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Sample records for brain natruretic peptide

  1. The Relationship Between Heart Rate Recovery and Brain Natruretic Peptide in Patients With Chest Discomfort

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Wan; Huh, Jung Kwon; Kim, Byung Jin; Sung, Ki Chul; Kang, Jin Ho; Lee, Man Ho; Park, Jung Ro

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives The correlation between brain natruretic peptide (BNP) level and cardiac autonomic function has been studied in type 2 diabetic patients. However, there is limited data from patients with normal systolic function. We evaluated the association between heart rate recovery (HRR) representing autonomic dysfunction and three plasma BNP levels: pre-exercise, post-exercise, and change during exercise in patients with normal systolic function. Subjects and Methods Subjects i...

  2. Antimicrobial peptides in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanhua; Zhang, Kai; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2010-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune system of many species. The brain is an immunologically privileged organ but can produce a robust immune response against pathogens and cell debris, promoting rapid and efficient clearance. AMPs may be critically involved in the innate immune system of the brain. Though the mechanisms of AMPs' action in the brain still need further elucidation, many studies have shown that AMPs are multifunctional molecules in the brain. In addition to antimicrobial action, they take part in congenital and adaptive immune reactions (immunoregulation), function as signaling molecules in tissue repair, inflammation and other important processes through different mechanisms, and they might, in addition, become diagnostic markers of brain disease.

  3. Insulin and C-peptide in human brain neurons (insulin/C-peptide/brain peptides/immunohistochemistry/radioimmunoassay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional distribution and cellular localization of insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivities were studied in human cadaver brains using the indirect immunofluorescence method, the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and radioimmunoassay. Products of the immune reactions to both polypeptides were observed in most nerve cells in all areas of the brain examined. Immunostaining was mainly restricted to the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Radioimmunoassay revealed that human brain contains insulin and C-peptide in concentrations much higher than the blood, the highest being in the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that the 'brain insulin' is - at least in part - produced in the CNS. (author)

  4. Apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide protects against diffuse brain injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaning Zhao; Jianmin Li; Qiqun Tang; Junling Gao; Changxiang Chen; Liwei Jing; Pan Zhang; Shuxing Li

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a crucial role in inhibiting chronic neurodegenerative processes. Howev-er, its impact on neurological function following diffuse brain injury is still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action of apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide on diffuse brain injury. Apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide was administered into the caudal vein of rats with diffuse brain injury before and after injury. We found that apo-lipoprotein E mimetic peptide signiifcantly decreased the number of apoptotic neurons, reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation, down-regulated Bax and cytochrome c expression, decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased superoxide dismutase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These experimental ifndings demonstrate that apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide improves learning and memory function and protects against diffuse brain injury-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2-Bax mito-chondrial apoptotic pathway.

  5. Peptide-Mediated Blood-Brain Barrier Transport of Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, J.V.; Brinkhuis, R.P.; Stojanov, K.; Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Rutjes, F.P.J.T.; Hoekstra, D.; Hest, van J.C.M.; Zuhorn, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    A polymeric nanocarrier: Polymersomes tagged with a dodecamer peptide that recognizes gangliosides GM1 and GT1b are shown to cross the blood–brain barrier, both in an in vitro model and in vivo (see picture). The combination of polymeric vesicles with a small GM1-binding peptide and GM1/GT1b ganglio

  6. Brain natriuretic peptide and optimal management of heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; WANG Jian-an

    2005-01-01

    Aside from the important role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of heart failure, this biological peptide has proved to be an independent surrogate marker of rehospitalization and death of the fatal disease.Several randomized clinical trials demonstrated that drugs such as beta blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, spironolactone and amiodarone have beneficial effects in decreasing circulating BNP level during the management of chronic heart failure. The optimization of clinical decision-making appeals for a representative surrogate marker for heart failure prognosis. The serial point-of-care assessments of BNP concentration provide a therapeutic goal of clinical multi-therapy and an objective guidance for optimal treatment of heart failure. Nevertheless new questions and problems in this area remain to be clarified. On the basis of current research advances, this article gives an overview of BNP peptide and its property and role in the management of heart failure.

  7. Gut-brain peptides in corticostriatal-limbic circuitry and alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea A Vadnie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peptides synthesized in endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract and neurons are traditionally considered regulators of metabolism, energy intake, and appetite. However, recent work has demonstrated that many of these peptides act on corticostriatal-limbic circuitry and, in turn, regulate addictive behaviors. Given that alcohol is a source of energy and an addictive substance, it is not surprising that increasing evidence supports a role for gut-brain peptides specifically in alcohol use disorders (AUD. In this review, we discuss the effects of several gut-brain peptides on alcohol-related behaviors and the potential mechanisms by which these gut-brain peptides may interfere with alcohol-induced changes in corticostriatal-limbic circuitry. This review provides a summary of current knowledge on gut-brain peptides focusing on five peptides: neurotensin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y. Our review will be helpful to develop novel therapeutic targets for AUD.

  8. Blood-brain barrier shuttle peptides: an emerging paradigm for brain delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller-Salvia, Benjamí; Sánchez-Navarro, Macarena; Giralt, Ernest; Teixidó, Meritxell

    2016-08-22

    Brain delivery is one of the major challenges in drug development because of the high number of patients suffering from neural diseases and the low efficiency of the treatments available. Although the blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents most drugs from reaching their targets, molecular vectors - known as BBB shuttles - offer great promise to safely overcome this formidable obstacle. In recent years, peptide shuttles have received growing attention because of their lower cost, reduced immunogenicity, and higher chemical versatility than traditional Trojan horse antibodies and other proteins. PMID:27188322

  9. C-type natriuretic peptide modulates permeability of the blood–brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    BOHARA, Manoj; Kambe, Yuki; Nagayama, Tetsuya; TOKIMURA, Hiroshi; Arita, Kazunori; Miyata, Atsuro

    2014-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is abundant in brain and is reported to exert autocrine function in vascular cells, but its effect on blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability has not been clarified yet. Here, we examined this effect. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of in vitro BBB model, composed of bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, was significantly dose dependently decreased by CNP (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L). C-type natriuretic peptide treatment reduced ...

  10. Blood-brain barrier transport of short proline-rich antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmans, Sofie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Bracke, Nathalie; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Peremans, Kathelijne; Polis, Ingeborgh; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-04-01

    Infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming a great risk for human health, leading to an urgent need for new efficient antibacterial therapies. The short, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides from insects gained a lot of interest as a potential antibacterial treatment, having a low toxicity profile and being mainly active against Gram-negative bacteria. To know whether these antimicrobial peptides can be used for the treatment of cerebral infections, the blood-brain barrier transport characteristics of these peptides were investigated. This study describes the results of the in vivo blood-brain barrier experiments in mice, as well as the in vitro metabolic stability in mouse plasma and brain of apidaecin Api137, oncocin, drosocin and drosocin Pro5Hyp. The four investigated peptides showed a significant influx into the brain with a K(in) ranging between 0.37 and 0.86 µL/g x min and brain distribution volumes of 19.6 to 25.8 µL/g. Only for drosocin, a significant efflux was determined, with a k(out) of 0.22 min(-1). After entering the brain, oncocin was for approximately 80% trapped in the endothelial cells, while the other peptides reached the brain parenchyma for about 70%. All peptides were stable in plasma and brain during the experiments, with estimated metabolic half-lives ranging between 47 min and 637 min. We conclude that the investigated short, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides show an influx into the brain, which make them a promising antibacterial treatment of cerebral infections.

  11. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries.

  12. Localization of receptors for bombesin-like peptides in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, T.W.; Getz, R.; O' Donohue, T.L.; Rosenstein, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    BN-like peptides and receptors are present in discrete areas of the mammalian brain. By radioimmunoassay, endogenous BN/GRP, neuromedin B, and ranatensin-like peptides are present in the rat brain. High-to-moderate concentrations of BN/GRP are present in the rat hypothalamus and thalamus, whereas moderate-to-high densities of neuromedin B and ranatensin-like peptides are present in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, as well as in the hypothalamus and thalamus. While the distribution of neuromedin B and ranatensin-like peptides appears similar, it is distinct from that of BN/GRP. When released from CNS neurons, these peptides may interact with receptors for BN-like peptides. BN, GRP, ranatensin, and neuromedin B inhibit specific (/sup 125/I-Tyr4)BN binding with high affinity. By use of in vitro autoradiographic techniques to detect binding of (/sup 125/I-Tyr4)BN to receptors for BN-like peptides, high grain densities were found in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the central medial and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala of the rat brain. Some of these receptors may be biologically active and mediate the biological effects of BN-like peptides. For example, when BN is directly injected into the nucleus accumbens, pronounced grooming results and the effects caused by BN are reversed by spantide and (D-Phe12)BN. Thus, the putative BN receptor antagonists may serve as useful agents to investigate the biological significance of BN-like peptides in the CNS.

  13. CCHamide-2 is an orexigenic brain-gut peptide in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin; Hauser, Frank; Rewitz, Kim Furbo;

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine peptides CCHamide-1 and -2, encoded by the genes ccha1 and -2, are produced by endocrine cells in the midgut and by neurons in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to disrupt the ccha1 and -2 genes and identify mutant phenotypes with a f......The neuroendocrine peptides CCHamide-1 and -2, encoded by the genes ccha1 and -2, are produced by endocrine cells in the midgut and by neurons in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to disrupt the ccha1 and -2 genes and identify mutant phenotypes...

  14. A D-peptide ligand of nicotine acetylcholine receptors for brain-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Zhan, Changyou; Shen, Qing; Fu, Wei; Xie, Cao; Gao, Jie; Peng, Chunmei; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomes of brain capillary endothelial cells are implicated in nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated transcytosis and act as an enzymatic barrier for the transport of peptide ligands to the brain. A D-peptide ligand of nAChRs (termed (D)CDX), which binds to nAChRs with an IC50 value of 84.5 nM, was developed by retro-inverso isomerization. (D)CDX displayed exceptional stability in lysosomal homogenate and serum, and demonstrated significantly higher transcytosis efficiency in an in vitro blood-brain barrier monolayer compared with the parent L-peptide. When modified on liposomal surface, (D)CDX facilitated significant brain-targeted delivery of liposomes. As a result, brain-targeted delivery of (D)CDX modified liposomes enhanced therapeutic efficiency of encapsulated doxorubicin for glioblastoma. This study illustrates the importance of ligand stability in nAChRs-mediated transcytosis, and paves the way for developing stable brain-targeted entities.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits blood-brain glucose transfer in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen;

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated that a hormone involved in postprandial glucose regulation also limits glucose delivery to brain tissue and hence provides a possible regulatory mechanism for the link between plasma glucose and brain glucose. Because GLP-1 reduces glucose uptake across the intact blood-brain barrier at normal...... glycemia, GLP-1 may also protect the brain by limiting intracerebral glucose fluctuation when plasma glucose is increased.......OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has many effects on glucose homeostasis, and GLP-1 receptors are broadly represented in many tissues including the brain. Recent research in rodents suggests a protective effect of GLP-1 on brain tissue. The mechanism is unknown. We therefore tested...

  16. Dose-response testing of peptides by hippocampal brain slice recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M I; Palovcik, R A

    1989-01-01

    The brain slice chamber described offers a method of studying, with intracellular electrodes, the relationship of response to dose of peptides. By raising the level of the slices 1 mm above the level of flowing perfusion medium, we can test substances in known concentrations, free from artifacts, during long duration, stable intracellular recordings. Manipulation of Ca2+/Mg2+ ratios in the medium can help to define synaptic and second messenger mediation of the responses. The addition of substances to the perfusion medium in this system could be combined with iontophoresis and/or micropressure techniques. Pathways in the slices may also be stimulated electrically and analyzed for the involvement of various synaptic transmitters. The results with the method so far show distinct differences among the peptides studied. Thus, there are several advantages to this method in establishing the physiological role of peptides in the brain.

  17. Cell-Penetrating Peptides Selectively Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Stalmans

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs are a group of peptides, which have the ability to cross cell membrane bilayers. CPPs themselves can exert biological activity and can be formed endogenously. Fragmentary studies demonstrate their ability to enhance transport of different cargoes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, comparative, quantitative data on the BBB permeability of different CPPs are currently lacking. Therefore, the in vivo BBB transport characteristics of five chemically diverse CPPs, i.e. pVEC, SynB3, Tat 47-57, transportan 10 (TP10 and TP10-2, were determined. The results of the multiple time regression (MTR analysis revealed that CPPs show divergent BBB influx properties: Tat 47-57, SynB3, and especially pVEC showed very high unidirectional influx rates of 4.73 μl/(g × min, 5.63 μl/(g × min and 6.02 μl/(g × min, respectively, while the transportan analogs showed a negligible to low brain influx. Using capillary depletion, it was found that 80% of the influxed peptides effectively reached the brain parenchyma. Except for pVEC, all peptides showed a significant efflux out of the brain. Co-injection of pVEC with radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (BSA did not enhance the brain influx of radiodionated BSA, indicating that pVEC does not itself significantly alter the BBB properties. A saturable mechanism could not be demonstrated by co-injecting an excess dose of non-radiolabeled CPP. No significant regional differences in brain influx were observed, with the exception for pVEC, for which the regional variations were only marginal. The observed BBB influx transport properties cannot be correlated with their cell-penetrating ability, and therefore, good CPP properties do not imply efficient brain influx.

  18. Cell-Penetrating Peptides Selectively Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmans, Sofie; Bracke, Nathalie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Gevaert, Bert; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; Polis, Ingeborgh; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of peptides, which have the ability to cross cell membrane bilayers. CPPs themselves can exert biological activity and can be formed endogenously. Fragmentary studies demonstrate their ability to enhance transport of different cargoes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, comparative, quantitative data on the BBB permeability of different CPPs are currently lacking. Therefore, the in vivo BBB transport characteristics of five chemically diverse CPPs, i.e. pVEC, SynB3, Tat 47-57, transportan 10 (TP10) and TP10-2, were determined. The results of the multiple time regression (MTR) analysis revealed that CPPs show divergent BBB influx properties: Tat 47-57, SynB3, and especially pVEC showed very high unidirectional influx rates of 4.73 μl/(g × min), 5.63 μl/(g × min) and 6.02 μl/(g × min), respectively, while the transportan analogs showed a negligible to low brain influx. Using capillary depletion, it was found that 80% of the influxed peptides effectively reached the brain parenchyma. Except for pVEC, all peptides showed a significant efflux out of the brain. Co-injection of pVEC with radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not enhance the brain influx of radiodionated BSA, indicating that pVEC does not itself significantly alter the BBB properties. A saturable mechanism could not be demonstrated by co-injecting an excess dose of non-radiolabeled CPP. No significant regional differences in brain influx were observed, with the exception for pVEC, for which the regional variations were only marginal. The observed BBB influx transport properties cannot be correlated with their cell-penetrating ability, and therefore, good CPP properties do not imply efficient brain influx.

  19. Time-Frequency Analysis of Peptide Microarray Data: Application to Brain Cancer Immunosignatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Brian; Maurer, Alexander; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Stafford, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One of the gravest dangers facing cancer patients is an extended symptom-free lull between tumor initiation and the first diagnosis. Detection of tumors is critical for effective intervention. Using the body's immune system to detect and amplify tumor-specific signals may enable detection of cancer using an inexpensive immunoassay. Immunosignatures are one such assay: they provide a map of antibody interactions with random-sequence peptides. They enable detection of disease-specific patterns using classic train/test methods. However, to date, very little effort has gone into extracting information from the sequence of peptides that interact with disease-specific antibodies. Because it is difficult to represent all possible antigen peptides in a microarray format, we chose to synthesize only 330,000 peptides on a single immunosignature microarray. The 330,000 random-sequence peptides on the microarray represent 83% of all tetramers and 27% of all pentamers, creating an unbiased but substantial gap in the coverage of total sequence space. We therefore chose to examine many relatively short motifs from these random-sequence peptides. Time-variant analysis of recurrent subsequences provided a means to dissect amino acid sequences from the peptides while simultaneously retaining the antibody-peptide binding intensities. We first used a simple experiment in which monoclonal antibodies with known linear epitopes were exposed to these random-sequence peptides, and their binding intensities were used to create our algorithm. We then demonstrated the performance of the proposed algorithm by examining immunosignatures from patients with Glioblastoma multiformae (GBM), an aggressive form of brain cancer. Eight different frameshift targets were identified from the random-sequence peptides using this technique. If immune-reactive antigens can be identified using a relatively simple immune assay, it might enable a diagnostic test with sufficient sensitivity to detect tumors in a

  20. The effect of beta-turn structure on the permeation of peptides across monolayers of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Steenberg, B; Knipp, G T;

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the beta-turn structure of a peptide on its permeation via the paracellular and transcellular routes across cultured bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell (BBMEC) monolayers, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). METHODS: The effective...... permeability coefficients (Peff) of the model peptides were determined across BBMEC monolayers. The dimensions of the aqueous pores in the tight junctions (TJs) of the BBMEC monolayers were determined using a series of hydrophilic permeants. This value and the molecular radius of each peptide were used...... to calculate the theoretical paracellular (PP*) and transcellular (PT*) permeability coefficients for each peptide. RESULTS: A comparison of the theoretical PP* values with the observed Peff values was made for a series of model peptides. For the most hydrophobic peptides (Ac-PheProXaaIle-NH2 and Ac...

  1. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Evaluation of cardiac functions of cirrhotic children using serum brain natriuretic peptide and tissue Doppler imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aya M Fattouh; El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Enas H Mahmoud; Wafaa O Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is described as the presence of cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. In children with chronic liver disease, CCM has been very rarely investigated. The Aim of the Study: Is to evaluate the cardiac function of cirrhotic children to identify those with CCM. Patients and Methods: Fifty-two cirrhotic patients and 53 age and sex matched controls were assessed using serum brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), conventional echocardiography, and tissue...

  3. Construction of Stretch-Induced Reporter using Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Min

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease and the resultant heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Although advances in treating heart failure have improved patient outcomes, the morbidity and mortality of the disease still remains high. Based on the finding that up-regulation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a biomarker of heart failure, which can be a result of abnormal stretch of cardiomyocytes, in this thesis, we attempted to make adenoviral reporter constructs using BNP promoter that...

  4. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Sheikhani; Mohammad Ali Babaee Beygi; Farhad Daryanoosh; Bijan Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group) or bo...

  5. Cardiovascular haemodynamics in pre-eclampsia using brain naturetic peptide and tissue Doppler studies

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, DP; Fayers, S; Moodley, J

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine early haemodynamic changes in pre-eclampsia (PE) using tissue Doppler echocardiography and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and to relate these changes to obstetric outcomes. Methods Consenting primigravidae patients in the third trimester of pregnancy were included in the study, which was carried out in a large regional hospital in Durban, South Africa; 115 primigravidae (52 pre-eclamptics and 63 normotensive pregnant patients) attending the maternity unit including the ante...

  6. Ontogeny of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in brain of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupale, Tekchand C; Subhedar, Nishikant; Bhargava, Shobha

    2013-01-15

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is widely distributed in the brains of adult vertebrates including amphibians. Several physiological roles of CART have been intensely investigated in mammals. Despite these studies, the expression of CART during development of brain has not been studied in amphibians. In the present study, distribution of CART was investigated during development in the post hatched stage 23 to premetamorphic stage 30 of frog Microhyla ornata. CART is expressed as early as in stage 23 in ventral thalamus and rhombencephalon. As development progressed, CART immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, rhombencephalon and spinal cord in stage 24. At stage 25, the CART immunoreactivity was observed in the ventromedial thalamic nucleus, posterocentral thalamic nucleus, torus nucleus, central gray and inferior reticular nucleus. In stage 26, CART reactivity was seen in the medial septum, preoptic area, nucleus entopeduncularis, magnocellular nucleus, median eminence, optic tectum, hypophysis and cerebellum. Additionally, CART immunoreactivity was observed in the medial pallium, anterior commissure, nucleus infundibularis dorsalis, ventralis and raphe nucleus at stage 30. The occurrences of CART immunoreactivity at early stage of development suggest that the peptide may have a functional significance during development. The wider appearance of CART in the brain of tadpoles, M. ornata suggests that the peptide may act as a neurohormone during the ontogeny. PMID:22989895

  7. Evaluation of Serum Levels of N-terminal Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Neonates with Respiratory Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Mohammad Noori; Sima Savadkoohi; Alireza Teimouri; Fatemeh Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory distress (ARD) is a critical respiratory failure due to lung injury of neonates leading to the clinical appearance of poor lung compliance. The aimed of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic values in differentiating respiratory from heart diseases with using of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) and Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) in neonates. Material and Methods: Ninety  neonates  randomly collected from those who hospitalized in the neon...

  8. Peptide transport through the blood-brain barrier. Final report 1 Jul 87-31 Dec 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, W.M.

    1991-01-15

    Most neuropeptides are incapable of entering the brain from blood owing to the presence of unique anatomical structures in the brain capillary wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Such neuropeptides could be introduced into the bloodstream by intranasal insufflation and, thus, could have powerful medicinal properties (e.g., Beta-endorphin for the treatment of pain, vasopressin analogues for treatment of memory, ACTH analogues for treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy), should these peptides be capable of traversing the BBB. One such strategy for peptide delivery through the BBB is the development of chimeric peptides, which is the basis of the present contract. The production of chimeric peptides involves the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide (e.g., Beta-endorphin, vasopressin) to a transportable vector peptide (e.g., insulin, transferrin, cationized albumin, histone). The transportable peptide is capable of penetrating the BBB via receptor-mediated or absorptive-mediated transcytosis. Therefore, the introduction of chimeric peptides allows the nontransportable peptide to traverse the BBB via a physiologic piggy back mechanism.

  9. {sup 18}F-labeled RGD peptide: initial evaluation for imaging brain tumor angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Shahinian, Anthony H.; Tohme, Michel; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Bozorgzadeh, Mohammed H.; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex; Laug, Walter E.; Conti, Peter S. E-mail: pconti@usc.edu

    2004-02-01

    Brain tumors are highly angiogenesis dependent. The cell adhesion receptor integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is overexpressed in glioma and activated endothelial cells and plays an important role in brain tumor growth, spread and angiogenesis. Suitably labeled {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin antagonists may therefore be useful for imaging brain tumor associated angiogenesis. Cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) was labeled with {sup 18}F via N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate through the side-chain {epsilon}-amino group of the lysine residue. The radiotracer was evaluated in vivo for its tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in subcutaneously implanted U87MG and orthotopically implanted U251T glioblastoma nude mouse models by means of microPET, quantitative autoradiography and direct tissue sampling. The N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl-RGD ([{sup 18}F]FB-RGD) was produced in less than 2 h with 20-25% decay-corrected yields and specific activity of 230 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis. The tracer showed very rapid blood clearance and both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio at 30 min was approximately 5 in the subcutaneous U87MG tumor model. MicroPET imaging with the orthotopic U251T brain tumor model revealed very high tumor-to-brain ratio, with virtually no uptake in the normal brain. Successful blocking of tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific activity accumulation. Hence, N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl labeled cyclic RGD peptide [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD is a potential tracer for imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin positive tumors in brain and other anatomic locations.

  10. Delivery and Tracking of Quantum Dot Peptide Bioconjugates in an Intact Developing Avian Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rishabh; Domowicz, Miriam S.; Schwartz, Nancy B.; Henry, Judy; Medintz, Igor; Delehanty, James B.; Stewart, Michael H.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Huston, Alan L.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Dawson, Philip E.; Palomo, Valle; Dawson, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor ~9.5 nm nanoparticles (quantum dots: QDs) have intrinsic physiochemical and optical properties which enable us to begin to understand the mechanisms of nanoparticle mediated chemical/drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate the ability of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs surface functionalized with a zwitterionic compact ligand to deliver a cell-penetrating lipopeptide to the developing chick embryo brain without any apparent toxicity. Functionalized QDs were conjugated to the palmitoylated peptide WGDap-(Palmitoyl)VKIKKP9GGH6, previously shown to uniquely facilitate endosomal escape, and microinjected into the embryonic chick spinal cord canal at embryo day 4 (E4). We were subsequently able to follow the labeling of spinal cord extension into the ventricles, migratory neuroblasts, maturing brain cells, and complex structures such as the choroid plexus. QD intensity extended throughout the brain, and peaked between E8 and E11 when fluorescence was concentrated in the choroid plexus before declining to hatching (E21/P0). We observed no abnormalities in embryonic patterning or embryo survival, and mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed that, at key developmental stages, the expression pattern of genes associated with different brain cell types (brain lipid binding protein, Sox-2, proteolipid protein and Class III-β-Tubulin) all showed a normal labeling pattern and intensity. Our findings suggest that we can use chemically modified QDs to identify and track neural stem cells as they migrate, that the choroid plexus clears these injected QDs/nanoparticles from the brain after E15, and that they can deliver drugs and peptides to the developing brain. PMID:25688887

  11. Efficient Cargo Delivery into Adult Brain Tissue Using Short Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caghan Kizil

    Full Text Available Zebrafish brains can regenerate lost neurons upon neurogenic activity of the radial glial progenitor cells (RGCs that reside at the ventricular region. Understanding the molecular events underlying this ability is of great interest for translational studies of regenerative medicine. Therefore, functional analyses of gene function in RGCs and neurons are essential. Using cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI, RGCs can be targeted efficiently but the penetration capacity of the injected molecules reduces dramatically in deeper parts of the brain tissue, such as the parenchymal regions that contain the neurons. In this report, we tested the penetration efficiency of five known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs and identified two- polyR and Trans - that efficiently penetrate the brain tissue without overt toxicity in a dose-dependent manner as determined by TUNEL staining and L-Plastin immunohistochemistry. We also found that polyR peptide can help carry plasmid DNA several cell diameters into the brain tissue after a series of coupling reactions using DBCO-PEG4-maleimide-based Michael's addition and azide-mediated copper-free click reaction. Combined with the advantages of CVMI, such as rapidness, reproducibility, and ability to be used in adult animals, CPPs improve the applicability of the CVMI technique to deeper parts of the central nervous system tissues.

  12. Blood-brain barrier transport kinetics of the neuromedin peptides NMU, NMN, NMB and NT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Bert; Wynendaele, Evelien; Stalmans, Sofie; Bracke, Nathalie; D'Hondt, Matthias; Smolders, Ilse; van Eeckhaut, Ann; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-08-01

    The neuromedin peptides are peripherally and centrally produced, but until now, it is generally believed that they only function as locally acting compounds without any quantitative knowledge about their blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage. Here, we characterize the transport kinetics of four neuromedins (NMU, NMN, NMB and NT) across the BBB, as well as their metabolization profile, and evaluate if they can act as endocrine hormones. Using the in vivo mouse model, multiple time regression (MTR), capillary depletion (CD) and brain efflux studies were performed. Data was fitted using linear (NMU, NT and NMB) or biphasic modeling (NMU and NMN). Three of the four investigated peptides, i.e. NMU, NT and NMN, showed a significant influx into the brain with unidirectional influx rate constants of 1.31 and 0.75 μL/(g × min) for NMU and NT respectively and initial influx constants (K1) of 72.14 and 7.55 μL/(g × min) and net influx constants (K) of 1.28 and 1.36 × 10(-16) μL/(g×min) for NMU and NMN respectively. The influx of NMB was negligible. Only NMN and NT showed a significant efflux out of the brain with an efflux constant (kout) of 0.042 min(-1) and 0.053 min(-1) respectively. Our results indicate that locally produced neuromedin peptides and/or fragments can be transported through the whole body, including passing the BBB, and taken up by different organs/tissues, supporting the idea that the neuromedins could have a much bigger role in the regulation of biological processes than currently assumed. PMID:27040796

  13. Enhancement of Neurogenesis and Memory by a Neurotrophic Peptide in Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Bragina, Olga; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Statom, Gloria; Baazaoui, Narjes; Bragin, Denis; Iqbal, Khalid; Nemoto, Edwin; Yonas, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), a neurocognitive disorder with similar cellular abnormalities. We recently discovered a small molecule (Peptide 6) corresponding to an active region of human ciliary neurotrophic factor, with neurogenic and neurotrophic properties in mouse models of AD and Down syndrome. Objective To describe hippocampal abnormalities in a mouse model of mild to moderate TBI and their reversal by Peptide 6. Methods TBI was induced in adult C57Bl6 mice using controlled cortical impact (CCI) with 1.5 mm of cortical penetration. The animals were treated with 50 nmol/animal/day of Peptide 6 or saline for 30 days. Dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis, dendritic and synaptic density and AD biomarkers were quantitatively analyzed and behavioral tests were performed. Results Ipsilateral neuronal loss in CA1 and parietal cortex, and elevation of Alzheimer-type hyperphosphorylated tau and A-beta were seen in TBI-mice. When compared to saline, Peptide 6 treatment increased number of newborn neurons, but not uncommitted progenitors, in DG by 80%. Peptide 6 treatment also reversed TBI-induced dendritic and synaptic density loss while increasing activity in tri-synaptic hippocampal circuitry, ultimately leading to improvement in memory recall on behavioral testing. Conclusion Long-term treatment with Peptide 6 enhances the pool of newborn neurons in DG, prevents neuronal loss in CA1 and parietal cortex, preserves dendritic and synaptic architecture in the hippocampus, and improves performance on a hippocampus-dependent memory task in TBI mice. These findings necessitate further inquiry into therapeutic potential of small molecules based on neurotrophic factors. PMID:25255260

  14. Modulation of intercellular junctions by cyclic-ADT peptides as a method to reversibly increase blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitorini, Marlyn D; Kiptoo, Paul K; On, Ngoc H; Thliveris, James A; Miller, Donald W; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2015-03-01

    It is challenging to deliver molecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. This is primarily because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the entry of many molecules into the brain. In this study, cyclic-ADT peptides (ADTC1, ADTC5, and ADTC6) have been shown to modify the BBB to enhance the delivery of marker molecules [e.g., (14) C-mannitol, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (Gd-DTPA)] to the brain via the paracellular pathways of the BBB. The hypothesis is that these peptides modulate cadherin interactions in the adherens junctions of the vascular endothelial cells forming the BBB to increase paracellular drug permeation. In vitro studies indicated that ADTC5 had the best profile to inhibit adherens junction resealing in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 mM) with a maximal response at 0.4 mM. Under the current experimental conditions, ADTC5 improved the delivery of (14) C-mannitol to the brain about twofold compared with the negative control in the in situ rat brain perfusion model. Furthermore, ADTC5 peptide increased in vivo delivery of Gd-DTPA to the brain of Balb/c mice when administered intravenously. In conclusion, ADTC5 has the potential to improve delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain.

  15. Analysis of brain natriuretic peptide in 30 patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between atrial fibrillation and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), plasma levels of BNP in 30 patients with atrial fibrillation and 30 health controls were assayed and compared. The results showed that plasma levels of BNP in patients with atrial fibrillation were significantly higher than those of health controls (P<0.05). When the patients with atrial fibrillation were restored sinus rhythm, the concentration of BNP decreased significantly (P<0.05). BNP was a sensitive marker of cardiac dysfunction, and BNP was positively correlated with atrial fibrillation. (authors)

  16. Science Letters: Brain natriuretic peptide: A potential indicator of cardiomyogenesis after autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; WANG Jian-an

    2006-01-01

    We observed in a pilot study that there was a transient elevation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level shortly after the transplantation in the patient with ischemic heart failure, which is unexplainable by the simultaneous increase of the cardiac output and six-minute walk distance. Similar findings were observed in the phase I trial. We postulated on the basis of the finding of Fukuda in vitro that this transient elevation of BNP level against the improvement of cardiac function and exercise capacity might indicate cardiomyogenesis in patients after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Further study is warranted to verify the hypothesis.

  17. The response of circulating brain natriuretic peptide to academic stress in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Offer; Sagiv, Moran; Eynon, Nir; Yamin, Chen; Rogowski, Ori; Gerzy, Yishay; Amir, Ruthie E

    2010-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a cardiac peptide, has been implicated in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to psychological stressors. The influence of academic stress on circulating concentration of the N-terminal fragment of BNP precursor (NT-proBNP), and in relation to the stress hormone (cortisol) response was studied in 170 college students undergoing major examinations. Just prior to the examination, we measured self-estimated stress level, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), plasma levels of cortisol, and NT-proBNP. These parameters were compared to the participants' baseline measurements, taken at the same hour of a different 'control day', without a major examination to induce stress. Hemodynamic variables (SBP, DBP, and HR) increased on the examination day compared with baseline values ( p stress was marked by a significant decrease in plasma NT-proBNP concentration (-40%, p stress and the NT-proBNP reduction ( p = 0.02). In response to academic stress, the plasma cortisol elevation was accompanied by a marked reduction in plasma NT-proBNP level. These data may indicate that mental stress entails an interface between the HPA axis and the peripheral natriuretic peptide system, leading to reciprocating changes in circulating levels of the corresponding hormones.

  18. Involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme in insulin- and atrial natriuretic peptide-sensitive internalization of amyloid-β peptide in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Murata, Sho; Katsukura, Yuki; Suzuki, Hiroya; Funaki, Miho; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral clearance of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, involves elimination across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and we previously showed that an insulin-sensitive process is involved in the case of Aβ1-40. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism of the insulin-sensitive Aβ1-40 elimination across mouse BBB. An in vivo cerebral microinjection study demonstrated that [125I]hAβ1-40 elimination from mouse brain was inhibited by human natriuretic peptide (hANP), and [125I]hANP elimination was inhibited by hAβ1-40, suggesting that hAβ1-40 and hANP share a common elimination process. Internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 into cultured mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (TM-BBB4) was significantly inhibited by either insulin, hANP, other natriuretic peptides or insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) inhibitors, but was not inhibited by phosphoramidon or thiorphan. Although we have reported the involvement of natriuretic peptide receptor C (Npr-C) in hANP internalization, cells stably expressing Npr-C internalized [125I]hANP but not [125I]hAβ1-40, suggesting that there is no direct interaction between Npr-C and hAβ1-40. IDE was detected in plasma membrane of TM-BBB4 cells, and internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 by TM-BBB4 cells was reduced by IDE-targeted siRNAs. We conclude that elimination of hAβ1-40 from mouse brain across the BBB involves an insulin- and ANP-sensitive process, mediated by IDE expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells.

