of peptide administrations in vivo. By comparing the similarities and differences between kiss1 and kiss2 of neuronal localization and sensitivity to gonadal steroids in various tetrapods and teleosts, we discuss the evolution of kisspeptin neuronal systems after gene duplication of ancestral kisspeptin genes to give rise to kiss1 and kiss2. PMID:22654859

  9. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At different time points after the termination of the irradiation procedure, the animals were tested in two tests of short-term memory that differ with respect to their dependence on hippocampal function. Eight and 21...... that blocked neurogenesis contributes to the reported deleterious side effects of this treatment, consisting of memory impairment, dysphoria and lethargy....

  10. Brain Innate Immunity Regulates Hypothalamic Arcuate Neuronal Activity and Feeding Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H.; Stern, Javier E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexige...

  11. Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of Schreiber's long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Busisiwe C; Manger, Paul R

    2007-11-01

    The current study describes the nuclear parcellation and neuronal morphology of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems within the brain of a representative species of microbat. While these systems have been investigated in detail in the laboratory rat, and examined in several other mammalian species, no chiropterans, to the author's knowledge, have been examined. Using immunohistochemical stains for choline-acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin, we were able to observe and document these systems in relation to the cytoarchitecture. The majority of cholinergic nuclei typically found in mammals were evident in the microbat, however we could not find evidence for choline-acetyltransferase immunopositive neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, and the medullary tegmental field, as seen in several other mammalian species. A typically mammalian appearance of the catecholaminergic nuclei was observed, however, the anterior hypothalamic groups (A15 dorsal and ventral), the dorsal and dorsal caudal subdivisions of the ventral tegmental area (A10d and A10dc), and the ventral (pars reticulata) substantia nigra (A9v) were not present. The serotonergic nuclei were similar to that reported in all eutherian mammalian species studied to date. The overall complement of nuclei of these systems in the microbat, while different to the species examined in other orders of mammals, resembles most closely the complement seen in earlier studies of insectivore species, and is clearly distinguished from that seen in rodents, carnivores and primates. This data is discussed in terms of the phylogenetic relationships of the chiropterans.

  12. Resolving the detailed structure of cortical and thalamic neurons in the adult rat brain with refined biotinylated dextran amine labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changying Ling

    Full Text Available Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA has been used frequently for both anterograde and retrograde pathway tracing in the central nervous system. Typically, BDA labels axons and cell somas in sufficient detail to identify their topographical location accurately. However, BDA labeling often has proved to be inadequate to resolve the fine structural details of axon arbors or the dendrites of neurons at a distance from the site of BDA injection. To overcome this limitation, we varied several experimental parameters associated with the BDA labeling of neurons in the adult rat brain in order to improve the sensitivity of the method. Specifically, we compared the effect on labeling sensitivity of: (a using 3,000 or 10,000 MW BDA; (b injecting different volumes of BDA; (c co-injecting BDA with NMDA; and (d employing various post-injection survival times. Following the extracellular injection of BDA into the visual cortex, labeled cells and axons were observed in both cortical and thalamic areas of all animals studied. However, the detailed morphology of axon arbors and distal dendrites was evident only under optimal conditions for BDA labeling that take into account the: molecular weight of the BDA used, concentration and volume of BDA injected, post-injection survival time, and toning of the resolved BDA with gold and silver. In these instances, anterogradely labeled axons and retrogradely labeled dendrites were resolved in fine detail, approximating that which can be achieved with intracellularly injected compounds such as biocytin or fluorescent dyes.

  13. Modular neuronal assemblies embodied in a closed-loop environment: toward future integration of brains and machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessadori, Jacopo; Bisio, Marta; Martinoia, Sergio; Chiappalone, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors, from simple to most complex, require a two-way interaction with the environment and the contribution of different brain areas depending on the orchestrated activation of neuronal assemblies. In this work we present a new hybrid neuro-robotic architecture based on a neural controller bi-directionally connected to a virtual robot implementing a Braitenberg vehicle aimed at avoiding obstacles. The robot is characterized by proximity sensors and wheels, allowing it to navigate into a circular arena with obstacles of different sizes. As neural controller, we used hippocampal cultures dissociated from embryonic rats and kept alive over Micro Electrode Arrays (MEAs) for 3-8 weeks. The developed software architecture guarantees a bi-directional exchange of information between the natural and the artificial part by means of simple linear coding/decoding schemes. We used two different kinds of experimental preparation: "random" and "modular" populations. In the second case, the confinement was assured by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mask placed over the surface of the MEA device, thus defining two populations interconnected via specific microchannels. The main results of our study are: (i) neuronal cultures can be successfully interfaced to an artificial agent; (ii) modular networks show a different dynamics with respect to random culture, both in terms of spontaneous and evoked electrophysiological patterns; (iii) the robot performs better if a reinforcement learning paradigm (i.e., a tetanic stimulation delivered to the network following each collision) is activated, regardless of the modularity of the culture; (iv) the robot controlled by the modular network further enhances its capabilities in avoiding obstacles during the short-term plasticity trial. The developed paradigm offers a new framework for studying, in simplified model systems, neuro-artificial bi-directional interfaces for the development of new strategies for brain-machine interaction.

  14. Moderately delayed post-insult treatment with normobaric hyperoxia reduces excitotoxin-induced neuronal degeneration but increases ischemia-induced brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haelewyn Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use and benefits of normobaric oxygen (NBO in patients suffering acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. Results Here we show for the first time to the best of our knowledge that NBO reduces both NMDA-induced calcium influxes in vitro and NMDA-induced neuronal degeneration in vivo, but increases oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced cell injury in vitro and ischemia-induced brain damage produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that NBO reduces excitotoxin-induced calcium influx and subsequent neuronal degeneration but favors ischemia-induced brain damage and neuronal death. These findings highlight the complexity of the mechanisms involved by the use of NBO in patients suffering acute ischemic stroke.

  15. Does Global Astrocytic Calcium Signaling Participate in Awake Brain State Transitions and Neuronal Circuit Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Rasmussen, Rune; Andersen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release...... look at the development and availability of innovative new methodological tools that are opening up for new ways of visualizing and perturbing astrocyte activity in awake behaving animals. With these new tools at hand, the field of astrocyte research will likely be able to elucidate the causal...... and mechanistic roles of astrocytes in complex behaviors within a very near future....

  16. From the Golgi-Cajal mapping to the transmitter-based characterization of the neuronal networks leading to two modes of brain communication: wiring and volume transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, Kjell; Dahlström, Annica; Höistad, Malin; Marcellino, Daniel; Jansson, Anders; Rivera, Alicia; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Jacobsen, Kirsten; Tinner-Staines, Barbro; Hagman, Beth; Leo, Giuseppina; Staines, William; Guidolin, Diego; Kehr, Jan; Genedani, Susanna; Belluardo, Natale; Agnati, Luigi F

    2007-08-01

    After Golgi-Cajal mapped neural circuits, the discovery and mapping of the central monoamine neurons opened up for a new understanding of interneuronal communication by indicating that another form of communication exists. For instance, it was found that dopamine may be released as a prolactin inhibitory factor from the median eminence, indicating an alternative mode of dopamine communication in the brain. Subsequently, the analysis of the locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons demonstrated a novel type of lower brainstem neuron that monosynaptically and globally innervated the entire CNS. Furthermore, the ascending raphe serotonin neuron systems were found to globally innervate the forebrain with few synapses, and where deficits in serotonergic function appeared to play a major role in depression. We propose that serotonin reuptake inhibitors may produce antidepressant effects through increasing serotonergic neurotrophism in serotonin nerve cells and their targets by transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), involving direct or indirect receptor/RTK interactions. Early chemical neuroanatomical work on the monoamine neurons, involving primitive nervous systems and analysis of peptide neurons, indicated the existence of alternative modes of communication apart from synaptic transmission. In 1986, Agnati and Fuxe introduced the theory of two main types of intercellular communication in the brain: wiring and volume transmission (WT and VT). Synchronization of phasic activity in the monoamine cell clusters through electrotonic coupling and synaptic transmission (WT) enables optimal VT of monoamines in the target regions. Experimental work suggests an integration of WT and VT signals via receptor-receptor interactions, and a new theory of receptor-connexin interactions in electrical and mixed synapses is introduced. Consequently, a new model of brain function must be built, in which communication includes both WT and VT and receptor-receptor interactions in the

  17. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study...

  18. A novel brain receptor is expressed in a distinct population of olfactory sensory neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conzelmann, S; Levai, O; Bode, B; Eisel, U; Raming, K; Breer, H; Strotmann, J

    2000-01-01

    Three novel G-protein-coupled receptor genes related to the previously described RA1c gene have been isolated from the mouse genome. Expression of these genes has been detected in distinct areas of the brain and also in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. Developmental studies revealed a

  19. Brain IL-6 elevation causes neuronal circuitry imbalances and mediates autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Chadman, Kathryn K; McCloskey, Daniel P; Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Malik, Mazhar; Brown, W Ted; Li, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    Abnormal immune responses have been reported to be associated with autism. A number of studies showed that cytokines were increased in the blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid of autistic subjects. Elevated IL-6 in autistic brain has been a consistent finding. However, the mechanisms by which IL-6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism are not well understood. Here we show that mice with elevated IL-6 in the brain display many autistic features, including impaired cognitive abilities, deficits in learning, abnormal anxiety traits and habituations, as well as decreased social interactions. IL-6 elevation caused alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic formations and disrupted the balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmissions. IL-6 elevation also resulted in an abnormal change in the shape, length and distributing pattern of dendritic spines. These findings suggest that IL-6 elevation in the brain could mediate autistic-like behaviors, possibly through the imbalances of neural circuitry and impairments of synaptic plasticity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. BrainFrame : A node-level heterogeneous accelerator platform for neuron simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaragdos, Georgios; Chatzikonstantis, Georgios; Kukreja, Rahul; Sidiropoulos, Harry; Rodopoulos, Dimitrios; Sourdis, Ioannis; Al-Ars, Z.; Kachris, Christoforos; Soudris, Dimitrios; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Strydis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The advent of high-performance computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain studies through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC

  1. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow’s perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M.; Miyaoka, Robert; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal’s brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum. Perception of threatening faces activated circuitry including amygdalar, thalamic, and brainstem regions, known in humans and other vertebrates to be related to emotion, motivation, and conditioned fear learning. In contrast, perception of caring faces activated motivation and striatal regions. In our experiments and in nature, when perceiving a threatening face, crows froze and fixed their gaze (decreased blink rate), which was associated with activation of brain regions known in birds to regulate perception, attention, fear, and escape behavior. These findings indicate that, similar to humans, crows use sophisticated visual sensory systems to recognize faces and modulate behavioral responses by integrating visual information with expectation and emotion. Our approach has wide applicability and potential to improve our understanding of the neural basis for animal behavior. PMID:22984177

  2. The Mammalian Brain in the Electromagnetic Fields Designed by Man with Special Reference to Blood-Brain Barrier Function, Neuronal Damage and Possible Physical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salford, L. G.; Nittby, H.; Brun, A.; Grafström, G.; Malmgren, L.; Sommarin, M.; Eberhardt, J.; Widegren, B.; Persson, B. R.