  19. Biological characteristics of brain natriuretic peptide and its association with central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yubao Huang; Changxiang Yan; Chunjiang Yu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explain the mechanisms of tuhe synthesis, secretion and regulation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and analyze its role in central nervous system diseases.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Pubmed was undertaken to identify articles related to BNP published in English from January 1990 to February 2007 by using the Key words of "brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), central nervous system, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain edema, epilepsy". Other articles were searched in China Hospital Knowledge Database (CHKD) by concrete name of journals and title of articles.STUDY SELECTION: The collected articles were primarily screened, those about BNP and its association with central nervous system diseases were selected, whereas the obviously irrelative ones excluded, and the full-texts of the other literatures were searched manually.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 96 articles were collected, 40 of them were enrolled, and the other 56 were excluded due to repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: At present, there are penetrating studies on BNP in the preclinical medicine and clinical medicine of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and the investigative outcomes have been gradually applied in clinical practice, and satisfactory results have been obtained. However, the application of BNP in diagnosing and treating central nervous system diseases is still at the experimental phase without -outstanding outcomes, thus the preclinical and clinical studies should be enhanced.CONCLUSION: As a kind of central medium or modulator, BNP plays a certain role in the occurrence,development and termination of central nervous system diseases, the BNP level in serum has certain changing law in AH,brainedema,epilepsy,etc., but the specific mechanisms are unclear.

  20. Antimicrobial peptides and complement in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induced brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan eRocha-Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is a clinical condition in the neonate, resulting from oxygen deprivation around the time of birth. HIE affects 1-5 per 1000 live births worldwide and is associated with the development of neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy and cognitive disabilities. Even though the brain is considered an immune-privileged site, it has innate and adaptive immune response and can produce complement (C components and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. Dysregulation of cerebral expression of AMPs and C can exacerbate or ameliorate the inflammatory response within the brain.Brain ischemia triggers a prolonged inflammatory response affecting the progression of injury and secondary energy failure and involves both innate and adaptive immune systems, including immune-competent and non-competent cells. Following injury to the central nervous system (CNS, including neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI, resident microglia and astroglia are the main cells providing immune defence to the brain in a stimulus-dependent manner. They can express and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore trigger prolonged inflammation resulting in neurodegeneration. Microglial cells express and release a wide range of inflammation-associated molecules including several components of the complement system. Complement activation following neonatal HI-injury has been reported to contribute to neurodegeneration. Astrocytes can significantly affect the immune response of the CNS under pathological conditions through production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory AMPs. Astrocytes express β-defensins which can chemoattract and promote maturation of dendritic cells, and can also limit inflammation by controlling the viability of these same dendritic cells. This review will focus on the balance of complement components and AMPs within the CNS following neonatal HI-injury and the effect of that balance on the

  1. Detection of left ventricular enlargement and impaired systolic function with plasma N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønning, Bjørn Aaris; Nilsson, Jens C.; Søndergaard, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain- and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been identified as promising markers for heart failure. However, previous studies have revealed that they may hold insufficient diagnostic power for implementation into clinical practice because of a significant......); sensitivity/specificity, 85%/86%), and LV ejection fraction (powerful marker for LV dimensions and systolic function in patients with heart failure and discriminates well between...

  2. Circulating N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac function in response to acute systemic hypoxia in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Heinonen (Ilkka); M. Luotolahti (Matti); O. Vuolteenaho (Olli); M. Nikinmaa (Mikko); A. Saraste (Antti); J. Hartiala (Jaakko); J. Koskenvuo (Juha); J. Knuuti (Juhani); O. Arjamaa (Olli)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As it remains unclear whether hypoxia of cardiomyocytes could trigger the release of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in humans, we investigated whether breathing normobaric hypoxic gas mixture increases the circulating NT-proBNP in healthy male subjects.Methods: Ten healthy y

  3. Alzheimer's disease and amyloid beta-peptide deposition in the brain: a matter of 'aging'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Collins, Matthew J; Cappellini, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    event in AD (Alzheimer's disease) synaptic dysfunctions. Structural alterations introduced by site-specific modifications linked to protein aging may affect Abeta production, polymerization and clearance, and therefore play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sporadic and genetic forms of AD. Early......Biomolecules can experience aging processes that limit their long-term functionality in organisms. Typical markers of protein aging are spontaneous chemical modifications, such as AAR (amino acid racemization) and AAI (amino acid isomerization), mainly involving aspartate and asparagine residues....... Since these modifications may affect folding and turnover, they reduce protein functionality over time and may be linked to pathological conditions. The present mini-review describes evidence of AAR and AAI involvement in the misfolding and brain accumulation of Abeta (amyloid beta-peptide), a central...

  4. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left...... ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....

  5. Permeability and contractile responses of collecting lymphatic vessels elicited by atrial and brain natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P; Davis, Michael J; Huxley, Virginia H

    2013-10-15

    Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) are cardiac hormones released into the bloodstream in response to hypervolaemia or fluid shifts to the central circulation. The actions of both peptides include natriuresis and diuresis, a decrease in systemic blood pressure, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Further, ANP and BNP elicit increases in blood microvessel permeability sufficient to cause protein and fluid extravasation into the interstitium to reduce the vascular volume. Given the importance of the lymphatic vasculature in maintaining fluid balance, we tested the hypothesis that ANP or BNP (100 nM) would likewise elevate lymphatic permeability (Ps) to serum albumin. Using a microfluorometric technique adapted to in vivo lymphatic vessels, we determined that rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic Ps to rat serum albumin increased by 2.0 ± 0.4-fold (P = 0.01, n = 7) and 2.7 ± 0.8-fold (P = 0.07, n = 7) with ANP and BNP, respectively. In addition to measuring Ps responses, we observed changes in spontaneous contraction amplitude and frequency from the albumin flux tracings in vivo. Notably, ANP abolished spontaneous contraction amplitude (P = 0.005) and frequency (P = 0.006), while BNP augmented both parameters by ∼2-fold (P lymphatic permeability opposes the absorptive function of the lymphatic capillaries, and aids in the retention of protein and fluid in the interstitial space to counteract volume expansion. PMID:23897233

  6. Comparison of Linear and Cyclic His-Ala-Val Peptides in Modulating the Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability: Impact on Delivery of Molecules to the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaofi, Ahmed; On, Ngoc; Kiptoo, Paul; Williams, Todd D; Miller, Donald W; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of peptide cyclization on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) modulatory activity and plasma stability of His-Ala-Val peptides, which are derived from the extracellular 1 domain of human E-cadherin. The activities to modulate the intercellular junctions by linear HAV4 (Ac-SHAVAS-NH2), cyclic cHAVc1 (Cyclo(1,8)Ac-CSHAVASC-NH2), and cyclic cHAVc3 (Cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH2) were compared in in vitro and in vivo BBB models. Linear HAV4 and cyclic cHAVc1 have the same junction modulatory activities as assessed by in vitro MDCK monolayer model and in situ rat brain perfusion model. In contrast, cyclic cHAVc3 was more effective than linear HAV4 in modulating MDCK cell monolayers and in improving in vivo brain delivery of Gd-DTPA on i.v. administration in Balb/c mice. Cyclic cHAVc3 (t1/2 = 12.95 h) has better plasma stability compared with linear HAV4 (t1/2 = 2.4 h). The duration of the BBB modulation was longer using cHAVc3 (2-4 h) compared with HAV4 (<1 h). Both HAV4 and cHAVc3 peptides also enhanced the in vivo brain delivery of IRdye800cw-PEG (25 kDa) as detected by near IR imaging. The result showed that cyclic cHAVc3 peptide had better activity and plasma stability than linear HAV4 peptide.

  7. A novel bioassay for the activity determination of therapeutic human brain natriuretic peptide (BNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP is an important peptide-based therapeutic drug indicated for the treatment of acute heart failure. Accurate determination of the potency of therapeutic rhBNP is crucial for the safety and efficacy of the drug. The current bioassay involves use of rabbit aortic strips, with experiments being complicated and time-consuming and markedly variable in results. Animal-less methods with better precision and accuracy should be explored. We have therefore developed an alternative cell-based assay, which relies on the ability of BNP to induce cGMP production in HEK293 cells expressing BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An alternative assay based on the measurement of BNP-induced cGMP production was developed. Specifically, the bioassay employs cells engineered to express BNP receptor guanylyl cyclase-A (GCA. Upon rhBNP stimulation, the levels of the second messager cGMP in these cells drastically increased and subsequently secreted into culture supernatants. The quantity of cGMP, which corresponds to the rhBNP activity, was determined using a competitive ELISA developed by us. Compared with the traditional assay, the novel cell-based assay demonstrated better reproducibility and precision. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The optimized cell-based assay is much simpler, more rapid and precise compared with the traditional assay using animal tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel and viable alternative assay for rhBNP potency analysis.

  8. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. The brain extract showed increasing dose-dependent effects on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and trypsin secretion in the larval midgut. The extract was further characterised and partially purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Several peptides were determined in the brain extract regulating hydrolase activities in the larval midgut of the pest.

  9. Brain-targeted co-delivery of therapeutic gene and peptide by multifunctional nanoparticles in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; An, Sai; Li, Jianfeng; Kuang, Yuyang; He, Xi; Guo, Yubo; Ma, Haojun; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Bin; Jiang, Chen

    2016-02-01

    Multifunctional nanocarriers are increasingly promising for disease treatment aimed to regulate multiple pathological dysfunctions and overcome barriers in drug delivery. Here we develop a multifunctional nanocarrier for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment by achieving therapeutic gene and peptide co-delivery to brain based on PEGylated dendrigraft poly-l-lysines (DGLs) via systemic administration. The dendritic amine-rich structure of DGLs provides plenty reaction sites and positive charge for drug loading. Successful co-delivery of drugs overcoming the blood-brain barrier by brain-targeted ligand modification was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacodynamics study of the system following multiple-dosing treatment was verified in transgenic AD mice. Down-regulation of the key enzyme in amyloid-β formation was achieved by delivering non-coding RNA plasmid. Simultaneous delivery of the therapeutic peptide into brain leads to reduction of neurofibrillary tangles. Meanwhile, memory loss rescue in AD mice was also observed. Taken together, the multifunctional nanocarrier provides an excellent drug co-delivery platform for brain diseases.

  10. Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for brain gangliosides in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Recently we deciphered the ganglioside-recognition code controlling specific ganglioside binding to Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ1-42) peptide and Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein. Cracking this code allowed us to engineer a short chimeric Aβ/α-synuclein peptide that recognizes all brain gangliosides. Here we show that ganglioside-deprived neural cells do no longer sustain the formation of zinc-sensitive amyloid pore channels induced by either Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein, as assessed by single-cell Ca(2+) fluorescence microscopy. Thus, amyloid channel formation, now considered a key step in neurodegeneration, is a ganglioside-dependent process. Nanomolar concentrations of chimeric peptide competitively inhibited amyloid pore formation induced by Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein in cultured neural cells. Moreover, this peptide abrogated the intracellular calcium increases induced by Parkinson's-associated mutant forms of α-synuclein (A30P, E46K and A53T). The chimeric peptide also prevented the deleterious effects of Aβ1-42 on synaptic vesicle trafficking and decreased the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spontaneous activity in rat hippocampal slices. Taken together, these data show that the chimeric peptide has broad anti-amyloid pore activity, suggesting that a common therapeutic strategy based on the prevention of amyloid-ganglioside interactions is a reachable goal for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:26655601

  11. Exercise Dependence of N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Grachtrup, Sabine; Brügel, Mathias; Pankau, Hans; Halank, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is secreted by cardiac ventricular myocytes upon pressure and volume overload and is a prognostic marker to monitor the severity of precapillary pulmonary hypertension and the extent of right heart failure. Objectives: The impact of physical exercise on NT-proBNP levels in patients with left heart disease was demonstrated previously. No data regarding patients with isolated right heart failure and the influence of acute exer...

  12. Comparison between Procalcitonin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, and Uric Acid in Children with Cardiomyopathy and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was performed to determine the level of procalcitonin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP, and uric acid in children with cardiomyopathy in comparison with controls and the association with echocardiographic findings. Methods. The levels of BNP, procalcitonin, and serum uric acid were measured and the amounts of biomarkers compared with echocardiographic findings. Results. In this study mean age of participants was the same (p=0.321. The majority of echocardiographic indices in left and right heart have different means in case and controls (p<0.05. Means of BNP, procalcitonin, and uric acid were 213.814 ± 309.601, 9.326 ± 3.881, and 6.846 ± 1.814 for case group and 2.76 ± 1.013, 1.851 ± 1.466, and 3.317 ± 0.924 for control (p<0.001, respectively. In the patients group there was relationship of Ross classification with BNP (χ2 = 15.845, p<0.05 and with age (χ2 = 8.946, p<0.05. For uric acid and procalcitonin no significant relationships were observed. Conclusions. procalcitonin, uric acid, and BNP had significant relationship with many echocardiographic findings in participants. For patients, procalcitonin did not show correlation. The severity of illness based on the Ross classification showed significant correlation with BNP level and age in patients.

  13. Cortical Brain Connectivity and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Valeriani, Lavinia; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bramanti, Placido; Mecarelli, Oriano; Rossini, Paolo M

    2015-07-01

    The brain has a high level of complexity and needs continuous oxygen supply. So it is clear that any pathological condition, or physiological (aging) change, in the cardiovascular system affects functioning of the central nervous system. We evaluated linear aspects of the relationship between the slowness of cortical rhythms, as revealed by the modulation of a graph connectivity parameter, and congestive heart failure (CHF), as a reflection of neurodegenerative processes. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of 10 patients with CHF were recorded by 19 electrodes positioned according the international 10-20 system. Graph theory function (normalized characteristic path length λ) was applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA software, therefore getting rid of volumetric propagation influences. The EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The analysis between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) values and λ showed positive correlation in delta, associated with a negative correlation in alpha 2 band. Namely, the higher the severity of the disease (as revealed by the BNP vales), the higher the λ in delta, and lower in alpha 2 band. Results suggest that delta and alpha λ indices are good markers of the severity of CHF.

  14. Changes of Plasma Levels of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyang; Pan Ying; Hu Xuesong; Li Song; Xu Yawei; Yu Xuejing

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF (n=56) and in normal controls (n=60) were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic heart failure was measured with 99mTc gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Results The results showed that Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF were significantly higher than normal controls (223±79 ng/L vs 40±15 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma BNP concentrations had a significant negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fractions(r=-0.68, P <0.01 ). Conclusions These results indicates that Plasma BNP levels are increased in patients with CHF, and they markedly increased according to the severity of heart failure classified by NYHA classification. The plasma BNP levels may be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function.

  15. Design and physicochemical characterization of poly(amidoamine) nanoparticles and the toxicological evaluation in human endothelial cells: applications to peptide delivery to the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coue, G.M.J.P.C.; Freese, C.; Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J.; Pickl, K.E.; Sinner, F.M.; Engbersen, J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles formulated by self-assembly of a biodegradable poly(amidoamine) (PAA) and a fluorescently labeled peptide, in their capacity to internalize in endothelial cells and deliver the peptide, with possible applications for brain drug delivery. The nanoparticles

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the brain of the cephalopod spear-squid, Loligo bleekeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Oka, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Yoshinori; Amiya, Noriko; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the brain of the cephalopod spear-squid, Loligo bleekeri, by performing a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the spear-squid brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve, indicating the existence of a cGnRH-II-like peptide in the brain. For immunohistochemistry, a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of GnRH (LRH13) and a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II were used. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (that reacted with LRH13) were mainly detected in the central part of the ventral magnocellular lobe (vmL), and a few cell bodies were also detected in the olfactory lobe and palliovisceral lobe (pvL). Bundles of GnRH-like-ir axons were observed running from the vmL to the internal brain regions. GnRH-like-ir fibers were widely distributed in almost all the brain regions. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were localized in the optic gland, outer region of the vmL, and pvL. Further, cGnRH-II-ir fibers were distributed in the wide areas of the brain. These results suggest that at least two forms of GnRH-like peptidergic neuronal systems exist in the spear-squid brain. PMID:18313672

  17. Development of a novel microbubble-liposome complex conjugated with peptide ligands targeting IL4R on brain tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, See-Hyoung; Yoon, Young Ii; Moon, Hyoungwon; Lee, Ga-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Heon; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Lee, Hak Jong

    2016-07-01

    Gas (SF6)-filled microbubbles (MBs) were prepared by emulsion and solvent-evaporation method. The prepared MBs were further conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded nano-sized liposome and peptide ligands to interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R) for targeting brain tumor cells. The final MB-liposome (Dox)-IL4R targeting peptide ligand [MB-Lipo (Dox)-IL4RTP] had a spherical structure with the mean size of 1,500 nm. The MB-Lipo (Dox)‑IL4RTP exhibited cellular uptake in U87MG brain tumor cells (a brain tumor cell line expressing strongly IL4R) with frequency ultrasound energy suggesting that MB-Lipo (Dox)‑IL4RTP provided effective targeting ability for brain tumor cells. In addition, WST-1 assay results showed that MB-Lipo (Dox)‑IL4RTP inhibited the proliferation of U87MG cells IL4R‑dependently. This was confirmed by western blotting of γH2AX, phospho (Ser15)-p53, p53 and p21 which are signal transduction proteins involved in DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these results indicate that MB-Lipo (Dox)-IL4RTP represents a promising ultrasonic contrast agent for tumor-targeting ultrasonic imaging.

  18. Effects of Wen Dan Tang on insomnia-related anxiety and levels of the brain-gut peptide Ghrelin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liye Wang; Binghe Guan; Xiaolan Liu; Yuehan Song; Feng Li; Yan Liu; Jie Ma; Meng Mao; Fengzhi Wu; Ying Wu; Sinai Li

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin, a brain-gut peptide that induces anxiety and other abnormal emotions, contributes to the effects of insomnia on emotional behavior. In contrast, the traditional Chinese Medi-cine remedy Wen Dan Tang reduces insomnia-related anxiety, which may perhaps correspond to changes in the brain-gut axis. This suggests a possible relationship between Wen Dan Tang’s pharmacological mechanism and the brain-gut axis. Based on this hypothesis, a sleep-deprived rat model was induced and Wen Dan Tang was administered using oral gavage during model es-tablishment. Wen Dan Tang signiifcantly reduced insomnia-related anxiety and prevented Ghrelin level decreases following sleep deprivation, especially in the hypothalamus. Increased expression of Ghrelin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus was also observed, suggesting that reduced anxi-ety may be a result of Wen Dan Tang’s regulation of Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptors.

  19. Kadar N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide sebagai Prediktor Luaran Klinis Sindrom Koroner Akut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Idajanti Tandhana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP levels may reflect the severity of ischemia, although there is no necrosis. A transient ischemia which can increase the heart wall stretch would induces BNP synthesis and release. Synthesis and release of BNP are comparable with the severity of ischemia. The aim of this study was to analyze whether NT-proBNP levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS can be used as a predictor for clinical outcome. Studies was held since January to March 2010. Subject were patients with ACS who came to emergency room Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung and were clinically diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. Subjects which were suited with the inclusion criteria, stored until assayed. NT-pro BNP concentration was examined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method along with creatine kinase muscle brain (enzymatic method and cardiac troponin T (quantitative method. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for verifying normality, normally distributed data were analyzed using parametric analysis and abnormal distributed data was assayed using multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the parameters which can be used as predictor for clinical outcome in patients with ACS. Multiple logistic regression analysis on 83 subjects showed predictive value of NT-proBNP levels with OR=1.00, which mean there was no different likelihood in patients with high and low concentration of NT-proBNP to have longer hospitality duration. NT-proBNP β coefficient of 0.001 states that every addition of 1,000 pg/mL of NT-proBNP concentration will increase the length of hospitality duration for one day. On convalesce subjects, the most significant predictive value for predicting clinical outcome cTnT was more better than NT-proBNP concentration in patients with ACS (OR=32.53, 95%CI; 0.58–1,819.26. In conclusions, NT-proBNP is not a major

  20. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  1. The association between brain natriuretic peptide and tissue Doppler parameters in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliha Öner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the association between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and tissue Doppler imaging measurements and also screening for deadly mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. We enrolled 20 patients diagnosed with HCM (age:10.7±5 years (1-17, 85% male, weight:42.25±23.10 kg, height:141.80±32.45 cm and 20 age, gender and body weight-matched control subjects. We performed electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and tissue Doppler echocardiography in each group, as well as genetic tests (for Arg403Gln, Arg453Cys, Arg719Trp and Arg719Gln mutations in MYH7 Exons 13, 14, 19 and BNP in the patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (Group 1 or absence (Group 2 of left ventricular (LV outflow tract obstruction. QTc dispersion and the LV ejection fraction and left atrial (LA volume index were increased in Group 1. The LA volume index and the mitral and septal E/Ea ratio and septum Z-score were increased while the mitral lateral annulus and septal annulus Ea wave velocities and the mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio were decreased in patients with high levels of BNP compared to those with normal BNP levels. There were no mutations that are associated with increased risk of sudden death found in patients included in this study. In the light of our data, we conclude that such parameters BNP levels above the 98 pg/mL, septal thickness Z-score ˃6, and higher mitral and septal E/Ea ratios can be used for management of patients with HCM according to life-threatening conditions.

  2. Brain reward-system activation in response to anticipation and consumption of palatable food is altered by glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloemendaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; ten Kulve, J. S.; Groot, P. F. C.; Ruhe, H. G.; Barkhof, F.; Sloan, J. H.; Diamant, M.; Ijzerman, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    AimTo test the hypothesis that food intake reduction after glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation is mediated through brain areas regulating anticipatory and consummatory food reward. MethodsAs part of a larger study, we determined the effects of GLP-1 receptor activation on brain respo

  3. Brain-natriuretic peptide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate as biomarkers of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Sophia Gry; Falk, Bo Torkel; Teerlink, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    Elevations in the plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides correlate with increased severity of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs. This study correlates the severity of MMVD with the plasma concentrations of the biomarkers N-terminal fragment of the pro-brain-natriuretic peptide...... (NT-proBNP) and its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, the l-arginine:asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio was measured as an index of nitric oxide availability. The study included 75 dogs sub-divided into five groups based on severity of MMVD as assessed...... by clinical examination and echocardiography. Plasma NT-proBNP and cGMP concentrations increased with increasing valve dysfunction and were significantly elevated in dogs with heart failure. The cGMP:NT-proBNP ratio decreased significantly in dogs with heart failure, suggesting the development of natriuretic...

  4. Temperature dependent changes in cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the brain of tadpole, Sylvirana temporalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Swapnil A; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Bhargava, Shobha

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp) has emerged as a novel neurotransmitter in the brain. Although the physiological role of the peptide has been intensely investigated in mammals, its role in amphibians has not been investigated. In the present study, an attempt has been undertaken to study the expression of CART in the tadpole brain of frog Sylvirana temporalis, subjected to thermal stress. Cells with strong CART-immunoreactivity were observed in the nucleus preoptic area (NPO) of tadpoles exposed to high temperature (37±2°C) as compared to those in the tadpoles exposed to low (12±2°C) and normal (24±2°C) temperatures. In the ventromedial thalamic nucleus (VM) and nucleus posterocentralis thalami (NPC), moderate CART-ir cells were observed in the control groups while number of cells and intensity of immunoreactivity was increased in tadpoles at low and high temperatures. In the nucleus infundibularis ventralis (NIV) and raphe nucleus (RA), CART immunoreactivity increased in the low as well as high temperature treated groups. Intensely stained CART cells were observed in the pituitary of tadpoles exposed to high temperature as compared to low temperature and control groups. We suggest that CART system in the brain and pituitary of tadpole may play a very important role in mediating responses to temperature variations in the environment. PMID:24983774

  5. Association between brain natriuretic peptide, markers of inflammation and the objective and subjective response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Versteeg, Henneke; Meine, Mathias;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies suggest that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can induce a decrease in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and systemic inflammation, which may be associated with CRT-response. However, the evidence is inconclusive. We examined levels of BNP and inflammatory markers from ...... is not automatically related to a stronger overall decrease in inflammation. Large-scale studies are warranted that further examine the relation between the clinical effects of CRT on inflammatory markers, as the latter have been associated with poor prognosis in heart failure....

  6. Prognostic usefulness of anemia and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N;

    2007-01-01

    .041) was closely associated with NT-pro-BNP levels above the median (1,381 pg/ml) after adjustment for traditional confounders (left ventricular ejection fraction, age, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease). In an adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, the 2 parameters were associated......N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and anemia are predictors of outcome in systolic heart failure. It is currently unclear how these 2 markers interact in particular with regard to the prognostic information carried by each risk marker. We therefore tested the hypothesis...... that anemia (World Health Organization criteria, hemoglobin levels

  7. Prognostic Importance of Exercise Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Asymptomatic Chronic Organic Severe Mitral Regurgitation: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Garg, Shalini; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Singh, Karandeep; Sachan, Mohit; Goel, Amit; Razi, Mahamdula; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal timing of surgery in patients with chronic organic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) continues to be debated, especially for those who are asymptomatic. The aim of the study was to determine independent and additive prognostic value of exercise brain natriuretic peptide (eBNP) in patients with severe asymptomatic MR and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods Two hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with severe MR defined by effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area ≥ 40 mm2 and/or residual volume ≥ 60 mL, LVEF > 60%, and normal LV end-systolic diameter free survival and might be considered for early MVR.

  8. Brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of heart failure in patients with permanent pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Vera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP has a role in control of cardiovascular and renal functions. Objective The objective was to assess the predictive value of BNP levels for development of heart failure in patients with permanent pacemakers. Method In patients with implanted DDD pacemakers, BNP levels were measured at rest and after exercise testing, on DDD and VVI modes. There were 42 patients (25 males; 59.5%, without symptoms or signs of coronary disease or heart failure, and with normal echocardiograms. According to BNP levels, the patients were divided into three groups: with BNP levels lower than 80 pg/ml, BNP ranging from 81-150 pg/ml, and BNP levels over 151 pg/ml. Results In the first group (27 patients, BNP levels were significantly higher on VVI compared to DDD mode, both at rest and after exercise (p<0.01, with all BNP levels within normal range. In the second group (5 pts, BNP levels at rest were also significantly higher on VVI than on DDD mode, p<0.05. After exercise, these values were also higher on VVI compared to DDD mode, but without statistical significance. The third group (10 pts as a whole had higher BNP values on VVI compared to DDD mode, with no statistical significance. In patients from this group who later developed heart failure, BNP levels were found to be significantly lower on DDD as opposed to VVI mode at rest, p<0.05, and even higher significance was found after exercise, p<0.01. After 6-year follow-up, 2 out of 5 patients from the second group developed dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8/10 patients in the third group experienced heart failure with LV EF 34.1±10%, LV EDD 6.1±0.42 cm, LV ESD 4.8±0.45 cm. Five of these patients died within the follow-up period. Conclusion The increased BNP levels can be valuable for early screening of patients with higher risk of heart failure. In patients with increased BNP at the time of pacemaker implantation, DDD pacing is a modality of choice.

  9. Correlation analysis of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and recent prognosis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Zhao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation analysis of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and recent prognosis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE).Methods:98 cases of patients with APE were selected as the research subjects from January 2012 to January 2015, all patients were divided into BNP<100 ng/L group (n=41 cases) and a BNP≥100 ng/L group (n=57 cases) according to the plasma BNP level. Collection of two groups of patients with clinical data and related laboratory examination indexes, record the incidence rate of two groups of patients with clinical adverse events, comparing the difference between the two groups.Results:With the BNP<100 ng/L group comparison, BNP acuity 100 ng/L group patients' heart rate (HR) partial fast, systolic blood pressure (SBP) is low, the number of people in the clinical manifestations of shortness of breath and syncope, blood gas analysis in the oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) are low, the plasma D-dimer is on the high side, the proportion of a massive embolism is higher (P<0.05); The BNP 100 ng/L or group of patients with cardiac shock, tracheal intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the recent clinical adverse events such as death is more than the BNP<100 ng/L group (P<0.05); Logistic regression analysis suggest the plasma BNP levels (OR=1.137,P<0.05) were independent risk factors for the development of clinical adverse events in patients with APE. ROC curve analysis showed that plasma BNP in patients with predicted area under the curve of the clinical adverse events was 0.841 (95%CI=0.585–0.937,P<0.05), the sensitivity and specificity were 87.3% and 79.8% respectively.Conclusions:Early serum BNP level and APE patients is closely related to the severity and prognosis of recent, early detection of plasma BNP helps in evaluating the prognosis of patients with early admission, to guide treatment of clinical significance.

  10. Neural effects of gut- and brain-derived glucagon-like peptide-1 and its receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Kenichi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from both the enteroendocrine L cells and preproglucagon-expressing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the brain stem. As GLP-1 is cleaved by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 yielding a half-life of less than 2 min, it is plausible that the gut-derived GLP-1, released postprandially, exerts its effects on the brain mainly by interacting with vagal afferent neurons located at the intestinal or hepatic portal area. GLP-1 neurons in the NTS widely project in the central nervous system and act as a neurotransmitter. One of the physiological roles of brain-derived GLP-1 is restriction of feeding. GLP-1 receptor agonists have recently been used to treat type 2 diabetic patients, and have been shown to exhibit pleiotropic effects beyond incretin action, which involve brain functions. GLP-1 receptor agonist administered in the periphery is stable because of its resistance to dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and is highly likely to act on the brain by passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as well as interacting with vagal afferent nerves. Central actions of GLP-1 have various roles including regulation of feeding, weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular functions, cognitive functions, and stress and emotional responses. In the present review, we focus on the source of GLP-1 and the pathway by which peripheral GLP-1 informs the brain, and then discuss recent findings on the central effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists. PMID:27186358

  11. The brain decade in debate: VIII. Peptide hormones and behavior: cholecystokinin and prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Beinfeld

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a transcription of an electronic symposium held on November 28, 2000 in which active researchers were invited by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC to discuss the advances of the last decade in the peptide field with particular focus on central actions of prolactin and cholecystokinin. The comments in this symposium reflect the diversity of prolactin and cholecystokinin research and demonstrate how the field has matured. Since both peptides play a role in reproductive behaviors, particularly mother-infant interactions, this was the starting point of the discussion. Recent findings on the role of the receptor subtypes as well as interaction with other peptides in this context were also discussed. Another issue discussed was the possible role of these peptides in dopamine-mediated rewarding systems. Both prolactin and cholecystokinin are involved in mechanisms controlling food intake and somatic pain thresholds. The role of peripheral inputs through vagal afferents modulating behavior was stressed. The advent of knockout animals as potential generators of new knowledge in this field was also addressed. Finally, interactions with other neuropeptides and investigation of the role of these peptides in other fields such as immunology were mentioned. Knowledge about the central functions of prolactin and cholecystokinin has shown important advances. The role of these peptides in neurological and psychiatric syndromes such as anorexia, drug abuse and physiological disturbances that lead to a compromised maternal behavior seems relevant.

  12. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA encoding the precursor of a bombesinlike peptide from brain and early embryos of Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechselberger, C; Kreil, G; Richter, K.

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the precursor of a bombesinlike peptide was isolated from brain of Xenopus laevis. The predicted end product resembles neuromedin B, which was originally isolated from mammalian spinal cord. The mRNA for this precursor was also present in gastrointestinal tract and in ovaries. Moreover, it could be detected in early embryos (stage 2 and stage 10) of X. laevis. These findings suggest novel roles for peptides of the bombesin family in oocyte maturation and early amphibian develo...

  13. 脑钠肽临床应用进展%Advances in Clinical Application of Brain Natriuretic Peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛; 戴晓莉; 胡玉霞

    2012-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is one of the most attentive cardiovascular physiological biomarkers in recent years, It is a major peptide hormone secreted by the heart, and it plays an important compensatory role in maintaining heart normal structure and function. It's has satisfaction row, urination, vasodilators, and lowering blood pressure and so on in the human body, inhibitting RAAS system and sympathetic nervous system. BNP has a closing relationship with differential diagnosis of dyspnea, myocardial infarction, hypertension, fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary embolism and so on. Now this paper will reviewe on BNP's research progress.%脑钠肽(brain natriuretic peptide,BNP)是近年倍受关注的心血管生物标记物,BNP是一种主要由心脏分泌的肽类激素,在心脏维持其正常结构和功能的中起着重要的作用,它具有利钠、利尿、扩血管、降压、拮抗RAAS系统、抑制交感神经兴奋等作用.它已超过原来仅作为心衰的诊断检测指标范畴.研究表明BNP与呼吸困难的鉴别诊断、心肌梗死、高血压、心房颤动、心肌病、肺栓塞等关系密切,现就BNP的临床研究进展作一综述.

  14. Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calderón-Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99 or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22. Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta.