    Life on earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to,and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are an example of oscillations possibly important for life. The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio freque ncy fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1988 our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leakage of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.-6)} One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at

  3. Neuronal networks in the developing brain are adversely modulated by early psychosocial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-10-01

    The brain's neural circuitry plays a ubiquitous role across domains in cognitive processing and undergoes extensive reorganization during the course of development in part as a result of experience. In this study we investigated the effects of profound early psychosocial neglect associated with institutional rearing on the development of task-independent brain networks, estimated from longitudinally acquired electroencephalographic (EEG) data from networks were identified in children that had been reared in institutions: 1) a hyperconnected parieto-occipital network, which included cortical hubs and connections that may partially overlap with default-mode network, and 2) a hypoconnected network between left temporal and distributed bilateral regions, both of which were aberrantly connected across neural oscillations. This study provides the first evidence of the adverse effects of early psychosocial neglect on the wiring of the developing brain. Given these networks' potentially significant role in various cognitive processes, including memory, learning, social communication, and language, these findings suggest that institutionalization in early life may profoundly impact the neural correlates underlying multiple cognitive domains, in ways that may not be fully reversible in the short term.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper provides first evidence that early psychosocial neglect associated with institutional rearing profoundly affects the development of the brain's neural circuitry. Using longitudinally acquired electrophysiological data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), the paper identifies multiple task-independent networks that are abnormally connected (hyper- or hypoconnected) in children reared in institutions compared with never-institutionalized children. These networks involve spatially distributed brain areas and their abnormal connections may adversely impact neural information processing across cognitive domains. Copyright © 2017 the

  4. Non-parametric permutation thresholding for adaptive nonlinear beamformer analysis on MEG revealed oscillatory neuronal dynamics in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Aoki, Yasunori; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive nonlinear beamformer technique for analyzing magnetoencephalography (MEG) data has been proved to be powerful tool for both brain research and clinical applications. A general method of analyzing multiple subject data with a formal statistical treatment for the group data has been developed and applied for various types of MEG data. Our latest application of this method was frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ), which indicates focused attention and appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings. To localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ precisely and identify cortical sources and underlying neural activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction), we applied adaptive nonlinear beamformer and permutation analysis on MEG data. As a result, it was indicated that Fmθ is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Gamma event-related synchronization is as an index of activation in right parietal regions subserving mental subtraction associated with basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task. We suggest that the combination of adaptive nonlinear beamformer and permutation analysis on MEG data is quite powerful tool to reveal the oscillatory neuronal dynamics in human brain.

  5. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Chih; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pinazo, Daniel; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Borchardt, Viola; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Balaguer, Raúl; Ávila, César; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation) and between time points (before versus after training) were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression.

  6. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Chih; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pinazo, Daniel; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Borchardt, Viola; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Balaguer, Raúl; Ávila, César; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation) and between time points (before versus after training) were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression. PMID:26998365

  7. Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, F; Nisticò, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

    2014-01-01

    D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

  8. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Chih Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation and between time points (before versus after training were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression.

  9. Survival and growth of neurons with enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in fetal brain areas grafted to the anterior chamber of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, H; Hoffer, B J; Palmer, M R; Seiger, A; Olson, L

    1983-12-01

    Areas of fetal rat brain and spinal cord known to contain enkephalin-like immunoreactive cell bodies and/or terminal fields were transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of adult rats. Enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons survive and produce an enkephalin-like immunoreactive fiber network within grafts of spinal cord, ventral medulla oblongata, ventrolateral pons, tectum, locus coeruleus, substantia nigra and the areas containing columna fornicis and globus pallidus. Although single intraocular grafts of neocortex do not apparently contain enkephalin-like immunoreactive fibers, such grafts contain a variable amount of sparsely distributed enkephalin-like fibers when sequentially grafted in oculo with either locus coeruleus or spinal cord. Combinations of locus coeruleus and globus pallidus contained a rich enkephalin fiber network in the locus coeruleus part and a sparse innervation of the globus pallidus part. We conclude that enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons in small areas of fetal rat brain can be successfully transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye. They are able to survive and develop to maturity in complete isolation from the rest of the brain. In general, the enkephalin-like immunoreactive fiber density in the various single grafts approximated that of their brain counterparts in situ. Fiber formation can be reinitiated in mature enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons by addition of new brain target areas. Thus, the technique permits establishment of isolated, defined enkephalin systems and pathways accessible to functional analysis.

  10. In vivo measurements of blood-brain barrier permeability using micro-dialysis: radiobiological application; Etude in vivo des effets de l'irradiation gamma sur la permeabilite de la barriere hemato-encephalique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agin, A.; Diserbo, M.; Mauris, J.; Martin, C

    1998-07-01

    The effects of total-body irradiation on the permeability of striatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) to [{sup 3}H] amino-isobutyric acid (AIBA) and [{sup 14}C] sucrose were investigated. Six weeks, three and five months after gamma exposure at the dose of 4.5 Gy, no modification of the transport of AIB or of the diffusion of sucrose from blood to brain was observed. (authors)

  11. Postnatal day 7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult mouse brain volume and cortical neurons with sex specific effects on neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Leon G.; Oguz, Ipek; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol treatment on postnatal day seven (P7) causes robust brain cell death and is a model of late gestational alcohol exposure (Ikonomidou et al., 2000). To investigate the long-term effects of P7 ethanol treatment on adult brain, mice received either two doses of saline or ethanol on P7 (2.5g/kg, s.c., 2 hours apart) and were assessed as adults (P82) for brain volume (using postmortem MRI) and cellular architecture (using immunohistochemistry). Adult mice that received P7 ethanol had reduced MRI total brain volume (4%) with multiple brain regions being reduced in both males and females. Immunohistochemistry indicated reduced frontal cortical parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV+IR) interneurons (18-33%) and reduced Cux1+IR layer II pyramidal neurons (15%) in both sexes. Interestingly, markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis differed between sexes, with only ethanol treated males showing increased doublecortin and Ki67 expression (52 and 57% respectively) in the dentate gyrus, consistent with increased neurogenesis compared to controls. These findings suggest that P7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult brain volume and frontal cortical neurons in both males and females. Increased adult neurogenesis in males, but not females, is consistent with differential adaptive responses to P7 ethanol toxicity between the sexes. One day of ethanol exposure, e.g. P7, causes persistent adult brain dysmorphology. PMID:22572057

  12. Redefining the role of metallothionein within the injured brain: extracellular metallothioneins play an important role in the astrocyte-neuron response to injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Roger S; Penkowa, Milena; Dittmann, Justin

    2008-01-01

    regeneration. First, we show that MT can be detected within the extracellular fluid of the injured brain, and that cultured astrocytes are capable of actively secreting MT in a regulatable manner. Second, we identify a receptor, megalin, that mediates MT transport into neurons. Third, we directly demonstrate......A number of intracellular proteins that are protective after brain injury are classically thought to exert their effect within the expressing cell. The astrocytic metallothioneins (MT) are one example and are thought to act via intracellular free radical scavenging and heavy metal regulation......, and in particular zinc. Indeed, we have previously established that astrocytic MTs are required for successful brain healing. Here we provide evidence for a fundamentally different mode of action relying upon intercellular transfer from astrocytes to neurons, which in turn leads to uptake-dependent axonal...

  13. Architecture of a massive parallel processing nano brain operating 100 billion molecular neurons simultaneously

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Anirban; Fujita, Daisuke; Pati, Ranjit

    2008-01-01

    Molecular machines may resolve three distinct bottlenecks of scientific advancement. Nanofactories (Phoenix, 2003) composed of MM may produce atomically perfect products spending negligible amount of energy (Hess, 2004) thus alleviating the energy crisis. Computers made by MM operating thousands of bits at a time may match biological processors mimicking creativity and intelligence (Hall, 2007), thus far considered as the prerogative of nature. State-of-the-art brain surgeries are not yet fat...

  14. Microcavitation as a neuronal damage mechanism in blast -traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Jon; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), usually the result of impact or blast to the head, affects about 1.5 million Americans annually. Diffuse axonal injury, the hallmark feature of blunt TBI, has been investigated in direct mechanical loading conditions. However, recent evidence suggests inertial cavitation as a possible bTBI mechanism, particularly in the case of armed forces exposed to concussive blasts. Cavitation damage to free surfaces has been well-studied in the field of fluid dynamics, but b...

  15. Meditation and the brain -Neuronal correlates of mindfulness as assessed with near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Friederike; von Spee, Johanna; Schneider, Sabrina; Haeussinger, Florian B; Hautzinger, Martin; Erb, Michael; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-04-08

    Mindfulness meditation as a therapeutic intervention has been shown to have positive effects on psychological problems such as depression, pain or anxiety disorders. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to detect differences in hemodynamic responses of meditation experts (14 participants) and a control group (16 participants) in a resting and a mindfulness condition. In both conditions, the sound of a meditation bowl was used to find group differences in the auditory system and adjacent cortical areas. Different lateralization patterns of the brain were found in expert meditators while being in a resting state (amplified left hemisphere) or being in mindfulness state (amplified right hemisphere). Compared to the control group, meditation experts had a more widespread pattern of activation in the auditory cortex, while resting. In the mindfulness condition, the control group showed a decrease of activation in higher auditory areas (BA 1, 6 and 40), whereas the meditation experts had a significant increase in those areas. In addition, meditation expert had highly activated brain areas (BA 39, 40, 44 and 45) beyond the meditative task itself, indicating possible long-term changes in the brain and their positive effects on empathy, meta cognitive skills and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  17. EFFET DE LA DENSITE SUR LES PARAMETRES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    L'étude vise à déterminer l'effet de l'association légumineuse-cocotier et de la densité des peuplements de Acacia auriculaeformis sur la croissance des arbres et la production de bois. Deux types d'arrangements spatiaux et 3 écartements en plantation ont été étudiés, en zone littorale sur sables quaternaires en Côte.

  18. Rhythmic Components in Extracranial Brain Signals Reveal Multifaceted Task Modulation of Overlapping Neuronal Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer van der Meij

    Full Text Available Oscillatory neuronal activity is implicated in many cognitive functions, and its phase coupling between sensors may reflect networks of communicating neuronal populations. Oscillatory activity is often studied using extracranial recordings and compared between experimental conditions. This is challenging, because there is overlap between sensor-level activity generated by different sources, and this can obscure differential experimental modulations of these sources. Additionally, in extracranial data, sensor-level phase coupling not only reflects communicating populations, but can also be generated by a current dipole, whose sensor-level phase coupling does not reflect source-level interactions. We present a novel method, which is capable of separating and characterizing sources on the basis of their phase coupling patterns as a function of space, frequency and time (trials. Importantly, this method depends on a plausible model of a neurobiological rhythm. We present this model and an accompanying analysis pipeline. Next, we demonstrate our approach, using magnetoencephalographic (MEG recordings during a cued tactile detection task as a case study. We show that the extracted components have overlapping spatial maps and frequency content, which are difficult to resolve using conventional pairwise measures. Because our decomposition also provides trial loadings, components can be readily contrasted between experimental conditions. Strikingly, we observed heterogeneity in alpha and beta sources with respect to whether their activity was suppressed or enhanced as a function of attention and performance, and this happened both in task relevant and irrelevant regions. This heterogeneity contrasts with the common view that alpha and beta amplitude over sensory areas are always negatively related to attention and performance.

  19. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Elevates Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4 in Neurons and Promotes ATF4-Dependent Induction of Sesn2

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    Jin Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 plays important physiologic roles in the brain including regulation of learning and memory as well as neuronal survival and death. Yet, outside of translational regulation by the eIF2α-dependent stress response pathway, there is little information about how its levels are controlled in neurons. Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 transcripts and protein levels. This increase is dependent on tropomyosin receptor kinase (TrkB signaling, but independent of levels of phosphorylated eIF2α. The elevation in ATF4 protein occurs both in nuclei and processes. Transcriptome analysis revealed that ATF4 mediates BDNF-promoted induction of Sesn2 which encodes Sestrin2, a protector against oxidative and genotoxic stresses and a mTor complex 1 inhibitor. In contrast, BDNF-elevated ATF4 did not affect expression of a number of other known ATF4 targets including several with pro-apoptotic activity. The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that provide neuroprotection and optimal brain function without risk of triggering neurodegeneration.

  20. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

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    Sandra J Kuhlman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  1. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio, E; Buffoli, B; Exley, C; Rezzani, R; Rodella, L F

    2012-08-01

    Silicon is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and, to date, whether it has a biological role or beneficial effects in humans is not known. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation might have a protective effect both for limiting aluminium absorption across the gut and for the removal of systemic aluminium via the urine, hence, preventing potential accumulation of aluminium in the brain. Since our previous studies demonstrated that aluminium exposure reduces the number of nitrergic neurons, the aim of the present study was to compare the distribution and the morphology of NO-containing neurons in brain cortex of mice exposed to aluminium sulphate dissolved in silicic acid-rich or poor drinking water to assess the potential protective role of silicon against aluminium toxicity in the brain. NADPH-d histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry showed that high concentrations of silicon in drinking water were able to minimize the impairment of the function of nitrergic neurons induced by aluminium administration. We found that silicon protected against aluminium-induced damage to the nitrergic system: in particular, we demonstrated that silicon maintains the number of nitrergic neurons and their expression of nitrergic enzymes at physiological levels, even after a 12 and 15 month exposure to aluminium.

  2. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.

  3. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

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    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  4. Neuroprotection, learning and memory improvement of a standardized extract from Renshen Shouwu against neuronal injury and vascular dementia in rats with brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Cheng, Yufang; Luo, Zhanyuan; Guo, Haibiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Gu, Quanlin; Yang, Xu; Xu, Jiangping; Bei, Weijian; Guo, Jiao

    2015-05-13

    The Renshen Shouwu capsule (RSSW) is a patented Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), that has been proven to improve memory and is widely used in China to apoplexy syndrome and memory deficits. To investigate the neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of the Renshen Shouwu standardized extract (RSSW) on ischemic brain neuronal injury and impairment of learning and memory related to Vascular Dementia (VD) induced by a focal and global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Using in vivo rat models of both focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries induced by a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and VD with transient global brain I/R neuronal injuries induced by a four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, RSSW (50,100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weights) and Egb761® (80 mg kg(-1)) were administered orally for 20 days (preventively 6 days+therapeutically 14 days) in 4-VO rats, and for 7 days (3 days preventively+4 days therapeutically) in MCAO rats. Learning and memory behavioral performance was assayed using a Morris water maze test including a place navigation trial and a spatial probe trial. Brain histochemical morphology and hippocampal neuron survival was quantified using microscope assay of a puffin brain/hippocampus slice with cresyl violet staining. MCAO ischemia/reperfusion caused infarct damage in rat brain tissue. 4-VO ischemia/reperfusion caused a hippocampal neuronal lesion and learning and memory deficits in rats. Administration of RSSW (50, 100, and 200mg/kg) or EGb761 significantly reduced the size of the insulted brain hemisphere lesion and improved the neurological behavior of MCAO rats. In addition, RSSW markedly reduced an increase in the brain infarct volume from an I/R-induced MCAO and reduced the cerebral water content in a dose-dependent way. Administration of RSSW also increased the pyramidal neuronal density in the hippocampus of surviving rats after transient global brain ischemia and improved the learning and memory

  5. Brain Injury-Induced Synaptic Reorganization in Hilar Inhibitory Neurons Is Differentially Suppressed by Rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corwin R; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Smith, Bret N

    2017-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment with rapamycin suppresses mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and specific components of hippocampal synaptic reorganization associated with altered cortical excitability and seizure susceptibility. Reemergence of seizures after cessation of rapamycin treatment suggests, however, an incomplete suppression of epileptogenesis. Hilar inhibitory interneurons regulate dentate granule cell (DGC) activity, and de novo synaptic input from both DGCs and CA3 pyramidal cells after TBI increases their excitability but effects of rapamycin treatment on the injury-induced plasticity of interneurons is only partially described. Using transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) is expressed in the somatostatinergic subset of hilar inhibitory interneurons, we tested the effect of daily systemic rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg) on the excitability of hilar inhibitory interneurons after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced focal brain injury. Rapamycin treatment reduced, but did not normalize, the injury-induced increase in excitability of surviving eGFP+ hilar interneurons. The injury-induced increase in response to selective glutamate photostimulation of DGCs was reduced to normal levels after mTOR inhibition, but the postinjury increase in synaptic excitation arising from CA3 pyramidal cell activity was unaffected by rapamycin treatment. The incomplete suppression of synaptic reorganization in inhibitory circuits after brain injury could contribute to hippocampal hyperexcitability and the eventual reemergence of the epileptogenic process upon cessation of mTOR inhibition. Further, the cell-selective effect of mTOR inhibition on synaptic reorganization after CCI suggests possible mechanisms by which rapamycin treatment modifies epileptogenesis in some models but not others.

  6. Intermittent behavior in the brain neuronal network in the perception of ambiguous images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Zhuravlev, Maxim O.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2017-03-01

    Characteristics of intermittency during the perception of ambiguous images have been studied in the case the Necker cube image has been used as a bistable object for demonstration in the experiments, with EEG being simultaneously measured. Distributions of time interval lengths corresponding to the left-oriented and right-oriented Necker cube perception have been obtain. EEG data have been analyzed using continuous wavelet transform which was shown that the destruction of alpha rhythm with accompanying generation of high frequency oscillations can serve as a electroencephalographical marker of Necker cube recognition process in human brain.

  7. Cognitive impairments accompanying rodent mild traumatic brain injury involve p53-dependent neuronal cell death and are ameliorated by the tetrahydrobenzothiazole PFT-α.

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    Lital Rachmany

    Full Text Available With parallels to concussive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI occurring in humans, anesthetized mice subjected to a single 30 g weight drop mTBI event to the right parietal cortex exhibited significant diffuse neuronal degeneration that was accompanied by delayed impairments in recognition and spatial memory. To elucidate the involvement of reversible p53-dependent apoptosis in this neuronal loss and associated cognitive deficits, mice were subjected to experimental mTBI followed by the systemic administration of the tetrahydrobenzothiazole p53 inactivator, PFT-α, or vehicle. Neuronal loss was quantified immunohistochemically at 72 hr. post-injury by the use of fluoro-Jade B and NeuN within the dentate gyrus on both sides of the brain, and recognition and spatial memory were assessed by novel object recognition and Y-maze paradigms at 7 and 30 days post injury. Systemic administration of a single dose of PFT-α 1 hr. post-injury significantly ameliorated both neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments, which were no different from sham control animals. Cellular studies on human SH-SY5Y cells and rat primary neurons challenged with glutamate excitotoxicity and H2O2 induced oxidative stress, confirmed the ability of PFT-α and a close analog to protect against these TBI associated mechanisms mediating neuronal loss. These studies suggest that p53-dependent apoptotic mechanisms underpin the neuronal and cognitive losses accompanying mTBI, and that these are potentially reversible by p53 inactivation.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor works coordinately with partner molecules to initiate tyrosine hydroxylase expression in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L

    1995-05-22

    Previous studies demonstrated that the cooperative interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a partner molecule could induce the novel expression of the catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in striatal neurons [Du and Iacovitti, J. Neurosci., in press; Du et al., J. Neurosci., 14 (1994) 7688-7694; Iacovitti et al., submitted]. The present study demonstrates that in addition to aFGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also capable of moderate levels of TH induction (30% TH+ striatal neurons) when administered at high concentrations (100 ng/ml). As with aFGF, BDNF's activity depended on its coupling to an appropriate partner molecule; the most potent of which were 10 microM dopamine (DA) and 50 microM mazindol. BDNF + DA-induced TH expression was first evident after at 12 h; peaked by 18 h and declined by 4 days in culture. Cyclohexamide eliminated nearly all and alpha-amanitin reduced by half the TH induction elicited by DA and BDNF; indicating that both de novo transcription and translation were required for increased expression. In contrast with aFGF and BDNF, other putative dopamine differentiation factors, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), were able to elicit barely detectable (10%) levels of TH induction, regardless of the partner molecule used. These studies suggest that aFGF and/or BDNF may work coordinately with partner molecules to initiate TH expression; while a number of factors including, CNTF and GDNF, may be involved in its subsequent modulation.

  9. Early Development of Parvalbumin-, Somatostatin-, and Cholecystokinin-Expressing Neurons in Rat Brain following Prenatal Immune Activation and Maternal Iron Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksa, Patricia; Zhang, Ying; Nouel, Dominique; Wong, Alice; Wong, Tak Pan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28. Prenatal LPS treatment significantly increased the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons at P14 in the medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, and ventral subiculum of offspring born from iron-sufficient but not iron-deficient dams. Prenatal LPS also increased cholecystokinin neuron density in the medial PFC at P28, under both iron-sufficient and iron-deficient conditions. We observed a large increase in parvalbumin neuron density from P14 to P28 in the medial PFC and subiculum across all birth groups, that was not observed in other brain regions, and significant decreases in somatostatin neuron density from P14 to P28 in all brain regions examined across all birth groups, indicating differential developmental trajectories for parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons in various brain regions during this early postnatal period. Thus, it appears that the medial PFC and ventral subiculum, brain regions involved in circuitry modulating ventral tegmental dopamine and nucleus accumbens activities, may be regions vulnerable

  10. The engrailed-expressing secondary head spots in the embryonic crayfish brain: examples for a group of homologous neurons in Crustacea and Hexapoda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintoni, Silvia; Fabritius-Vilpoux, Kathia; Harzsch, Steffen

    2007-12-01

    Hexapoda have been traditionally seen as the closest relatives of the Myriapoda (Tracheata hypothesis) but molecular studies have challenged this hypothesis and rather have suggested a close relationship of hexapods and crustaceans (Tetraconata hypothesis). In this new debate, data on the structure and development of the arthropod nervous system contribute important new data ("neurophylogeny"). Neurophylogenetic studies have already provided several examples for individually identifiably neurons in the ventral nerve cord that are homologous between insects and crustaceans. In the present report, we have analysed the emergence of Engrailed-expressing cells in the embryonic brain of a parthenogenetic crayfish, the marbled crayfish (Marmorkrebs), and have compared our findings to the pattern previously reported from insects. Our data suggest that a group of six Engrailed-expressing neurons in the optic anlagen, the so-called secondary head spot cells can be homologised between crayfish and the grasshopper. In the grasshopper, these cells are supposed to be involved in establishing the primary axon scaffold of the brain. Our data provide the first example for a cluster of brain neurons that can be homologised between insects and crustaceans and show that even at the level of certain cell groups, brain structures are evolutionary conserved in these two groups.

  11. Increased lead concentration in brain and potentiation of lead-induced neuronal depression in rats after combined treatment with lead and disulfiram

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    Oskarsson, A.; Olson, L.; Palmer, M.R.; Lind, B.; Bjoerklund, H.; Hoffer, B.

    1985-12-01

    The effects of disulfiram (tetraethylthiuram disulfide) on blood and brain lead levels and on lead-induced changes in growth and cerebellar Purkinje neuron excitability were assessed in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Disulfiram is metabolized to diethyldithiocarbamate, which forms a lipophilic complex with lead, and can thereby influence the tissue distribution of lead. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.25% lead acetate or an equimolar amount of sodium acetate in the drinking water, and these treatments were continued for 4 weeks after birth. Half of the mothers from each group were given 0.1 mmole/kg disulfiram orally twice a week until parturition, after which the treatment was continued for 4 weeks in the respective pups in the form of subcutaneous injections. Although lead exposure markedly increased blood lead levels, the increase in brain lead levels was much more modest. Disulfiram markedly increased brain lead levels while blood lead levels in this group were only slightly elevated as compared to animals receiving lead alone. In addition, the lead + disulfiram group had depressed weight gain during maturation, and Purkinje neuron firing rates were reduced. The lead alone and disulfiram alone groups were not different from controls in these respects. These data suggest that disulfiram potentiates the adverse effects of lead on growth rates and on cerebellar Purkinje neuron function by facilitating the accumulation of lead in brain tissue.

  12. Long-term lithium treatment increases intracellular and extracellular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cortical and hippocampal neurons at subtherapeutic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Vanessa J; Gattaz, Wagner F; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2016-12-01

    The putative neuroprotective effects of lithium treatment rely on the fact that it modulates several homeostatic mechanisms involved in the neurotrophic response, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Lithium is a well-established therapeutic option for the acute and long-term management of bipolar disorder and major depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of subtherapeutic and therapeutic concentrations of chronic lithium treatment on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) synthesis and secretion. Primary cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons were treated with different subtherapeutic (0.02 and 0.2 mM) and therapeutic (2 mM) concentrations of chronic lithium treatment in cortical and hippocampal cell culture. Lithium treatment increased the intracellular protein expression of cortical neurons (10% at 0.02 mM) and hippocampal neurons (28% and 14% at 0.02 mM and 0.2 mM, respectively). Extracellular BDNF of cortical neurons increased 30% and 428% at 0.02 and 0.2 mM, respectively and in hippocampal neurons increased 44% at 0.02 mM. The present study indicates that chronic, low-dose lithium treatment up-regulates BDNF production in primary neuronal cell culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Accelerating Neuronal Aging in In Vitro Model Brain Disorders: a Focus on Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Britto Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss insights gained through the use of stem cell preparations regarding the modeling of neurological diseases, the need for aging neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells to further advance the study of late-onset adult neurological diseases, and the extent to which mechanisms linked to the mismanagement of ROS. The context of these issues can be revealed using the three disease states of Parkinson’s (PD, Alzheimer’s (AD, and schizophrenia, as considerable insights have been gained into these conditions through the use of stem cells in terms of disease etiologies and the role of oxidative stress. The latter subject is a primary area of interest of our group. After discussing the molecular models of accelerated aging, we highlight the role of ROS for the three diseases explored here. Importantly, we do not seek to provide an extensive account of all genetic mutations for each of the three disorders discussed in this review, but we aim instead to provide a conceptual framework that could maximize the gains from merging the approaches of stem cell microsystems and the study of oxidative stress in disease in order to optimize therapeutics and determine new molecular targets against oxidative stress that spare stem cell proliferation and development.