  15. Plasma arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide responses to long-term field training in the heat: effects of fluid ingestion and acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudambo, K S; Coutie, W; Rennie, M J

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of blood volume during exercise, especially in a hot environment, is of major importance for continued performance. In order to investigate the relationships between exercise, type and amount of fluid intake and the degree of acclimatization to heat stress and on responses of arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), we studied 24 soldiers during and after jogging/walking exercise both before and after acclimatization to field training at [mean (SE)] 40 (0.7) degrees C and 32 (3)% relative humidity. The running exercise was carried out under three conditions, i.e., (1) without any fluid intake, (2) with intake of water or (3) with intake of a dextrose/electrolyte solution. Venous blood samples were drawn before exercise, at the end of exercise and at 15 min and 60 min afterwards. Acclimatization resulted in significant losses of body mass, total body water, plasma volume, ANP and increases in plasma osmolality, packed cell volume and AVP at rest but without any significant changes in BNP. During exercise with no fluid intake, there was a significant rise in plasma osmolality, Na+ and AVP, but no significant alterations in plasma ANP and BNP were observed. When subjects ingested water or dextrose/electrolyte solution during exercise, ANP rose by 234% and 431% respectively and BNP rose by 398% and 583% respectively without any significant increase in AVP. The results suggest that, during acclimatization, the subjects became slightly dehydrated. Alterations in response to changes in body water status appear to be greater for AVP than ANP or BNP at rest. During exercise in the heat ANP and BNP may play complementary roles. PMID:9088840

  16. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome following burns is mediated by brain natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide A receptor-induced shock factor 1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang-Cheng; Luo, Cheng-Qun; Li, Xiong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in burn patients is mediated by the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)/natriuretic peptide A receptor (NPRA)-induced heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) signalling pathway. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) that were isolated from patients with burn injuries and SIRS mouse models and a RAW264.7 cell line were treated with normal serum or serum obtained from animals with burn injuries. In parallel, small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against BNP or NPRA were transfected in both cell types. Western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect protein expression and inflammatory factor levels, respectively. We found that interleukin (IL)-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and BNP levels were increased and IL-10 levels were decreased in the plasma and MNCs in vivo in the animal model of SIRS. Additionally, NPRA was upregulated, whereas HSF-1 was downregulated in monocytes in vivo. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with burn serum or BNP induced IL-12, TNF-α, and CRP secretion as well as HSF-1 expression. Finally, silencing BNP with shRNA interrupted the effect of burn serum on RAW264.7 cells, and silencing NPRA blocked burn serum- and BNP-mediated changes in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that the interaction of NPRA with BNP secreted from circulatory MNCs as well as mononuclear macrophages leads to inflammation via HSF-1 during SIRS development following serious burn injury.

  17. Zinc(II) interactions with brain-derived neurotrophic factor N-terminal peptide fragments: inorganic features and biological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglia, Alessio; La Mendola, Diego; Magrì, Antonio; Pietropaolo, Adriana; Nicoletti, Vincenzo G; Grasso, Giuseppe; Malgieri, Gaetano; Fattorusso, Roberto; Isernia, Carla; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal differentiation, growth, and survival; it is involved in memory formation and higher cognitive functions. The N-terminal domain of BDNF is crucial for the binding selectivity and activation of its specific TrkB receptor. Zn(2+) ion binding may influence BDNF activity. Zn(2+) complexes with the peptide fragment BDNF(1-12) encompassing the sequence 1-12 of the N-terminal domain of BDNF were studied by means of potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, NMR, and density functional theory (DFT) approaches. The predominant Zn(2+) complex species, at physiological pH, is [ZnL] in which the metal ion is bound to an amino, an imidazole, and two water molecules (NH2, N(Im), and 2O(water)) in a tetrahedral environment. DFT-based geometry optimization of the zinc coordination environment showed a hydrogen bond between the carboxylate and a water molecule bound to zinc in [ZnL]. The coordination features of the acetylated form [AcBDNF(1-12)] and of a single mutated peptide [BDNF(1-12)D3N] were also characterized, highlighting the role of the imidazole side chain as the first anchoring site and ruling out the direct involvement of the aspartate residue in the metal binding. Zn(2+) addition to the cell culture medium induces an increase in the proliferative activity of the BDNF(1-12) peptide and of the whole protein on the SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. The effect of Zn(2+) is opposite to that previously observed for Cu(2+) addition, which determines a decrease in the proliferative activity for both peptide and protein, suggesting that these metals might discriminate and modulate differently the activity of BDNF.

  18. The synthetic NCAM-derived peptide, FGL, modulates the transcriptional response to traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Volmer; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Nielsen, Finn Cilius;

    2008-01-01

    by means of microarray analysis. Adolescent rats were subjected to TBI and treated with either placebo or a neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) agonist, FGL peptide, which has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects. mRNA levels were measured...

  19. Intranasal Delivery of Cell-Penetrating anti-NF-κB Peptides (Tat-NBD) Alleviates Infection-Sensitized Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dianer; Sun, Yu-Yo; Lin, Xiaoyi; Baumann, Jessica M.; Dunn, R. Scott; Lindquist, Diana M.; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal infection aggravates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and may interfere with therapeutic hypothermia. While the NF-κB signaling pathway has been implicated in microglia activation in infection-sensitized HI, the current therapeutic strategies rely on systemic intervention, which could impair neonatal immunity and increase the risk of severe infection. To devise a brain-targeted anti-NF-κB strategy, we examined the effects of intranasal delivery of tat-NBD peptides in two ...

  20. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Monique Montagnese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping.The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  1. Right and left cardiac function in HIV-infected patients investigated using radionuclide ventriculography and brain natriuretic peptide: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, U.S.; Lebech, A.M.; Gerstoft, J.;

    2008-01-01

    ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Between July 2005 and January 2007, 63 patients (69%) agreed to participate in a follow-up study with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. RESULTS: All patients had normal...

  2. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behaviora...

  3. Effect of sinus rhythm restoration on plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels before and after sinus rhythm restoration in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) but normal left ventricle function and to explore the role of BNP in AF. Methods: Plasma BNP levels were measured with RIA in 68 patients and 34 controls. Results: Twenty four hours after successful cardioversion, plasma BNP levels decreased significantly in all the patients. The 30 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were all restored to sinus rhythm and levels of plasma BNP dropped from 96±42pg/ml to 28 ±21pg/ml. Of the 38 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation, 28 of them were restored to sinus rhythm, in whom levels of plasma BNP dropped from 73±38pg/ml to 38±25pg/ml. Conclusion: The presence of AF should be taken into consideration when interpreting plasma BNP levels in patients with heart disease. (authors)

  4. Plasma pro-brain natriuretic peptide and electrocardiographic changes in combination improve risk prediction in persons without known heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Jan S; Appleyard, Merete;

    2015-01-01

    cohort study. Median follow-up was 10.4 years. High pro-BNP was defined as above 90th percentile of age and sex adjusted levels. The end-points were all-cause mortality and the combination of admission with ischemic heart disease, heart failure or CVD death. RESULTS: ECG changes were present in 907......BACKGROUND: Though the electrocardiogram(ECG) and plasma pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide (pro-BNP) are widely used markers of subclinical cardiac injury and can be used to predict future cardiovascular disease(CVD), they could merely be markers of the same underlying pathology. We aimed to determine...... if ECG changes and pro-BNP are independent predictors of CVD and if the combination improves risk prediction in persons without known heart disease. METHODS: Pro-BNP and ECG were obtained on 5454 persons without known heart disease from the 4th round of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective...

  5. Heart murmur and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as predictors of death in 2977 consecutive hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; Nielsen, O.W.; Kirk, V.;

    2008-01-01

    -pro-BNP, discovery of valvular heart disease by echocardiography yielded no additional prognostic information. Conclusions: Detection of a cardiac murmur during routine medical examination of hospitalized patients is associated with increased risk of death within a year. A blood test for NT-pro-BNP gives significant...... valvular heart disease. We wanted to test whether murmur predicts mortality in unselected patients admitted to the hospital and whether NT-pro-BNP is capable of distinguishing between innocent and significant murmurs. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 2977) older than 40 years admitted to a local hospital......Background: Little is known about the prognostic importance of murmur in unselected patients. It is difficult to distinguish between innocent and significant murmurs. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and BNP have recently been shown to be useful in small series of patients with...

  6. Effect of electroacupuncturein Weijing points on gastroin testinal interdigestive migrating motor complex and brain gut peptides release in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interdigestive gastrointestinal migratingmotor complex (MMC) activities were recorded by strain gauge implanted on the serosa in 7 conscious dogs. We studied theffects of electroacupuncture (EAP) Weijing points Zusanli (S36), Tianshu (S25), Liangmen (S21) on MMC and release of motilin and gastrin, and compared them with that of EAP Pangguangjing points. The results indicated that EAP Weijing points could not only strengthen MMC contractions in antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum, but also increase plasma concentration of motilin and gastrin. Anti-motilin serum, proglumide, atropine, or hexamethonium could markedly block the effect of EAP on reinforcing MMC contraction and release of motilin and gastrin. We could get the conclusions that such enhancing effect of EAP Weijing points on MMC and brain-gut peptides release is mediated by motilin and gastrin, on which both cholinergic nerve and sympathetic nerve play important roles.

  7. The influence of anaemia on stroke prognosis and its relation to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Kristensen, S R; Mickley, H;

    2007-01-01

    Anaemia is a negative prognostic factor for patients with heart failure and impaired renal function, but its role in stroke patients is unknown. Furthermore, anaemia has been shown to influence the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), but this is only investigated...... in patients with heart failure, not in stroke patients. Two-hundred-and-fifty consecutive, well-defined ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Mortality was recorded at 6 months follow-up. Anaemia was diagnosed in 37 patients (15%) in whom stroke severity was worse than in the non-anaemic group, whilst...... the prevalence of renal affection, smoking and heart failure was lower. At 6 months follow-up, 23 patients were dead, and anaemia had an odds ratio of 4.7 when adjusted for age, Scandinavian Stroke Scale and a combined variable of heart and/or renal failure and/or elevation of troponin T using logistic...

  8. PEPTIDES INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF BRAIN ASYMMETRY IN MAMMALS AND THE POSSIBLE NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Sollertinskaya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of the comparative physiological studyng of active drugs of the peptides nature (Semax and Selank have been presented and their role in the compensation of the cognitive functions disturbanced and the brain interhemispheric asymmetry in the ascending row of the mammals. The new data have been obtained that in the insectivores level the influence of the Semax and Selank in the interhemispheric asymmetry regulation has the nonspecific general feature. The differentiation of the drugs effects on the profile behaviour changes appeared as a tendency. At the rodents level the differentiation of the Semax and Selank influence on the motor asymmetry takes place. The regulation effects of the drugs manifested in different ways speking about rats on the right side profil of the behaviour and on the left one and the ambidexters. At the monkey’s level the compensatory effects of the Semax and Selank on the cognitive functions disturbances exertes the distincles different features. It has been established that Semax has the significant cerebroprotective influence on the disturbanced reactions of the selection the side reinforcement. The new data have been established that in rats the ascending influence of the Selank on the new cortex is exerted over the hippocampal structures. The ascending effects of the Semax are obviously exerted over the baso-lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the field CA1 of the hippocampus. The analysis of the data has led us the next conclusions: the formation of the regulatory and compensatory influence of the peptides drugs on the disturbanced brain function is exerted on the common principe of the evolution to the development from diffuse nonspecific influence to the discrete specialization.

  9. Amyloid-β peptides and tau protein as biomarkers in cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid following traumatic brain injury: A review of experimental and clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmenion P. Tsitsopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors frequently suffer from life-long deficits in cognitive functions and a reduced quality of life. Axonal injury, observed in most severe TBI patients, results in accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP. Post-injury enzymatic cleavage of APP can generate amyloid-β (Aβ peptides, a hallmark finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. At autopsy, brains of AD and a subset of TBI victims display some similarities including accumulation of Aβ peptides and neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Most epidemiological evidence suggests a link between TBI and AD, implying that TBI has neurodegenerative sequelae. Aβ peptides and tau may be used as biomarkers in interstitial fluid (ISF using cerebral microdialysis and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF following clinical TBI. In the present review, the available clinical and experimental literature on Aβ peptides and tau as potential biomarkers following TBI is comprehensively analyzed. Elevated CSF and ISF tau protein levels have been observed following severe TBI and suggested to correlate with clinical outcome. Although Aβ peptides are produced by normal neuronal metabolism, high levels of long and/or fibrillary Aβ peptides may be neurotoxic. Increased CSF and/or ISF Aβ levels post-injury may be related to neuronal activity and/or the presence of axonal injury. The heterogeneity of animal models, clinical cohorts, analytical techniques and the complexity of TBI in available studies make the clinical value of tau and Aβ as biomarkers uncertain at present. Additionally, the link between early post-injury changes in tau and Aβ peptides and the future risk of developing AD remains unclear. Future studies using e.g. rapid biomarker sampling combined with enhanced analytical techniques and/or novel pharmacological tools could provide additional information on the importance of Aβ peptides and tau protein in both the acute pathophysiology and long

  10. Suppression of ischaemia-induced injuries in rat brain by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) activating peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xia; Ng, Ethel Sau Kuen; Lam, Francis Fu Yuen

    2016-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke has become one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The role of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in this disease is uncertain. In the present study, the actions of a protease activated receptor-1 activating peptide (PAR-1 AP) SFLLRN-NH2 were investigated in an in vivo rat model of ischaemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in an in vitro model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cultured rat embryonic cortical neurones. Rats subjected to MCAO exhibited increased brain infarct volume, oedema, and neurological deficit. Rat cortical neurones subjected to OGD showed increased lactate dehydrogenase, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL positive cells, whereas, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability were decreased. Furthermore, both models had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, nitrite, and malondialdehyde, while anti-oxidant enzymes and bcl-2/bax ratio were decreased. These detrimental changes were suppressed by SFLLRN-NH2, and its protective actions were inhibited by a PAR-1 antagonist (BMS-200261). In summary, SFLLRN-NH2 was found to possess anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, and it produced marked inhibition on the detrimental effects of ischaemia in in vivo and in vitro models of ischaemic stroke. The present findings suggest PAR-1 is a promising target for development of novel treatments of ischaemic brain disease. PMID:27238976

  11. MicroPET imaging of brain tumor angiogenesis with {sup 18}F-labeled PEGylated RGD peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Hou, Yingping; Tohme, Michel; Bading, James R.; Conti, Peter S. [PET Imaging Science Center, Department of Radiology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1510 San Pablo St., Suite 350, CA 90033, Los Angeles (United States); Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Gonzales-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E. [Department of Pediatrics, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, CA 90027, Los Angeles (United States)

    2004-08-01

    We have previously labeled cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) with fluorine-18 through conjugation labeling via a prosthetic 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl moiety and applied this [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD radiotracer for {alpha}{sub v}-integrin expression imaging in different preclinical tumor models with good tumor-to-background contrast. However, the unfavorable hepatobiliary excretion and rapid tumor washout rate of this tracer limit its potential clinical applications. The aims of this study were to modify the [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD tracer by inserting a heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, M.W. =3,400) between the {sup 18}F radiolabel and the RGD moiety and to test this [{sup 18}F]FB-PEG-RGD tracer for brain tumor targeting and in vivo kinetics. [{sup 18}F]FB-PEG-RGD was prepared by coupling the RGD-PEG conjugate with N-succinimidyl 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]SFB) under slightly basic conditions (pH=8.5). The radiochemical yield was about 20-30% based on the active ester [{sup 18}F]SFB, and specific activity was over 100 GBq/{mu}mol. This tracer had fast blood clearance, rapid and high tumor uptake in the subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma model (5.2{+-}0.5%ID/g at 30 min p.i.). Moderately rapid tumor washout was observed, with the activity accumulation decreased to 2.2{+-}0.4%ID/g at 4 h p.i. MicroPET and autoradiography imaging showed a very high tumor-to-background ratio and limited activity accumulation in the liver, kidneys and intestinal tracts. U87MG tumor implanted into the mouse forebrain was well visualized with [{sup 18}F]FB-PEG-RGD. Although uptake in the orthotopic tumor was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in the subcutaneous tumor, the maximum tumor-to-brain ratio still reached 5.0{+-}0.6 due to low normal brain background. The results of H and E staining post mortem agreed with the anatomical information obtained from non-invasive microPET imaging. In conclusion, PEGylation suitably modifies the physiological behavior of the RGD peptide. [{sup 18

  12. Effects of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides upon cyclic GMP levels, potassium transport, and receptor binding in rat astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to alter cyclic GMP levels and NaKCl cotransport in rat neocortical astrocytes was determined. At concentrations of 10(-9)-10(-6) M, rat ANP99-126 (rANF), rat ANP102-126 (auriculin B), and rat ANP103-126 (atriopeptin III) stimulated 6- to 100-fold increases in cyclic GMP levels. Porcine BNP (pBNP) and rat BNP (rBNP) were 20%-90% as effective as rANF over most of this concentration range, although 10(-6) M pBNP produced a greater effect than rANF. NaKCl cotransport as measured by bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ influx was not altered by exposure of astrocytes to 10(-6)M rANF, pBNP, or rBNP. Both pBNP and rBNP, as well as rat ANP103-123 (atriopeptin I) and des[gl18, ser19, gly20, leu21, gly22] ANF4-23-NH2 (C-ANF4-23) strongly competed for specific 125I-rANF binding sites in astrocyte membranes with affinities ranging from 0.03 to 0.4 nM, suggesting that virtually all binding sites measured at subnanomolar concentrations of 125I-rANF were of the ANP-C (ANF-R2) receptor subtype. These receptors are thought to serve a clearance function and may be linked to a guanylate cyclase activity that is chemically and pharmacologically distinct from that coupled to ANP-A (ANF-R1) receptors. ANP receptors on astrocytes may function in limiting the access of ANP and BNP to neurons involved in body fluid and cardiovascular regulation

  13. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  14. Huperzine A protects isolated rat brain mitochondria against beta-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Yang, Ling; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2009-06-01

    Our previous work in cells and animals showed that mitochondria are involved in the neuroprotective effect of huperzine A (HupA). In this study, the effects of HupA on isolated rat brain mitochondria were investigated. In addition to inhibiting the Abeta(25-35) (40 microM)-induced decrease in mitochondrial respiration, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, enzyme activity, and transmembrane potential, HupA (0.01 or 0.1 microM) effectively prevented Abeta-induced mitochondrial swelling, reactive oxygen species increase, and cytochrome c release. More interestingly, administration of HupA to isolated mitochondria promoted the rate of ATP production and blocked mitochondrial swelling caused by normal osmosis. These results indicate that HupA protects mitochondria against Abeta at least in part by preserving membrane integrity and improving energy metabolism. These direct effects on mitochondria further extend the noncholinergic functions of HupA. PMID:19272446

  15. Structural Elucidation of the Cell-Penetrating Penetratin Peptide in Model Membranes at the Atomic Level: Probing Hydrophobic Interactions in the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Swapna; Kar, Rajiv K; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have shown promise in nonpermeable therapeutic drug delivery, because of their ability to transport a variety of cargo molecules across the cell membranes and their noncytotoxicity. Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain-derived CPP penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), being rich in positively charged residues, has been increasingly used as a potential drug carrier for various purposes. Penetratin can breach the tight endothelial network known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), permitting treatment of several neurodegenerative maladies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, a detailed structural understanding of penetratin and its mechanism of action is lacking. This study defines structural features of the penetratin-derived peptide, DK17 (DRQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), in several model membranes and describes a membrane-induced conformational transition of the DK17 peptide in these environments. A series of biophysical experiments, including high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, provides the three-dimensional structure of DK17 in different membranes mimicking the BBB or total brain lipid extract. Molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental results showing preferential binding of DK17 to particular lipids at atomic resolution. The peptide conserves the structure of the subdomain spanning residues Ile6-Arg11, despite considerable conformational variation in different membrane models. In vivo data suggest that the wild type, not a mutated sequence, enters the central nervous system. Together, these data highlight important structural and functional attributes of DK17 that could be utilized in drug delivery for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27532224

  16. Effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment on prognosis of acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with cardiogenic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Zhou Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment on prognosis of acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with cardiogenic shock.Methods: A total of 112 cases of inpatients treated in Cardiology Department of our hospital from March 2013 to March 2015 were selected, all of whom had acute myocardial infarction within 12 hours of onset and received direct PCI treatment. They were divided into observation group and control group according to random number table, each group with 56 cases, control group received conventional interventional treatment and observation group received recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment. Then differences of regional myocardial deformability, myocardial enzyme spectrum indicators, brain natriuretic peptide and inflammatory factors, blood sugar and stress hormones as well as myocardial infarction prognosis-associated indexes, etc, between two groups after treatment were compared.Results:After treatment, LVEF, SRs, SRe and Sra levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, WMSI level was lower than that of control group; serum myocardial enzyme spectrum indicators CK, CK-MB, AST and LDH values were lower than those of control group; serum BNP, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were lower than those of control group; serum cortisol, growth hormone and glucagon levels were lower than those of control group, insulin level was higher than that of control group; FT3 and IGF-1 levels were higher than those of control group, sPLA2 and Hcy levels were lower than those of control group.Conclusion: Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide-assisted interventional treatment for acute myocardial infarction patients complicated with cardiogenic shock can reduce myocardial function injury, protect normal myocardial function and optimize patients' long-term prognosis; it has active clinical significance.

  17. Predictive Role of Intraoperative Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Early Allograft Dysfunction in Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Min Suk; Koo, Jung Min; Park, Chul Soo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) is considered an important complication in liver transplantation. Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker of cardiac dysfunction related to end-stage liver disease. We investigated the intraoperative change in the serum BNP level and its contribution to EAD after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). MATERIAL AND METHODS The perioperative data of 104 patients who underwent LDLT were retrospectively reviewed and compared between patients with and without EAD. Serum BNPs were obtained at each phase, and potentially significant factors (Pdeveloped EAD after LDLT. In all phases, the EAD group showed higher serum BNP levels than the non-EAD group. The serum BNP level at each phase was less accurate than the mean serum BNP level for EAD. The intraoperative mean serum BNP level showed higher predictive accuracy than the Child-Pugh-Turcotte, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and D-MELD (donor age × recipient MELD) scores (p<0.05 for all). After multivariate adjustment, intraoperative mean serum BNP level ≥100 pg/mL was identified as an independent risk factor for EAD, along with kidney disease and graft ischemic time. CONCLUSIONS During LDLT, the EAD group showed higher serum BNP levels than the non-EAD group. An intraoperative mean serum BNP level ≥100 pg/mL is independently associated with EAD after LDLT. PMID:27572618

  18. Magnetic microparticle-based SELEX process for the identification of highly specific aptamers of heart marker--brain natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is known to be an effective indicator of heart failure. It has been widely adopted as a parameter for the evaluation of heart function of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs). Current immune-recognition based methods for the detection of BNP are limited, to a certain extent, by the poor stability of the antibody and by high costs. The availability of an aptamer specific for BNP would greatly assist in the rapid and early diagnosis of CVDs. In order to screen for such an aptamer by the SELEX method, we have used magnetic microparticles (m-MPs) as the separation substrate for immobilization of target BNP. The use of m-MPs for rapid separation of combined aptamers enables bound oligonucleotides to be separated directly, quickly, and with high efficiency. After 14 rounds of selection, a panel of six aptamers against BNP was identified. Their dissociation constants range from 12.5 to 139 nM. The classical technique for conjugation of a target to m-MPs is known to be applicable to various fields, and we conclude that this m-MP-based SELEX process provides a general strategy for screening of specific aptamers against various analytes. (author)

  19. Effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide combined with sodium nitroprusside therapy on hemodynamics and cardiac in patients with acute decompensated heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-Li Xing; Xian-Hong Ma; Lu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide combined with sodium nitroprusside therapy on hemodynamics and cardiac function levels in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.Methods:A total of 118 patients with acute decompensated heart failure were randomly divided into observation group and the control group (n=59). Control group received clinical conventional therapy for heart failure, observation group received recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide combined with sodium nitroprusside therapy, and the differences in hemodynamics, cardiac function and circulation factor levels were compared between two groups after 12 hours of treatment. Results: After 12 hours of treatment, central venous pressure, right atrial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure values as well as circulating blood IL-6, hsCRP, ST2, NT-proBNP and cTnⅠlevels of observation group were lower than those of control group, and left heart GLS, GCS, GSRs, GSRe, GSRa, ROT and ROTR levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide combined with sodium nitroprusside therapy for patients with acute decompensated heart failure has significant advantages in optimizing hemodynamics, cardiac function and other aspects.

  20. The proton permeability of self-assembled polymersomes and their neuroprotection by enhancing a neuroprotective peptide across the blood-brain barrier after modification with lactoferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Jiang, Xinguo; Gong, Shuyu; Feng, Liang; Zhong, Yanqiang; Pang, Zhiqing

    2014-02-01

    Biotherapeutics such as peptides possess strong potential for the treatment of intractable neurological disorders. However, because of their low stability and the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), biotherapeutics are difficult to transport into brain parenchyma via intravenous injection. Herein, we present a novel poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymersome-based nanomedicine with self-assembled bilayers, which was functionalized with lactoferrin (Lf-POS) to facilitate the transport of a neuroprotective peptide into the brain. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D*) of H+ through the polymersome membrane was 5.659 × 10-26 cm2 s-1, while that of liposomes was 1.017 × 10-24 cm2 s-1. The stability of the polymersome membrane was much higher than that of liposomes. The uptake of polymersomes by mouse brain capillary endothelial cells proved that the optimal density of lactoferrin was 101 molecules per polymersome. Fluorescence imaging indicated that Lf101-POS was effectively transferred into the brain. In pharmacokinetics, compared with transferrin-modified polymersomes and cationic bovine serum albumin-modified polymersomes, Lf-POS obtained the greatest BBB permeability surface area and percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID per g). Furthermore, Lf-POS holding S14G-humanin protected against learning and memory impairment induced by amyloid-β25-35 in rats. Western blotting revealed that the nanomedicine provided neuroprotection against over-expression of apoptotic proteins exhibiting neurofibrillary tangle pathology in neurons. The results indicated that polymersomes can be exploited as a promising non-invasive nanomedicine capable of mediating peptide therapeutic delivery and controlling the release of drugs to the central nervous system.

  1. In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian XH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Xin-hua Tian1, Feng Wei1, Tian-xiao Wang2, Peng Wang1, Xiao-ning Lin1, Jun Wang2, Dong Wang2, Lei Ren2,31Neurosurgical Department of Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital, 2Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, 3State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Nanobiotechnology can provide more efficient tools for diagnosis, targeted and personalized therapy, and increase the chances of brain tumor treatment being successful. Use of nanoparticles is a promising strategy for overcoming the blood–brain barrier and delivering drugs to the brain. Gelatin-siloxane (GS nanoparticles modified with Tat peptide can enhance plasmid DNA transfection efficiency compared with a commercial reagent.Methods: SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles are membrane-penetrable, and can cross the blood–brain barrier and deliver a drug to its target site in the brain. The efficiency of delivery was investigated in vivo and in vitro using brain capillary endothelial cells, a cocultured blood–brain barrier model, and a normal mouse model.Results: Our study demonstrated that both SynB-PEG-GS and PEG-GS nanoparticles had a spherical shape and an average diameter of 150–200 nm. It was shown by MTT assay that SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles had good biocompatibility with brain capillary endothelial cells. Cellular uptake by SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles was higher than that for PEG-GS nanoparticles for all incubation periods. The amount of SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles crossing the cocultured blood–brain barrier model was significantly higher than that of PEG-GS nanoparticles at all time points measured (P <0.05. In animal testing, SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticle levels in the brain were significantly higher than those of PEG-GS nanoparticles at all time points measured (P < 0.01. In contrast with localization in the brain, PEG-GS nanoparticle levels were significantly

  2. Hypocretin and brain β-amyloid peptide interactions in cognitive disorders and narcolepsy

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    Yves A Dauvilliers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF Alzheimer’ disease (AD biomarkers and hypocretin-1 levels in patients with cognitive abnormalities and hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC, estimate diagnostic accuracy, and determine correlations with sleep disturbances. Background: Sleep disturbances are frequent in AD. Interactions between brain β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation and a wake-related neurotransmitter hypocretin have been reported in a mouse model of AD. Methods: Ninety-one cognitive patients (37 AD, 16 mild cognitive impairment – MCI that converts to AD, 38 other dementias and 15 elderly patients with NC were recruited. Patients were diagnosed blind to CSF results. CSF A42, total tau, ptau181, and hypocretin-1 were measured. Sleep disturbances were assessed with questionnaires in 32 cognitive patients. Results: Lower CSF Aβ42 but higher tau and P-tau levels were found in AD and MCI compared to other dementias. CSF hypocretin-1 levels were higher in patients with MCI due to AD compared to other dementias, with a similar tendency for patients with advanced AD. CSF hypocretin-1 was significantly and independently associated with AD/MCI due to AD, with an OR of 2.70 after full adjustment, exceeding that for Aβ42. Aβ42 correlated positively with hypocretin-1 levels in advanced stage AD. No association was found between sleep disturbances and CSF biomarkers. No patients with NC achieved pathological cutoffs for Aβ42, with respectively one and four patients with NC above tau and P-tau cutoffs and no correlations between hypocretin-1 and other biomarkers. Conclusions: Our results suggest a pathophysiological relationship between Aβ42 and hypocretin-1 in the AD process, with higher CSF hypocretin-1 levels in early disease stages. Further longitudinal studies are needed to validate these biomarker interactions and to determine the cause-effect relationship and the role of wake/sleep behavior in amyloid

  3. High circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and tumor necrosis factor-α in mixed cryoglobulinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Antonelli; Clodoveo Ferri; Silvia Martina Ferrari; Fabio Galetta; Ferdinando Franzoni; Gino Santoro; Salvatore De Marco; Emiliano Ghiri; Poupak Fallahi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in a large series of patients with hepatitis C associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC+HCV).METHODS: Serum NTproBNP and TNF-α levels were assayed in 50 patients with MC+HCV, and in 50 sex-and age-matched controls.RESULTS: Cryoglobulinemic patients showed significantly higher mean NTproBNP and TNF-α levels than controls ( P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test). By defining high NTproBNP level as a value higher than 125 pg/mL (the single cut-off point for outpatients under 75 years of age), 30% of MC+HCV and 6% of controls had high NTproBNP (χ~2, P < 0.01). With a cut-off point of 300 pg/mL (used to rule out heart failure (HF) in patients under 75 years of age), 8% of MC+HCV and 0 controls had high NTproBNP (χ~2, P < 0.04). With a cut-off point of 900 pg/mL (used for ruling in HF in patients aged 50-75 years; such as the patients of our study), 6% of MC+HCV and 0 controls had high NTproBNP (χ~2, P = 0.08).CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates high levels of circulating NTproBNP and TNF-α in MC+HCV patients.The increase of NTproBNP may indicate the presence of a subclinical cardiac dysfunction.

  4. Brain natriuretic peptide and copeptin levels are associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; YANG Xin-chun; SUN Qian-mei; CHEN Xiang-dong; LI Yan-chun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).We explored the relationship between CVD,plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and copeptin in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods BNP and copeptin were measured using ELISA in 86 non-dialysis patients with different degrees of CKD and in 20 control patients.The effects of BNP,copeptin levels and other biochemical indices on carotid ultrasound echocardiography and CVD history were determined using correlation analysis.Results BNP and copeptin levels were significantly higher in the CKD group than in the control group.Both indices increased progressively,in parallel with the decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR).BNP levels were (184.25±65.18)ng/L in early phase CKD,(975.245±354.09) ng/L in middle phase CKD,and (1463.51±614.92) ng/ml in end phase CKD compared with levels of (101.56±42.76) ng/L in the control group (all P <0.01).Copeptin levels in the middle phase ((20.36±9.47) pmol/L) and end phase groups ((54.26±18.23) pmol/L were significantly higher than in the control group ((9.21±2.64) pmol/L; both P <0.01).There was no difference in copeptin levels between early phase CKD ((10.09±5.23)pmol/L) and control patients.Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified GFR,intima-media thickness (IMT),left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH),and previous history of CVD as independent risk factors for elevated BNP and copeptin levels.Conclusion BNP and copeptin appear to provide sensitive biological markers for the evaluation of atherosclerosis in non-dialysis patients with CKD.

  5. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is associated with mortality in tobacco smokers independent of airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Stamm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. N-terminal pro-brain natiuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, a widely available biomarker that is associated with cardiovascular outcomes in other conditions, has not been investigated as a predictor of mortality in tobacco smokers. We hypothesized that NT-proBNP would be an independent prognostic marker in a cohort of well-characterized tobacco smokers without known cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Clinical data from 796 subjects enrolled in two prospective tobacco exposed cohorts was assessed to determine factors associated with elevated NT-proBNP and the relationship of these factors and NT-proBNP with mortality. RESULTS: Subjects were followed for a median of 562 (IQR 252-826 days. Characteristics associated with a NT-proBNP above the median (≥49 pg/mL were increased age, female gender, and decreased body mass index. By time-to-event analysis, an NT-proBNP above the median (≥49 pg/mL was a significant predictor of mortality (log rank p = 0.02. By proportional hazard analysis controlling for age, gender, cohort, and severity of airflow obstruction, an elevated NT-proBNP level (≥49 pg/mL remained an independent predictor of mortality (HR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.07-4.46, p = 0.031. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of mortality in tobacco smokers without known cardiovascular disease, conferring a 2.2 fold increased risk of death. Future studies should assess the ability of this biomarker to guide further diagnostic testing and to direct specific cardiovascular risk reduction inventions that may positively impact quality of life and survival.

  6. The Association of Menopausal Age and NT-proBrain Natriuretic Peptide: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Menopausal age could affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and menopausal age with NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure (HF). Methods Our cross-sectional study included 2275 postmenopausal women, aged 45–85 years, without clinical CVD (2000–2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Results There were 561 women with early menopause. The median NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1–151.6) pg/ml for all participants with values of 83.4 (41.4–164.9) pg/ml and 78.0 (40.8–148.3) pg/ml for women with and without early menopause respectively. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause respectively. There were no significant interactions between menopausal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP while each year increase in menopausal age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP. Conclusion Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels while each year increase in menopausal age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:25290536

  7. Chagas cardiomyopathy: the potential of diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide in the early identification of cardiac damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a major cause of mortality in several countries of Latin America and has become a potential public health problem in non-endemic countries as a result of migration flows. Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality, but its diagnosis is still based on nonspecific criteria with poor sensitivity. Early identification of patients with cardiac involvement is desirable, since early treatment may improve prognosis. This study aimed to assess the role of diastolic dysfunction, abnormal myocardial strain and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the early identification of cardiac involvement in Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-four patients divided into 3 groups--group 1 (undetermined form: positive serology without ECG or 2D-echocardiographic abnormalities; N = 32, group 2 (typical ECG abnormalities of Chagas disease but normal 2D-echocardiography; N = 14, and group 3 (regional wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular [LV] end-diastolic diameter >55 mm or LV ejection fraction 37 pg/ml were noted in 0%, 13%, 29% and 63% in controls and groups 1 to 3, respectively. Half of patients in the undetermined form had impaired relaxation patterns, whereas half of patients with ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy had normal diastolic function. In group 1, BNP levels were statistically higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction as compared to those with normal diastolic function (27 ± 26 vs. 11 ± 8 pg/ml, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the combination of diastolic function and BNP measurement adds important information that could help to better stratify patients with Chagas disease.