  14. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  15. Neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the brain stem is altered with left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Edmund; Wang, Xin; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Sun, Ke; Garrott, Kara; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Kay, Matthew W; Mendelowitz, David

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF) are widespread and debilitating cardiovascular diseases that affect nearly 23 million people worldwide. A distinctive hallmark of these cardiovascular diseases is autonomic imbalance, with increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic vagal tone. Recent device-based approaches, such as implantable vagal stimulators that stimulate a multitude of visceral sensory and motor fibers in the vagus nerve, are being evaluated as new therapeutic approaches for these and other diseases. However, little is known about how parasympathetic activity to the heart is altered with these diseases, and this lack of knowledge is an obstacle in the goal of devising selective interventions that can target and selectively restore parasympathetic activity to the heart. To identify the changes that occur within the brain stem to diminish the parasympathetic cardiac activity, left ventricular hypertrophy was elicited in rats by aortic pressure overload using a transaortic constriction approach. Cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brain stem that generate parasympathetic activity to the heart were identified with a retrograde tracer and studied using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in vitro. Animals with left cardiac hypertrophy had diminished excitation of CVNs, which was mediated both by an augmented frequency of spontaneous inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission (with no alteration of inhibitory glycinergic activity) as well as a diminished amplitude and frequency of excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs. Opportunities to alter these network pathways and neurotransmitter receptors provide future targets of intervention in the goal to restore parasympathetic activity and autonomic balance to the heart in cardiac hypertrophy and other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [Correlation between the clinical symptoms and the activation pattern of brain neurons in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Q H; Cheng, J L; Song, X Q; Yang, L; Chu, C Y; Liu, H; Zhang, L F; Li, Y; Li, Y H

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To explore the correlation between clinical symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the activation pattern of brain neurons at resting. Methods: A total of 26 patients diagnosed with fist-episode OCD were selected and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at resting state. The fMRI data were processed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI Analysis Toolkit (DPARSFA), and Resting State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST) software. With age as concomitant variable, Pearson Correlation Analysis was adopted to study the correlation between clinical symptoms (obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior) of patients and their regional homogeneity ( ReHo) values of whole brain. Results: The positive correlation between obsessive thoughts score of patients with OCD and ReHo value lied in insular_L, insular_R, cerebellum_L, cerebellum_R, calcarine_L, cuneus_L. The negative correlation between obsessive thoughts score of patients with OCD and ReHo value lied in thalamus_L, precuneus_L, caudate_L, cingulum_R, frontal_R. The positive correlation between compulsive behavior score of patients with OCD and ReHo value lied in temporal_L, frontal_inf_orb_l, frontal_inf_orb_R, frontal_mid_L, precentral_R. The negative correlation between compulsive behavior score of patients with OCD and ReHo value lied in cingulum-L, cingulum-R, caudate_L. Conclusion: Different obsessive-compulsive symptoms has different image foundation, and the dysfunction of cingulate has a major impact on the incidence of both obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior of OCD patients.

  17. Anatomy of the Brain

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    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  18. Rapid eye movement sleep loss induces neuronal apoptosis in the rat brain by noradrenaline acting on alpha 1-adrenoceptor and by triggering mitochondrial intrinsic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu I Somarajan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REMS-loss, however the mechanism was unknown. As REMS-loss elevates noradrenaline (NA level in the brain as well as induces neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, in this study we have delineated the intracellular molecular pathway involved in REMS deprivation (REMSD associated NA-induced neuronal apoptosis. Rats were REMS deprived for 6 days by the classical flower-pot method, suitable controls were conducted and the effects on apoptosis markers evaluated. Further, the role of NA was studied by one, intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of NA-ergic alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (PRZ and two, by down-regulation of NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC neurons by local microinjection of tyrosine hydroxylase siRNA (TH-siRNA. Immunoblot estimates showed that the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl2-associated death promoter (BAD protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1, cytochrome c, caspase9, caspase3 were elevated in the REMS-deprived rat brains, while caspase8 level remained unaffected; PRZ treatment did not allow elevation of these pro-apoptotic factors. Further, REMSD increased cytochrome c expression, which was prevented if the NA synthesis from the LC neurons was blocked by microinjection of TH-siRNA in vivo into the LC during REMSD in freely moving normal rats. Mitochondrial damage was re-confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, which showed distinctly swollen mitochondria with disintegrated cristae, chromosomal condensation and clumping along the nuclear membrane and all these changes were prevented in PRZ treated rats. Combining findings of this study along with earlier reports we propose that upon REMSD NA level increases in the brain as the LC NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons do not cease firing and TH is up-regulated in those neurons. This elevated NA acting on alpha1-adrenoceptors damages mitochondria causing release of

  19. Addition of deep brain stimulation signal to a local field potential driven Izhikevich model masks the pathological firing pattern of an STN neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michmizos, Kostis P; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2011-01-01

    The crucial engagement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS) that alleviates medically intractable Parkinsonian tremor augments the need to refine our current understanding of STN. To enhance the efficacy of DBS as a result of precise targeting, STN boundaries are accurately mapped using extracellular microelectrode recordings (MERs). We utilized the intranuclear MER to acquire the local field potential (LFP) and drive an Izhikevich model of an STN neuron. Using the model as the test bed for clinically acquired data, we demonstrated that stimulation of the STN neuron produces excitatory responses that tonically increase its average firing rate and alter the pattern of its neuronal activity. We also found that the spiking rhythm increases linearly with the increase of amplitude, frequency, and duration of the DBS pulse, inside the clinical range. Our results are in agreement with the current hypothesis that DBS increases the firing rate of STN and masks its pathological bursting firing pattern.

  20. Concomitant interferon alpha stimulation and TLR3 activation induces neuronal expression of depression-related genes that are elevated in the brain of suicidal persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hoyo-Becerra

    Full Text Available We have previously identified 15 genes that are associated with the development of severe depressive side effects during the standard therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin in the peripheral blood of hepatitis C virus infected patients. An enhanced expression of these genes was also found in the blood of psychiatric patients suffering severe depressive episode. Herein, we demonstrate that the same depression-related interferon-inducible genes (DRIIs are also upregulated in post-mortem brains of suicidal individuals. Using cultured mouse hippocampal and prefrontal neurons we show that costimulation with murine IFN (mIFN and the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C promotes the expression of the described DRIIs, at the same time inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through Stat1 and Stat3 activation, promoting neuronal apoptosis. Consequently, the upregulation of selective DRIIs, production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of neuronal plasticity may be involved in the pathogenesis of IFN-associated depression.

  1. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor reverses atrophy of rubrospinal neurons following both acute and chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Blits, Bas; Dijkhuizen, Paul A; te Beek, Erik T; Bakker, Arne; van Heerikhuize, Joop J; Pool, Chris W; Hermens, Wim T J; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, Joost

    2004-03-01

    Rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) undergo marked atrophy after cervical axotomy. This progressive atrophy may impair the regenerative capacity of RSNs in response to repair strategies that are targeted to promote rubrospinal tract regeneration. Here, we investigated whether we could achieve long-term rescue of RSNs from lesion-induced atrophy by adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We show for the first time that AAV vectors can be used for the persistent transduction of highly atrophic neurons in the red nucleus (RN) for up to 18 months after injury. Furthermore, BDNF gene transfer into the RN following spinal axotomy resulted in counteraction of atrophy in both the acute and chronic stage after injury. These novel findings demonstrate that a gene therapeutic approach can be used to reverse atrophy of lesioned CNS neurons for an extended period of time.

  2. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behavioral...... actions of ghrelin could be mediated by direct cellular actions within this nucleus. Consistent with this interpretation, postsynaptically mediated depolarizing membrane actions of ghrelin on LDT neurons have been reported. Direct actions were ascribed solely to closure of a potassium conductance however...... this peptide has been shown in other cell types to lead to rises in calcium via release of calcium from intracellular stores. To determine whether ghrelin induced intracellular calcium rises in mouse LDT neurons, we conducted calcium imaging studies in LDT brain slices loaded with the calcium binding dye, Fura...

  3. [How does the brain control eye movements? Motor and premotor neurons of the brainstem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubard, O A

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of cognitive and neural architecture and processes that control eye movements has advanced enough to allow precise and quantitative analysis of hitherto unsolved phenomena. In this review, we revisit from a neuropsychological viewpoint Hering vs. Helmholtz' hypotheses on binocular coordination. Specifically, we reexamine the behavior and the neural bases of saccade-vergence movement, to move the gaze in both direction and depth under natural conditions. From the psychophysical viewpoint, neo-Heringian and neo-Helmholtzian authors have accumulated arguments favoring distinct conjugate (for saccades) and disconjugate (for vergence) systems, as well as advocating for monocularly programmed eye movements. From the neurophysiological viewpoint, which reports brain cell recordings during the execution of a given task, neo-Heringian and neo-Helmholtzian physiologists have also provided arguments in favor of both hypotheses at the level of the brainstem premotor circuitry. Bridging the two, we propose that Hering and Helmholtz were both right. The emphasis placed by the latter on adaptive processes throughout life cycle is compatible with the importance of neurobiological constraints pointed out by the former. In the meanwhile, the study of saccade-vergence eye movements recalls how much the psychophysical definition of the task determines the interpretation that is made from neurophysiological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurobehavioral protection by the neuronal calcium channel blocker ziconotide in a model of traumatic diffuse brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, R F; Verweij, B H; Muizelaar, J P

    2000-11-01

    Abnormal accumulation of intracellular calcium following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to contribute to a cascade of cellular events that lead to neuropathological conditions. Therefore, the possibility that specific calcium channel antagonists might exert neuroprotective effects in TBI has been of interest. The focus of this study was to examine whether Ziconotide produces such neuroprotective effects. The authors report that the acceleration-deceleration model of TBI developed by Marmarou, et al., induces a long-lasting deficit of neuromotor and behavioral function. The voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker Ziconotide (also known as SNX-111 and CI-1009) exerts neuroprotective effects in this model of diffuse brain injury (DBI) in rats. The dose and time of injection of Ziconotide chosen for the present study was based on the authors' previous biochemical studies of mitochondria. Rats were trained in a series of motor and memory tasks, following which they were subjected to DBI using the Marmarou, et al., model. At 3, 5, and 24 hours, all rats were injected with 2 mg/kg Ziconotide for a total cumulative dose of 6 mg/kg Ziconotide. Control brain-injured animals were injected with an equal volume of saline vehicle at each of these time points. The rats were tested for motor and cognitive performance at 1, 3, 7,14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days postinjury. Saline-treated rats displayed severe motor and cognitive deficits after DBI. Compared with saline-treated control animals, rats treated with Ziconotide displayed better motor performance during inclined plane, beam balance, and beam walk tests; improved memory while in the radial arm maze; and improved learning while in the Morris water maze. These results demonstrated that the acceleration-deceleration model, which had been developed by Marmarou, et al., induces severe motor and cognitive deficits. We also demonstrated that Ziconotide exhibits substantial neuroprotective activity in this model of TBI

  5. Adult human brain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and fibroblast-like cells have similar properties in vitro but only NPCs differentiate into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas In-Hyeup; Monzo, Hector; Mee, Edward W; Bergin, Peter S; Teoh, Hoon H; Montgomery, Johanna M; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC) culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP) of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia), and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs). These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5-6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting AhNPC-based experiments.

  6. Adult Human Brain Neural Progenitor Cells (NPCs) and Fibroblast-Like Cells Have Similar Properties In Vitro but Only NPCs Differentiate into Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas In-Hyeup; Monzo, Hector; Mee, Edward W.; Bergin, Peter S.; Teoh, Hoon H.; Montgomery, Johanna M.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Dragunow, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC) culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP) of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia), and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs). These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5–6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting AhNPC-based experiments. PMID

  7. Adult human brain neural progenitor cells (NPCs and fibroblast-like cells have similar properties in vitro but only NPCs differentiate into neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas In-Hyeup Park

    Full Text Available The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs. These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5-6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting Ah

  8. Correlation between lactate and neuronal cell damage in the rat brain after focal ischemia: An in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic (1H-MRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chul-Woong; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2010-04-01

    Increased levels of lactate are observed by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in rat brains after stroke. However, it is not known whether the changes in lactate levels are predictive of the degree of neuronal damage. To investigate the correlation between changes in lactate and lipid levels measured by (1)H-MRS and neuronal cell damage in the rat brain. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was used to evaluate focal ischemia in rats (n=36). After MCAO for 90 min T2-weighted images (T2WIs), diffusion-weighted images (DWIs), and (1)H-MRS data were obtained from brains immediately, 6 hours, 9 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days after reperfusion. Infarct volumes were measured in T2WIs obtained 4 weeks after reperfusion. The degree of neuronal damage was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining in three rats from each group at the same time as brain images were collected. Creatine (Cr)-normalized lactate + lipid levels ([Lac+Lip]/Cr) were negatively correlated with Cr-normalized N-acetyl-L-aspartate levels (NAA/Cr) and positively correlated with TUNEL-positive cell numbers up to 24 hours after reperfusion. (Lac+Lip)/Cr at 6 hours and 9 hours was significantly correlated with NAA/Cr at 7 days, but there was no significant correlation between (Lac+Lip)/Cr during the first 24 hours and infarct volume at 4 weeks. Up to 24 hours after reperfusion, (Lac+Lip)/Cr was strongly negatively correlated with NAA/Cr, and was a good predictor of neuronal damage at 7 days; however, it was not predictive of final infarct volume at 4 weeks.

  9. Insufficient Astrocyte-Derived Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Contributes to Propofol-Induced Neuron Death Through Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β/Mitochondrial Fission Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Yan, Yasheng; Inagaki, Yasuyoshi; Logan, Sarah; Bosnjak, Zeljko J; Bai, Xiaowen

    2017-07-01

    Growing animal evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to propofol during brain development induces widespread neuronal cell death, but there is little information on the role of astrocytes. Astrocytes can release neurotrophic growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which can exert the protective effect on neurons in paracrine fashion. We hypothesize that during propofol anesthesia, BDNF released from developing astrocytes may not be sufficient to prevent propofol-induced neurotoxicity. Hippocampal astrocytes and neurons isolated from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to propofol at a clinically relevant dose of 30 μM or dimethyl sulfoxide as control for 6 hours. Propofol-induced cell death was determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining in astrocyte-alone cultures, neuron-alone cultures, or cocultures containing either low or high density of astrocytes (1:9 or 1:1 ratio of astrocytes to neurons ratio [ANR], respectively). The astrocyte-conditioned medium was collected 12 hours after propofol exposure and measured by protein array assay. BDNF concentration in astrocyte-conditioned medium was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neuron-alone cultures were treated with BDNF, tyrosine receptor kinase B inhibitor cyclotraxin-B, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor CHIR99021, or mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 before propofol exposure. Western blot was performed for quantification of the level of protein kinase B and GSK3β. Mitochondrial shape was visualized through translocase of the outer membrane 20 staining. Propofol increased cell death in neurons by 1.8-fold (% of PI-positive cells [PI%] = 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2-21.9, P .05]). Astrocytes secreted BDNF in a cell density-dependent way and propofol decreased BDNF secretion from astrocytes. Administration of BDNF, CHIR99021, or Mdivi-1 significantly attenuated the propofol-induced neuronal death and aberrant mitochondria in

  10. Design of silicon brains in the nano-CMOS era: spiking neurons, learning synapses and neural architecture optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Andrew S; Georgiou, Julius; Andreou, Andreas G

    2013-09-01

    We present a design framework for neuromorphic architectures in the nano-CMOS era. Our approach to the design of spiking neurons and STDP learning circuits relies on parallel computational structures where neurons are abstracted as digital arithmetic logic units and communication processors. Using this approach, we have developed arrays of silicon neurons that scale to millions of neurons in a single state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). We demonstrate the validity of the design methodology through the implementation of cortical development in a circuit of spiking neurons, STDP synapses, and neural architecture optimization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. ... that regulates many functions, including mood, appetite, and sleep. synapse —The tiny gap between neurons, where nerve impulses are sent from one neuron to ... of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed New BRAIN Grants ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with ... our original set of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons communicating with ... axon, most neurons release a chemical message (a neurotransmitter) which crosses the synapse and binds to receptors ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons communicating with one another. Electrical impulses and chemical signals ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

  16. Type A and B monoamine oxidases distinctly modulate signal transduction pathway and gene expression to regulate brain function and survival of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Makoto; Maruyama, Wakako; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo

    2017-12-26

    Type A and B monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, -B) mediate and modulate intracellular signal pathways for survival or death of neuronal cells. MAO-A is associated with development of neuronal architecture, synaptic activity, and onset of psychiatric disorders, including depression, and antisocial aggressive impulsive behaviors. MAO-B produces hydrogen peroxide and plays a vital role in neuronal loss of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review presents a novel role of MAO-A and B, their substrates and inhibitors, and hydrogen peroxide in brain function and neuronal survival and death. MAO-A activity is regulated not only by genetic factor, but also by environmental factors, including stress, hormonal deregulation, and food factors. MAO-A activity fluctuates by genetic-environmental factors, modulates the neuronal response to the stimuli, and affects behavior and emotional activities. MAO-B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline protect neurons via increase expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-survival neurotrophic factors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma U118MG cell lines. MAO-A knockdown suppressed the rasagiline-induced gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas MAO-B silencing enhanced the basal- and selegiline-induced gene expression in U118MG cells. MAO-A and B were shown to function as a mediator or repressor of gene expression, respectively. Further study on cellular mechanism underlying regulation of signal pathways by MAO-A and B may bring us a new insight on the role of MAOs in decision of neuronal fate and the development of novel therapeutic strategy may be expected for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Dark neurons in the mouse brain: an investigation into the possible significance of their variable appearance within a day and their relation to negatively charged cell coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, A; Murakami, T

    1996-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence and nature of dark neurons in the central nervous system under physiological conditions. Mouse brain tissues were perfusion-fixed with paraformaldehyde or glutaraldehyde at 4 h intervals during one day (3:00, 7:00, 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, 23:00). Paraffin sections were stained with the cationic colloidal iron method, and counterstained with nuclear fast red or carbolthionin. The dark neurons were readily distinguishable as their shrunken cell bodies stained densely with nuclear fast red or thionin. Some of the dark cells were coated with perineuronal sulfated proteoglycans; this coat, which formed a smoothly extended meshwork in light cells, presented spicule-like forms in the dark cells. The occurrence of dark cells in the retrosplenial cortex varied by the time of day: the incidence of the dark neurons was low (10-15%) at 11:00, 15:00 and 23:00, while it was significantly high (50-60%) at 3:00 and 19:00. Previous authors have ascribed the occurrence of dark neurons either to artifacts due to inappropriate fixation or to pathological damage. However, the present study strongly suggests that this type of neuron occurs under physiological conditions as reversible changes, and vary over a day, showing distinct peaks. These peaks occurred coincidentally while the mice were awake. Such morphological changes may be involved in the neuronal activation and exhaustion. Our view is consistent with the hypothesis (Tewari and Bourne, 1963) that the neurons take such dark profiles at certain stages of neurosecretion.

  18. Inhibition of Aminoacylase 3 Protects Rat Brain Cortex Neuronal Cells from the Toxicity of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal Mercapturate and 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia; Bragin, Anatol; Faull, Kym; Cascio, Duilio; Damoiseaux, Robert; Schibler, Matthew J.; Pushkin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein are highly reactive neurotoxic products of lipid peroxidation that accumulate in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease brain and are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of these neurological diseases. Conjugation with glutathione (GSH) initiates the HNE and acrolein detoxification pathway, which generates the mercapturates of HNE and acrolein that can be excreted. Prior work has shown that the efficiency of the GSH-dependent renal detoxification of haloalkene derived mercapturates is significantly decreased upon their deacetylation. Moreover the deacetylated products are rapidly transformed via β-lyases into toxic compounds responsible for the nephrotoxicity of the mercapturates. Because the enzymes of the GSH-conjugation pathway and β-lyases are expressed in brain, we hypothesized that a similar toxicity mechanism may be initiated in brain by the deacetylation of HNE and acrolein mercapturates. The present study was performed to identify an enzyme(s) involved in HNE and acrolein mercapturate deacetylation, characterize the brain expression of this enzyme and determine whether its inhibition decreases HNE and HNE mercapturate toxicity in neurons. We demonstrated that of two candidate enzymes known to deacetylate mercapturic acids, aminoacylases 1 (AA1) and 3 (AA3), only AA3 efficiently deacetylates both HNE and acrolein mercapturates. AA3 was further localized to neurons and blood vessels. Using a small molecule screen we further generated high-affinity AA3 inhibitors. Two of them completely protected rat brain cortex neurons expressing AA3 from the toxicity of HNE mercapturate. The results suggest that AA3 mediated deacetylation of HNE mercapturate may be involved in the neurotoxicity of HNE. PMID:22819785

  19. MRI of neuronal recovery after low-dose methamphetamine treatment of traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Liang Ding

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of low dose methamphetamine treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI in rats by employing MRI, immunohistology, and neurological functional tests. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to TBI using the controlled cortical impact model. The treated rats (n = 10 received an intravenous (iv bolus dose of 0.42 mg/kg of methamphetamine at eight hours after the TBI followed by continuous iv infusion for 24 hrs. The control rats (n = 10 received the same volume of saline using the same protocol. MRI scans, including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, were performed one day prior to TBI, and at 1 and 3 days post TBI, and then weekly for 6 weeks. The lesion volumes of TBI damaged cerebral tissue were demarcated by elevated values in T2 maps and were histologically identified by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The fractional anisotropy (FA values within regions-of-interest (ROI were measured in FA maps deduced from DTI, and were directly compared with Bielschowsky's silver and Luxol fast blue (BLFB immunohistological staining. No therapeutic effect on lesion volumes was detected during 6 weeks after TBI. However, treatment significantly increased FA values in the recovery ROI compared with the control group at 5 and 6 weeks after TBI. Myelinated axons histologically measured using BLFB were significantly increased (p<0.001 in the treated group (25.84±1.41% compared with the control group (17.05±2.95%. Significant correlations were detected between FA and BLFB measures in the recovery ROI (R = 0.54, p<0.02. Methamphetamine treatment significantly reduced modified neurological severity scores from 2 to 6 weeks (p<0.05 and foot-fault errors from 3 days to 6 weeks (p<0.05 after TBI. Thus, the FA data suggest that methamphetamine treatment improves white matter reorganization from 5 to 6 weeks after TBI in rats compared with saline treatment, which may contribute to the observed functional

  20. Validating Serum S100B and Neuron-Specific Enolase as Biomarkers for the Human Brain – A Combined Serum, Gene Expression and MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitbürger, Daniel-Paolo; Arelin, Katrin; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Steiner, Johann; Villringer, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Former studies have investigated the potential of serum biomarkers for diseases affecting the human brain. In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as major depression and schizophrenia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a specific serum marker for neuronal damage. However, the specificity of these biomarkers for cell type and brain region has not been investigated in vivo until now. Methods We acquired two magnetic resonance imaging parameters sensitive to changes in gray and white matter (T1-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging) and obtained serum S100B and NSE levels of 41 healthy subjects. Additionally, we analyzed whole brain gene expressions of S100B in another male cohort of three subjects using the Allen Brain Atlas. Furthermore, a female post mortal brain was investigated using double immunofluorescence labelling with oligodendrocyte markers. Results We show that S100B is specifically related to white matter structures, namely the corpus callosum, anterior forceps and superior longitudinal fasciculus in female subjects. This effect was observed in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity – the latest an indicator of myelin changes. Histological data confirmed a co-localization of S100B with oligodendrocyte markers in the human corpus callosum. S100B was most abundantly expressed in the corpus callosum according to the whole genome Allen Human Brain Atlas. In addition, NSE was related to gray matter structures, namely the amygdala. This effect was detected across sexes. Conclusion Our data demonstrates a very high S100B expression in white matter tracts, in particular in human corpus callosum. Our study is the first in vivo study validating the specificity of the glial marker S100B for the human brain, and supporting the assumption that radial diffusivity represents a myelin marker. Our results open a new perspective