  8. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: Organization, interaction with neuropeptide Y, and response to changes in energy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Omprakash; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Kumar, Vinod; Lechan, Ronald M; Singru, Praful S

    2016-10-15

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has emerged as a potent anorectic agent. CART is widely distributed in the brain of mammals, amphibians, and teleosts, but the relevant information in avian brain is not available. In birds, CART inhibits food intake, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY), a well-known orexigenic peptide, stimulates it. How these neuropeptides interact in the brain to regulate energy balance is not known. We studied the distribution of CART-immunoreactivity in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, its interaction with NPY, and their response to dynamic energy states. CART-immunoreactive fibers were found in the subpallium, hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem. Conspicuous CART-immunoreactive cells were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial, infundibular (IN), lateral hypothalamic, Edinger-Westphal, and parabrachial nuclei. Hypothalamic sections of fed, fasted, and refed animals were immunostained with cFos, NPY, and CART antisera. Fasting dramatically increased cFos- and NPY-immunoreactivity in the IN, followed by rapid reduction by 2 hours and restoration to normal fed levels 6-10 hours after refeeding. CART-immunoreactive fibers in IN showed a significant reduction during fasting and upregulation with refeeding. Within the IN, double immunofluorescence revealed that 94 ± 2.1% of NPY-immunoreactive neurons were contacted by CART-immunoreactive fibers and 96 ± 2.8% NPY-immunoreactive neurons expressed cFos during fasting. Compared to controls, superfused hypothalamic slices of fasted birds treated with CART-peptide showed a significant reduction (P brain of T. guttata may perform several functions, and has a particularly important role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3014-3041, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018984

  9. Levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide,cholecystokinin and calcitonin gene-related peptide in plasma and jejunum of rats following traumatic brain injury and underlying significance in gastrointestinal dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Hang; Ji-Xin Shi; Jie-Shou Li; Wei Wu; Wei-Qin Li; Hong-Xia Yin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alterations of brain-gut peptides following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to explore the underlying significance of these peptides in the complicated gastrointestinal dysfunction.METHODS: Rat models of focal traumatic brain injury were established by impact insult method, and divided into 6 groups (6 rats each group) including control group with sham operation and TBI groups at postinjury 3, 12, 24, 72 h, and d 7. Blood and proximal jejunum samples were taken at time point of each group and gross observations of gastrointestinal pathology were recorded simultaneously. The levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in plasma, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in both plasma and jejunum were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to determine the levels of VTP in jejunum. RESULTS: Gastric distension, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal dilatation with a large amount of yellowish effusion and thin edematous wall were found in TBI rats through 12 h and 72 h, which peaked at postinjury 72 h. As compared with that of control group (247.8±29.5 ng/L), plasma VIP levels were significantly decreased at postinjury 3, 12 and 24 h (106.7±34.1 ng/L, 148.7±22.8 ng/L, 132.8±21.6 ng/L,respectively), but significantly increased at 72 h (405.0±29.8 ng/L) and markedly declined on d 7 (130.7±19.3 ng/L).However, Plasma levels CCK and CGRP were significantly increased through 3 h and 7 d following TBT (126-691% increases), with the peak at 72 h. Compared with control (VIP, 13.6±1.4 ng/g; CGRP, 70.6±17.7 ng/g); VIP and CGRP levels in jejunum were significantly increased at 3 h after TBI (VIP, 35.4±5.0 ng/g; CGRP, 103.8±22.1 ng/g), anddeclined gradually at 12 h and 24 h (VIP, 16.5±1.8 ng/g, 5.5±1.4 ng/g; CGRP, 34.9±9.7 ng/g, 18.5±7.7 ng/g), but were significantly increased again at 72 h (VIP, 48.7±9.5 ng/g; CGRP, 142.1±24.3 ng/g), then declined in various degrees on d 7 (VIP, 3.8±1

  10. Influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Tian Song; Ming Yang; Kun-Peng Li; Juan Xu; Chuan-Ming Bai; Ji-Wu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods:A total of 42 patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass during the period of June 2014 to January 2016 were randomly divided into the control group of 21 cases and the observation group of 21 cases. The control group was treated with routine postoperative treatment, and the observation group was treated with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the basic treatment of control group, then the myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism indexes of the two groups before the surgery and at 2 h, 12 h and 24 h after the surgery were respectively detected and compared.Results: There were no significant difference in myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism indexes between two groups before the surgery (allP>0.05), while the myocardial enzymes and serum cardiac function indexes of the observation group at 2 h ,12 h and 24 h after the surgery were all significantly lower than those of control group, the oxygen metabolism indexes were significantly better than the levels of control group (allP<0.05).Conclusions:The recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide can effectively improve the myocardial enzymes, serum cardiac function indexes and oxygen metabolism state of patients with open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it has application value for the patients with the surgery is higher.

  11. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in feeding- and reward-related brain areas of young OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruszt, Simon; Abraham, Hajnalka; Figler, Maria; Kozicz, Tamas; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-05-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in the control of appetite, drug reward and homeostatic regulation and it has an overall anorexigenic effect. Recently, we have shown that CART peptide immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens and in the rostro-medial part of the nucleus of the solitary tract in adult CCK-1 receptor deficient obese diabetic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats compared to Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) lean controls. It is not clear, however, whether altered CART expression is caused primarily by the deficiency in CCK-1 signaling or whether is related to the obese and diabetic phenotype of the OLETF strain which develops at a later age. Therefore, in the present study, CART-immunoreaction in feeding-related areas of the brain was compared in young, age-matched (6-7 weeks old) non-obese, non-diabetic OLETF rats and in LETO controls. We found that, young, non-diabetic OLETF rats revealed unaltered distribution of CART-peptide expressing neurons and axons throughout the brain when compared to age-matched LETO rats. In contrast to previous results observed in the obese diabetic adult rats, intensity of CART immunoreaction did not differ in the areas related to control of food-intake and reward in the young OLETFs compared to young LETO rats. Our findings suggest that factors secondary to obesity and/or diabetes rather than impaired CCK-1 receptor signaling may contribute to altered CART expression in the OLETF strain. PMID:23545074

  12. Right and left cardiac function in HIV-infected patients investigated using radionuclide ventriculography and brain natriuretic peptide: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, U S; Lebech, A M; Gerstoft, J;

    2008-01-01

    ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Between July 2005 and January 2007, 63 patients (69%) agreed to participate in a follow-up study with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. RESULTS: All patients had normal...... mean RVEF was found. No patients had increased BNP and no change in mean plasma BNP was found. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related cardiomyopathy appears not to constitute a problem in closely monitored, well-treated HIV-infected patients. Compared with pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) studies, it...

  13. Prolongation of life in rats with malignant glioma by intranasal siRNA/drug codelivery to the brain with cell-penetrating peptide-modified micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Morisaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Shohei; Takashima, Yuuki

    2014-05-01

    New therapeutic strategies are required to develop candidate drugs and ensure efficient delivery of these drugs to the brain and the central nervous system (CNS). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapies have been investigated as potential novel approaches for the treatment of brain disorders. Previously, we showed that Tat, a cell-penetrating peptide derived from HIV-Tat, and the modified block copolymers (MPEG-PCL-Tat) can form stable complexes with siRNA or can be loaded with an anticancer drug and efficiently deliver the drugs to the brain tissue via intranasal delivery. In this study, to develop a novel, efficient, and safe therapeutic strategy for managing brain disorders, we used MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles with a nose-to-brain delivery system to investigate its therapeutic effects on a rat model of malignant glioma using siRNA with a Raf-1 (siRaf-1)/camptothecin (CPT) codelivery system. MPEG-PCL-Tat and CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat can form a stable complex with siRNA with a particle size from 60 to 200 nm and a positive charge at N/P ratios up to 5. Additionally, MPEG-PCL-Tat/siRaf-1 and CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat/siRaf-1 have fostered cell death in rat glioma cells after the high cellular uptake of siRaf-1/drug by the MPEG-PCL-Tat carrier. Furthermore, compared to the unloaded MPEG-PCL-Tat/siRaf-1 complex, a CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat/siRaf-1 complex achieved the high therapeutic effect because of the additive effects of CPT and siRaf-1. These results indicate that drug/siRNA codelivery using MPEG-PCL-Tat nanomicelles with nose-to-brain delivery is an excellent therapeutic approach for brain and CNS diseases.

  14. Common general morphological pattern of peptidergic neurons in the arachnid brain: crustacean cardioactive peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum of seven arachnid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, O; Dircksen, H; Wegerhoff, R

    1995-01-01

    A polyclonal antiserum raised against crustacean cardioactive peptide labels 14 clusters of immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum of the spiders Tegenaria atrica and Nephila clavipes, and the harvestman (opilionid) Rilaena triangularis. In all species, these clusters possess the same number of neurons, and share similar structural and topological characteristics. Two sets of bilateral symmetrical neurons associated with the optic lobes and the arachnid "central body" were analysed in detail, comparing the harvestman R. triangularis and the spiders Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae), Cupiennius salei (Lycosidae), Tegenaria atrica (Agelenidae), Meta segmentata (Metidae) and Nephila clavipes (Araneidae). Sixteen neurons have been identified that display markedly similar axonal pathways and arborization patterns in all species. These neurons are considered homologues in the opilionid and the araneid brains. We presume that these putative phylogenetically persisting neurons represent part of the general morphological pattern of the arachnid brain. PMID:7895257

  15. Increased ventricular ectopic activity in relation to C-reactive protein, and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide in subjects with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC) and no apparent heart disease make a heterogenic group with regard to prognosis. Some biomarkers have recently proved useful in risk stratification in different heart diseases. We examined prognostic impact of NT-Pro-brain n......BACKGROUND: Subjects with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPC) and no apparent heart disease make a heterogenic group with regard to prognosis. Some biomarkers have recently proved useful in risk stratification in different heart diseases. We examined prognostic impact of NT......-Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-Pro BNP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to frequent VPC in subjects with no apparent heart disease. METHODS: Six hundred seventy-eight healthy subjects between 55 and 75 years of age with no history of cardiovascular disease were included in the study. All were tested...

  16. The Nutrient-Responsive Hormone CCHamide-2 Controls Growth by Regulating Insulin-like Peptides in the Brain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of growth with nutritional status is essential for proper development and physiology. Nutritional information is mostly perceived by peripheral organs before being relayed to the brain, which modulates physiological responses. Hormonal signaling ensures this organ-to-organ communication, and the failure of endocrine regulation in humans can cause diseases including obesity and diabetes. In Drosophila melanogaster, the fat body (adipose tissue has been suggested to play an important role in coupling growth with nutritional status. Here, we show that the peripheral tissue-derived peptide hormone CCHamide-2 (CCHa2 acts as a nutrient-dependent regulator of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (Dilps. A BAC-based transgenic reporter revealed strong expression of CCHa2 receptor (CCHa2-R in insulin-producing cells (IPCs in the brain. Calcium imaging of brain explants and IPC-specific CCHa2-R knockdown demonstrated that peripheral-tissue derived CCHa2 directly activates IPCs. Interestingly, genetic disruption of either CCHa2 or CCHa2-R caused almost identical defects in larval growth and developmental timing. Consistent with these phenotypes, the expression of dilp5, and the release of both Dilp2 and Dilp5, were severely reduced. Furthermore, transcription of CCHa2 is altered in response to nutritional levels, particularly of glucose. These findings demonstrate that CCHa2 and CCHa2-R form a direct link between peripheral tissues and the brain, and that this pathway is essential for the coordination of systemic growth with nutritional availability. A mammalian homologue of CCHa2-R, Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (Brs3, is an orphan receptor that is expressed in the islet β-cells; however, the role of Brs3 in insulin regulation remains elusive. Our genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bombesin receptor signaling with its endogenous ligand promotes insulin production.

  17. Peptide gH625 enters into neuron and astrocyte cell lines and crosses the blood–brain barrier in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiante S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Valiante,1,* Annarita Falanga,2,3,* Luisa Cigliano,1 Giuseppina Iachetta,1 Rosa Anna Busiello,1 Valeria La Marca,1 Massimiliano Galdiero,4 Assunta Lombardi,1 Stefania Galdiero1,2 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3DFM Scarl, University of Naples Federico II, 4Department of Experimental Medicine, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this paper and are considered joint first authors Abstract: Peptide gH625, derived from glycoprotein H of herpes simplex virus type 1, can enter cells efficiently and deliver a cargo. Nanoparticles armed with gH625 are able to cross an in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier (BBB. In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to investigate whether gH625 can enter and accumulate in neuron and astrocyte cell lines. The ability of gH625 to cross the BBB in vivo was also evaluated. gH625 was administered in vivo to rats and its presence in the liver and in the brain was detected. Within 3.5 hours of intravenous administration, gH625 can be found beyond the BBB in proximity to cell neurites. gH625 has no toxic effects in vivo, since it does not affect the maximal oxidative capacity of the brain or the mitochondrial respiration rate. Our data suggest that gH625, with its ability to cross the BBB, represents a novel nanocarrier system for drug delivery to the central nervous system. These results open up new possibilities for direct delivery of drugs into patients in the field of theranostics and might address the treatment of several human diseases. Keywords: drug delivery, neurons, astrocytes, blood–brain barrier, peptide

  18. Method for measurement of the blood-brain barrier permeability in the perfused mouse brain: application to amyloid-beta peptide in wild type and Alzheimer's Tg2576 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Barbra; Hogg, Elizabeth; Sagare, Abhay; Jovanovic, Suzana; Maness, Lawrence; Maurer, Calvin; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2004-09-30

    The role of transport exchanges of neuroactive solutes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increasingly recognized. To take full advantage of genetically altered mouse models of neurodegenerative disorders for BBB transport studies, we adapted a brain perfusion technique to the mouse. During a carotid brain perfusion with a medium containing sheep red blood cells and mock plasma, the physiological parameters in the arterial inflow, regional cerebral blood flow (14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography), ultrastructural integrity of the tissue, barrier to lanthanum, brain water content, energy metabolites and lactate levels remain unchanged. Amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta) were iodinated by lactoperoxidase method. Non-oxidized mono-iodinated Abeta monomers were separated by HPLC (as confirmed by MALDI-TOF spectrometry) and used in transport measurements. Transport of intact 125I-Abeta40 across the BBB was time- and concentration-dependent in contrast to negligible 14C-inulin uptake. In 5-6 months old Alzheimer's Tg2576 mice, Abeta40 BBB transport was increased by >eight-fold compared to age-matched littermate controls, and was mediated via the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts. We conclude the present arterial brain perfusion method provides strictly controlled environment in cerebral microcirculation suitable for examining transport of rapidly and slowly penetrating molecules across the BBB in normal and transgenic mice.

  19. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-03-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210

  20. Research Progress of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Atrial Fibrillation Cardioversion%脑钠肽与心房颤动复律的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮静

    2012-01-01

    With the deepening of population aging and the increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease,the incidence of atrial fibrillation is increasingly high. Its basic and clinical research has been the profession's hot spot. Brain natriuretic peptide as a cardiac function marker has been applied to clinical evaluation of heart failure, and in recent years, has been broadly concerned in the cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Here reviews the physiology of brain natriuretic peptide, and its secretion mechanism when atrial fibrillation occurs,its relative research and its predictive value in atrial fibrillation caidioveision( electrically or drug).%随着人口老龄化程度的不断加深及心血管疾病发病率的增加,心房颤动(简称房颤)的发病率越来越高.其基础及临床研究一直是研究热点.脑钠肽作为一种心功能标志物,临床已应用于评价心力衰竭,近年来脑钠肽在房颤复律方面的研究已引起广泛关注.现从脑钠肽的生理学、房颤时的分泌机制及其在房颤电复律、药物复律中的相关研究和预测价值进行综述.

  1. Changes in brain seabream GnRH mRNA and pituitary seabream GnRH peptide levels during ovarian maturation in female barfin flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Pham, Ky Xuan; Amiya, Noriko; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    The pleuronectid barfin flounder Verasper moseri expresses three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), i.e., seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), salmon GnRH, and chicken GnRH-II. Among these, sbGnRH is the dominant form in the pituitary, indicating that sbGnRH regulates gonadal maturation. In order to clarify the physiological roles of sbGnRH during ovarian maturation in reared female barfin flounder, the changes in brain sbGnRH mRNA levels and pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, respectively. The fish hatched in April 2002. The gonadosomatic index remained low until August 2004 and increased thereafter until April 2005 when the fish began to ovulate. The sbGnRH mRNA levels per brain increased significantly from April 2004 to April 2005. Pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels also increased significantly during this period. These results indicate that sbGnRH is involved in ovarian maturation and ovulation in the barfin flounder. PMID:18662692

  2. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF but not nerve growth factor (NGF or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values

  3. Interleukin-1 interaction with neuroregulatory systems: selective enhancement by recombinant human and mouse interleukin-1 of in vitro opioid peptide receptor binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a wide variety of biological effects on various cell types and may be regarded as a pleiotropic peptide hormone. Biological evidence suggests that IL-1 participates in the modulation of central nervous system physiology and behavior in a fashion characteristic of neuroendocrine hormones. In this investigation, recombinant (r) human (h) IL-1 and r mouse (m) IL-1 were examined for their modulation of opioid peptide receptor binding in vitro. Experiments were performed on frozen sections of rat brain. Receptor binding of radiolabeled substance P and of radiolabeled neurotensin were not significantly affected by the presence of rIL-1s. Recombinant IL-1s, however, significantly enhanced specific binding of 125I-beta-endorphin (125I-beta-END) and of D-ala2-(tyrosyl-3,5-3H)enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (3H-D-ALA), equipotently and in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal activity occurring at a concentration of 10 LAF units/ml. The increased binding of 125I-beta-END and 3H-D-ALA was blocked steroselectively by (-)-naloxone and by etorphine, suggesting detection of opiate receptors. In addition, brain distribution patterns of receptors labeled in the presence of rIL-1s corresponded to patterns previously published for opiate receptors. Autoradiographic visualization of receptors revealed that rIL-1s in the different areas of the brain exert their effect on opioid binding with comparable potencies. The data suggest that certain central nervous system effects of IL-1s may be mediated by their selective interaction with opiatergic systems at the receptor level

  4. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.

  5. Hyponatremia and brain injury: absence of alterations of serum brain natriuretic peptide and vasopressin Hiponatremia e traumatismo cranioencefálico: ausência de alteração sanguínea do peptídeo natriurético cerebral e hormônio antidiurético

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Nascimento Costa; Helen Mayumi Nakamura; Leonardo Rodrigues da Cruz; Lucas Sampaio Valente Fernandes de Miranda; Rubens Carneiro dos Santos-Neto; Susyanne Lavor Cosme; Luiz Augusto Casulari

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study any possible relation between hyponatremia following brain injury and the presence of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and if vasopressin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and aldosterone have a role in its mechanism. METHOD: Patients with brain injury admitted to the intensive care unit were included and had their BNP, aldosterone and vasopressin levels dosed on day 7. RESULTS: Twenty six adul...

  6. Effect of peptides corresponding to extracellular domains of serotonin 1B/1D receptors and melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors on hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakova, E A; Derkach, K V; Shpakov, A O

    2014-03-01

    The ligand-recognizing part of G protein-coupled receptors consists of their extracellular loops and N-terminal domain. Identification of these sites is essential for receptor mapping and for the development and testing of new hormone system regulators. The peptides corresponding by their structure to extracellular loop 2 of serotonin 1B/1D receptor (peptide 1), extracellular loop 3 of melanocortin 3 receptor (peptide 2), and N-terminal domain of melanocortin 4 (peptide 3) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. In synaptosomal membranes isolated from rat brain, peptide 1 (10(-5)-10(-4) M) attenuated the effects of 5-nonyloxytryptamine (selective agonist of serotonin 1B/1D receptor) and to a lesser extent serotonin and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine acting on all the subtypes of serotonin receptor 1. Peptide 2 (10(-5)-10(-4) M) significantly reduced the adenylate cyclase-stimulating effect of γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (agonist of melanocortin receptor 3), but had no effect on the adenylate cyclase effect of THIQ (agonist melanocortin receptor 4). Peptide 3 reduced the adenylate cyclase-stimulating effects of THIQ and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (non-selective agonist of melanocortin receptors 3 and 4), but did not modulate the effect of γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The effect of peptide 3 was weaker: it was observed at peptide 3 concentration of 10(-4) M. Peptides 1-3 did no change the adenylate cyclase-modulating effects of hormones acting through non-homologous receptors. Thus, the synthesized peptides specifically inhibited the regulatory effects of hormones acting through homologous receptors. This suggests that the corresponding extracellular domains are involved in ligand recognition and binding and determine functional activity of the receptor. PMID:24770752

  7. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test

  8. Block of Brain Sodium Channels by Peptide Mimetics of the Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, and Methionine (IFM) Motif from the Inactivation Gate

    OpenAIRE

    Eaholtz, Galen; Colvin, Anita; Leonard, Daniele; Taylor, Charles(8 Cherryl House, Seymour Gardens, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, B74 4ST, U.K.); Catterall, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Inactivation of sodium channels is thought to be mediated by an inactivation gate formed by the intracellular loop connecting domains III and IV. A hydrophobic motif containing the amino acid sequence isoleucine, phenylalanine, and methionine (IFM) is required for the inactivation process. Peptides containing the IFM motif, when applied to the cytoplasmic side of these channels, produce two types of block: fast block, which resembles the inactivation process, and slow, use-dependent block sti...

  9. A multimodal Pepstatin A peptide-based nanoagent for the molecular imaging of P-glycoprotein in the brains of epilepsy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangrong; Wang, Jianhong; Liu, Jiansheng; Shen, Shun; Cao, Zhonglian; Pan, Jiawei; Zhou, Shuyi; Pang, Zhiqing; Geng, Daoying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Regional overexpression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in epileptic brain tissues may lower antiepileptic drugs concentrations at the target site and contribute to pharmacoresistance in refractory epilepsy. However, few techniques are available to quantitate the level of P-gp expression noninvasively in vivo. In this study, we developed a nanoagent by conjugating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a near infrared probe and the targeting element Pepstatin A, a peptide with specific affinity for P-gp. In a rat model of epilepsy, the nanoagent was readily and selectively accumulated within epileptogenic cerebral regions, which were detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging modalities. This P-gp-targeted nanoagent could be used not only in the molecular imaging of P-gp expression changes in seizure-induced regional, understanding the mechanisms of P-gp disorders, and the prediction of refractory epilepsy, but also in targeted therapies with P-gp modulators.

  10. Effects of body mass index and age on N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide are associated with glomerular filtration rate in chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Body mass index (BMI), age, and GFR are associated with plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in chronic heart failure...... (CHF) patients. We hypothesized that the effects of BMI and age on plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP are associated with GFR. METHODS: We obtained clinical data and laboratory test results from 345 CHF patients at the baseline visit in our heart failure clinic and examined the hypothesis using...... multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Age (P = 0.0184), BMI (P = 0.0098), hemoglobin (P = 0.0043), heart rhythm (P GFR estimated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation, the parameter...

  11. Changes in the brain and plasma Aβ peptide levels with age and its relationship with cognitive impairment in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izco, M; Martínez, P; Corrales, A; Fandos, N; García, S; Insua, D; Montañes, M; Pérez-Grijalba, V; Rueda, N; Vidal, V; Martínez-Cué, C; Pesini, P; Sarasa, M

    2014-03-28

    Double transgenic mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) and mutant presenilin 1 (PS1dE9) are a model of Alzheimer-type amyloidosis and are widely used in experimental studies. In the present work, the relationships between brain and plasma amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairments were examined in male APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice at different ages. When compared with non-transgenic littermates, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice exhibited significant learning deficits from the age of 6months (M6), which were aggravated at later stages of life (M8 and M12). Sporadic brain amyloid plaques were observed in mice as early as M3 and progressively increased in number and size up to M12. A similar increase was observed in brain insoluble Aβ levels as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In particular, the levels of brain insoluble Aβ peptides rose steeply from M4 to M6. Interestingly, this pronounced amyloid deposition was accompanied by a temporary fall in the concentration of brain soluble and membrane-bound Aβ peptides at M6 that rose again at M8 and M12. The plasma levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 decreased with advancing age up to M8, when they stabilized at M12. This decrease in plasma Aβ levels coincided with the observed increase in insoluble brain Aβ levels. These results could be useful for developing plasma Aβ levels as possible biomarkers of the cerebral amyloidosis and provide advances in the knowledge of the Aβ peptide biochemical changes that occur in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients.

  12. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T Welzel

    Full Text Available Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  13. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  14. Association between resting heart rate and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in a community-based population study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruihua Cao, Yongyi Bai, Ruyi Xu, Ping Ye Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP is associated with an increased risk of cardiac insufficiency, which possibly leads to heart failure. However, the relationship between resting heart rate and NT-proBNP is unclear.Objective: This study focuses on this relativity between resting heart rate and plasma NT-proBNP levels in a surveyed community-based population.Methods: We evaluated the relativity between resting heart rate and plasma levels of NT-proBNP in 1,567 participants (mean age 61.0 years, range 21–96 years from a community-based population in Beijing, People’s Republic of China.Results: In patients with high resting heart rate (≥75 beats/min, NT-proBNP was higher than in those having low resting heart rate (<75 beats/min. In multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, plasma NT-proBNP was associated with resting heart rate (partial correlation coefficient, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.18–1.51; P=0.011. A subsequent subgroup analysis revealed that the association between resting heart rate and plasma NT-proBNP was strengthened in subjects over 60 years old (partial correlation coefficient 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.49–2.36; P=0.031; while the relativity between resting heart rate and plasma NT-proBNP was not emerged in the younger subgroup (<60 years old.Conclusions: Resting heart rate was associated with plasma NT-proBNP in the elderly, which indicated a relationship between resting heart rate and cardiac function damage. Keywords: resting heart rate, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, epidemiology, cardiac function, relationship

  15. Applications of self-assembling peptide nanofibre scaffold and mesenchymal stem cell graft in surgery-induced brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Ka-kit, Gilberto; 梁嘉傑

    2014-01-01

    Surgery-induced brain injury (SBI) refers to trauma caused by routine neurosurgical procedures that may result in post-operative complications and neurological deficits. Unlike accidental trauma, SBI is potentially subject to preemptive interventions at the time of surgery. SBI can cause bleeding, inflammation and the formation of tissue gaps. Conventional haemostatic techniques, though effective, are not necessarily conducive to healing. Inflammation and the absence of extracellular matrix i...

  16. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels with IKVAV peptides for tissue repair and axonal regeneration in an injured rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y T [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tian, W M [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yu, X [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Cui, F Z [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Hou, S P [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Xu, Q Y [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100054 (China); Lee, In-Seop [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    A biocompatible hydrogel of hyaluronic acid with the neurite-promoting peptide sequence of IKVAV was synthesized. The characterization of the hydrogel shows an open porous structure and a large surface area available for cell interaction. Its ability to promote tissue repair and axonal regeneration in the lesioned rat cerebrum is also evaluated. After implantation, the polymer hydrogel repaired the tissue defect and formed a permissive interface with the host tissue. Axonal growth occurred within the microstructure of the network. Within 6 weeks the polymer implant was invaded by host-derived tissue, glial cells, blood vessels and axons. Such a hydrogel matrix showed the properties of neuron conduction. It has the potential to repair tissue defects in the central nervous system by promoting the formation of a tissue matrix and axonal growth by replacing the lost tissue.

  17. Research Progress in Relationship between Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Heart Failure%脑钠肽与心力衰竭关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝霞

    2013-01-01

    脑钠肽作为利钠肽中的一种,又称为B型利钠肽或脑利钠肽.脑钠肽有十分重要的病理生理学作用,不但可以快速排除患者体内水分和钠离子,而且还具备舒张血管、稳定内分泌的功效,尤其是对心功能障碍有较好的疗效.脑钠肽的大量释放可以最大程度地激活体内利钠肽的生成,促进人体系统恢复平衡.该文就脑钠肽与心力衰竭关系的研究进展予以综述,并探讨脑钠肽对治疗心力衰竭的临床价值.%Brain natriuretic eptide( BNP) as a part of the natriuretic eptide,also known as-B-type natriuretic peptide.BNP has vital pathophysiological function.It not only can remove water and sodium in the body, but also has the function of relaxing blood vessels and stabling endocrine, especially for cardiac function obstacle.BNP release can activate the generation of natriuretic peptides in the body to the greatest extent, promote human body system restore balance.Here is to make a review of thel relationship between BNP and heart failure, and discuss BNP clinical value in heart failure treatment.

  18. Evidence of an immune system to brain communication axis that affects central opioid functions: muramyl peptides attenuate opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, P M; Drath, D B; Dafny, N

    1987-09-11

    Muramyl peptides are metabolic breakdown products of bacterial cell walls formed in vivo by the reticuloendothelial system. These agents have a variety of immune modulatory and neuropharmacologic effects. It has previously been demonstrated that a variety of immune modifying agents can induce alterations in certain behaviors elicited by opiates. In the present study we investigate possible reciprocal interactions between muramyl dipeptides (MDPs) and central opioid systems using three different experimental models: (1) naloxone-precipitated withdrawal behavior in morphine-dependent rats; (2) the tail immersion assay for determination of morphine-induced antinociception and (3) rectal temperature measurement of the pyrogenic activity of MDP. It is shown that two derivatives of MDP attenuate the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal and morphine-induced antinociception. In addition, it is demonstrated that the pyrogenic activity of a stearoyl derivative of MDP is altered by chronic morphine treatment. These findings suggest both novel neuropharmacologic properties of muramyl dipeptides, as well as demonstrate that yet another immune modifier interacts with centrally mediated opioid phenomena. PMID:2824218

  19. Distribution of LPXRFa, a gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone ortholog peptide, and LPXRFa receptor in the brain and pituitary of the tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Biran, Jakob; Golan, Matan; Anthonysamy, Rachel Shalini; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-10-01

    In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), respectively, regulate reproduction in positive and negative manners. GnIH belongs to the LPXRFa family of peptides previously identified in mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. Studying the detailed distribution of LPXRFa as well as its receptor (LPXRFa-R) in the brain and pituitary is important for understanding their multiple action sites and potential functions. However, the distribution of LPXRFa and LPXRFa-R has not been studied in teleost species, partially because of the lack of fish-specific antibodies. Therefore, in the present study, we generated specific antibodies against LPXRFa and its receptor from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and examined their distributions in the brain and pituitary by immunohistochemistry. Tilapia LPXRFa-immunoreactive neurons lie in the posterior ventricular nucleus of the caudal preoptic area, whereas LPXRFa-R-immunoreactive cells are distributed widely. Double immunofluorescence showed that neither LPXRFa-immunoreactive fibers nor LPXRFa-R is closely associated or coexpressed with GnRH1, GnRH3, or kisspeptin (Kiss2) neurons. In the pituitary, LPXRFa fibers are closely associated with gonadotropic endocrine cells [expressing luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)], with adrenocorticomelanotropic cells [corticotropin (ACTH) and α-melanotropin (α-MSH)], and with somatolactin endocrine cells. In contrast, LPXRFa-R are expressed only in LH, ACTH, and α-MSH cells. These results suggest that LPXRFa and LPXRFa-R signaling acts directly on the pituitary cells independent from GnRH or kisspeptin and could play multiple roles in reproductive and nonreproductive functions in teleosts. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2753-2775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26917324

  20. Inhibition of β-bungarotoxin binding to brain membranes by mast cell degranulating peptide, toxin I, and ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presynaptically active snake venom neurotoxin β-bungarotoxin (β-Butx) is known to affect neurotransmitter release by binding to a subtype of voltage-activated K+ channels. Here the authors show that mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide from bee venom inhibits the binding of 125I-labeled β-Butx to chick and rat brain membranes with apparent K/sub i/ values of 180 nM and 1100 nM, respectively. The mechanisms of inhibition of MCD peptide is noncompetitive, as is inhibition of 125I-β-Butx binding by the protease inhibitor homologue from mamba venom, toxin I. β-Butx and its binding antagonists thus bind to different sites of the same membrane protein. Removal of Ca2+ by ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid inhibits the binding of 125I-β-Butx by lowering its affinity to brain membranes

  1. Different distribution of neuromedin S and its mRNA in the rat brain: NMS peptide is present not only in the hypothalamus as the mRNA, but also in the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miwa; Mori, Kenji; Ida, Takanori; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS) is a neuropeptide identified as another endogenous ligand for two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1, which have also been identified as types 1 and 2 receptors for neuromedin U structurally related to NMS. Although expression of NMS mRNA is found mainly in the brain, spleen, and testis, the distribution of its peptide has not yet been investigated. Using a newly prepared antiserum, we developed a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for rat NMS. NMS peptide was clearly detected in the rat brain at a concentration of 68.3 ± 3.4 fmol/g wet weight, but it was hardly detected in the spleen and testis. A high content of NMS peptide was found in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons-medulla oblongata, whereas abundant expression of NMS mRNA was detected only in the hypothalamus. These differing distributions of the mRNA and peptide suggest that nerve fibers originating from hypothalamic NMS neurons project into the midbrain, pons, or medulla oblongata. In addition, abundant expression of type 2 receptor mRNA was detected not only in the hypothalamus, but also in the midbrain and pons-medulla oblongata. These results suggest novel, unknown physiological roles of NMS within the brainstem.