  1. Validating serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase as biomarkers for the human brain - a combined serum, gene expression and MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Paolo Streitbürger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Former studies have investigated the potential of serum biomarkers for diseases affecting the human brain. In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as major depression and schizophrenia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE is a specific serum marker for neuronal damage. However, the specificity of these biomarkers for cell type and brain region has not been investigated in vivo until now. METHODS: We acquired two magnetic resonance imaging parameters sensitive to changes in gray and white matter (T(1-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging and obtained serum S100B and NSE levels of 41 healthy subjects. Additionally, we analyzed whole brain gene expressions of S100B in another male cohort of three subjects using the Allen Brain Atlas. Furthermore, a female post mortal brain was investigated using double immunofluorescence labelling with oligodendrocyte markers. RESULTS: We show that S100B is specifically related to white matter structures, namely the corpus callosum, anterior forceps and superior longitudinal fasciculus in female subjects. This effect was observed in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity - the latest an indicator of myelin changes. Histological data confirmed a co-localization of S100B with oligodendrocyte markers in the human corpus callosum. S100B was most abundantly expressed in the corpus callosum according to the whole genome Allen Human Brain Atlas. In addition, NSE was related to gray matter structures, namely the amygdala. This effect was detected across sexes. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrates a very high S100B expression in white matter tracts, in particular in human corpus callosum. Our study is the first in vivo study validating the specificity of the glial marker S100B for the human brain, and supporting the assumption that radial diffusivity represents a myelin marker. Our results

  2. Combining Exergame Training with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study assessing the Effect on Neuronal Structure/Function in the Elderly Brain

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    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling that might lead to injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g. decline in grey- and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that the sole administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a combination of exergame training with omega-3 FA supplementation on the elderly brain. We hypothesize that an intervention using a combination approach differently effects on the neuronal structure and function of the elderly’s brain as compared to the sole administration of exergame training. The study is a parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial lasting 26 weeks. Sixty autonomous living, non-smoking, and right-handed healthy older (>65 years adults who live independently or in a senior residency are included, randomized, and allocated to one of two study groups. The experimental group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml fish oil (including 2.9g of omega-3 FA, whereas the control group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml olive oil for 26 weeks. After 16 weeks, both groups start with an exergame training program three times per week. Measurements are performed on three time-points by treatment blinded investigators: pre-intervention measurement, blood sample after 16 week, and post-intervention measurements. The main outcomes are motor evoked potentials of the right M. tibialis anterior (transcranial magnetic stimulation and response-related potentials (electroencephalography during a cognitive test. For secondary outcomes, reaction times during cognitive tests and spatio-temporal parameters during gait performance are measured. Statistics

  3. Effect of Physical Exercise and Acute Escitalopram on the Excitability of Brain Monoamine Neurons: In Vivo Electrophysiological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Csatlósová, Kristína; Durišová, Barbora; Moravcíková, Lucia; Lacinová, Lubica; Ježováv, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) rats were housed in individual cages with free access to a running wheel, while control animals were housed in standard laboratory cages. After three weeks, the rats were anesthetized, and in vivo electrophysiological recordings were taken from dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons, locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons, and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. VWR stimulated activity in serotonin, but not in norepinephrine or dopamine neurons. Subsequently, acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in control rats led to complete suppression of serotonin neurons; this suppression was reversed by subsequent administration of selective antagonist of serotonin-1A receptors, WAY100135. Escitalopram induced only partial inhibition of serotonin neurons in the VWR rats while WAY100135 increased the firing activity of serotonin neurons above the baseline value. The beneficial effect of physical exercise on mood is mediated, at least in part, via activation of serotonin neurons. Physical exercise can potentiate the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by increasing the basal firing activity and diminishing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced inhibition of serotonin neurons.

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  5. Widespread neuron-specific transgene expression in brain and spinal cord following synapsin promoter-driven AAV9 neonatal intracerebroventricular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Jesse R; Smith, Gaynor A; Rocha, Emily M; Hayes, Melissa A; Beagan, Jonathan A; Hallett, Penelope J; Isacson, Ole

    2014-07-25

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer holds great promise for treating a wide-range of neurodegenerative disorders. The AAV9 serotype crosses the blood-brain barrier and shows enhanced transduction efficiency compared to other serotypes, thus offering advantageous targeting when global transgene expression is required. Neonatal intravenous or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) delivery of recombinant AAV9 (rAAV9) have recently proven effective for modeling and treating several rodent models of neurodegenerative disease, however, the technique is associated with variable cellular tropism, making tailored gene transfer a challenge. In the current study, we employ the human synapsin 1 (hSYN1) gene promoter to drive neuron-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) after neonatal i.c.v. injection of rAAV9 in mice. We observed widespread GFP expression in neurons throughout the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves and ganglia at 6 weeks-of-age. Region-specific quantification of GFP expression showed high neuronal transduction rates in substantia nigra pars reticulata (43.9±5.4%), motor cortex (43.5±3.3%), hippocampus (43.1±2.7%), cerebellum (29.6±2.3%), cervical spinal cord (24.9±3.9%), and ventromedial striatum (16.9±4.3%), among others. We found that 14.6±2.2% of neuromuscular junctions innervating the gastrocnemius muscle displayed GFP immunoreactivity. GFP expression was identified in several neuronal sub-types, including nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic cells, striatal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32)-positive neurons, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive motor neurons. These results build on contemporary gene transfer techniques, demonstrating that the hSYN1 promoter can be used with rAAV9 to drive robust neuron-specific transgene expression throughout the nervous system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David J P; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-10-23

    Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5-12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or alphaPD1 ligand were studied. Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells

  7. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jong-Hee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap, effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase, synapse remodeling (Complement 1q, and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of

  8. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis genes, CLN2, CLN3 and CLN5 are spatially and temporally co-expressed in a developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabritius, A-L; Vesa, J; Minye, H M; Nakano, I; Kornblum, H; Peltonen, L

    2014-12-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) diseases consist of a group of genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorders that share common symptoms such as seizures, psychomotor retardation, blindness, and premature death. Although gene defects behind the NCL diseases are well characterized, very little is known how these defects affect normal development of the brain and cause the pathology of the disease. To obtain understanding of the development of the cell types that are mostly affected by defective function of CLN proteins, timing of expression of CLN2, CLN3 and CLN5 genes was investigated in developing mouse brain. The relationship between the expression pattern and the developmental stage of the brain showed that these genes are co-expressed spatially and temporally during brain development. Throughout the development strong expression of the three mRNAs was detected in germinal epithelium and in ventricle regions, hippocampus and cerebellum, all representing regions that are known to be associated with the formation of new neurons. More specifically, RT-PCR studies on developing mouse cortices revealed that the CLN genes were temporally co-expressed in the neural progenitor cells together with known stem cell markers. This suggested that CLN2, CLN3 and CLN5 genes may play an important role in early embryonal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an imaging system for in vivo real-time monitoring of neuronal activity in deep brain of free-moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Norio; Miyamoto, Shinji; Matsumoto, Keisuke; Takumi, Ken; Ueta, Yoichi; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2017-09-01

    We have newly developed a system that allows monitoring of the intensity of fluorescent signals from deep brains of rats transgenically modified to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) via an optical fiber. One terminal of the optical fiber was connected to a blue semiconductor laser oscillator/green fluorescence detector. The other terminal was inserted into the vicinity of the eGFP-expressing neurons. Since the optical fiber was vulnerable to twisting stresses caused by animal movement, we also developed a cage in which the floor automatically turns, in response to the turning of the rat's head. This relieved the twisting stress on the optical fiber. The system then enabled real-time monitoring of fluorescence in awake and unrestrained rats over many hours. Using this system, we could continuously monitor eGFP-expression in arginine vasopressin-eGFP transgenic rats. Moreover, we observed an increase of eGFP-expression in the paraventricular nucleus under salt-loading conditions. We then performed in vivo imaging of eGFP-expressing GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus, via a bundle consisting of 3000 thin optical fibers. With the combination of the optical fiber bundle connection to the fluorescence microscope, and the special cage system, we were able to capture and retain images of eGFP-expressing neurons from free-moving rats. We believe that our newly developed method for monitoring and imaging eGFP-expression in deep brain neurons will be useful for analysis of neuronal functions in awake and unrestrained animals for long durations.

  10. Specific Distribution of the Autophagic Protein GABARAPL1/GEC1 in the Developing and Adult Mouse Brain and Identification of Neuronal Populations Expressing GABARAPL1/GEC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, Jaclyn Nicole; Bon, Karine; Fraichard, Annick; Zhang, Jianhua; Jouvenot, Michèle; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël; Delage-Mourroux, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation process, regulated by autophagy-related (atg) factors, in which a double membrane autophagosome engulfs cytoplasmic components to target them for degradation. In yeast, the Atg8 protein is indispensable for autophagosome formation. In mammals, this is complicated by the presence of six Atg8 homologues grouped into the GABARAP and MAP1LC3 subfamilies. Although these proteins share a high similarity, their transcript expression, regulation and protein interactions differ, suggesting they may display individual properties and specific functions. GABARAPL1/GEC1 is a member of the GABARAP subfamily and its mRNA is the most highly expressed Atg8 homologue in the central nervous system. Consequently, we performed an in depth study of GABARAPL1 distribution in the developing and adult murine brain. Our results show that GABARAPL1 brain expression is visible as early as embryonic day 11 and progressively increases to a maximum level in the adult. Immunohistochemical staining was detected in both fibers and immature neurons in embryos but was restrained to neurons in adult tissue. By E17, intense punctate-like structures were visible and these accumulated in cortical primary neurons treated with the autophagosome/lysosome fusion inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), suggesting that they represent autophagosomes. Finally, GABARAPL1 expression was particularly intense in motoneurons in the embryo and in neurons involved in somatomotor and neuroendocrine functions in the adult, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a region affected in Parkinson's disease. Our study of cerebral GABARAPL1 protein expression provides insight into its role in the development and homeostasis of the mouse brain. PMID:23690988

  11. The protocadherins, PCDHB1 and PCDH7, are regulated by MeCP2 in neuronal cells and brain tissues: implication for pathogenesis of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kunio; Hirasawa, Takae; Soutome, Masaki; Itoh, Masayuki; Goto, Yu-ichi; Endoh, Kazushi; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Kudo, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yokoi, Sana; Taira, Takahiro; Inazawa, Johji; Kubota, Takeo

    2011-08-08

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental and autistic disease caused by mutations of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. MeCP2 protein is mainly expressed in neurons and binds to methylated gene promoters to suppress their expression, indicating that Rett syndrome is caused by the deregulation of target genes in neurons. However, it is likely that there are more unidentified neuronal MeCP2-targets associated with the neurological features of RTT. Using a genome-microarray approach, we found 22 genomic regions that contain sites potentially regulated by MeCP2 based on the features of MeCP2 binding, DNA methylation, and repressive histone modification in human cell lines. Within these regions, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that MeCP2 binds to the upstream regions of the protocadherin genes PCDHB1 and PCDH7 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. PCDHB1 and PCDH7 promoter activities were down-regulated by MeCP2, but not by MBD-deleted MeCP2. These gene expression were up-regulated following MeCP2 reduction with siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells and in the brains of Mecp2-null mice. Furthermore, PCDHB1 was up-regulated in postmortem brains from Rett syndrome patients. We identified MeCP2 target genes that encode neuronal adhesion molecules using ChIP-on-BAC array approach. Since these protocadherin genes are generally essential for brain development, aberrant regulation of these molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neurological features observed in Rett syndrome.

  12. The protocadherins, PCDHB1 and PCDH7, are regulated by MeCP2 in neuronal cells and brain tissues: implication for pathogenesis of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Takayuki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental and autistic disease caused by mutations of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. MeCP2 protein is mainly expressed in neurons and binds to methylated gene promoters to suppress their expression, indicating that Rett syndrome is caused by the deregulation of target genes in neurons. However, it is likely that there are more unidentified neuronal MeCP2-targets associated with the neurological features of RTT. Results Using a genome-microarray approach, we found 22 genomic regions that contain sites potentially regulated by MeCP2 based on the features of MeCP2 binding, DNA methylation, and repressive histone modification in human cell lines. Within these regions, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis revealed that MeCP2 binds to the upstream regions of the protocadherin genes PCDHB1 and PCDH7 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. PCDHB1 and PCDH7 promoter activities were down-regulated by MeCP2, but not by MBD-deleted MeCP2. These gene expression were up-regulated following MeCP2 reduction with siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells and in the brains of Mecp2-null mice. Furthermore, PCDHB1 was up-regulated in postmortem brains from Rett syndrome patients. Conclusions We identified MeCP2 target genes that encode neuronal adhesion molecules using ChIP-on-BAC array approach. Since these protocadherin genes are generally essential for brain development, aberrant regulation of these molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neurological features observed in Rett syndrome.

  13. Organic bioelectronics for electronic-to-chemical translation in modulation of neuronal signaling and machine-to-brain interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Karin C; Kjäll, Peter; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

    2013-09-01

    A major challenge when creating interfaces for the nervous system is to translate between the signal carriers of the nervous system (ions and neurotransmitters) and those of conventional electronics (electrons). Organic conjugated polymers represent a unique class of materials that utilizes both electrons and ions as charge carriers. Based on these materials, we have established a series of novel communication interfaces between electronic components and biological systems. The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) presented in this review is made of the polymer-polyelectrolyte system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The OEIP translates electronic signals into electrophoretic migration of ions and neurotransmitters. We demonstrate how spatio-temporally controlled delivery of ions and neurotransmitters can be used to modulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in neuronal cells in the absence of convective disturbances. The electronic control of delivery enables strict control of dynamic parameters, such as amplitude and frequency of Ca(2+) responses, and can be used to generate temporal patterns mimicking naturally occurring Ca(2+) oscillations. To enable further control of the ionic signals we developed the electrophoretic chemical transistor, an analog of the traditional transistor used to amplify and/or switch electronic signals. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the OEIP in a new "machine-to-brain" interface by modulating brainstem responses in vivo. This review highlights the potential of communication interfaces based on conjugated polymers in generating complex, high-resolution, signal patterns to control cell physiology. We foresee widespread applications for these devices in biomedical research and in future medical devices within multiple therapeutic areas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organic Bioelectronics-Novel Applications in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV transcription through calcium responsive elements in cortical neurons.

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    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been studied as an important model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying numerous aspects of neuroplasticity. It has been extensively emphasized that Ca(2+ influx through different routes may have significantly different effects on BDNF transcription. Here, we examined the regulatory property of the major calcium responsive elements (CaRE in BDNF promoter IV in cultured rat cortical neurons. BDNF promoter IV, as well as CaRE1 and CaRE3, was significantly activated by Ca(2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC or NMDA receptor (NMDAR. However, the L-VGCC- and NMDAR-mediated activation of CaRE was differentially regulated by different Ca(2+-stimulated protein kinases. Specifically, PKA, CaMKI, and CaMKIV activity were required for L-VGCC-, but not NMDAR-mediated CaRE1 activation. CaMKI activity was required for NMDAR- but not L-VGCC-mediated CaRE3 activation. Surprisingly, the activation of CaRF, a previously identified transcription factor for CaRE1, was stimulated via L-VGCC but not NMDAR, and required MEK, PI3K and CaMKII activity. These results suggest a new working model that activity-dependent BDNF IV up-regulation may be coordinately mediated by CaRE1 and CaRE3 activity, which show different responses to Ca(2+-stimulated kinases. Our data also explain how the individual cis-element in BDNF promoter is distinctively coupled to different Ca(2+ routes.

  15. Chromium modulates expressions of neuronal plasticity markers and glial fibrillary acidic proteins in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Ali, Shakir; Sahin, Nurhan; Gencoglu, Hasan; Ozkan, Yusuf; Hayirli, Armagan; Gozel, Nevzat; Komorowski, James R

    2013-12-18

    This experiment investigated if chromium (Cr) as Cr-histidinate (CrHis) and Cr29 picolinate (CrPic) have a protective role in rats with hypoglycemia-induced brain injury, assessed by neuronal plasticity and regeneration potential. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prospectively divided into 2 groups: control and hypoglycemic (induced by insulin administration, 15U/kg, i.p., n=56). Hypoglycemic rats were then received randomly 1) none, 2) dextrose (on the day of sampling), 3) CrHis, or 4) CrPic. Cr-chelates were delivered via drinking water (providing 8μg elemental Cr per day) for one week prior to the hypoglycemia induction. The expressions of neuroplasticity markers [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)], glucose transporters (GLUT), and nuclear transcription proteins [nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and 4-hydroxyl nonenal (HNE)] were determined using Western blot. Hypoglycemia caused increases in the expressions of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, GFAP, NF-κB and HNE and decreases in the expression of NCAM's, GAP-43 and Nrf2 in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex. Cr-chelates suppressed expressions of GLUTs, GFAP, NF-κB and HNE expressions and enhanced expressions of NCAM, GAP-43 and Nrf2, which were more notable for CrHis than for CrPic. In conclusion, hypoglycemia leads to cerebral injury and Cr-chelates, particularly CrHis have protective and regeneration potential in cerebral tissues through modulating neuroplasticity markers and nuclear transcription proteins as well as facilitating glucose transporters. © 2013.

  16. Bidirectional coupling between astrocytes and neurons mediates learning and dynamic coordination in the brain: a multiple modeling approach.

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    John J Wade

    Full Text Available In recent years research suggests that astrocyte networks, in addition to nutrient and waste processing functions, regulate both structural and synaptic plasticity. To understand the biological mechanisms that underpin such plasticity requires the development of cell level models that capture the mutual interaction between astrocytes and neurons. This paper presents a detailed model of bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons (the astrocyte-neuron model or AN model which yields new insights into the computational role of astrocyte-neuronal coupling. From a set of modeling studies we demonstrate two significant findings. Firstly, that spatial signaling via astrocytes can relay a "learning signal" to remote synaptic sites. Results show that slow inward currents cause synchronized postsynaptic activity in remote neurons and subsequently allow Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity based learning to occur at the associated synapses. Secondly, that bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes underpins dynamic coordination between neuron clusters. Although our composite AN model is presently applied to simplified neural structures and limited to coordination between localized neurons, the principle (which embodies structural, functional and dynamic complexity, and the modeling strategy may be extended to coordination among remote neuron clusters.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form ...

  18. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  19. Hyperglycemia and high nitric oxide level induced oxidative stress in the brain and molecular alteration in the neurons and glial cells of laboratory mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, Rashmi; Yadawa, Arun Kumar; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2017-03-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia (glucotoxicity) is reported to have detrimental effects on various brain functions leading to neurodegenerative changes. However, the effect of hyperglycemia in combination with high nitric oxide (NO) level (reported to be increased during glucotoxicity), on brain functions is not clear yet. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of hyperglycemic drug Streptozotocin (STZ) and NO donor Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the brain of laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. Effects of these conditions were studied on the markers of oxidative stress, NF-κB signalling and the markers of neuronal and glial cell activation/inflammation. Results indicate increased level of MDA and altered antioxidant enzymes activity in both the treated groups compared to control but high levels of AGEs, AOPP and AR activity (markers of diabetic complications) were observed in STZ group only. On the other hand, while STZ group showed decreased IL-6 level, it was increased in SNP group but IFN-ϒ level increased in both the treated groups compared to control. Further, in addition to alterations in the expressions of iNOS, IKKβ, IKBα and NF-κB subunits (RelA-p65/RelB-p50) observed in the neurons and glial cells of different brain regions (hypothalamus, basolateral amygdala and cerebral cortex), enhanced expression of microglial CD11b and astrocytic GFAP was also found in both the treated groups compared to control. Present findings led us to conclude that both hyperglycemia and high NO level causes oxidative stress in addition to molecular alteration in the neurons and glial cells. It is suggested that high blood glucose and NO level induced oxidative stress may lead to neuroinflammation possibly via NF-κB signalling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

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    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  1. Brain infection and activation of neuronal repair mechanisms by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the lepidopteran model host Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Hain, Torsten; Fischer, Rainer; Chakraborty, Trinad; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-05-15

    Listeria monocytogenes the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis in humans often involves fatal brainstem infections leading to meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We recently established the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) as a model host for the investigation of L. monocytogenes pathogenesis and as a source of peptides exhibiting anti-Listeria-activity. Here we show that G. mellonella can be used to study brain infection and its impact on larval development as well as the activation of stress responses and neuronal repair mechanisms. The infection of G. mellonella larvae with L. monocytogenes elicits a cellular immune response involving the formation of melanized cellular aggregates (nodules) containing entrapped bacteria. These form under the integument and in the brain, resembling the symptoms found in human patients. We screened the G. mellonella transcriptome with marker genes representing stress responses and neuronal repair, and identified several modulated genes including those encoding heat shock proteins, growth factors, and regulators of neuronal stress. Remarkably, we discovered that L. monocytogenes infection leads to developmental shift in larvae and also modulates the expression of genes involved in the regulation of endocrine functions. We demonstrated that L. monocytogenes pathogenesis can be prevented by treating G. mellonella larvae with signaling inhibitors such as diclofenac, arachidonic acid, and rapamycin. Our data extend the utility of G. mellonella larvae as an ideal model for the high-throughput in vivo testing of potential compounds against listeriosis.

  2. Reciprocal regulation of very low density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs) in neurons by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Reelin: involvement of the E3 ligase Mylip/Idol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Tselykh, Timofey; Jalonen, Pilvi; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan

    2013-10-11

    BDNF positively influences various aspects of neuronal migration, maturation, and survival in the developing brain. Reelin in turn mediates inhibitory signals to migrating neuroblasts, which is crucial for brain development. The interplay between BDNF and Reelin signaling in neurodevelopment is not fully understood. We show here that BDNF increased the levels of the Reelin receptor (VLDL receptor (VLDLR)) in hippocampal neurons by increasing gene expression. In contrast, Reelin decreased VLDLRs, which was accompanied by an increase in the levels of the E3 ligase Mylip/Idol in neurons. Down-regulation of Mylip/Idol using shRNAs abrogated the decrease in VLDLRs induced by Reelin. These results show that VLDLRs are tightly regulated in hippocampal neurons by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The regulation of VLDLR by BDNF and Reelin may affect the migration of neurons and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders in the nervous system.

  3. In vitro α-synuclein neurotoxicity and spreading among neurons and astrocytes using Lewy body extracts from Parkinson disease brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Fabio; Cerf, Loic; Dehay, Benjamin; Ramos-Gonzalez, Paula; De Giorgi, Francesca; Bourdenx, Mathieu; Bessede, Alban; Obeso, Jose A; Matute, Carlos; Ichas, François; Bezard, Erwan

    2017-07-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of diseases characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein (α-syn). While α-syn aggregates have been shown to induce multimodal cellular dysfunctions, uptake and transport mechanisms remain unclear. Using high-content imaging on cortical neurons and astrocytes, we here define the kinetics of neuronal and astrocytic abnormalities induced by human-derived α-syn aggregates grounding the use of such system to identify and test putative therapeutic compounds. We then aimed at characterizing uptake and transport mechanisms using primary cultures of cortical neurons and astrocytes either in single well or in microfluidic chambers allowing connection between cells and cell-types. We report that astrocytes take up α-syn-aggregates far more efficiently than neurons through an endocytic event. We also highlight that active α-syn transport occurs between cells and any cell-types. Of special interest regarding the disease, we also show that uptake and spreading of α-syn from astrocytes to neurons can lead to neuronal death. Altogether, we here show that patients-derived α-synuclein aggregates, which are taken up by neurons and astrocytes, induce a differential endogenous response in the two cell types including a peculiar astrocytic toxic gain-of-function that leads to neuronal death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

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    Niurka Trujillo-Paredes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs, but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+. These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons.