  2. Different distribution of neuromedin S (NMS and its mRNA in the rat brain: NMS peptide is present not only in the hypothalamus as the mRNA, but also in the brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa eMori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuromedin S (NMS is a neuropeptide identified as another endogenous ligand for two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1, which have also been identified as types 1 and 2 receptors for neuromedin U structurally related to NMS. Although expression of NMS mRNA is found mainly in the brain, spleen, and testis, the distribution of its peptide has not yet been investigated. Using a newly prepared antiserum, we developed a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for rat NMS. NMS peptide was clearly detected in the rat brain at a concentration of 68.3 ± 3.4 fmol/g wet weight, but it was hardly detected in the spleen and testis. A high content of NMS peptide was found in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons–medulla oblongata, whereas abundant expression of NMS mRNA was detected only in the hypothalamus. These differing distributions of the mRNA and peptide suggest that nerve fibers originating from hypothalamic NMS neurons project into the midbrain, pons, or medulla oblongata. In addition, abundant expression of type 2 receptor mRNA was detected not only in the hypothalamus, but also in the midbrain and pons–medulla oblongata. These results suggest novel, unknown physiological roles of NMS within the brainstem.

  3. The Impact of Trimetazidine Treatment on Left Ventricular Functions and Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients with Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Demirelli, Selami; KARAKELLEOĞLU, Şule; Gündoğdu, Fuat; TAŞ, Muhammed Hakan; KAYA, Ahmet; Duman, Hakan; Değirmenci, Hüsnü; Hamur, Hikmet; Şimşek, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment with oral trimetazidine (TMZ) applied before and after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) on short-term left ventricular functions and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) undergoing PCI. Subjects and Methods The study included 45 patients who were undergoing PCI with the diagnosis of NSTEMI. The patients were rando...

  4. Incremental value of a combination of cardiac troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein for prediction of mortality in end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallén, Jonas; Madsen, Lene Helleskov; Ladefoged, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To determine the relative prognostic merits of C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for prediction of all-cause death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving haemodialysis. Material......-pro-BNP lost independent prognostic power. Addition of cTnT and CRP to established risk factors significantly improved the global fit of the model (p

  5. NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR EVALUATION OF SEVERITY AND PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE BASED ON N-TERMINAL PRO-BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PLASMA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Galjavich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-proBNP in evaluation of severity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis.Material and methods. 77 patients (60 men and 17 women; 59,4±10,7 y.o. with CHF of ischemic genesis were included in the study. All patients had sinus rhythm and history of Q wave myocardial infarction. Standard examination was performed to all patients. Besides N-proBNP plasma level and patients yearly survival were evaluated.Results. N-proBNP plasma level had direct correlation with clinical indices (exercise tolerance, blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic heart sizes. N-proBNP plasma level had relationship with prognosis of CHF patients. Baseline N-proBNP level was more than 2 times higher in died patients in comparison with survived patients. The yearly survival rate of CHF patients was 51,3% if N-proBNP level had been more than 400 fmol/ml (>15% of normal value. The clinico-laboratory index (based on N-proBNP plasma level of severity and prognosis in CHF patients was developed.Conclusion. The clinico-laboratory index based on N-proBNP plasma level is easy to use and can improve medical practice.

  6. NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR EVALUATION OF SEVERITY AND PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE BASED ON N-TERMINAL PRO-BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PLASMA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Galjavich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-proBNP in evaluation of severity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis.Material and methods. 77 patients (60 men and 17 women; 59,4±10,7 y.o. with CHF of ischemic genesis were included in the study. All patients had sinus rhythm and history of Q wave myocardial infarction. Standard examination was performed to all patients. Besides N-proBNP plasma level and patients yearly survival were evaluated.Results. N-proBNP plasma level had direct correlation with clinical indices (exercise tolerance, blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic heart sizes. N-proBNP plasma level had relationship with prognosis of CHF patients. Baseline N-proBNP level was more than 2 times higher in died patients in comparison with survived patients. The yearly survival rate of CHF patients was 51,3% if N-proBNP level had been more than 400 fmol/ml (>15% of normal value. The clinico-laboratory index (based on N-proBNP plasma level of severity and prognosis in CHF patients was developed.Conclusion. The clinico-laboratory index based on N-proBNP plasma level is easy to use and can improve medical practice.

  7. Evaluation of proinflammatory cytokines and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with rheumatic heart diseases and coronary heart disease complicated by chronic heart insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Shoslak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study proinflammatory cytokines and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in patients with rheumatic heart diseases (RHD and coronary heart disease (CHD complicated by chronic heart insufficiency (CHI. Material and methods. 54 pts with CHI (among them 16 with RHD and 38 with CHD with signs of CHI ofll-IV functional class according to NYHA that correspond to 11A-III stage according to N.D. Strazesko-V.H. \\frsilenko classification and 30 healthy persons of control group were examined. Besides clinical evaluation common laboratory and instrumental methods were used. Thorough echocardiography analysis, quantitative evaluation of serum TNF a, IL6 and BNP by immuno-enzyme assay was performed. Results. Direct correlation between cytokines and BNP levels and pts with CHI clinical state severity was revealed. These indiccs significantly differed in coronary and non-coronary (RHD CHI. TNF a concentration was minimal in mitral stenosis. Maximal concentrations of IL6 and TNF a were revealed in tricuspid regurgitation. TNF a concentration elevated with increase of heart linear dimensions. BNP showed similar but less prominent tendencies. Conclusion. Significant difference of studied indices in coronary and non-coronary (RHD CHI was shown. Despite of similarity of CHI clinical features levels of inflammation biological indices in RHD was significantly lower than in CHD that requires further discussion.

  8. Low-molecular-mass peptides from the venom of the Amazonian viper Bothrops atrox protect against brain mitochondrial swelling in rat: potential for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, N M; Ferreira, D A S; Carvalho Rodrigues, M A; Cintra, A C O; Santos, N A G; Sampaio, S V; Santos, A C

    2010-08-01

    The neurodegenerative diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Common mechanisms of toxicity involving mitochondrial damage have been suggested; however, a definitive treatment has not yet been found. Therefore, there has been great interest in the development of mitochondria-targeted protective compounds for the treatment of neuropathies. Animal toxins represent a promising source of new molecules with neuroprotective activity and potential to originate new drugs. We present here the effects of a low-molecular-mass peptides fraction (Ba-V) from Bothrops atrox snake venom, on rat brain mitochondrial function. Ba-V did not induce the mitochondrial swelling and moreover, was as effective as cyclosporin A (CsA) to inhibit the calcium/phosphate-induced swelling, which indicates its potential to prevent the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The membrane electrochemical potential, the oxygen consumption during states-3 and -4 respirations as well as the respiratory control ratio (RCR) were not affected by Ba-V. Additionally, Ba-V did not induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, Ba-V did not protect against the generation of ROS induced by t-BOH, which suggests a protection mechanism other than ROS scavenging. Given the important role of the mitochondrial damage and, more specifically, of MPT, in the development of neuropathies, Ba-V might be useful in the future strategies for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:20338188

  9. Effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure with normal ejection fraction%重组人脑钠肽对射血分数正常心力衰竭患者脑钠肽前体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁明军; 王玮; 苏楠; 罗福全; 许玲玲

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the changes of plasma levels of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) in patients with chronic heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) after recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) treatment.Methods Fitty-ong patients with HFNEF (New York heart association functional classification Ⅲ/Ⅳ) were divided into control group (n=30,treated with routine therapy) and treatment group (n=21,treated with rhBNP for 4-7 days in addition to routine therapy).After 1 week,changes of proBNP concentrations and clinical symptoms were observed and compared between the two groups.Results After 4-7 days' treatment,effective rate was 95.2% in treatment group and 93.3% in control group,but the difference between them was insignificant (P>0.05).Plasma concentrations of proBNP in both control group and treatment group decreased after treatment (P<0.05) ; while plasma concentrations of proBNP in treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group [1297.5 pg/mL vs.2037.8 pg/mL,P<0.05].Conclusions Plasma concentrations of proBNP in patients with HFNEF decrease after treatment with rhBNP and symptoms of the patients can be improved.%目的 探讨经重组人脑钠肽(recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide,rhBNP)治疗后,射血分数正常心力衰竭(heart failure with normal ejection fraction,HFNEF)患者的血浆脑钠肽前体(pro-brain natriuretic peptide,proBNP)浓度及临床症状的变化.方法 入选51例HFNEF患者(纽约心脏协会心功能Ⅲ、Ⅳ级),其中21例在常规治疗的基础上加用rhBNP治疗4~7 d,治疗前、后分别检测血浆proBNP浓度,并与仅用常规治疗的对照组(30例)比较.分析治疗前、后血浆proBNP浓度及临床症状变化.结果 治疗组与对照组总有效率分别为95.2%和93.3%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组治疗后血浆proBNP浓度与治疗前比较都有下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且治疗组治疗后血浆pro

  10. Satiety signalling histaminergic system and brain-gut peptides in regulation of food intake in rats with portocaval anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, W A; Stasiak, A; Lewinski, A; Maksymowicz, M; Jochem, J

    2008-08-01

    Brain histamine plays a regulatory role in feeding behaviour, acting as an inhibitory modulator. Portocaval anastomosis (PCA) is associated with cerebral aminergic systems alterations, including high histamine accumulation and release from neurons. Despite that, the rats with PCA eat significantly more, their body mass being lower than sham-operated animals. To disclose underlying regulatory mechanisms, food intake was measured before and after treatment with antagonists of histamine H(1) and H(2), orexin type 1 (OX(1)) and cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptors in adult male Lewis rats 6 months following the end-to-side PCA or sham operation. Hypothalamic concentrations of orexin A and histamine as well as serum concentrations of leptin, insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were analysed. PCA rats with body mass lower by 30%, have consumed more feed and water 150% and 200%, respectively. The modifying effects of pyrilamine, ranitidine, SB 334867 and rimonabant were less pronounced in PCA compared with sham-operated rats. Hypothalamic orexin A and histamine concentrations were higher in PCA rats than in the control group with intact portocaval system. In PCA rats, serum concentrations of CCK were higher, leptin concentrations lower, while there were no differences between the groups in insulin levels. In conclusion, the adaptive mechanisms efficiently render PCA rats less sensitive to peripheral and central anorexigenic signals. Orexin A appears to be involved in the counteracting mechanisms preventing further body mass loss in PCA rats.

  11. 脑钠肽及氮端脑钠肽对新生儿败血症心肌损伤的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in myocardial injury of neonatal septicemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董湘玉; 惠迎春; 沈阳

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neonatal sepsis can cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, especially including myocardial injury and heart failure. In this study, the authors observed the changes and the levels of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in myocardial injury of neonatal sepsis at the different stages to search for the early diagnostic index of myocardial injury and heart failure in patients with neonatal septicemia. Method The levels of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were determined in 96 newborns with neonatal septicemia according to the diagnosis and treatment program of neonatal septicemia in 2003. The 96 cases were divided into myocardial injury group and non-myocardial injury group. Every newborn was tested for the levels of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the second day, fifth day and tenth day of septicemia and in the different gestational age infants. Meanwhile, the results were eompaired to ereatine kinase isoenzyme and troponin Ⅰ. Result The levels of plasma brain natriuretie peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were significantly different between myocardial injury group and non-myocardial injury group at the fifth day (P0.05). The values of plasma brain natriuretic peptide were respectively (215.5±69.6)pmol/L and( 119.3±37.4) pmol/L, While N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were (315.5±69.7) pmoL/L and ( 179.3±27.5) pmol/L in the two groups. The value of troponin Ⅰ was ( 1.57±0.39) μg/L in the myocardial injury group and that in the non-myocardial injury group was (0.55 ±0.2 ) μg/L. The values of creatine kinase isoenzyme were (33.3±10.1) u/L in the myocardial injury group, but that of non-myocardial injury group was ( 17.4±8. 5 ) u/L In the different gestational age infants, the values of plasma brain natduretic peptide and N

  12. Value of serum brain natriuretic peptide levels in the prognosis of brain damage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation%血清脑钠肽水平对心肺复苏后脑损伤的预测价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钦浩; 巩晓娜; 周娆娆; 刘朋; 张磊; 亓雪梅; 蒋芳杰

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of serum brain natriuretic peptide levels on brain damage at the early stage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS There were 34 patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation after successful CPR.After 2 months of successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) , patients with GCS score ≥ 12 were mild brain damage (I group, male 6 cases, female 8 cases); GCS score 9 ≤ GCS ≤ 11 were moderate brain damage (II group, male 4 cases, female 6 cases); GCS score 3 ≤ GCS ≤ 8 were severe brain damage (Ⅲ group, male 5 cases, and female 5 cases) . Control group was consisted of 15 healthy volunteers. All of the patients' venous blood were respectively collected and BNP was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay at 2, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after restoring of independent circulation. RESULTS Compared the age, sex, start time of cardiac arrest to recovery in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) group and control group, differences were not statistically significant (P> 0.05); at 2, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h, serum BNP levels in I , II and Ⅲ groups were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05); And in the trail group, I group was significantly lower than the II group (P< 0.05); II group and was significantly lower than the HI group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION Serum BNP levels can reflect cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) early after HPC ischemia brain damage, and for the assessment of the recovery cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has an important value.%目的 探讨血清脑钠肽(BNP)对心肺复苏后脑损伤的预测的价值.方法 34例经心肺复苏后自主循环恢复的患者,以心肺复苏成功后2个月格拉斯哥昏迷评分(GCS)≥12为轻度脑损伤(Ⅰ组),男6例,女8例;9≤GCS≤11为中度脑损伤(Ⅱ组),男4例,女6例;3≤GCS≤8为重度脑损伤(Ⅲ组),男5例,女5例.另外选取14例健康者(女8例,男6例)作为对照组.所有患者均在自主循环恢复后2、8

  13. N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Is Associated with a Future Diagnosis of Cancer in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tuñón

    Full Text Available Several papers have reported elevated plasma levels of natriuretic peptides in patients with a previous diagnosis of cancer. We have explored whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP plasma levels predict a future diagnosis of cancer in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD.We studied 699 patients with CAD free of cancer. At baseline, NT-proBNP, galectin-3, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I plasma levels were assessed. The primary outcome was new cancer diagnosis. The secondary outcome was cancer diagnosis, heart failure requiring hospitalization, or death.After 2.15±0.98 years of follow-up, 24 patients developed cancer. They were older (68.5 [61.5, 75.8] vs 60.0 [52.0, 72.0] years; p=0.011, had higher NT-proBNP (302.0 [134.8, 919.8] vs 165.5 [87.4, 407.5] pg/ml; p=0.040 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (3.27 [1.33, 5.94] vs 1.92 [0.83, 4.00] mg/L; p=0.030, and lower triglyceride (92.5 [70.5, 132.8] vs 112.0 [82.0, 157.0] mg/dl; p=0.044 plasma levels than those without cancer. NT-proBNP (Hazard Ratio [HR]=1.030; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.008-1.053; p=0.007 and triglyceride levels (HR=0.987; 95%CI=0.975-0.998; p=0.024 were independent predictors of a new cancer diagnosis (multivariate Cox regression analysis. When patients in whom the suspicion of cancer appeared in the first one-hundred days after blood extraction were excluded, NT-proBNP was the only predictor of cancer (HR=1.061; 95%CI=1.034-1.088; p<0.001. NT-proBNP was an independent predictor of cancer, heart failure, or death (HR=1.038; 95%CI=1.023-1.052; p<0.001 along with age, and use of insulin and acenocumarol.NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of malignancies in patients with CAD. New studies in large populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Preparation, Component Analysis and Anti-Ageing Effect of Brain Active Peptide of Sucking Pig Brain%乳猪脑活性多肽的制备,成分分 析及实验动物抗脑老化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文治; 苏心; 秦进喜; 张国福; 孔繁明; 吴剑涓; 只达石

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the preparation,component and anti-ageing effect of the brain active peptide of sucking pig brain. Methods: Through homogenate, degrease, heat, hydrolyze, centrifugation and ultrafiltration of sucking pig brain tissue, the brain active peptide was prepared. It was measured by physical and biochemical methods and its anti-ageing effect was co- mared compared with the expensive Cerebrolysin made in Austria. Results: The analysis of high pressure lipid chromato- graphy(HPLC) showed that both peak areas of the brain active peptide and Cerebrolysin were identical and some amino-acid contents of the brain active peptide were more than those of Cerebrolysin. Conclusion: The product of brain active peptide ac- cords with the PRC Hygiene Ministry standard about brain protein hydrolytic reagent injection 《WS-198(X-171)-97(1)》.%目的:制备乳猪脑活性多肽替代价格昂贵的进口脑活素,用于临床治疗。方法:乳猪脑组织经匀浆、脱 脂、加热、消化、离心、超滤,制备脑活性多肽,并与奥地利产脑活素对比进行理化检测,并用SAM-P/8早老鼠进行 脑活性多肽抗脑老化的研究。结果:高效液相色谱分析,乳猪脑活性多肽峰型分布与奥地利产脑活素基本一致。 氨基酸成分分析,一些氨基酸含量高于奥地利产脑活素。结论:制备的脑活性多肽注射液符合中华人民共和国卫 生部《WS198(X-171)-97(1)》有关脑蛋白水解物注射液部标准(试行)。

  15. 人脑利钠肽在临床工作中的应用%Application of Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Clinical Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍经纬

    2013-01-01

    人脑利钠肽(BNP)是近年来新发现的主要由人体心室肌细胞分泌的一种多肽类激素,广泛表达于人体的脑、心、肺、脊髓等重要的组织器官,当这些组织或器官发生病变时,如发生心力衰竭、心肌梗死、脑梗死、肾衰竭等,人BNP的分泌就会增加,对疾病的确诊提供了很大的帮助.随着新的辅助检查手段的开展,人BNP在临床上的应用也日渐增多,现将这些临床应用分类、整理,以利于医师今后的临床工作.随着科技的进步,人们对疾病认识程度的加深以及检测手段的更新,相信人BNP的应用前景将会更加广阔.%Human brain natriuretic peptide( BNP),is a newly discovered polypeptide hormone secreted by human ventricular muscle cells in recent years, widely expressed in the human brain, heart, lung, spinal cord and other important organs.When lesions occur in the tissue or organ,such as: heart failure,myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, renal failure and so on, human BNP secretion increases, which provides a great help for the disease diagnosis.With the development of new auxiliary examination meanst, human BNP clinical application is growing, and here is to classify and sort these clinical applications, to help doctors in clinical work.With the progress of science and technology, people's understanding of the disease is deepening,and detecting means is updating as well,it's believed that the human BNP application prospect will be broader.

  16. Association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide with the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Naqiong; Ma Fenglian; Guo Yuanlin; Li Xiaoling; Liu Jun; Qing Ping; Xu Ruixia

    2014-01-01

    Backround N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a reliable predictor in acute coronary artery disease (CAD).Little is known about patients with stable CAD,especially Chinese patients with CAD.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of NT-proBNP levels with the severity of CAD in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction.Methods A total of 658 consecutive patients were divided into two groups based on angiograms:CAD group (n=484) and angiographic normal control group (n=174).The severity of CAD was evaluated by modified Gensini score,and its relationship with NT-proBNP was analyzed.Results The prevalence of risk factors such as age,male gender,diabetes mellitus (DM),dyslipidemia,smoking,and family history of CAD in the CAD group were higher than that in the control group.In multivariate regression model analysis,age,gender,and DM were determinants of the presence of CAD.NT-pro BNP was found to be an independent predictor for CAD (OR:1.66 (95% Cl:1.06-2.61),P <0.05).In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis,an NT-proBNP value of 641.15 pmol/L was identified as a cut-off value in the diagnosis or exclusion of CAD (area under curve (AUC)=0.56,95% Cl:0.51-0.61).Furthermore,NT-proBNP was positively correlated with Gensini score (r=0.14,P <0.001) in patients with CAD.Conelusion NT-proBNP was an independent predictor for Chinese patients with CAD,suggesting that the NT-proBNP level might be associated with the presence and the severity of CAD.

  17. The Effect of Non-invasive Ventilation on Plasma Concentration of Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Endothelin-1 and Angiotensin II in Senior Patients with Severe Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the curative effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on senior patients with severe heart failure and the influence on plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II), forty two senior patients with severe heart failure were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The control group (21 cases) was treated by routine therapy include cardiotonic, diuretics, vasodilatation drugs and supplying oxygen via nasal catheter. The treatment group (21 cases) was treated by NIV combined with routine therapy 3-5 days. The clinical signs, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood-gas analysis (PaO2, SaO2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were observed before and after treatment for 3-5 days. The concentrations of plasma BNP, ET-1 and Ang II were also measured at the beginning and 3-5 days later. The results showed that the clinical symptoms and signs significantly improved; the SaO2, PaO2 and LVEF significantly elevated(P<0.05); RR significantly reduced (P<0.05) in NIV group compared with those in routine therapy group. The plasma levels of BNP, ET-1 and Ang II were significantly decreased after treatment in both groups, especially in the treatment group (P<0.01). The plasma levels of BNP, ET-1 and Ang II had a significantly negative correlation with LVEF (P<0.01). The non-invasive ventilation could significantly improve heart function on senior patients with severe heart failure and has an on neuro-endocrine mechanisms. (authors)

  18. Changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with chronic heart failure: an intervention study of long-term treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological mechanisms involved in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated local changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with ISO-induced CHF, and evaluated the effects of treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 different groups. Fifty rats received subcutaneous ISO injections to induce CHF and the control group (n=10) received equal volumes of saline. After establishing the rat model, 9 CHF rats received no further treatment, rats in the low-dose group (n=8) received 22.5 μg/kg rhBNP and those in the high-dose group (n=8) received 45 μg/kg rhBNP daily for 1 month. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined. Plasma and myocardial aldosterone concentrations were determined using radioimmunoassay. Myocardial aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cardiac function was significantly lower in the CHF group than in the control group (P<0.01), whereas CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Low and high doses of rhBNP significantly improved hemodynamics (P<0.01) and cardiac function (P<0.05) and reduced CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the rhBNP dose groups (P>0.05). Elevated cardiac aldosterone and upregulation of aldosterone synthase expression were detected in rats with ISO-induced CHF. Administration of rhBNP improved hemodynamics and ventricular remodeling and reduced myocardial fibrosis, possibly by downregulating CYP11B2 transcription and reducing myocardial aldosterone synthesis

  19. Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide attenuates LPS-induced cellular injury in human fetal lung fibroblasts via inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi; Zhao, Xiu; Liu, Martin; Jin, Hongxu; Cui, Yan; Hou, Mingxiao; Gao, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory responses are vital in lung injury diseases, particularly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) has been shown to exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects in vivo in our previous studies. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti‑inflammatory effects of rhBNP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1). The results showed that LPS induced a significant increase in the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and the secretion of interleukin (IL)‑1β. Activation of p38, extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c‑Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB in HFL‑1 cells was also observed following treatment with LPS. Treatment with rhBNP (0.1 µM) reduced the production of IL‑1β at the protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, rhBNP decreased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK induced by LPS. However, the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly inhibited LPS‑induced IL‑1β production. These results indicate that the inhibition of IL‑1β by may dependent upon the JNK signaling pathway. The LPS‑induced NF‑κB activation was also suppressed by rhBNP, and IL‑1β production was inhibited by the NF‑κB inhibitor. Furthermore, NF‑κB activation was attenuated by the JNK inhibitor, indicating that NF‑κB activation was dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. The present study suggests that rhBNP exhibits an anti‑inflammatory effect on LPS‑induced HFL‑1 cell injury via the inhibition of MAPK and NF‑κB signaling pathways and may exhibit therapeutic potential for acute lung injury and ARDS. PMID:27314600

  20. Association of Atrial Fibrillation and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Patients After Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junquan Li; Qinghua Zhang; Weichen Tian; Hongyu Liu

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the possible role of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods This study group included 70 consecutive patients scheduled for elective off-pump CABG.The patients with ejection fraction (EF) less than 0.30,history of AF,use of class Ⅰor Ⅲ antiarrhythmic drug,implanted pacemaker,postoperative myocardial infarction or chest reopening for pericardial tamponade were excluded.Preoperative and postoperative serum NT-proBNP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique.Results Postoperative AF occurred in 15 patients (21.4%);these patients had significantly higher median NT-proBNP levels when compared with those without AF after the operation (P<0.01).Using multivariate logistic regression analyses,an increase in NT-proBNP level after CABG was found to be independently associated with AF (OR=3.78,95% IC=1.81~4.89,P<0.01 ).Increased age,diabetes mellitus,preoperative use of β-blocker,proximal right coronary artery involvement,and longer operation time were also associated with AF.Conclusions These results indicated that AF was associated with higher NT-proBNP concentrations after off pump CABG;the increase in NT-proBNP after CABG may play an important role in the occurrence of AF after the operation.The further studies are needed to define the reason that lead to higher NT-proBNP concentrations among the patients who present AF after off pump CABG.

  1. Usefulness of Combining Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Findings and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Early Detection of Cardiac Amyloidosis in Subjects With Transthyretin Gene Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Gianluca; Minutoli, Fabio; Piaggi, Paolo; Casale, Matteo; Mazzeo, Anna; Zito, Concetta; Oreto, Giuseppe; Baldari, Sergio; Vita, Giuseppe; Pingitore, Alessandro; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Carerj, Scipione

    2015-10-01

    Early noninvasive identification of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is of growing clinical importance. Low voltage on electrocardiogram (ECG), increased left ventricular (LV) septal thickness (ST), and global longitudinal strain (GLS) on echocardiography, and elevated brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) are used as surrogates of CA. Thirty-five patients (50 ± 14 years, 22 women) underwent electrocardiography to analyze low-voltage QRS (ECG was considered abnormal if at least one ECG alteration was present. Echocardiography was used to analyze LVST, E/E', and GLS. All participants also had BNP blood testing. (99m)Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2 propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy assumed as a reference method showed CA in 18 patients (51%, CA group) and no accumulation in 17 patients (no CA group). In descending order of accuracy, LVST >14 mm, E/E' >6.6, GLS 129 pg/ml, and an overall abnormal ECG showed good capability to distinguish patients with and without CA. All these parameters were predictors of CA in univariate analysis, whereas low-voltage QRS showed the worst performance. LVST >14 mm (p = 0.002) was the best independent predictor of CA, achieving sensitivity of 78% and accuracy of 89%. However, an LVST >14 mm (p = 0.005) plus an abnormal ECG (p = 0.03) show together a greater sensitivity, equal to 89%, in identifying CA. An integrated evaluation of ECG and echocardiography is a sensitive and low-cost technical approach to identify CA in patients with transthyretin gene mutation. PMID:26253999

  2. Concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin T in plasma of 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Bauer, Kurt; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Redei, Karoly; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Clinical chemical reference values for older persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger persons. We had a unique opportunity to obtain blood samples from volunteers who were 75 years old and living in two districts of Vienna, Austria. Consequently, we utilized stored plasma samples to obtain reference intervals for 120 apparently healthy 75-year-old participants for pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP), as well as for troponin T. The N-terminal (NT)-proBNP protein assay is currently used as a diagnostic and prognostic aid in patients with heart failure and as a prognostic marker in acute coronary syndromes. Specifically, the concentration of NT-proBNP in serum or plasma aids in the prognosis of ventricular systolic dysfunction and helps to differentiate between cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The median NT-proBNP plasma value for men and women in our cohort was calculated as 98 pg/ml, comparing favorably with reported values, in that a NT-proBNP concentration less than 100 pg/ml excludes acutely decompensated heart failure. Our calculated 97.5 percentile was slightly higher (359 pg/ml) than the 97.5 percentile in a group of 50-65-year-old persons (198 and 222 pg/ml for men and women, respectively) revealing the influence of age on this parameter. Because of its high tissue-specificity, cardiac troponin T is a cardiospecific, highly sensitive marker for myocardial damage. However, the troponin T concentrations in the plasma specimens from this cohort were all below the detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml, preventing any further data handling. PMID:15576307

  3. Predictive value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in combination with the sequential organ failure assessment score in sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Min-jie; ZHU Du-ming; TU Guo-wei; HE Yi-zhou; XUE Zhang-gang; LUO Zhe; WU Zhao-guang

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognostic power of n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in sepsis is disputable and unstable among different models.We attempt to evaluate the prognostic potential of NT-proBNP in combination with the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score in sepsis.Methods In this retrospective study,100 consecutive sepsis patients were enrolled.Clinical data such as admission SOFA,the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation score,shock prevalence,use of lung protective ventilation,vasopressors,and glucocorticoids were recorded.Additionally,serum creatinine (Scr1 and Scr3) and NT-proBNP (NT-proBNP1 and NT-proBNP3) were assayed and evaluated at admission and on day 3 respectively.Results △NT-proBNP (NT-proBNP3 minus NT-proBNP1) (P <0.001,Hazard ratio (HR)=1.245,95% confidence interval (C/),1.137-1.362) and admission SOFA (P <0.001,HR=1.197,95% C/,1.106-1.295) were independently related to in-hospital mortality.Their combination was a more robust predictor for in-hospital mortality than either of them individually.Patients with high △NT-proBNP and SOFA had the poorest prognosis.Conclusions In our study,both △NT-proBNP and SOFA were independent predictors of septic patients' prognosis.Moreover,the combination of △NT-proBNP and admission SOFA provided a novel strategy that contained information regarding both the response to treatment and sepsis severity.

  4. The Association between N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in the Umbilical Vein and Amniotic Fluid Volume Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ozler, Sibel; Oztas, Efser; Ersoy, Ebru; Ergin, Merve; Erkaya, Salim; Uygur, Dilek

    2016-04-01

    Purpose The amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is known as a predictor for the wellness of a fetus. We aimed to investigate whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels reflect AFV abnormalities in otherwise normal fetuses. Methods We recruited 24 women with isolated oligohydramnios, 23 women with isolated polyhydramnios, and 36 women with normal AFV at a tertiary referral center. NT-proBNP levels in umbilical venous samples and the individual characteristics of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were used for multi-group comparisons of continuous variables. When a significant difference was detected, the Scheffe test was performed as a post-hoc analysis. Proportions were compared using the Chi-square (χ2) test. Results Maternal age, body mass indices, weight gained in pregnancy and NT-proBNP levels were similar among the three groups. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes significantly correlated with NT-proBNP levels in all newborns (Spearman's r = 0.23; p = 0.03 and Spearman's r = 0.24; p = 0.02, respectively). The umbilical venous NT-proBNP levels did not differ between newborns who needed mechanical ventilation and those who didn't (p = 0.595). Conclusions NT-proBNP is a biomolecule that may provide insights into the pathogenesis of fetal circulatory problems and subsequent renal failure. Further investigations are warranted. PMID:27096950

  5. Different distribution of neuromedin S and its mRNA in the rat brain: NMS peptide is present not only in the hypothalamus as the mRNA, but also in the brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa eMori; Kenji eMori; Takanori eIda; Takahiro eSato; Masayasu eKojima; Mikiya eMiyazato; Kenji eKangawa

    2012-01-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS) is a neuropeptide identified as another endogenous ligand for two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1, which have also been identified as types 1 and 2 receptors for neuromedin U structurally related to NMS. Although expression of NMS mRNA is found mainly in the brain, spleen, and testis, the distribution of its peptide has not yet been investigated. Using a newly prepared antiserum, we developed a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for rat NMS. NMS...

  6. Effect of catheter radiofrequency ablation on C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide and echocardiograph in patients with persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiong; Yuan Yiqiang; Qiu Chunguang; Zhao Yujie; Mao Youlin; Wang Ruimin; Wang Qian

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) has developed rapidly,and is a commonly performed ablation in many major hospitals throughout the world,due to its satisfactory results.The aim of this study was to detect the effect of RFCA on C-reactive protein (CRP),brain natriuretic peptide (BNP),and echocardiograph in patients with persistent and permanent AF.Methods A total of 120 patients (71 males,mean age (50.8±12.0) years) with persistent and permanent AF undergoing RFCA under guidance of the Carto merge technique were studied.Left atrial diameter (LAD),right atrial diameter (RAD),left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF),CRP,and BNP were observed 3,6 and 12 months after RFCA and compared with results before RFCA.The recurrence of atrial arrhythmias was observed 3 and 12 months after the procedure.Results Compared with that before RFCA,LAD and RAD decreased and LVEF increased significantly after RFCA.Meanwhile,the levels of CRP and BNP were reduced significantly at 3,6,and 12 months after RFCA (P<0.05).In the non-recurrent patients,LVEF was increased significantly compared with the recurrent patients at 3,6,and 12 months after RFCA (P<0.05).CRP and BNP levels were decreased significantly in the non-recurrent patients compared with the recurrent patients at 3,6,and 12 months after RFCA (P<0.05).After one or two applications of RFCA,during a follow-up of 12 months,12 patients (10.0%) had AF,10 patients (8.3%) had atrial flutter,and 5 patients had atrial tachycardia (4.2%).Conclusions Conversion of AF to sinus rhythm by RFCA,has been shown to reduce LA size and improve LVEF.It can also significantly decrease the levels of CRP and BNP in patients with persistent and permanent AF and reduce the risk of inflammation and developing heart failure.