  5. Moderately elevated intracranial pressure after diffuse traumatic brain injury is associated with exacerbated neuronal pathology and behavioral morbidity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenaye, Audrey D; Krahe, Thomas E; Povlishock, John T

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is correlated with ensuing morbidity/mortality in humans. This relationship is assumed to rely mostly on the recognition that extremely elevated ICP either indicates hematoma/contusions capable of precipitating herniation or alters cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which precipitates global ischemia. However, whether subischemic levels of elevated ICP without hematoma/contusion contribute to increased morbidity/mortality remains unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we utilized a model of moderate diffuse TBI in rats followed by either intraventricular ICP monitoring or manual ICP elevation to 20 mm Hg, in which CPP was above ischemic levels. The effects of ICP elevation after TBI on acute and chronic histopathology, as well as on behavioral morbidity, were evaluated. ICP elevation after TBI resulted in increased acute neuronal membrane perturbation and was also associated with reduced neuronal density at 4 weeks after injury. Somatosensory hypersensitivity was exacerbated by ICP elevation and was correlated to the observed neuronal loss. In conclusion, this study indicates that morbidity and increased neuronal damage/death associated with elevated ICP can occur without concurrent global ischemia. Therefore, understanding the pathologies associated with subischemic levels of elevated ICP could lead to the development of better therapeutic strategies for the treatment and management of TBI patients.

  6. Inhibitory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia CHEN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the mediation effect of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR in the effect of brainderived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons. Methods  Hippocampal neurons were obtained from p75NTR+/+ and p75NTR-/- 18-day mice and primarily cultured. For p75NTR+/+ neurons, three experimental groups were set, i.e. control, proBDNF (30ng/ml, and proBDNF (30ng/ml+p75/Fc (30µg/ml groups. For p75NTR-/- neurons, two experimental groups were set, i.e. control and proBDNF (30ng/ml groups. MTT assays were performed after 24h to examine the viability of neonatal primary neurons. Immunofluorescent staining was conducted after 72h to investigate the neurite length. Results With MAP2 and DAPI double fluorescent staining it was identified that the neonatal hippocampal neurons were successfully cultured in vitro with high purity. For viability assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the absorbance value at 570nm (A570 in proBDNF group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the neurite length in proBDNF group was significantly shorter than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR-/- neurons, no difference in neurite length was observed between proBDNF group and control group. Conclusion proBDNF may inhibit the neuronal viability and neurite growth via p75NTR. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.03

  7. Localization of connexins in neurons and glia cells of the Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia by immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M J; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Raso, M; Junquera, C; Lahoz, J M; Maestú, C; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Pérez-Castejón, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of cells expressing connexin 26 (Cx26) in the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal and left and right pleural ganglia of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. Altogether we have found approximately 452 immunoreactive neurons which represent the 4.7% of the total neurons counted. The stained large neurons (measured diameter 55-140 microm) occurred mostly on the peripheral surface of the ganglia while the small immunostained cells (5-25 microm diameter) were observed in groups near the neuropil. The number of large neurons giving positive Cx26-like immunostaining was small in comparison with that for medium (30-50 microm diameter) and small sized cells. The expression of Cx26 was also observed in the processes of glia cells localized among neurons somata and in the neuropil showing that the antiserum recognized epitopes in both protoplasmic and fibrous glia cells of Helix aspersa. The neuropils of all ganglia showed fibers densely immunostained. While we have observed a good specificity for Cx26-antiserum in neurons, a lack of reaction for Cx43 antiserum was observed in neurons and glia cells. The reaction for enolase antiserum in neurons was light and non-specific and a lack of reaction in glia cells and processes for GFAP antiserum was observed. Although the percentage of positive neurons for Cx26 antiserum was low is suggested that in normal physiological conditions or under stimulation the expression of connexin could be increased. The observed results can be considered of interest in the interpretation of Helix aspersa elemental two neuron networks synchronizing activity, observed under applied extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News New BRAIN Grants BRAIN Cell Census Launched ... human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such ... released it increases the chance that the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each ... of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... it increases the chance that the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells ... This area of the brain also helps to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  15. Erythropoietin Restores Long-Term Neurocognitive Function Involving Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity in a Model of Hyperoxia-Induced Preterm Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hoeber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white and grey matter injury is the leading cause of an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants. High oxygen concentrations have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of neonatal brain damage. Here, we focused on motor-cognitive outcome up to the adolescent and adult age in an experimental model of preterm brain injury. In search of the putative mechanisms of action we evaluated oligodendrocyte degeneration, myelination, and modulation of synaptic plasticity-related molecules. A single dose of erythropoietin (20,000 IU/kg at the onset of hyperoxia (24 hours, 80% oxygen in 6-day-old Wistar rats improved long-lasting neurocognitive development up to the adolescent and adult stage. Analysis of white matter structures revealed a reduction of acute oligodendrocyte degeneration. However, erythropoietin did not influence hypomyelination occurring a few days after injury or long-term microstructural white matter abnormalities detected in adult animals. Erythropoietin administration reverted hyperoxia-induced reduction of neuronal plasticity-related mRNA expression up to four months after injury. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of erythropoietin as a neuroregenerative treatment option in neonatal brain injury, leading to improved memory function in adolescent and adult rats which may be linked to increased neuronal network connectivity.

  16. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene expression in primary frontal cortical neurons. Comparison with NMDA and AMPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mona; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA levels in primary neuronal cultures of rat frontal cortex was characterized pharmacologically and compared to the effect on expression of c-fos, bdnf, neuritin, cox-2 as examples...... and BDNF mRNA, but not COX-2 mRNA. The pharmacological profile of NMDA and AMPA-induced arc gene expression in frontal cortical neurons was compared to BDNF. NMDA and AMPA increased Arc mRNA but their maximal effect did not exceed 20-fold. The effect of AMPA was completely blocked by the NMDA receptor...... plasticity in the frontal cortex....

  17. Naringin Improves Neuronal Insulin Signaling, Brain Mitochondrial Function, and Cognitive Function in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Yan, Junqiang; Chen, Jing; Wu, Wenlan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The epidemic and experimental studies have confirmed that the obesity induced by high-fat diet not only caused neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment in mice. Naringin has been reported to posses biological functions which are beneficial to human cognitions, but its protective effects on HFD-induced cognitive deficits and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. In the present study Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for 20 weeks and then randomized into four groups treated with their respective diets including control diet, control diet + naringin, high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet + naringin (HFDN). The behavioral performance was assessed by using novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. Hippocampal mitochondrial parameters were analyzed. Then the protein levels of insulin signaling pathway and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampus were detected by Western blot method. Our results showed that oral administration of naringin significantly improved the learning and memory abilities as evidenced by increasing recognition index by 52.5% in the novel object recognition test and inducing a 1.05-fold increase in the crossing-target number in the probe test, and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction in mice caused by HFD consumption. Moreover, naringin significantly enhanced insulin signaling pathway as indicated by a 34.5% increase in the expression levels of IRS-1, a 47.8% decrease in the p-IRS-1, a 1.43-fold increase in the p-Akt, and a 1.89-fold increase in the p-GSK-3β in the hippocampus of the HFDN mice versus HFD mice. Furthermore, the AMPK activity significantly increased in the naringin-treated (100 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) group. These findings suggest that an enhancement in insulin signaling and a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction through the activation of AMPK may be one of the mechanisms that naringin

  18. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  19. The stressed female brain: neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Shors, Tracey J

    2013-01-01

    Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. About 24 h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similarly to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful life

  20. Dynamic neuronal ensembles: Issues in representing structure change in object-oriented, biologically-based brain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahie, S.; Zeigler, B.P.; Cho, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the structure of dynamic neuronal ensembles (DNEs). DNEs represent a new paradigm for learning, based on biological neural networks that use variable structures. We present a computational neural element that demonstrates biological neuron functionality such as neurotransmitter feedback absolute refractory period and multiple output potentials. More specifically, we will develop a network of neural elements that have the ability to dynamically strengthen, weaken, add and remove interconnections. We demonstrate that the DNE is capable of performing dynamic modifications to neuron connections and exhibiting biological neuron functionality. In addition to its applications for learning, DNEs provide an excellent environment for testing and analysis of biological neural systems. An example of habituation and hyper-sensitization in biological systems, using a neural circuit from a snail is presented and discussed. This paper provides an insight into the DNE paradigm using models developed and simulated in DEVS.

  1. Patch-clamp recordings of rat neurons from acute brain slices of the somatosensory cortex during magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar ePashut; Dafna eMagidov; Hana eBen-Porat; Shuki eWolfus; Alex eFriedman; Eli ePerel; Michal eLavidor; Izhar eBar‐Gad; Yosef eYeshurun; Alon eKorngreen

    2014-01-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a popular tool for both basic research and clinical applications, its actions on nerve cells are only partially understood. We have previously predicted, using compartmental modeling, that magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. The simulations also predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magne...

  2. Purified mouse dopamine neurons thrive and function after transplantation into brain but require novel glial factors for survival in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, A.E.; Marshall, C.E.; Yang, Ming; Suon, S.; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease depends on a reliable source of purified dopamine (DA) neurons (PDN) and the identification of factors relevant to their survival. Our goal was to genetically tag and purify by flow cytometry embryonic midbrain DA neurons from a transgenic mouse line carrying 11 kb of human tyrosine hydroxylase promoter driving expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) for studies in vivo and in vitro. A 99% purification of GFP+ cells was achiev...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... common neurotransmitter in a person's body, which increases neuronal activity, is involved in early brain development, and ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve ...

  4. Difference in trafficking of brain-derived neurotrophic factor between axons and dendrites of cortical neurons, revealed by live-cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohara Keigo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is sorted into a regulated secretory pathway of neurons, is supposed to act retrogradely through dendrites on presynaptic neurons or anterogradely through axons on postsynaptic neurons. Depending on which is the case, the pattern and direction of trafficking of BDNF in dendrites and axons are expected to be different. To address this issue, we analyzed movements of green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged BDNF in axons and dendrites of living cortical neurons by time-lapse imaging. In part of the experiments, the expression of BDNF tagged with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was compared with that of nerve growth factor (NGF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP, to see whether fluorescent protein-tagged BDNF is expressed in a manner specific to this neurotrophin. Results We found that BDNF tagged with GFP or CFP was expressed in a punctated manner in dendrites and axons in about two-thirds of neurons into which plasmid cDNAs had been injected, while NGF tagged with GFP or YFP was diffusely expressed even in dendrites in about 70% of the plasmid-injected neurons. In neurons in which BDNF-GFP was expressed as vesicular puncta in axons, 59 and 23% of the puncta were moving rapidly in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. On the other hand, 64% of BDNF-GFP puncta in dendrites did not move at all or fluttered back and forth within a short distance. The rest of the puncta in dendrites were moving relatively smoothly in either direction, but their mean velocity of transport, 0.47 ± 0.23 (SD μm/s, was slower than that of the moving puncta in axons (0.73 ± 0.26 μm/s. Conclusion The present results show that the pattern and velocity of the trafficking of fluorescence protein-tagged BDNF are different between axons and dendrites, and suggest that the anterograde transport in axons may be the dominant stream of BDNF to release sites.

  5. The neuroprotective effect of miRNA-132 against amyloid β-protein-induced neuronal damage via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei XIANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. MicroRNA (miRNA-132, which is widely expressed in neurons, is involved in BDNF-mediated neural development by regulating the expression of target gene. This study aims to investigate the effect of miRNA-132 on BDNF and its neuroprotective effect.  Methods The hippocampal neurons were transfected by miRNA-132 after 72 h in vitro, then exposed to amyloid β-protein (Aβ on the 7th day to build AD models. The difference of miRNA-132 expression between AD group and control group was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The alterations of BDNF mRNA were observed in the neurons of different groups. Finally, the cell viability was observed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay in AD neurons transfected with miRNA-132 or incubated with BDNF. Results 1 MiRNA-132 was significantly decreased (t = 13.888, P = 0.000, and the expression of BDNF mRNA was also reduced in AD group (t = -12.274, P = 0.000. 2 Green fluorescence was clearly visible by inverted phase-contrast fluorescence microscopy after transfected with miRNA-132. BDNF mRNA was upregulated when miRNA-132 overexpression both in control group (t = 16.135, P = 0.000 and AD group (t = 8.656, P = 0.000. 3 Cell viability was obviously decreased in neurons exposed to Aβ (t = -6.023, P = 0.000, which was improved when transfected with miRNA-132 (t = 3.385, P = 0.007 or incubated with BDNF (t = 3.672, P = 0.004.  Conclusions The expression of miRNA-132 and BDNF was reduced in neuronal AD model. MiRNA-132 played an important role on neuroprotection against A β-induced neuronal damage via upregulation of BDNF. It could be expected to provide new perspective for