  7. Effect of low glomerular filtration rate on evaluating the cardiac function by N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of NT-proBNP in hypertension patients by observing the effect of decreased GFR on N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration in patients with different cardiac function. Methods: Eighty-nine hypertension patients were divided into two groups based on the results of UCG. Forty-three patients had normal left ventricular function and 46 patients had dysfunction. GFR, NT-proBNP and other biochemical markers of cardiac and renal function were measured. The factors affecting the NT-proBNP concentration under normal left ventricular function were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of NT-proBNP affected by normal or decreased GFR (> 80 ml/min or ≤80 ml/min) under different left ventricular functions were further assessed. The two-sample t test, rank sum test and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze their statistical difference and relationship. Results: In patients with normal left ventricular function, GFR (β=-0.361, P<0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD, β=0.385, P<0.05) were significant factors to NT-proBNP level. They were both meaningful compared with LVEF (β=0.189, P>0.05) and septal thickness (β=0.003, P>0.05). The median concentration of NT-proBNP was 13.18 and 24.14 μg/L in patients with normal left ventricular function and dysfunction, respectively (Z=-3.19, P<0.01). While in patients with decreased GFR, 6 cases with normal left ventricular function and 19 cases with dysfunction had a median concentration of NT-proBNP of 38.45 and 44.20 μg/L, respectively (Z=-0.45, P>0.05). In patients with normal GFR, 37 cases with normal left ventricular function and 27 cases with dysfunction had a median concentration of NT-proBNP of 12.51 and 20.31 μg/L, which was lower than that of patients with decreased GFR (Z=-2.76, both P<0.05). The NT-proBNP concentration had no significant difference between patients of normal left ventricular function with decreased GFR and

  8. Does Serum N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Predict the Severity of Angiographic Lesions in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Rajabiani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, a polypeptide secreted by ventricular myocytes in response to stretch, was suggested as a predictor of adverse prognosis of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We examined the association between NT-proBNP level and angiographic findings in ACS patients to determine whether it could be used as a predictor of the severity of angiographic lesions.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 126 patients with chest pain or other ischemic heart symptoms suggestive  of ACS.  Venous  blood  samples  were  drawn  to  measure  serum  levels  of  NT-proBNP. Afterward,  coronary angiography was performed and the patients were categorized into four groups according to the number of coronary vessels with significant stenosis. The severity of angiographic lesions was assessed with the Gensini scoring system.Results: According to angiographic diagnosis, 11 (8.7% patients had normal coronary arteries (no coronary artery disease [CAD] and 115 (91.3% had CAD, of whom 108 (85.7% had obstructive CAD and 7 (5.6% had minimal CAD. The serum NT-proBNP concentration was higher in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (p value <0.01. A progressive significant increase in the NT-proBNP concentration according to the Gensini score and the number of involved vessels was reported after adjustment for sex and age. Furthermore, the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC analysis indicated that an NT-proBNP cut-point of 400 pg/ml could predict obstructive CAD with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 78%.Conclusion: Higher levels of NT-proBNP among our ACS patients were associated with the severity of angiographic lesions in terms of both the Gensini score and the number of involved vessels. This finding underscores the potential role of NT-proBNP in predicting the severity of CAD before performing angiography.

  9. Relationship of plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide and lung cancer%血清脑钠肽浓度与肺癌的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洪丽; 刘书盈

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide(BNP),especially the influence of lung cancer on BNP.Methods Retrospective study was carried out with 439 patients hospitalized from January,2002 to January,2013.The variables were analyzed by univariate analysis,followed by multivariate Logistic regression model to assess the dependent risk factors of elevated serum BNP(≥ 125 pg/mL).Results The multivariate analysis showed that female,≥58 years old,smoking,C-reactive protein >4 mg/L and lung cancer were independent risk factors for the elevated serum BNP.The risk of elevated serum BNP(≥ 125 pg/mL) in lung cancer patients was 7 times higher (OR =7.0,95 % CI =2.9 ~ 17.0,P < 0.01) than that in the patients without lung cancer.Conclusion Patients with lung cancer had a higher risk of elevated serum BNP.Therefore,lung cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis with elevated serum BNP.%目的 探讨血清脑钠肽(BNP)升高的危险因素,特别是肺癌对BNP的影响.方法 回顾性分析济南军区总医院呼吸内科2002年1月至2013年1月收住院的439例患者的临床资料.先行各变量的单因素分析,再行多因素Logistic回归分析,寻找血清BNP浓度升高(≥125 pg/mL)的独立危险因素.结果 多因素Logistic回归分析显示,女性、年龄≥58岁、吸烟、C-反应蛋白>4 mg/L是血清BNP浓度升高的独立危险因素.其中,肺癌患者血清BNP浓度≥125 pg/mL的风险是无肺癌患者的7倍(OR =7.0,95% CI=2.9~ 17.0,P<0.01).结论 肺癌患者血清BNP浓度升高的危险性明显高于无肺癌患者.因此,当患者血清BNP浓度升高时应将肺癌纳入鉴别诊断中.

  10. Relationship between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, obesity and the risk of heart failure in middle-aged German adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Wirth

    Full Text Available Both high concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP and obesity are related to higher heart failure risk. However, inverse relationships between NT-proBNP and obesity have been reported. Therefore, it was investigated whether the association between NT-proBNP and the risk of heart failure differed according to obesity status.A case-cohort study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam, comprising a random sub-cohort (non-cases = 1,150, cases = 13, mean age: 50.5±9.0 years and heart failure cases outside the sub-cohort (n = 197. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between NT-proBNP and heart failure risk during a mean follow-up time of 8 years. Stratified analyses were performed according to obesity status as defined by body mass index (<30 kg/m2 versus ≥30 kg/m2.Overall, NT-proBNP was associated with higher risk of heart failure after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.56 (1.49-4.41 for the top versus bottom tertile of NT-proBNP, ptrend:<0.01. In stratified analyses, the shape of association was linear in non-obese and U-shaped in obese participants: HRs (95%CI from the first to the third tertile of NT-proBNP for non-obese: reference, 1.72 (0.85-3.49, 2.72 (1.42-5.22, and for obese: 3.29 (1.04-10.40, reference, 3.74 (1.52-9.21.Although high circulating concentrations of NT-proBNP were positively associated with incident heart failure in the entire sample, the association differed according to obesity status. In obese, an increased risk of heart failure was also observed in those with low NT-proBNP concentrations. If confirmed, this observation warrants further investigation to understand underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  11. Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes cross the blood-brain barrier and significantly decrease PrP on neuronal cells and PrP in infected cell cultures.

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    Bruce Pulford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent advances toward an effective therapy for prion diseases employ RNA interference to suppress PrP(C expression and subsequent prion neuropathology, exploiting the phenomenon that disease severity and progression correlate with host PrP(C expression levels. However, delivery of lentivirus encoding PrP shRNA has demonstrated only modest efficacy in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new siRNA delivery system incorporating a small peptide that binds siRNA and acetylcholine receptors (AchRs, acting as a molecular messenger for delivery to neurons, and cationic liposomes that protect siRNA-peptide complexes from serum degradation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes (LSPCs delivered PrP siRNA specifically to AchR-expressing cells, suppressed PrP(C expression and eliminated PrP(RES formation in vitro. LSPCs injected intravenously into mice resisted serum degradation and delivered PrP siRNA throughout the brain to AchR and PrP(C-expressing neurons. These data promote LSPCs as effective vehicles for delivery of PrP and other siRNAs specifically to neurons to treat prion and other neuropathological diseases.

  12. REMODELING OF THE RIGHT HEART AND THE LEVEL OF BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION: A COMPARATIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Klimenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the right heart remodeling and level of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Material and methods. Patients (n=79 after pulmonary embolism were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients (n=43 with an increase in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP >30 mm Hg: 30 (37.9%  patients had pulmonary hypertension (PH degree I, and 13 (16.5%  — PH degree II–III. Group of comparison con- sisted of 36 patients expired pulmonary embolism and having SPAP <30 mm Hg. The control group consisted of 20 people. 6-minute walk test (6-MWT and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Besides myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography and assessment of Nt-proBNP level were performed in 38 and 71 patients, respectively. Results. Dyspnea occurred in 90.7% of patients with various degrees of PH and 80.5% of patients with normal SPAP. Patients without PH and with PH I complained of palpitations, weakness, fatigue, and dizziness with similar frequency. Patients with PH I were comparable with ones of comparison group in 6-MWT distance that dramatically decreased in patients with PH II–III. Enlargement of the right atrium (RA and/or right ventricular (RV was observed in 76.7% of patients with PH I and 100% of patients with PH II–III. RV diastolic function abnormalities (E/A<1 and E/A>2 were detected in 19.4%, 16.7% and 61.5% of patients of comparison group, PH I and PH II–III patients, respectively. According to myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography Em/Am<1 was observed in 8 (72.7% patients of the comparison group and in 13 (76.4% patients with PH. Nt-proB-NP level was 17.3 [2.3, 33.9] fmol/ml in PH I patients and 142.1 [62.1, 171.8] fmol/ml in PH II–III patients. Nt-proBNP level was 6.5 [3.1, 18.3] fmol/mL in patients of the comparison group, and it was higher than this in patients of the control group (3.5 [1.8, 7

  13. How does serum brain natriuretic peptide level change under nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaad, Sameh; Marrakchi, Rim; Grati, Malek; Gargouri, Rahma; Kammoun, Samy; Jammoussi, Kamel; Yangui, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which can be improved by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. However, the pathophysiological links between the two kinds of disease and the mechanism of the CPAP effect remain incompletely understood. We aimed to inquire into the myocardial involvement in this relationship. We suggested that serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is sensitive enough to detect myocardial stress caused by OSAHS. Design and methods Sixty-four subjects without cardiovascular disease (21 controls, 24 normotensive OSAHS patients, and 19 hypertensive OSAHS patients) were analyzed for serum BNP at baseline and serially over 6 months. CPAP was applied to 23 patients with severe OSAHS. Results At baseline, the serum BNP levels were significantly higher (p=0.0001) in the OSAHS group (22.3±14.79 pg/ml) than in the control group (9.2±6.75 pg/ml). Increased serum BNP levels were significantly associated with mean transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) (psleep time spent with SpO2 lower than 90% (p=0.002). All patients with elevated BNP levels (≥37 pg/ml) had moderate or severe OSAHS (11/43 OSAHS patients). The more severe the OSAHS, the higher the BNP levels were. However, only the difference between severe and mild OSAHS was statistically significant (p=0.029). Hypertensive OSAHS patients had the highest baseline BNP levels (27.7±16.74 pg/ml). They were significantly higher (p=0.001) than in normotensive OSAHS patients (18±11.72 pg/ml) (p=0.039) and the controls (9.2±6.75 pg/ml). As compared with baseline, treatment with CPAP significantly decreased BNP levels in both hypertensive and normotensive OSAHS patients (respectively, from 36±16.10 to 29.7±14.29 pg/ml, p<0.001, and from 20±10.09 to 16±8.98 pg/ml, p<0.001). In contrast, the BNP levels slightly increased in the controls (from 9.2±6.75 to 9.5±7.02 pg/ml, p=0.029), but there was no

  14. The NCAM-derived P2 peptide facilitates recovery of cognitive and motor function and ameliorates neuropathology following traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Korshunova, Irina;

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a crucial role during development and regeneration of the nervous system, mediating neuronal differentiation, survival and plasticity. Moreover, NCAM regulates learning and memory. A peptide termed P2, corresponding to a 12-amino-acid sequence...

  15. Application of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Evaluation of Cardiac Function in Forensic Medicine%脑钠尿肽作为心功能评价指标在法医学上的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卫民; 毛瑞明; 杜中波; 米丽; 朱宝利

    2011-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) is a major marker for evaluating cardiac function and has been widely used in clinical practice. Recent researches show that BNP is also useful for identification of sudden cardiac death in forensic pathology. This article reviews the molecular structure and biological characteristics of the BNP and its application as a functional indicate in forensic medicine. It shows that the expression of BNP in cardiac muscles, together with the expression of BNP in blood and pericardium liquid can be used to evaluate the pathological physiology changes and dysfunction degrees of the heart during the cardiac sudden death.%脑钠尿肽(brain natriuretic peptide,BNP)是临床上广泛应用反映心功能的主要指标,近来研究表明,脑钠尿肽对法医病理学心功能障碍导致的心源性猝死的认定也有帮助.本文就脑钠尿肽的结构、分子生物学特征以及在临床和实验研究中的进展加以综述,探讨其作为功能学指标在法医学方面的应用价值,认为运用免疫组织化学等技术检测心肌组织中BNP的表达水平,结合心血、心包液中BNP的浓度,可更全面地研究心源性猝死过程中的病理生理改变及心功能障碍的程度.

  16. Protein interaction analysis of senataxin and the ALS4 L389S mutant yields insights into senataxin post-translational modification and uncovers mutant-specific binding with a brain cytoplasmic RNA-encoded peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L Bennett

    Full Text Available Senataxin is a large 303 kDa protein linked to neuron survival, as recessive mutations cause Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2, and dominant mutations cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4. Senataxin contains an amino-terminal protein-interaction domain and a carboxy-terminal DNA/RNA helicase domain. In this study, we focused upon the common ALS4 mutation, L389S, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens of a human brain expression library with control senataxin or L389S senataxin as bait. Interacting clones identified from the two screens were collated, and redundant hits and false positives subtracted to yield a set of 13 protein interactors. Among these hits, we discovered a highly specific and reproducible interaction of L389S senataxin with a peptide encoded by the antisense sequence of a brain-specific non-coding RNA, known as BCYRN1. We further found that L389S senataxin interacts with other proteins containing regions of conserved homology with the BCYRN1 reverse complement-encoded peptide, suggesting that such aberrant protein interactions may contribute to L389S ALS4 disease pathogenesis. As the yeast two-hybrid screen also demonstrated senataxin self-association, we confirmed senataxin dimerization via its amino-terminal binding domain and determined that the L389S mutation does not abrogate senataxin self-association. Finally, based upon detection of interactions between senataxin and ubiquitin-SUMO pathway modification enzymes, we examined senataxin for the presence of ubiquitin and SUMO monomers, and observed this post-translational modification. Our senataxin protein interaction study reveals a number of features of senataxin biology that shed light on senataxin normal function and likely on senataxin molecular pathology in ALS4.

  17. An optimized method for measuring hypocretin-1 peptide in the mouse brain reveals differential circadian regulation of hypocretin-1 levels rostral and caudal to the hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justinussen, Jessica; Holm, A; Kornum, B R

    2015-01-01

    as does prepro-hypocretin mRNA in the hypothalamus. However, in midbrain and brainstem tissue caudal to the hypothalamus, there was less circadian fluctuation and a tendency for higher levels during the light phase. These data suggest that regulation of the hypocretin system differs between brain areas....

  18. Anxiolytic activity of the neuroprotective peptide HLDF-6 and its effects on brain neurotransmitter systems in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, Yurii A; Kovalev, Georgii I; Kost, Natalya V; Voevodina, Margarita E; Sokolov, Oleg Y; Dadayan, Alexander K; Kondrakhin, Evgenii A; Vasileva, Ekaterina V; Bogachuk, Anna P; Azev, Vyacheslav N; Lipkin, Valery M; Myasoedov, Nikolai F

    2016-09-01

    This study is focused on a new amide derivative of the peptide HLDF-6 (Thr-Gly-Glu-Asn-His-Arg). This hexapeptide is a fragment of Human Leukaemia Differentiation Factor (HLDF). It displays a broad range of nootropic and neuroprotective activities. We showed, for the first time, that the peptide HLDF-6-amide has high anxiolytic activity. We used 'open field' and 'elevated plus maze' tests to demonstrate anxiolytic effects of HLDF-6-amide (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg intranasally), which were comparable to those of the reference drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg). Five daily equipotent doses of HLDF-6-amide selectively mitigated anxiety and increased the density of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus of stress-susceptible BALB/c mice, and had no effect on stress-resilient C57BL/6 mice. The subchronic administration of HLDF-6-amide showed no effect on the density of GABAA and nicotine receptors but was accompanied by a nonselective decrease of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor density in frontal cortex of both strains. The mechanism of the specific anxiolytic activity of HLDF-6-amide may include its action on the NMDA-glutamatergic receptor system of the hippocampus and on serotonin 5-HT2A-receptors in the prefrontal cortex. The psychotropic activity of HLDF-6-amide is promising for its introduction to medical practice as a highly effective anxiolytic medicine for mental and neurological diseases. PMID:27464742

  19. The Role of “Mixed” Orexigenic and Anorexigenic Signals and Autoantibodies Reacting with Appetite-Regulating Neuropeptides and Peptides of the Adipose Tissue-Gut-Brain Axis: Relevance to Food Intake and Nutritional Status in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvido Smitka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders such as anorexia (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN are characterized by abnormal eating behavior. The essential aspect of AN is that the individual refuses to maintain a minimal normal body weight. The main features of BN are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain. The gut-brain-adipose tissue (AT peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies play an important role in the regulation of eating behavior and growth hormone release. The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve an interplay between gut, brain, and AT. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and serotoninergic systems are required for communication between brain satiety centre, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include neuropeptides ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY, peptide YY (PYY, cholecystokinin (CCK, leptin, putative anorexigen obestatin, monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine (NE, serotonin, and neutralizing autoantibodies. This extensive and detailed report reviews data that demonstrate that hunger-satiety signals play an important role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. Neuroendocrine dysregulations of the AT-gut-brain axis peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies may result in AN and BN. The circulating autoantibodies can be purified and used as pharmacological tools in AN and BN. Further research is required to investigate the orexigenic/anorexigenic synthetic analogs and monoclonal antibodies for potential treatment of eating disorders in clinical practice.

  20. Peptides and the new endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.

  1. Molecular assembly and biosynthesis of acetylcholinesterase in brain and muscle: The roles of t-peptide, FHB domain and N-linked glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky P. Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is responsible for the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system. The functional localization and oligomerization of AChE T variant are depending primarily on the association of their anchoring partners, either collagen tail (ColQ or proline rich membrane anchor (PRiMA. Complexes with ColQ represent the asymmetric forms (A12 in muscle, while complexes with PRiMA represent tetrameric globular forms (G4 mainly found in brain and muscle. Apart from these traditional molecular forms, a ColQ-linked asymmetric form and a PRiMA-linked globular form of hybrid cholinesterases (ChEs, having both AChE and BChE catalytic subunits, were revealed in chicken brain and muscle. The similarity of various molecular forms of AChE and BChE raises interesting question regarding to their possible relationship in enzyme assembly and localization. The focus of this review is to provide current findings about the biosynthesis of different forms of ChEs together with their anchoring proteins.

  2. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  3. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod.

  4. The Effect of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Lipids Concentration in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiyenko Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of long-chain w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3 PUFA on the levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP and on some lipid profile parameters in patients with T2DM and CAN. Material and Methods: 36 patients with T2DM and verified CAN were divided into 2 groups. The first group received traditional hypoglycemic therapy (n = 15, control for three months; patients in group 2 (n = 21 received in addition 1 g/day of the long-chain w-3 PUFA for three months. Results: Prescription of the w-3 PUFA to the patients with T2DM and СAN was accompanied by a statistically significant decrease of NT-proBNP level and led to significantly positive changes in the high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood. Conclusions: Obtained results suggest that the efficacy of w-3 PUFA is the result of a direct effect of the pharmacological agent on the investigated indexes

  5. Antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Juan; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-01-11

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are a diverse class of naturally occurring molecules that are produced as a first line of defense by all multicellular organisms. These proteins can have broad activity to directly kill bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses and even cancer cells. Insects and plants primarily deploy AMPs as an antibiotic to protect against potential pathogenic microbes, but microbes also produce AMPs to defend their environmental niche. In higher eukaryotic organisms, AMPs can also be referred to as 'host defense peptides', emphasizing their additional immunomodulatory activities. These activities are diverse, specific to the type of AMP, and include a variety of cytokine and growth factor-like effects that are relevant to normal immune homeostasis. In some instances, the inappropriate expression of AMPs can also induce autoimmune diseases, thus further highlighting the importance of understanding these molecules and their complex activities. This Primer will provide an update of our current understanding of AMPs. PMID:26766224

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Adem Bahar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics.

  7. Association between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in a community based population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ruyi; Ye Ping; Luo Leiming; Sheng Li; Wu Hongmei; Xiao Wenkai; Zheng Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are excellent biomarkers for detecting heart failure and subclinical myocardial injury.However,it remains unclear whether subclinical myocardial injury is associated with NT-proBNP elevation in a community based population.Methods In a community based study,levels of hs-cTnT and of NT-proBNP were determined in 1 497 participants older than 45 years.The lower detection limit of the hs-cTnT assay used in the present study was 0.003 ng/ml.The association of hs-cTnT levels and NT-proBNP levels was analyzed.Results When the subjects with undetectable (<0.003 ng/ml),intermediate (0.003-0.014 ng/ml),and elevated (≥0.014 ng/ml) levels of hs-cTnT were compared (r=0.175,P <0.001),a strong association between the hs-cTnT levels and NT-proBNP levels was observed (β=-0.206,P <0.001; β=-0.118,P <0.001,respectively).In multivariable analyses,older age and hs-cTnT were positively and independently associated with NT-proBNP levels (β=0.341,P <0.001; β=0.143,P <0.001,respectively),and male gender and the levels of eGFR were inversely and independently associated with NT-proBNP levels.When the subjects with normal or elevated NT-proBNP were analyzed separately,the hs-cTnT level was not an independent predictor for the NT-proBNP level in the normal NT-proBNP group,whereas the hs-cTnT level was the only independent predictor for NT-proBNP level in the elevated NT-proBNP group (β=0.399,P <0.01).Conclusions In this community based population,NT-proBNP elevation was common.In addition to female gender and older age,subclinical myocardial injury indicated by the hs-cTnT level was another important factor in NT-proBNP elevation.

  8. Relationship Between Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP Level and Severity of Pulmonary Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemiyeh Masoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congestive heart failure (CHF is a common disease and its prevalence is increasingin industrialized countries. NT-proBNP measurement is an established diagnostic test fordiagnosis of CHF in patients who present to emergency room with acute dyspnea. The primaryobject of this study was to determine the relationship between levels of brain natriuretic peptideprecursor and severity of lung function impairment in patients with chronic CHF.Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study that performed in Tuberculosis andLung Disease Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences on 95 patients withchronic heart failure, and relation between NT-proBNP levels and pulmonary functionparameters were examined.Results: Sixty-four patients were male and 31 were female. The average age of male and femaleswas 62.90 ± 11.54 and 61.61 ± 11.98 years, respectively. A significant inverse linear correlationwas found between NT-proBNP and FEV1 (P<0.001, r = -0.367, FVC (P<0.001, r = -0.444,TLC (P=0.022, r = -0.238, maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF (P=0.047, r = -0.207 andleft ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (P<0.001, r = -0.461. A significant positive linearcorrelation was found between NT-proBNP and FEV1/FVC (P =0.013, r = 0.257, RV/TLC (P =0.003, r=0.303 and 5 Hz Raw (r = 0.231, P = 0.024.Conclusion: This study showed that, both restrictive and obstructive ventilator impairments canoccur in chronic CHF and as NT-proBNP increases appropriate to hemodynamic deterioration,pulmonary dysfunction increases.

  9. 脑利钠肽在川崎病患儿中的变化及其临床意义%Clinical value of the change of brain natriuretic peptide in children with Kawasaki disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德胜; 李薇; 陈就好; 刘晓萍; 麦润婵; 黄柏枝; 郭锦均; 万燕婷; 万学凌

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of the change of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD).Methods: 36 cases of patients with KD were enrolled in KD group, the level of plasma BNP was detected in acute phase and recovery phase.36 cases of patients with acute upper respiratory infection were enrolled in control group, the level of plasma BNP was detected.White blood cell count, C-reactive protein and serum cardiac troponin I were measured in two groups.Echocardiogram was used to detected the pathological change of coronary artery in KD group.Results: In acute phase of KD group, the level of plasma BNP was (468.4±200.6) ng/L, which was higher than that of recovery phase and control group [(91.5±12.7) ng/L, (72.3±13.5) ng/L], the difference was statistically significant (all P<0.01).10 cases of coronary artery change were found through echocardiogram detected in acute phase of KD group,compared with patients without coronary artery change in KD group, the BNP level had no significant difference (P>0.05).In acute phase of KD group, BNP level correlated positively with C-reactive protein, white blood cells counts and serum cTnI (r=0.605, 0.532, 0.591, all P<0.05).Conclusion: In KD group, the level of plasma BNP increases in acute phase and decreases significantly in recovery phase, which is conductive to diagnose of acute phase of KD.The correlation between the plasma BNP level in acute phases of KD with the damage of heart and coronary artery still need further study.%目的:探讨脑利钠肽(brain natriuretia peptide,BNP)在川崎病(Kawasaki disease,KD)患儿中的变化及其临床意义.方法:选取36例确诊为KD的患儿为KD组,测定其急性期及恢复期的血浆BNP水平,选取36例上呼吸道感染的患儿为对照组,测定其血浆BNP水平.分别测定两组患儿外周血白细胞数(white blood cell,WBC)、C反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)及血浆心肌肌钙蛋白(cardiac troponin I,cTnI)水

  10. A Clinical Study of Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide on Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure%重组人脑利钠肽治疗急性心力衰竭的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀金; 卢竟前

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinic efficacy and safety of used recombinant human brain natriuretie peptide (rh-BNP)on patients with acute decompensated heart failure.Methods:48 patients who suffered from acute decompensated heart failure patients were divided into rh-BNP group(n=22)and control group(n=26).The rh-BNP group received rh-BNP made by China and traditional heart failure treatment; the control group was treated with traditional heart failure treatment.The changes of the clinical efficacy, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)and brain natriuretie peptide test parameters were observed. Results:After 7 days treatment, clinical efficacy improvements were more significant in rh-BNP group compared control group (81.7% vs 61.6,P<0.05).LVEF were improved in rh-BNP group compared with control group((51±6)%vs(46±5)%,P<0.01).and BNP level were decreased obviously in rh-BNP group than control group((498±209)pg/ml vs(642±318)pg/ml,P<0.01),and there had positive relation in BNP decrease and LVEF increased(P<0.05).Conclusion:The use of rh-BNP is efficient and safe for acute decompensated heart failure patient.And BNP test can provide a dog marker for diagnosis and prognostic.%目的:探讨在监测血清脑钠肽水平下,短期使用注射用重组人脑利钠肽治疗急性心力衰竭或慢性心力衰竭急性发作的临床效果。方法:48例急性心力衰竭患者根据是否使用注射用重组人脑利钠肽分为常规组和注射用重组人脑利钠肽组,对比两组治疗的临床效果和超声心动图情况,并监测BNP水平。结果:治疗7 d后,注射用重组人脑利钠肽组临床有效率明显好于常规组(81.7%vs61.6%,P<0.05),左室射血分数明显高于常规组(51±6)%vs(46±5)%,(P<0.01),且血清脑钠肽水平明显降低(498±209)pg/mL vs(642±318)pg/mL,(P<0.01),血清脑钠肽下降水平和左室射血分数提高水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),有

  11. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  12. Progress in use of brain natriuretic peptide in congenital heart disease and perioperative pediatric cardiac operation%脑钠肽在小儿先天性心脏病及围手术期的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖书娜

    2013-01-01

    脑钠肽是一种神经内分泌激素,它与先天性心脏病患儿心功能不全和肺动脉高压程度呈正相关,已成为评估先天性心脏病患儿心功能不全程度、反映先天性心脏病患儿术前术后心功能状态的简便、准确的生物化学指标.它对先天性心脏病心脏手术预后有预测作用,对围手术期治疗有指导意义,能减少术后并发症和病死率,成为迅速、即时床边检查的辅助手段.该文就其与先天性心脏病的相关性和在先天性心脏病围手术期应用进展作一概述.%Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a neuroendocrine hormone,which has a positive correlation with degree of cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension of children with congenital heart disease (CHD).BNP has been shown to be a simple,accurate and useful biochemical indicator in assessing cardiac dysfunction degree and reflecting perioperative cardiac function state of children with CHD.It has prognostic value in congenital heart surgery and can guide the perioperative treatment and reduce the postoperative complications and mortality.It is a quick,instant bedside inspection supplementary means.This article describes the relevance between BNP and CHD and the application progress of BNP in pefioperative of CHD.

  13. Clinical Application of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Acute Coronary Syndromes%血浆脑钠肽在急性冠状动脉综合征中的临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈作强

    2011-01-01

    脑钠肽是主要由心室肌细胞分泌的一种心脏神经激素,是心功能不全时机体的代偿机制之一.近年来研究表明,心肌缺血同样能够引起脑钠肽水平的升高,血浆脑钠肽与急性冠脉综合征的关系已经引起人们的关注.脑钠肽与NYHA分级和左室射血分数间存在较好的相关性,可作为预测急性冠脉综合征心室重塑、冠脉病变程度的有效指标,是急性冠脉综合征的独立预后因子,并作为高敏C反应蛋白、肌酸激酶同工酶和肌钙蛋白I等生化指标的有益补充,为急性冠脉综合征提供有价值的辅助诊断.%Brain natriuretic peptide ( BNP) is a cardiac neural hormone, secreted by cardiac myocytes, and one of the body's compensatory mechanisms during heart failure. Recent studies have shown that myocardial ischemia can cause elevated BNP levels. BNP may be an effective indicator to predict ventricular remodeling and the extent of coronary artery disease in acute coronary syndrome patients. It is also an independent predictors of acute coronary syndromes, and a useful addition to biochemical index such as hs-CRP, CK-MB and cTnl. This article reviews BNP's role in ACS and how it may be used as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Loss of inhibition by brain natriuretic peptide over P2X3 receptors contributes to enhanced spike firing of trigeminal ganglion neurons in a mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenkova, Anna; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) play an important role in pain pathologies, including migraine. In trigeminal neurons, P2X3Rs are constitutively downregulated by endogenous brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). In a mouse knock-in (KI) model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 with upregulated calcium CaV2.1 channel function, trigeminal neurons exhibit hyperexcitability with gain-of-function of P2X3Rs and their deficient BNP-mediated inhibition. We studied whether the absent BNP-induced control over P2X3Rs activity in KI cultures may be functionally expressed in altered firing activity of KI trigeminal neurons. Patch-clamp experiments investigated the excitability of wild-type and KI trigeminal neurons induced by either current or agonists for P2X3Rs or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors. Consistent with the constitutive inhibition of P2X3Rs by BNP, sustained pharmacological block of BNP receptors selectively enhanced P2X3R-mediated excitability of wild-type neurons without affecting firing evoked by the other protocols. This effect included increased number of action potentials, lower spike threshold and shift of the firing pattern distribution toward higher spiking activity. Thus, inactivation of BNP signaling transformed the wild-type excitability phenotype into the one typical for KI. BNP receptor block did not influence excitability of KI neurons in accordance with the lack of BNP-induced P2X3R modulation. Our study suggests that, in wild-type trigeminal neurons, negative control over P2X3Rs by the BNP pathway is translated into tonic suppression of P2X3Rs-mediated excitability. Lack of this inhibition in KI cultures results in a hyperexcitability phenotype and might contribute to facilitated trigeminal pain transduction relevant for migraine. PMID:27346147

  15. Variation in kisspeptin and RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) expression and terminal connections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the brain: a novel medium for seasonal breeding in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy T; Coolen, Lique M; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Sari, Ika P; Jaafarzadehshirazi, Mohammad R; Maltby, Matthew; Bateman, Katherine; Goodman, Robert L; Tilbrook, Alan J; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E; Clarke, Iain J; Lehman, Michael N

    2008-11-01

    Reproductive activity in sheep is seasonal, being activated by short-day photoperiods and inhibited by long days. During the nonbreeding season, GnRH secretion is reduced by both steroid-independent and steroid-dependent (increased response to estradiol negative feedback) effects of photoperiod. Kisspeptin (also known as metastin) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, or RFRP) are two RFamide neuropeptides that appear critical in the regulation of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. We hypothesized that expression of kisspeptin and/or RFRP underlies the seasonal change in GnRH secretion. We examined kisspeptin and RFRP (protein and mRNA) expression in the brains of ovariectomized (OVX) ewes treated with estradiol (OVX+E) during the nonbreeding and breeding seasons. In OVX+E ewes, greater expression of kisspeptin and Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus and lesser expression of RFRP (protein) in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus were concurrent with the breeding season. There was also a greater number of kisspeptin terminal contacts onto GnRH neurons and less RFRP-GnRH contacts during the breeding season (compared with the nonbreeding season) in OVX+E ewes. Comparison of OVX and OVX+E ewes in the breeding and nonbreeding season revealed a greater effect of steroid replacement on inhibition of kisspeptin protein and Kiss1 mRNA expression during the nonbreeding season. Overall, we propose that the two RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and RFRP, act in concert, with opposing effects, to regulate the activity of GnRH neurons across the seasons, leading to the annual change in fertility and the cyclical seasonal transition from nonbreeding to breeding season.

  16. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of progastrin-derived peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnaes

    2003-01-01

    The elimination of progastrin-derived peptides was a first-order process, also at supraphysiological concentrations in plasma. The site of extraction was dependent on the molecular size of the peptides and not on their bioactivity. Apart from the kidneys and brain, where the extraction was nonsel...

  17. 测定脑胶质瘤患者神经肽、神经降压素的含量变化及意义%Clinical Significance and Detection of Neuro- Peptide and Neurotensin in Patients with Brain Glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹秋霞; 司永兵; 齐法莲

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of neuropeptide Y(NPY)and neurotensin(NT)in pqtients with brain glioma.Method The concentration of NPY and NT in and around brain glioma tissue and plasma were detected with inequilibrant radio- imunology method.Result NPY concentrqtion in brain glioma tissue was obviously higher than that in tissue around the tumor(P<0.01).The Concentration of NT in brain glioma tissue was obviously higher that in tissue around the glioma(P<0.01).Conclusion Detection of NPY and NTin brain glion aprovides basis for further study on brain glioma and explainning dlinical and imaginal symiptom of brain glioma.

  18. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen;

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2...

  19. Hyponatremia and brain injury: absence of alterations of serum brain natriuretic peptide and vasopressin Hiponatremia e traumatismo cranioencefálico: ausência de alteração sanguínea do peptídeo natriurético cerebral e hormônio antidiurético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Nascimento Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study any possible relation between hyponatremia following brain injury and the presence of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS or the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, and if vasopressin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and aldosterone have a role in its mechanism. METHOD: Patients with brain injury admitted to the intensive care unit were included and had their BNP, aldosterone and vasopressin levels dosed on day 7. RESULTS: Twenty six adult patients were included in the study. Nine (34.6% had hyponatremia and presented with a negative water balance and higher values of urinary sodium, serum potassium and diuresis than patients with normonatremia. The serum levels of BNP, aldosterone, and vasopressin were normal and no relation was observed between plasma sodium and BNP, aldosterone or vasopressin. CONCLUSION: The most likely cause of hyponatremia was CSWS and there was no correlation between BNP, aldosterone and vasopressin with serum sodium level.OBJETIVO: Estudar a possível relação entre a hiponatremia seguindo traumatismo cranioencefálico e a presença da síndrome cerebral perdedora de sal (SCPS ou a síndrome da secreção inapropriada do hormônio antidiurético (SSIHAD, e se a vasopressina, peptídeo natriurético cerebral (BNP e aldosterona têm um papel nesse mecanismo. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva e foram dosados no sétimo dia seguindo o trauma, BNP, aldosterona e vasopressina. RESULTADOS: Vinte e seis pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Nove (34,6% tiveram hiponatremia e apresentaram um balanço hídrico mais negativo e altos valores de sódio urinário, potássio sérico e diurese quando comparados com o grupo que apresentou normonatremia. Os níveis séricos de BNP, aldosterona e vasopressina foram normais e não foi observada relação entre o sódio sérico e BNP, aldosterona e vasopressina

  20. Lmx1b controls peptide phenotypes in serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Yan; Tianwen Huang; Zhiqin Xie; Guannan Xia; Hui Qian; Xiaolin Zhao; Leping Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) neurons synthesize a variety of peptides.How these peptides are controlled during development remains unclear.It has been reported that the co-localization of peptides and 5-HT varies by species.In contrast to the situations in the rostral 5-HT neurons of human and rat brains,several peptides do not coexist with 5-HT in the rostral 5-HT neurons of mouse brain.In this study,we found that the peptide substance P and peptide genes,including those encoding peptides thyrotropin-releasing hormone,enkephalin,and calcitonin gene-related peptide,were expressed in the caudal 5-HT neurons of mouse brain; these findings are in line with observations in rat and monkey 5-HT neurons.We also revealed that these peptides/peptide genes partially overlapped with the transcription factor Lmx1b that specifies the 5-HT cell fate.Furthermore,we found that the peptide cholecystokinin was expressed in developing dopaminergic neurons and greatly overlapped with Lmx1b that specifies the dopaminergic cell fate.By examining the phenotype of Lmx1b deletion mice,we found that Lmx1b was required for the expression of above peptides expressed in 5-HT or dopaminergic neurons.Together,our results indicate that Lmx1b,a key transcription factor for the specification of 5-HT and dopaminergic transmitter phenotypes during embryogenesis,determines some peptide phenotypes in these neurons as well.

  1. 脑钠肽和心电图监测用于急性左心衰竭预后评价的价值%Prognostic evaluation of patients with acute left ventricular failure by Brain natriuretic peptide and ECG monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉莉

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析急性左心衰竭(ALHF)患者血浆脑钠肽水平及常规心电图特征,探讨其对ALHF预后评价的价值.方法 检测76例ALHF患者急性发作后6h、24 h、72 h血浆脑钠肽水平,同时行常规心电图监测;计算24h、72 h后患者血浆脑钠肽、QRS波时限以及QTc间期的下降率,依据ALHF患者出院时的病况将其分为预后理想组和预后不佳组,回顾性分析两组观察指标的变化特征.结果 预后理想组组内比较,相对于24 h的下降率、72 h后患者血浆脑钠肽、QRS波时限、QTc间期的下降更为明显(均P<0.05);两组各时间点血浆脑钠肽、QRS波时限、QTc间期的下降率组间差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 多时点的血浆脑钠肽水平、QRS波时限和QTc间期改变对ALHF患者预后具有一定的临床预测价值.%Objective To analyze the acute left heart failure(ALHF) plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels and ECG characteristics,and to explore its evaluation of the ALHF prognosis.Methods To detect the content of rain natriuretic peptid in the plasma of acute attack of 76 cases ALHF patients after 6h,24h,72h,while the line ECG monitoring.The decline rate of brain natriuretic peptide,the QRS wave duration and QTc interval were calculated.According to the condition of ALHF patients discharged into prognosis ideal group and the poor prognosis group,the variation of the index in the two group were retrospectivly analyzed.Results Compared with the decline rate in 24h,the decline rate of brain natriuretic peptide,the QRS wave duration and QTc interval decreased significantly.Two groups at each time point plasma brain natriuretic peptide,the QRS wave duration,the rate of decline of QTc between groups were statistically different (all P < 0.05).Conclusion The time points of plasma brain natriuretic peptide content,the QRS wave duration and the QTc interval change rate of ALHF the prognosis of patients with chnical predictive value.

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  5. Selection of trkB-binding peptides from a phage-displayed random peptide library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Zhongcai; (马仲才); WU; Xiaolan; (吴晓兰); CAO; Mingmei; (曹明媚); PAN; Wei; (潘; 卫); ZHU; Fenlu; (朱分禄); CHEN; Jingshan; (陈景山); QI; Zhongtian; (戚中田)

    2003-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) shows potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, but the therapeutic application of BDNF has been greatly limited because it is too large in molecular size to permeate blood-brain barrier. To develop low-molecular-weight BDNF-like peptides, we selected a phage-displayed random peptide library using trkB expressed on NIH 3T3 cells as target in the study. With the strategy of peptide library incubation with NIH 3T3 cells and competitive elution with 1 υg/mL of BDNF in the last round of selection, the specific phages able to bind to the natural conformation of trkB and antagonize BDNF binding to trkB were enriched effectively. Five trkB-binding peptides were obtained, in which a core sequence of CRA/TXφXXφXXC (X represents the random amino acids, φ represents T, L or I) was identified. The BDNF-like activity of these five peptides displayed on phages was not observed, though all of them antagonized the activity of BDNF in a dose-dependent manner. Similar results were obtained with the synthetic peptide of C1 clone, indicating that the 5 phage-derived peptides were trkB antagonists. These low-molecular-weight antagonists of trkB may be of potential application in the treatment of neuroblastoma and chronic pain. Meanwhile, the obtained core sequence also could be used as the base to construct the secondary phage-displayed peptide library for further development of small peptides mimicking BDNF activity.

  6. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  7. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  14. In-Source Fragmentation and the Sources of Partially Tryptic Peptides in Shotgun Proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Seo; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2013-02-01

    Partially tryptic peptides are often identified in shotgun proteomics using trypsin as the proteolytic enzyme; however, it has been controversial regarding the sources of such partially tryptic peptides. Herein we investigate the impact of in-source fragmentation on shotgun proteomics using three biological samples, including a standard protein mixture, a mouse brain tissue homogenate, and a mouse plasma sample. Since the in-source fragments of a peptide retain the same elution time with its parent fully tryptic peptide, the partially tryptic peptides from in-source fragmentation can be distinguished from the other partially tryptic peptides by plotting the observed retention times against the computationally predicted retention times. Most partially tryptic in-source fragmentation artifacts were misaligned from the linear distribution of fully tryptic peptides. The impact of in-source fragmentation on peptide identifications was clearly significant in a less complex sample such as a standard protein digest, where ~60 % of unique peptides were observed as partially tryptic peptides from in-source fragmentation. In mouse brain or mouse plasma samples, in-source fragmentation contributed to 1-3 % of all identified peptides. The other major source of partially tryptic peptides in complex biological samples is presumably proteolytic processing by endogenous proteases in the samples. By filtering out the in-source fragmentation artifacts from the identified partially tryptic or non-tryptic peptides, it is possible to directly survey in-vivo proteolytic processing in biological samples such as blood plasma.

  15. 脑钠肽与不稳定型心绞痛患者左心功能相关性研究%Relationship between brain natriuretic peptide and left heart function in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 夏勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the changing rule of plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP)in patients with unstable angina pectoris ( UAP) ,and explore the correlation between the changes of left heart function and BNP. Methods Fifty-seven cases who underwent coronary angiography( CAC) examination were included. Twelve cases with normal CAG examination results as control group, forty -five patients with UAP were divided into grade Ⅰ group(n = 16) ,grade Ⅱ group(n = 14) and grade Ⅲ group(n = 15) according to the class of Braunwald. The left atrial dianieter(LAD) ,left ventricular end-diastolic diameter( LVEDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness( LVP-WT) ,intervenlricular septal thickness( IVST) ,left ventricular ejection fraction( LVEF)and E/A were detected in all cases by Doppler echocardiography. The value of LVEDP was detected by record left ventricular pressure curves in all cases. The plasma concentration of BNP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results There were significant differences in the plasma levels of BNP and LVEDP in control group,grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ groups(P 0.05). The plasma level of BNP was obviously correlated with LVEDP in all cases ( r = 0.756, P < 0.01). Conclusion The level of BNP could reflect the severity of cardiac ischemia in patients with UAP.it could reflect the severities of congestive heart failure to some extend.%目的 研究血浆脑钠肽(BNP)水平与左心室舒张末期压力(LVEDP)在不稳定型心绞痛(UAP)患者中的变化规律,探讨左心功能的变化与BNP变化的相关性.方法 选择57例冠状动脉造影(CAG)检查者为研究对象,CAG检查正常者12例作为对照组,45例UAP患者按Braunwald分级分为Ⅰ级组(16例)、Ⅱ级组(14例)和Ⅲ级组(15例).所有患者采用多普勒超声心动图检测左心房前后径(LAD)、左心室舒张末期内径(LVEDd)、左心室后壁厚度(LVPWT)、室间隔厚度(IVST)、左心室射血分

  16. 脓毒症休克与血清氨基末端B型利钠肽前体研究进展%Research Progress on N-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide in Septic Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商娜; 张源波; 周荣斌; 杨萌

    2013-01-01

    脓毒症休克是极为常见的危重病,病情凶险,病死率高达30%~70%.近年来,随着早期目标指导性治疗(EGDT)在重症领域的应用,其病死率有了很大改善.目前,临床医师多数根据血流动力学指标的异常指导治疗和判断预后,但血流动力学指标的获得操作复杂、技术要求高,且具有一定的滞后性.国内外学者一直致力于探索敏感性和特异性较高的生物标记物--血清氨基末端B型利钠肽前体(NT-proBNP),希望为脓毒症休克的早期积极干预提供参考依据.研究发现,脓毒症休克时NT-proBNP升高有多种机制参与,NT-proBNP水平的变化可指导脓毒症休克患者的治疗和判断预后.NT-proBNP检测简便迅速,具有广阔的临床应用前景.本文主要结合国内外文献探讨脓毒症休克时NT-proBNP变化机制及其临床应用.%Septic shock is a very common disease and its mortality rate is as high as 30% to 70% . In recent years, with the widely application of early goal - directed therapy ( EGDT ) in intensive illnesses, the mortality rate was greatly reduced. Currently, hemodynamic parameters are used to guide treatment and predict prognosis, but these parameters can only be obtained by skilled operators and are time - consuming. Domestic and foreign scholars have been dedicated to exploring a biological marker with high sensitivity and specificity, that is, serum amino - terminal pro - brain natriuretic peptide ( NT - proBNP ), which can provide reference for the early intervention and prediction of patients with septic shock. Studies have found that multiple mechanisms can cause the changes of NT - proBNP level in septic shock, and these changes can guide treatment and prognosis of patients with septic shock. Besides, the detection of NT - proBNP is simple and fast, so its clinical application is promising. This paper is aimed to introduce mechanisms of NT - proBNP change in septic shock and its clinical application.

  17. 脓毒症患儿血浆N-末端B型利钠肽原变化研究%Clinal study of plasma NH2 terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶辉; 刘喜; 李雪梅; 程美华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the variation of NH2 terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) level in patients with sepsis and heart failure. Methods We recruited 36 patients whose diagnoses of sepsis were confirmed according to the diagnosis and treatment in 2002. The patients were divided into heart failure group (group A, n =25) and non-heart failure group (group B, n =11), meanwhile, twenty health subjects were enrolled as control group (group C, n =20). NT-proBNP in plasma in 36 patients and 20 health subjects were measured and then the differences among the three groups were analyzed. Meanwhile, the results of troponin KcTnI) were compared in three groups. Results There were significant differences in NT-proBNP levels among three groups, group A (4 876. 7± 1 934. 5) ng/L,group B (1 374. 7±256. 1) ng/L,and group C (456. 2 + 165.1) ng/L( P <0. 01). cTnI in three groups showed significance difference,group A (2. 56±0. 78)ng/L,group B (0. 09±0. 02) ng/L,group C (0. 03±0. 01) ng/L ( P < 0. 01) ,group A was the highest. Conclusion NT-proBNP in plasma is significantly higher in patients with sepsis,and the levels are different in sepsis combined with heart failure and without heart failure. The concentration of NT-proBNP can be used as the laboratory marker for detection of early heart failure and myorcardial functional lesion.%目的 观察N-末端B型利钠肽原(NT-proBNP)在脓毒症合并心力衰竭患儿中的水平变化.方法 本院儿科重症监护病房(PICU)住院的脓毒症患者36例,其中合并心力衰竭25例(A组),非心力衰竭11例(B组),健康对照者20例(C组).测定入院后24小时内血浆NT-proBNP及肌钙蛋白I(cTnI)的水平,比较各组之间血浆NT-proBNP及cTnI差异.结果 A、B、C组NT-proBNP水平入院后分别为(4 876.7±1 934.5) ng/L,(1 374.7±256.1) ng/L,(456.2±165.1) ng/L,对比各组入院后NT-proBNP的水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).cTnI在A、B、C组分别为(2.56±0.78) ng/L,(0.09±0.02) ng/L,(0

  18. 心力衰竭合并心房颤动患者血浆脑钠肽含量变化观察%Observation of plasma brain natriuretic peptide changes for patients with heart failure combined with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高阿妮

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察心力衰竭合并心房颤动患者血浆脑钠肽( BNP)含量变化。方法:选取85例心衰合并房颤患者,根据NYHA心功能分组,25例心功能Ⅱ级患者作为A组,32例心功能Ⅲ级患者作为B组,28例心功能Ⅳ级患者作为C组。比较上述3组患者在入院时、复律后24 h、复律后4周时BNP含量及治疗效果。结果:B、C组患者入院时BNP高于A组;A、B、C 3组患者复律后24 h、复律后4周BNP均较入院时下降;A组患者总有效率高于B、C两组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:心衰合并房颤患者BNP含量高于正常值,心功能越差, BNP含量越高,复律后BNP含量下降,可将BNP含量作为心衰合并房颤病情严重程度和治疗效果的评价指标。%Objective:To observe changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide ( BNP) for patients with heart failure combined with atrial fibrillation. Methods:85 patients with heart failure combined with atrial fibrillation were selected and divided into A group (25 patients with cardiac function class II), B group (32 patients with cardiac function class III), and C group (28 patients with car-diac function class IV) according to NYHA heart function. The BNP levels and therapeutic effects of the three groups at admission, 24h after cardioversion, and 4 weeks after cardioversion were compared. Results:The BNP levels at admission of B and C groups were higher than that of A group. 24h and 4 weeks after cardioversion, all BNP levels were reduced. The total effective rate of A group was higher than those of B and C groups, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0. 05). Conclusions:For the patients with heart failure combined with atrial fibrillation, the BNP level is higher than the normal value; and the worse cardiac function is, the higher the BNP level is. After cardioversion, it is reduced, therefore, the BNP levels can be merged as an evaluation index for severity of heart failure combined with

  19. 冻干重组人脑利钠肽治疗充血性心力衰竭疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏素缺; 郑朝霞; 代东艳; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨冻干重组人脑利钠肽治疗充血性心力衰竭的临床疗效和安全性.方法 选择120例充血性心力衰竭患者,按照随机数字分组法分为两组,观察组58例患者采用冻干重组人脑利钠肽进行治疗,对照组62例患者采用硝普钠进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床疗效、超声心动图指标、血流动力学指标的变化情况以及不良反应的发生情况.结果 治疗后,观察组总有效率为91.37%,明显高于对照组(x2=4.23,P<0.05),观察组治疗后的LVEF、氨基末端脑钠肽前体水平分别为(59.0±8.2)%和(535.4±123.8) ng/L,其改善程度较对照组更为明显(P<0.05),两组不良反应的发生率基本相当(P>0.05).结论 冻干重组人脑利钠肽在治疗充血性心力衰竭具有十分显著的疗效,其安全可靠.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide(rhBNP) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).Methods 120 CHF patients were randomly divided into two groups.58 cases in the observation group were given lyophilized rhBNP,and 62 patients in the control group were given sodium nitroprusside.The clinical effect,changes of echocardiographic indicators and hemodynamic parameters,adverse reactions were observed.Results After treatment,the total effective rate of the observation group was 91.37%,which was significantly higher than that of the control group(x2 =4.23,P < 0.05).The LVEF and NT-proBNP levels in observation group were (59.0 ± 8.2)% and (535.4 ± 123.8)ng/L,which had higher improvement than control group (P < 0.05).The incidence rate of adverse reactions between the two groups had no significant difference (P> 0.05).Conclusion Lyophilized rhBNP in the treatment of CHF has significant effect,and it is worthy of clinical application and promotion.

  20. Phage display:development of nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery to the brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babak Bakhshinejad; Marzieh Karimi; Mohammad Khalaj-Kondori

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier represents a formidable obstacle for the transport of most systemati-cally administered neurodiagnostics and neurotherapeutics to the brain. Phage display is a high throughput screening strategy that can be used for the construction of nanomaterial peptide libraries. These libraries can be screened for ifnding brain targeting peptide ligands. Surface func-tionalization of a variety of nanocarriers with these brain homing peptides is a sophisticated way to develop nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery platforms that are able to cross the blood brain barrier. These efifcient drug delivery systems raise our hopes for the diagnosis and treatment of various brain disorders in the future.

  1. B型利钠肽在结缔组织病相关肺动脉高压中的诊断价值%The value of brain natriuretic peptide in connective tissue diseases associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田庄; 郭潇潇; 李梦涛; 王迁; 刘永太; 赵久良; 方全; 曾小峰

    2011-01-01

    液明显相关(r分别为0.46、0.43,P<0.05).结论 CTD相关PAH患者血BNP、NT-proBNP均升高,与WHO临床功能分级、血流动力学参数、超声心动图反映右心室功能参数之间有显著的相关性.提示BNP是判断CTD合并PAH严重程度和预后的一种简单、无创和可信的指标.%Objective To explore the potential role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) in the assessment of patients with connective tissuediseases(CTD) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods Thirty patients with CTD associated PAH were evaluated by WHO function, echocardiography, right heart catheterization and blood biomarkers. All the clinical data was analyzed statistically. Results All patients [age (39.5 ± 11.6) yr]were female. Both NT-proBNP and BNP were significantly increased and significantly correlated ( all P <0. 05 ) respectively with mean pulmonary arterial pressure ( r = 0. 53 and r = 0. 40 ), right arterial pressure ( r = 0. 55 and r = 0. 42 ), pulmonary vascular resistance ( r = 0. 69 and r = 0. 61 ), cardiac index ( r = - 0. 58and r = - 0. 46), mixed venous blood oxygen saturation ( r = - 0. 62 and r = - 0. 54 ), pericardial effusion ( r = 0. 46 and r = 0. 43 ), right atrial sizes ( r = 0. 40 and 0. 53, and r = 0. 39 and 0. 45 ) and right ventricular size ( r = 0. 55 and r = 0. 37 ). Furthmore, NT-proBNP, but not BNP, significantly correlated with WHO function class ( r = 0. 55 ). Conclusion Blood NT-proBNP and BNP were elevated in patients with CTD associated PAH and paralleled the extent of function class, pulmonary hemodynamic changes and right ventricular remodeling.

  2. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  3. Prognostic Value of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Puerperant be Complicated by Acute Congestive Heart Failure%脑钠肽对判定围生期急性充血性心力衰竭预后的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金善律; 赵薇; 张京晓

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察血浆脑钠肽与围生期充血性心力衰竭患者预后的关系.方法 我院ICU科2009年1月-2010年6月收治的41例剖宫产终止妊娠后并发急性充血性心力衰竭患者,终止妊娠后第1天均行肝肾功能、脑钠肽、心电图及超声心动图检查;30 例剖宫产终止妊娠后无充血性心力衰竭患者作为对照组.结果 与结论 剖宫产终止妊娠合并急性充血性心力衰竭患者血浆脑钠肽浓度较对照组高(P<0.001 ),血浆脑钠肽浓度越高,患者入住ICU的时间则越长,其病死率也越高.%Objective Through the detection of concentration of brain natriuretic peptide(BNP)in blood plasma in the women who terminate pregnancy by utedrine-incision delivery and complicated by congestive heart failure,we observate the association between the prognosis and BNP.Methods 41 patients enrolled in the study who terminated pregnancy by uterine-incision delivery and complicated by congestive heart failure we have treated in the ICU department during2009.01-2010.06. We detectded alanine aminotransferase(Alt),aspartate aminotransferase(Ast),creatinine,urea,electrocardiogram,ultrasonic cardiogram on the first day after the delivery.Other30 pregnancy women with mormal heart funtion were get by control group.Results and Conclusion The concentration of brain natriuretic peptide in the patients who complicated by congestive heart failure was obviously raise up than the control group,and the concentration of brain natriuretic peptide prognosticate the length of stay and case fatality rate.

  4. Developing a Dissociative Nanocontainer for Peptide Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kelly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The potency, selectivity, and decreased side effects of bioactive peptides have propelled these agents to the forefront of pharmacological research. Peptides are especially promising for the treatment of neurological disorders and pain. However, delivery of peptide therapeutics often requires invasive techniques, which is a major obstacle to their widespread application. We have developed a tailored peptide drug delivery system in which the viral capsid of P22 bacteriophage is modified to serve as a tunable nanocontainer for the packaging and controlled release of bioactive peptides. Recent efforts have demonstrated that P22 nanocontainers can effectively encapsulate analgesic peptides and translocate them across blood-brain-barrier (BBB models. However, release of encapsulated peptides at their target site remains a challenge. Here a Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP reaction is applied to trigger P22 nanocontainer disassembly under physiological conditions. Specifically, the ROMP substrate norbornene (5-Norbornene-2-carboxylic acid is conjugated to the exterior of a loaded P22 nanocontainer and Grubbs II Catalyst is used to trigger the polymerization reaction leading to nanocontainer disassembly. Our results demonstrate initial attempts to characterize the ROMP-triggered release of cargo peptides from P22 nanocontainers. This work provides proof-of-concept for the construction of a triggerable peptide drug delivery system using viral nanocontainers.

  5. Interactions of Gastrointestinal Peptides: Ghrelin and Its Anorexigenic Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sophia Wisser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake behaviour and energy homeostasis are strongly regulated by a complex system of humoral factors and nerval structures constituting the brain-gut-axis. To date the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide that stimulates food intake is ghrelin, which is mainly synthesized in the stomach. Recent data indicate that the orexigenic effect of ghrelin might be influenced by other gastrointestinal peptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK, bombesin, desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY, as well as glucagon-like peptide (GLP. Therefore, we will review on the interactions of ghrelin with several gastrointestinal factors known to be involved in appetite regulation in order to elucidate the interdependency of peripheral orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the control of appetite.

  6. Plant signalling peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniewska, Justyna; Trejgell, Alina; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic studies have identified peptides that play crucial roles in plant growth and development, including defence mechanisms in response to wounding by pests, the control of cell division and expansion, and pollen self-incompatibility. The first two signalling peptides to be described in plants were tomato systemin and phytosulfokine (PSK). There is also biochemical evidence that natriuretic peptide-like molecules, immunologically-relatedt o those found ...

  7. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  8. Protective effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on acute renal injury induced by endotoxin in canines%rhB NP对内毒素介导的犬急性肾损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李牧; 刘岩; 李辉

    2014-01-01

    干预组比较,血清HMGB-1水平显著性减少(P<0.05)。结论 rhBNP可以有效减轻内毒素介导的犬肾组织损伤,改善肾功能,并降低SVRI,且其治疗作用呈剂量-效应关系;rhBNP还能有效降低脓毒症犬血清HMGB-1水平,可能与晚期炎症因子HMGB1水平的降低有关。%Objective To observe the influence of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide(rhBNP)on serum HMGB1 levels in canines'acute renal injury induced by endotoxin and explore its protective role of rhBNP in protecting canines'kidney against acute renal injury.Methods A total of 20 healthy dogs were randomly divided into four groups:blank group,sepsis shock group,low-dose intervention group and high dose intervention group, and there were 5 rats in each group.After establishing the model of canines'sepsis shock induced by endotoxin,15 canines (besides blank group)were randomly divided into 3 groups.As follows,5 μg/kg rhBNP was given to the low-dose intervention group,10μg/kg rhBNP was given to the high-dose intervention group.But nothing was given to control group.Systemic vascular resistance index(SVRI)at 0 h,2 h,4 h,8 h,12 h were observed by PICCO instrument.High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1)and creatinine(CR)in blood samples at each time point were detected.After 12 hours,kidney samples were taken for histological examination.Results The results revealed that some renal tubulars epithelial cell were swelled,some epithelial cells were atrophy and interstitial cells swelled in control group under the light microscope.Kidney pathology score was 2-3.But these changes were improved in low-and high-dose intervention groups,and there were no significant difference in the latter two groups,kidney of both groups pathology score were 1-2.Compared with control group at the same point,CR of blood serum were significantly decreased in low-dose intervention group at 8 h,12 h(P<0.01), and high-dose intervention group significantly decreased at 4 h,8 h,12 h(P<0.01).Compared with

  9. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases. PMID:23355488

  10. Skin peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family: isolation, structure, synthesis, and endocrine activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Mor, A.; Chartrel, N; Vaudry, H.; Nicolas, P

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), three members of a family of structurally related peptides, are mainly expressed in the endocrine pancreas, in endocrine cells of the gut, and in the brain, respectively. In the present study, we have isolated a peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family from the skin of the South American arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. The primary structure of the peptide was established as Tyr-Pro-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gl...

  11. Observation of the Effect of Lyophilized Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide Jointing Low-dose Dobutamine Used to Refractory Heart Failure%人冻干重组脑利钠肽联合小剂量多巴酚丁胺对顽固性心力衰竭的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞娜; 吴铿; 冼倩; 陈铭林; 李上海; 李腾; 叶少强; 游琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the patients with Refractory heart failure using Lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide jointing low-dose Dobutamine. Methods 120 patients with Refractory heart failure were randomly divided into A group(n=40), B group(n=40) and C group(n=40), A group was treated with conventional-dose Dobutamine, B group was treated with Lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide. C group was treated with Lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide jointing low-dose Dobutamine. Three groups were compared the effect of heart failure treatment, LAD,LVEDD,LVEF and plasma BNP level.Results Compared with A group and B group, C group’s treatment of arrhythmia get best results. Compared with before treatment,three group’s LAD ,LVEDD and plasma BNP level decreased,E/A improved, the effect of group C is especially obvious. Conclusion It is effective and safe for the patients with Refractory heart failure to use Lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide jointing low-dose Dobutamine.%目的:对顽固性心力衰竭患者使用人冻干重组脑利钠肽联合小剂量多巴酚丁胺的疗效进行评估。方法选取顽固性心力衰竭患者120例,随机分为A组、B组和C组各40例,常规基础治疗上,A组给予常规剂量多巴酚丁胺,B组给予人冻干重组脑利钠肽,C组给予人冻干重组脑利钠肽联合小剂量多巴酚丁胺。比较三者临床疗效、左房内径、左心室舒张期末径、左心室射血分数、血浆脑利钠肽等指标。结果 C组对顽固性心力衰竭的疗效明显高于A组、B组;与治疗前比较,三组在治疗后72h左室内径减小,左室射血分数提高,血浆BNP水平下降,但以C组效果尤佳。结论人冻干重组脑利钠肽联合小剂量多巴酚丁胺治疗顽固性心力衰竭效果显著,副作用小。

  12. Therapeutic effects of combination of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide,dopamine and furosemide on cardiorenal syndrome%重组人脑利钠肽、多巴胺、呋塞米合用治疗心肾综合征的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊岭; 牟丽娜; 陆芳; 吕学新; 姚晓斐; 郑群

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of combination of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide,dopamine and furosemide on cardiorenal syndrome.Methods Two hundred patients with cardiorenal syndrome were randomly divided into control group (routine treatment) and treatment group (routine treatment plus recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide,dopamine and furosemide intravenous drip ),with a treatment course of 7 days.Echocardiography was performed before and after treatment, the levels of N terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide ( Nt-proBNP),serum creatinine (SCr),blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid (UAC) were detected and creatinine clearance rate was calculated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula before and after treatment.The cardiac function improvement state was evaluated according to the degree of dyspnea, pulmonary rales,heart rate,respiratory rate,body weight,urine volume,6 minutes walking distance,BNP and the index of echocardiography (LVEDd,LVEF,SV).The renal function improvement state was evaluated according to creatinine clearance rate.Results The general situation was obviously improved,as compared with that in control group,the levels of SCr,Nt-proBNP were decreased,however,the levels of CCr,urine volume, LVEF and SV were increased,the cardiac and renal function were significantly improved in treatment group , as compared with those in control group( P <0.05). Conclusion The combination application of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide,dopamine and furosemide can obviously improve cardiorenal function,which is beneficial to the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome.%目的:观察重组人脑利钠肽(rhBNP)、多巴胺、呋塞米合用治疗心肾综合征的临床效果。方法200例患者随机分为对照组(常规治疗)和治疗组(在常规治疗的基础上加用重组人脑利钠肽、多巴胺、呋塞米静脉滴注),共7 d。2组治疗前后行超声心动图检查,检测 N 末端前体脑钠肽

  13. 老年冠心病患者冠状动脉病变程度与血浆B型钠尿肽的关系%Serum brain natriuretic peptide and the severity of coronary artery disease in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡慧英; 李志刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the level of serum brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) and the severity of coronary artery disease in elderly patients with coronary heart disease(CHD).Methods We recruited 498 elderly CHD patients undergoing coronary angiography(CAG) from our hospital.Based on CAG results,patients were divided into two groups:406 patients with lesion of vessel(s)and ≥50% vessel stenosis as the CHD group,and the other 92 patients with < 50% vessel stenosis as the negative control group.Their clinical data such as left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) and serum BNP was recorded.The patients was further divided into 177 single-,129 double-,100 triple-,and 92 negative vessel disease groups according to the number of vessels with significant stenosis.The patients with CHD were divided into three different age groups:(1) A group:60-69 years old,254 patients ;(2) B group:70-79 years old,112patients;(3)C group:equal or greater than 80 years old,40 patients.Serum levels of BNP were measured before CAG.The relationship between BNP and the severity of coronary disease was analyzed.Results The level of BNP was significantly elevated in the CHD group[(387.5±132.3)ng/L]than the negative control group [(58.6±22.1) ng/L](t =23.83,P < 0.01).The level of BNP was significantly enhanced(F =87.42,P <0.01) along with the increasing number of coronary artery Stenosis,with single vessel disease group(202.2±116.6)ng/L,double vessel disease group(487.5±152.3)ng/L and triple vessel disease group(768.7±264.3) ng/L; the level of BNP significantly increased(F =57.33,P < 0.01) along with increasing age,with A group(182.6±93.1)ng/L,B group(352.2±121.2)ng/L and C group(491.2±158.7) ng/L.The level ofLVEF did not change in the procedure(P > 0.05).Conclusion The levels of BNP were closely associated with the severity of coronary artery disease and were a strong clinical predictor for myocardial ischemia.%目的 探讨老年冠状动脉粥样硬

  14. Significance of Changes of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Children with Rheumatic Heart Disease%风湿性心脏病患儿血浆脑利钠肽水平变化的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙裕平; 王文棣; 马少春; 郑兴厂; 王金菊; 魏超平

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察风湿性心脏病患儿血浆脑利钠肽(BNP)水平的变化,探讨其在风湿热(RF)并心脏病变患儿中的诊断价值.方法 选择RF患儿20例(RF组),包括风湿性心脏病患儿11例(心脏病变组),无心脏病变患儿9例(无心脏病变组).同时选择20例健康儿童作为健康对照组.采用ELISA测定各组血浆BNP、肌钙蛋白I(cTnI)水平,并行心脏彩色多普勒超声及ECG检查.健康对照组随机采血1次,测定血浆BNP和cTnI水平.应用SPSS 11.5软件进行统计学分析.结果 RF组患儿血浆BNP、cTnI水平均明显高于健康对照组(Pa<0.01);心脏病变组血浆BNP水平较无心脏病变组明显升高(P<0.01),cTnI水平二组比较差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05);BNP异常升高率显著高于cTnI(x2=14.19,P<0.01)及ECG(x2=10.23,P<0.01),cTnI异常率与ECG异常率比较差异无统计学意义(x2=1.37,P>0.05).心脏病变组患儿BNP与cTnI水平呈显著正相关(r=0.32,P<0.05).结论 BNP在风湿性心脏病患儿中异常增高,与cTnI呈正相关,且较cTnI、ECG灵敏度高.BNP、cTnI二者结合对RF并心脏病变的诊断具有重要意义.%Objective To observe the changes of brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) in children with rheumatic fever(RF) disease,and explore its diagnostic value in rheumatic heart disease. Methods Twenty RF children( RF group) were collected,including 11 patients combined with heart disease ( heart disease group) and 9 patients without heart disease (non - heart disease group) ;Twenty healthy children were obtained as healthy control group. The plasma level of BNP and cardiac troponin I(cTnl) were measured by using enzyme - linked immu-nosorbent assay; Two - dimensional echocardiography and ECG were used for all the patients. The plasma levels of BNP and cTnl were randomly measured once in healthy control group. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. Results BNP and cTnl were significantly higher in RF group than those in healthy

  15. Applications and Challenges for Use of Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Delivery Vectors for Peptide and Protein Cargos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Birch, Ditlev; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    -penetrating peptides (CPPs) constitute a promising tool and have shown applications for peptide and protein delivery into cells as well as across various epithelia and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). CPP-mediated delivery of peptides and proteins may be pursued via covalent conjugation of the CPP to the cargo peptide...... or protein or via physical complexation obtained by simple bulk-mixing of the CPP with its cargo. Both approaches have their pros and cons, and which is the better choice likely relates to the physicochemical properties of the CPP and its cargo as well as the route of administration, the specific...... barrier and the target cell. Besides the physical barrier, a metabolic barrier must be taken into consideration when applying peptide-based delivery vectors, such as the CPPs, and stability-enhancing strategies are commonly employed to prolong the CPP half-life. The mechanisms by which CPPs translocate...

  16. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  17. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  18. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  19. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  1. Occurrence of two somatostatin variants in the frog brain: characterization of the cDNAs, distribution of the mRNAs, and receptor-binding affinities of the peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Tostivint, H; Lihrmann, I; Bucharles, C; Vieau, D; Coulouarn, Y; A. Fournier; Conlon, J M; Vaudry, H.

    1996-01-01

    In tetrapods, only one gene encoding a somatostatin precursor has been identified so far. The present study reports the characterization of the cDNA clones that encode two distinct somatostatin precursors in the brain of the frog Rana ridibunda. The cDNAs were isolated by using degenerate oligonucleotides based on the sequence of the central region of somatostatin to screen a frog brain cDNA library. One of the cDNAs encodes a 115-amino acid protein (prepro-somatostatin-14; PSS1) that exhibit...

  2. Relaxin Peptide Hormones Are Protective During the Early Stages of Ischemic Stroke in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Lindsay H.; Willcox, Jordan M.; Alibhai, Faisal J.; Barry J. Connell; Tarek M Saleh; Wilson, Brian C.; Alastair J S Summerlee

    2014-01-01

    The pregnancy hormone relaxin protects tissue from ischemic damage. The ability of relaxin-3, a relaxin paralog, to do so has not been explored. The cerebral expression levels of these peptides and their receptors make them logical targets for study in the ischemic brain. We assessed relaxin peptide-mediated protection, relative relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) involvement, and protective mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats receiving permanent (pMCAO) or transient middle cerebral artery occ...

  3. Long-term infusion of brain natriuretic peptide suppresses post myocardial infarction ventricular remodeling in rats%脑钠肽静脉滴注抑制大鼠心肌梗死后的心室重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晔生; 魏盟; 朱伟; 马健; 辛平; 徐振兴; 韩蓓蓓; 何亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare protective effects of chronic brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) infusion and enalapril administration on post myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodeling, and to investigate their effects on the matrix metalloproteinase(MMPs) expression in myocardium. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated group, MI group in which MI models were prepared by coronary ligation, BNP group in which MI rats received chronic BNP infusion [0.06|ig/(kgmin)] and enalapril group in which MI rats received enalapril administration [10mg/(kgd)]. Ventricular remodeling and heart function were estimated by echocardiography (ECG), immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blot. Results Exogenous BNP infusion maintained a higher BNP level in heart tissue. BNP treatment achieved similar protective effects as enalapril therapy on postinfarction myocardial remodeling. Both BNP and enalapril inhibited the increase of left ventricular weight index by 13.2% and 16.9% respectively, (P <0.05). ECG results demonstrated that left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVEDD) and fractional shortening(FS) were more satisfactory in BNP and enalapril groups than in MI group [LVEDD: (8.8 ± 0.6)mm in MI group, (7.5 ± 0.7)mm in enalapril group, and (7.5 ± 1.0) mm in BNP group, P < 0.05; FS: (19.2 ± 2.6)% in MI group, (27.7 ± 5.6)% in enalapril group, and (27.5 ± 3.9) % in BNP group, P < 0.05]. Both enalapril and BNP inhibited collagen deposition in non-infarcted area obviously, especially type I collegen, by (6.8±1.4)% in MI group, (4.0±0.9)% in enalapril group, and (3.7±1.1)% in BNP group respectively(P < 0.05). BNP infusion increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentration in cardiac tissue more significantly than enalapril, while inhibited angiotensin Ⅱ less significantly than enalapril. BNP infusion did not lead to obvious change of MMP-2 and MMP-9 content in non-infarcted area. Conclusion Continuous BNP infusion may play cardiac protection roles through

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  5. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  6. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  11. 可卡因-苯丙胺调节转录肽在脑缺血中的神经保护机制%Neuroprotective mechanisms of cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides in brain ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王路娜; 沙杜鹃; 张均

    2013-01-01

    可卡因-苯丙胺调节转录肽(cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides,CART)是一种存在于人和动物的内源性神经肽,参与调节体内多种生理和病理学过程.多项研究提示,CART在中枢神经系统中广泛分布,具有一定的中枢神经保护作用.文章对CART在脑缺血中的神经保护机制进行了综述.%Cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript(CART) peptides are endogenous neurotransmitters with important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes in vivo.Many studies suggested that CART is widely distributed in the central nervous system,and it has some central protective effects.This article reviews the recent progress in research on the protective effect of CART on cerebral ischemia and its mechanisms.

  12. Immunotherapy of Brain Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Patrick; Preusser, Matthias; Weller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The brain has long been considered an immune-privileged site precluding potent immune responses. Nevertheless, because of the failure of conventional anti-cancer treatments to achieve sustained control of intracranial neoplasms, immunotherapy has been considered as a promising strategy for decades. However, several efforts aimed at exploiting the immune system as a therapeutic weapon were largely unsuccessful. The situation only changed with the introduction of the checkpoint inhibitors, which target immune cell receptors that interfere with the activation of immune effector cells. Following the observation of striking effects of drugs that target CTLA-4 or PD-1 against melanoma and other tumor entities, it was recognized that these drugs may also be active against metastatic tumor lesions in the brain. Their therapeutic activity against primary brain tumors is currently being investigated within clinical trials. In parallel, other immunotherapeutics such as peptide vaccines are at an advanced stage of clinical development. Further immunotherapeutic strategies currently under investigation comprise adoptive immune cell transfer as well as inhibitors of metabolic pathways involved in the local immunosuppression frequently found in brain tumors. Thus, the ongoing implementation of immunotherapeutic concepts into clinical routine may represent a powerful addition to the therapeutic arsenal against various brain tumors. PMID:27260656

  13. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling and brain reward function

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynorphin-like peptides have profound effects on the state of the brain reward system and human and animal behavior. The dynorphin-like peptides affect locomotor activity, food intake, sexual behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and drug intake. Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors, the endogenous receptor for the dynorphin-like peptides, inhibits dopamine release in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen) and induces a negative mood state in humans and animals. The administrati...

  14. Reference range of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in early preterm infants%早期早产儿血浆N末端脑钠肽参考值范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 罗成汉; 时赞扬; 卢洁; 程欣茹; 徐千雅; 郭宏湘; 王丽; 程秀永

    2013-01-01

    .358,t1d与7 d=14.743,t3d与7d =11.105,P均=0.000).出生后1d、3d、7d早产儿血浆NT-proBNP水平分别为(1875 ±686) ng/L、(1615±574) ng/L、(1118 ±380) ng/L;均数95%置信区间分别为530~3220 ng/L、490~2740 ng/L、373~ 1863 ng/L.结论 早产儿血浆NT-proBNP水平出生第1天达高峰,之后随日龄增加而下降,二者呈负相关;血浆NT-proBNP水平不受胎龄、性别、出生体质量、分娩方式及营养方式的影响.%Objective To establish the reference range of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in early preterm infants.Methods 1.Inclusion criteria of the subjects:(1) preterm infants admitted to Neonatal Ward of First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between Oct.2009 and Aug.2012 within 24 hours after birth;(2) maternal health during pregnancy; (3) written informed consent obtained from parents;(4) normal laboratory examination results such as blood gas analysis,electrolyte,hepatorenal function,myocardial enzyme,routine blood count and infectious disease screening (hepatitis B,hepatitis C,syphilis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome) within 24 hours after birth.Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured on day 1,day 3 and day 7 of life.Variable data was analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality test.Difference in plasma NT-proBNP levels on different days of life was analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the influencing factors for plasma NT-proBNP level,reference value interval:reference range containing 95 % of the reference population,namely(x-1.96 s)-(x-+ 1.96 s),with inspection level α =0.05.Results 1.A total of 204 preterm infants (104 cases were male and 100 cases were female) were included in the present study,with gestational age ranging from 27 + 1 to 36 +6 weeks(median 33 weeks) and birth weight ranging from 700 to 3050 g (median 1590 g).Of these preterm infants,vaginal delivery were 78

  15. 严重延迟复苏烧伤休克患者血浆脑钠肽的变化%Change in plasma brain natriuretic peptide and its clinical significance in burn patients after delayed fluid resuscitation of shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新; 詹新华; 郑静伟; 吴祖煌; 陈建崇; 朱剑仙; 谢包根; 刘世康

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the early change in plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in burn patients with long delayed fluid resuscitation of burn shock and its clinical significance.Methods Thirty-six burn patients with second and third degree of burn covering 32%- 92% total body surface area were enrolled for the study, among them 10 patients were complicated with serious heart failure (heart failure group), and 26 patients rallied from shock after delayed fluid resuscitation without heart failure (stable group).The level of plasma BNP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined at admission and 3 hours after hospitalization, and 24, 48, 72, 168 hours after the injury in both groups with electrochemiluminescence (ECL).Results Compared with stable group, the plasma BNP level (ng/L) of heart failure group at 3 hours after hospitalization, and 24, 48, 72 hours after the burn injury increased significantly (3 hours after hospitalization: 1 521.38±121.11 vs.391.36±63.27, 24 hours after burn: 2 516.86±193.25 vs.360.79±146.56, 48 hours after burn: 1 587.76±169.23 vs.398.92±77.46, 72 hours after burn: 974.45±166.33vs.283.43 ± 68.15, all P< 0.01), the level of LVEF lowered significantly (3 hours after hospitalization;0.33±0.03 vs.0.58±0.09, 24 hours after burn: 0.36±0.09 vs.0.60±0.10, 48 hours after burn: 0.35±0.08 vs.0.62±0.11, 72 hours after burn: 0.39±0.10 vs.0.64±0.10, all P<0.05).The levels of LDH (μmol·s-1·L-1)in stable group were 2.87±0.50 at admission,3.02±0.43 3hours after hospitalization,4.02±0.87 24 hours after burn, 6.90±0.87 48 hours after burn, 3.64±0.75 72 hours after burn, 2.670.45 168 hours after burn while in heart failure group, they were 2.97±1.40, 3.84±0.37, 4.29±0.45,8.50±0.38, 3.84±0.62, 2.30±0.38, respectively;and CK-MB (U/L) in stable group were 59.12±13.75at admission, 70.39 ±10.72 3 hours after hospitalization, 79.29 ±17

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  18. PNA Peptide chimerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Næsby, M.; Wittung, P.;

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of PNA has been performed try linking a peptide segment to the PNA which is substrate for protein kinase A. The enzymatic phosphorylation proceeds in almost quantitative yields....

  19. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  20. Introduction to Peptide Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Stawikowski, Maciej; Fields, Gregg B.

    2002-01-01

    A number of synthetic peptides are significant commercial or pharmaceutical products, ranging from the dipeptide sugar-substitute aspartame to clinically used hormones, such as oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. This unit provides an overview of the field of synthetic peptides and proteins. It discusses selecting the solid support and common coupling reagents. Additional information is provided regarding common side reactions and synthesizing modified residues.

  1. 重组人脑利钠肽治疗急性心肌梗死后心力衰竭临床疗效分析%Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide in the Treatment of Heart Failure after Acute Myocardial Infarction Clinical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许哲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in the treatment of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction in the clinical ef icacy and ef ects on the endocrine system. Methods Emergency after acute myocardial infarction admitted 164 patients with heart failure, according to treatment is divided into recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in the treatment group and the control group were nitroglycerin. Observed in patients before treatment and 72 h after relief of the symptoms of heart failure and cardiac functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction was measured in plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels. Results After treatment, the relief of symptoms of heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction, plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels than before treatment significantly improved, and the improvement of the indicators the treatment group were significantly bet er than the control group significant dif erence was statistically significant. Conclusion The recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction with heart failure, recent significant ef ect, clinical improvement, the recovery of the circulating endocrine system has a positive ef ect, bet er than nitroglycerin, worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨重组人脑利钠肽在急性心肌梗死后心力衰竭治疗中的临床疗效及其对内分泌系统的影响。方法选取急诊收住急性心肌梗死后心力衰竭患者164例,依据治疗方式分为重组人脑利钠肽治疗组和硝酸甘油对照组者。观察两组患者治疗前、治疗后72 h心衰症状的缓解情况和心功能分级,测定左心射血分数、血浆肾素、血管紧张素II及醛固酮水平。结果治疗后两组心力衰竭症状缓解情况、左心射血分数、血浆肾素、血管紧张素II及醛固酮水平均较治疗前有明显改善,且治疗组各项指标改善情况均

  2. 重组人脑利钠肽对于AMI心力衰竭患者循环内分泌的影响%Effects of Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide on Circular En-docrine in Patients with Heart Failure Caused by AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析重组人脑利钠肽对于AMI心力衰竭患者循环内分泌的影响。方法整群选取该院2013年7月-2014年7月收治的68例AMI心力衰竭患者,将其分为观察组(34例)和对照组(34例),给予观察组患者常规治疗的基础上静脉注射重组人脑利钠肽。对比两组患者心力衰竭情况、LVEF、PRA、ALD和ATⅡ等指标。结果经治疗,两组LVEF均有心力衰竭缓解程度提高,其中观察组LVEF的提高优于治疗前和对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者治疗前后的PRA、ALD、ATⅡ变化差异对比有意义(P<0.05),其中观察组整体下降程度优于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对AMI心力衰竭患者运用重组人脑利钠肽有较高的临床治疗效果,改善患者心室功能,对患者的循环内分泌系统功能的恢复有着积极的促进作用,值得临床推广和应用。%Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on circular endocrine in patients with heart failure caused by AMI. Methods 68 cases of heart failure in patients with AMI admitted to our hospital in July 2013 to July 2014 year were selected and divided into observation group (34 cases) and control group (34 cases). Patients in observation group were given intravenous recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide treatment based on routine treatment. Indexes including heart failure, LVEF, PRA, ALD and AT II were compared between the two groups. Results After treatment, two groups of LVEF were relieved degree of heart failure increased, which improved better than the treatment observation group before LVEF and control group, compared two groups of significant differences (P<0.05). The two groups before and after treatment in patients with PRA, ALD, AT II changes in contrast differences significant (P<0.05), the overall decline in the degree of the observation group than the control group, compared

  3. 重组人脑钠肽对心肌梗死所致急性心力衰竭的疗效和肾功能的影响%Effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the efficacy and renal function of acute heart failure caused by myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析和探讨重组人脑钠肽对心肌梗死所致急性心力衰竭的疗效和肾功能的影响。方法选择在漯河市中心医院进行治疗的心肌梗死所致急性心力衰竭患者60例,随机将其分为观察组和对照组,每组30例,对照组给予常规、纠正心力衰竭以及硝酸甘油治疗,观察组则在常规治疗和纠正心力衰竭治疗的基础上给予重组人脑利钠肽(rhBNP)注射治疗,治疗结束后对两组患者的心功能指标、心力衰竭症状缓解情况进行比较,并检测血浆脑钠肽、尿素氮、血肌酐浓度和24 h 尿量。结果观察组和对照组治疗总有效率分别为96.7%和73.3%,观察组显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。结论心肌梗死所致急性心力衰竭采用重组人脑钠肽进行治疗能够有效提高疗效,并且不会影响患者的肾功能,建议在临床上推广应用。%Objective To analyze and investigate the effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the efficacy and renal function of acute heart failure caused by myocardial infarction. Methods Sixty patients with acute heart failure caused by myocardial infarction in the central hospital of Luohe were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group,with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the control group were given routine treatment, correcting heart failure treatment and nitroglycerin treatment; and the patients in the observation group were given rhBNP injection in addition. Heart function indexes and remission of the symptoms of heart failure of two groups were compared after treat-ment, plasma brain natriuretic peptide,urea nitrogen, concentration of serum creatinine,24 h urinary volume were checked. Results In the observation group and the control group, the total effective rate was 96. 7% and 73. 3% , that in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P 0. 05

  4. Clinical observation of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure%冻干重组人脑利钠肽治疗急性失代偿性心力衰竭临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沐; 魏盟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究冻干重组人脑利钠肽治疗急性代偿性心力衰竭的临床效果。方法选择急性失代偿性心力衰竭患者90例,随机分成观察组(45例)和对照组(45例)。对2组患者均进行常规治疗,观察组同时静脉注射冻干重组人脑利钠肽;对照组则静脉注射硝酸甘油。结果治疗前观察组和对照组左心室舒张末期内径(LVEDD)及左心室射血分数(LVEF)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗后观察组LVEDD显著小于对照组(P<0.01),LVEF显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗前2组患者动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、时间肺活量、收缩压及动脉血氧饱和度比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗后观察组PaCO2、收缩压显著低于对照组(P<0.01),时间肺活量和动脉血氧饱和度显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论冻干重组人脑利钠肽可以有效改善急性失代偿性心力衰竭患者的心脏功能以及呼吸功能。%Objective To study the clinical effect of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure .Methods 90 patients with acute decompensated heart failure were ran-domly divided into observation group (n=45) and control group (n=45).The patients in both groups received routine treatment .The patients in the observation group received lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide intrave -nous injection .The patients in the control group received intravenous injection of nitroglycerin .Results Before treat-ment, the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between the two groups showed no statistical difference (P>0.05).After treatment, the LVEDD in the observation group were signifi-cantly less than that in the control group (P0.05).After treatment, the PaCO2 and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower in the

  5. Tailored delivery of analgesic ziconotide across a blood brain barrier model using viral nanocontainers

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Anand; Alison O’Neil; Emily Lin; Trevor Douglas; Mandë Holford

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is often an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of candidate drugs, including peptides, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents. Devising an adroit delivery method to cross the BBB is essential to unlocking widespread application of peptide therapeutics. Presented here is an engineered nanocontainer for delivering peptidic drugs across the BBB encapsulating the analgesic marine snail peptide ziconotide (Prialt®). We developed a bi-functional viral nanocon...

  6. Cloning and tissue distribution of appetite-regulating peptides in pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, H

    2015-10-01

    Pirapitinga (or red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) is an economically important South American fish for which the endocrine mechanism of the regulation of feeding has never been examined. To better understand these mechanisms, cDNAs encoding the appetite-regulating peptides orexin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), apelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), leptin and ghrelin were isolated in pirapitinga and their mRNA distributions examined in peripheral tissues and brain. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to those of other Characiforme fish (i.e. Mexican cavefish) and Siluriformes (catfish) as well as Cypriniformes (i.e. goldfish, zebrafish). All peptides were widely expressed within the brain. With the exception of CART, which was only expressed in brain, the mRNAs of all peptides were present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and gills. The widespread and peptide-specific distributions suggest that each peptide might have distinct physiological actions in the brain and on peripheral tissues, in particular on the gastrointestinal tract, which include feeding regulation. This preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulation of feeding in Serrasalmidae fish, including pirapitinga. PMID:25846408

  7. Effect of natriuretic peptides on cerebral artery blood flow in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Gøtze, Jens Peter; Jeppesen, Jørgen L;

    2015-01-01

    ) by transcranial Doppler. In addition, we measured temporal and radial artery diameters, headache response and plasma concentrations of the NPs. In guinea pigs, ANP and BNP but not CNP showed significant dose-dependent relaxation of cerebral arteries. In healthy humans, NP infusion had no effect on mean VMCA......The natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), have vasoactive functions that concern humans and most animals, but their specific effects on cerebral circulation are poorly understood. We therefore examined...

  8. A Window into the Heterogeneity of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ghidoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The initiating event in Alzheimer's disease (AD is an imbalance in the production and clearance of amyloid beta (Aβ peptides leading to the formation of neurotoxic brain Aβ assemblies. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, which is a continuum of the brain, is an obvious source of markers reflecting central neuropathologic features of brain diseases. In this review, we provide an overview and update on our current understanding of the pathobiology of human CSF Aβ peptides. Specifically, we focused our attention on the heterogeneity of the CSF Aβ world discussing (1 basic research studies and what has been translated to clinical practice, (2 monomers and other soluble circulating Aβ assemblies, and (3 communication modes for Aβ peptides and their microenvironment targets. Finally, we suggest that Aβ peptides as well as other key signals in the central nervous system (CNS, mainly involved in learning and hence plasticity, may have a double-edged sword action on neuron survival and function.

  9. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. McLarnon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid-β (Aβ into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory reactivity is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of drugs with a common endpoint in conferring neuroprotection in peptide-injected animals. Peptide-injection models provide a focus on glial cell responses to direct peptide injection in rat brain and offer advantages in the study of the mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in AD brain.

  10. Self-assembled cationic peptide nanoparticles as an efficient antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Xu, Kaijin; Wang, Huaying; Jeremy Tan, P. K.; Fan, Weimin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial cationic peptides are of interest because they can combat multi-drug-resistant microbes. Most peptides form α-helices or β-sheet-like structures that can insert into and subsequently disintegrate negatively charged bacterial cell surfaces. Here, we show that a novel class of core-shell nanoparticles formed by self-assembly of an amphiphilic peptide have strong antimicrobial properties against a range of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The nanoparticles show a high therapeutic index against Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and are more potent than their unassembled peptide counterparts. Using Staphylococcus aureus-infected meningitis rabbits, we show that the nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier and suppress bacterial growth in infected brains. Taken together, these nanoparticles are promising antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat brain infections and other infectious diseases.

  11. Changes of.serum high mobility group box-1 and epithelial neutrophil-activing peptide-78 in patients with acute brain injury%急性颅脑损伤后血高迁移率蛋白-1及中性粒细胞激活肽-78的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曙晨; 黄友敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes of serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)and epithelial neutrophil-activing peptide-78(ENA-78)associated with secondary brain edema in patients following acute brain injury.Methods The serum HMGB1 and ENA-78 in 110 patients with acute brain injury were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)12 hours,3 days and the 5 days after acute brain injury.The outcomes were analyzed by t-test and estimated well with clinical symptoms,imaging data and Glasgow Outcome Scale(GOS)in combination of.Results The levels of HMGB1 and ENA-78 increased significantly with lowering the score of GCS 12 hours after acute brain injury.The more severity of acute brain injury resulted in more production of HMGB1 and ENA-78 and longer period of persisted and peaked brain edema(all P <0.01).HMGB1 levels had positive correlation with severity and persistence of brain edema(r =0.69,P <0.01 and r =0.70,P <0.01).ENA-78 levels had positive correlation with severity and persistence of brain edema(r =0.62,P < 0.01 and r =0.65,P < 0.01).Furthermore,there were statistical differences in HMGB1 and ENA-78 levels between different GOS groups.Compared with good outcome group and normal control group,the HMGB1 and ENA-78 levels in poor outcome group persistently increased and were higher within 5 days after brain injury(P < 0.01 or P <0.05).There was a correlation between serum HMGB1 and ENA-78 levels in patients with acute brain injuries(r =0.68,P < 0.01).Conclusions The changes of serum HMGB1 and ENA-78 levels were closely associated with secondary brain edema in patients following acute brain injury.%目的 研究急性颅脑损伤后血中高迁移率蛋白-1(HMGB1)和中性粒细胞激活肽-78(ENA-78)的动态变化及其与继发性脑水肿的关系.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测HMGB1和ENA-78血中含量,回顾性分析110例急性颅脑损伤住院患者伤后12 h内、伤后第3,5d血中HMGB1

  12. 冻干重组人脑利钠肽的用药时机对急性左心衰竭患者临床效果和预后的研究%Cinical effect and prognosis of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide at different times for acute left heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解金红; 关怀敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect and prognosis of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide at different times for acute left heart failure.Methods A total of 58 consecutive patients diagnosed as acute left heart failure from February 2013 to February 2014 were randomly divided into early group (30 patients) and late group (28 patients).The patients in early group received lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide and other common treatment immediately after arriving at hospital,and the patients in late group received lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide until symptoms were hard to control.Results After treatment,the NYHA class and the levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in early group and late group were significant differences:(1.4 ± 0.5) grade vs.(2.6 ± 0.7) grade,(934.2 ± 52.4) ng/L vs.(1 632.5 ± 147.6) ng/L,(49.6 ± 5.4)% vs.(31.2 ± 6.7)%,P < 0.01 or < 0.05.The average stay and expenses in early group were significandy less than those in control group:(11.2 ± 3.4) d vs.(19.7 ± 4.2) d,(15.8 ± 4.6) thousand Yuan vs.(27.4 ± 6.3) thousand Yuan,P < 0.05.The total effective rate and survival rate in early group were significantly higher than those in late group:66.7%(20/30) vs.39.3%(11/28),P < 0.05.Conclusion Earlier application of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic can significantly improve the symptoms in acute left heart failure patients.%目的 研究冻干重组人脑利钠肽(新活素)的不同用药时机对急性左心衰竭患者临床效果和预后的差异.方法 连续选取心内科诊断为急性左心衰竭患者共58例,取得医院伦理委员会通过和患者及家属的知情同意权后,将其按随机数字表法分为早期组(30例)和晚期组(28例),早期组患者入院即给予新活素,同时吗啡镇痛、利尿、强心等基础治疗;晚期组患者入院给予常规的基础治疗,若心力

  13. Insights into the molecular interactions between aminopeptidase and amyloid beta peptide using molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanavade, Maruti J; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2014-08-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The accumulation of Aβ peptides in AD brain was caused due to overproduction or insufficient clearance and defects in the proteolytic degradation of Aβ peptides. Hence, Aβ peptide degradation could be a promising therapeutic approach in AD treatment. Recent experimental report suggests that aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus KK565 (SGAK) can degrade Aβ peptides but the interactive residues are yet to be known in detail at the atomic level. Hence, we developed the three-dimensional model of aminopeptidase (SGAK) using SWISS-MODEL, Geno3D and MODELLER. Model built by MODELLER was used for further studies. Molecular docking was performed between aminopeptidase (SGAK) with wild-type and mutated Aβ peptides. The docked complex of aminopeptidase (SGAK) and wild-type Aβ peptide (1IYT.pdb) shows more stability than the other complexes. Molecular docking and MD simulation results revealed that the residues His93, Asp105, Glu139, Glu140, Asp168 and His255 are involved in the hydrogen bonding with Aβ peptide and zinc ions. The interactions between carboxyl oxygen atoms of Glu139 of aminopeptidase (SGAK) with water molecule suggest that the Glu139 may be involved in the nucleophilic attack on Ala2-Glu3 peptide bond of Aβ peptide. Hence, amino acid Glu139 of aminopeptidase (SGAK) might play an important role to degrade Aβ peptides, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  16. Electron transfer in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  17. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  11. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  19. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity......Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... and hence adjuvants are included to enhance and direct the immune response. Although the vaccine has been tested in ART naïve individuals, we recommend future testing of the vaccine during (early started) ART that improves immune function and to select individuals likely to benefit. Peptides representing...

  20. Synthetic antibiofilm peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; de Souza Cândido, Elizabete; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Hancock, Robert E W

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria predominantly exist as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms that are associated with at least two thirds of all infections and exhibit increased adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotic therapies. Therefore, biofilms are major contributors to the global health problem of antibiotic resistance, and novel approaches to counter them are urgently needed. Small molecules of the innate immune system called host defense peptides (HDPs) have emerged as promising templates for the design of potent, broad-spectrum antibiofilm agents. Here, we review recent developments in the new field of synthetic antibiofilm peptides, including mechanistic insights, synergistic interactions with available antibiotics, and their potential as novel antimicrobials against persistent infections caused by biofilms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26724202

  1. Progress in the Predictive Value of Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Congestive Heart Failure%脑钠肽对充血性心力衰竭近期预后影响研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪斌; 葛均波

    2007-01-01

    脑钠肽(brain natriuretic peptide,BNP)是由心室分泌的一种调节心血管系统功能的多肽类激素,半衰期为23min,随充血性心力衰竭(congestive heart failure,CHF)的加重而分泌增加。BNP来源于心室,心肌缺血、损伤、坏死,心室壁张力和压力过重、苯福林、肾上腺素、异丙肾上腺素等均刺激BNP的合成与分泌。BNP通过受体起作用。

  2. Biomimetic peptide nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Kim, Sang N; Naik, Rajesh R; McAlpine, Michael C

    2012-05-15

    The development of a miniaturized sensing platform tailored for sensitive and selective detection of a variety of biochemical analytes could offer transformative fundamental and technological opportunities. Due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, nanoscale materials are extremely sensitive sensors. Likewise, peptides represent robust substrates for selective recognition due to the potential for broad chemical diversity within their relatively compact size. Here we explore the possibilities of linking peptides to nanosensors for the selective detection of biochemical targets. Such systems raise a number of interesting fundamental challenges: What are the peptide sequences, and how can rational design be used to derive selective binders? What nanomaterials should be used, and what are some strategies for assembling hybrid nanosensors? What role does molecular modeling play in elucidating response mechanisms? What is the resulting performance of these sensors, in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and response time? What are some potential applications? This Account will highlight our early attempts to address these research challenges. Specifically, we use natural peptide sequences or sequences identified from phage display as capture elements. The sensors are based on a variety of nanomaterials including nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. We couple peptides to the nanomaterial surfaces via traditional surface functionalization methods or self-assembly. Molecular modeling provides detailed insights into the hybrid nanostructure, as well as the sensor detection mechanisms. The peptide nanosensors can distinguish chemically camouflaged mixtures of vapors and detect chemical warfare agents with sensitivities as low as parts-per-billion levels. Finally, we anticipate future uses of this technology in biomedicine: for example, devices based on these sensors could detect disease from the molecular components in human breath. Overall, these results provide a

  3. Dicyclopropylmethyl peptide backbone protectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Louis A; Nasr, Khaled; Abdel-Maksoud, Adel Ali; El-Faham, Ayman; Ionescu, Dumitru; Henklein, Peter; Wenschuh, Holger; Beyermann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Bienert, Michael

    2009-08-20

    The N-dicyclopropylmethyl (Dcpm) residue, introduced into amino acids via reaction of dicyclopropylmethanimine hydrochloride with an amino acid ester followed by sodium cyanoborohydride or triacetoxyborohydride reduction, can be used as an amide bond protectant for peptide synthesis. Examples which demonstrate the amelioration of aggregation effects include syntheses of the alanine decapeptide and the prion peptide (106-126). Avoidance of cyclization to the aminosuccinimide followed substitution of Fmoc-(Dcpm)Gly-OH for Fmoc-Gly-OH in the assembly of sequences containing the sensitive Asp-Gly unit.

  4. Invertebrate FMRFamide related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, Kevin G

    2013-06-01

    In 1977 the neuropeptide FMRFamide was isolated from the clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then several hundred FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been isolated from invertebrate animals. Precursors to the FaRPs likely arose in the cnidarians. With the transition to a bilateral body plan FaRPs became a fixture in the invertebrate phyla. They have come to play a critical role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. FaRPs regulate a variety of body functions including, feeding, digestion, circulation, reproduction, movement. The evolution of the molecular form and function of these omnipresent peptides will be considered.

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  7. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  8. Drug targeting to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2007-09-01

    The goal of brain drug targeting technology is the delivery of therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the human BBB. This is accomplished by re-engineering pharmaceuticals to cross the BBB via specific endogenous transporters localized within the brain capillary endothelium. Certain endogenous peptides, such as insulin or transferrin, undergo receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB in vivo. In addition, peptidomimetic monoclonal antibodies (MAb) may also cross the BBB via RMT on the endogenous transporters. The MAb may be used as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry across the BBB large molecule pharmaceuticals, including recombinant proteins, antibodies, RNA interference drugs, or non-viral gene medicines. Fusion proteins of the molecular Trojan horse and either neurotrophins or single chain Fv antibodies have been genetically engineered. The fusion proteins retain bi-functional properties, and both bind the BBB receptor, to trigger transport into brain, and bind the cognate receptor inside brain to induce the pharmacologic effect. Trojan horse liposome technology enables the brain targeting of non-viral plasmid DNA. Molecular Trojan horses may be formulated with fusion protein technology, avidin-biotin technology, or Trojan horse liposomes to target to brain virtually any large molecule pharmaceutical. PMID:17554607

  9. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in early pregnancy is associated with development of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting...... that preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy....

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the central nervous system of the frog Rana esculenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, G.; Calle, M.; Roubos, E.W.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2004-01-01

    ddThe distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp)-like immunoreactivity was studied only in the rat central nervous system (CNS). In mammals, CART peptides occur among others in brain areas that control feeding behavior. We mapped CARTp-immunoreactive structures in

  11. C-peptide and Diabetic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun Cai; Hui-qin Xu; Yi Lu

    2011-01-01

    With the changes of life style, diabetes and its complications have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is reasonable to anticipate a continued rise in the incidence of diabetes and its complications along with the aging of the population, increase in adult obesity rate, and other risk factors. Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the severe microvascular complications of diabetes, characterized by impaired cognitive functions, and electrophysiological, neurochemical, and structural abnormalities. It may involve direct neuronal damage caused by intracellular glucose. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is complex and its diagnosis is not very clear. Previous researches have suggested that chronic metabolic alterations, vascular changes, and neuronal apoptosis may play important roles in neuronal loss and damaged cognitive fimctions.Multiple factors are responsible for neuronal apoptosis, such as disturbed insulin growth factor (IGF) system,hyperglycemia, and the aging process. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide defidency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy. Administration of C-peptide partially improves the condition of the IGF system in the brain and prevents neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of diabetic patients.Those Findings provide a basis for application of C-peptide as a potentially effective therapy for diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy.

  12. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...

  13. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A frightening increase in the number of isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains linked to the decline in novel antimicrobial drugs entering the market is a great cause for concern. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have lately been introduced as a potential new class of ...

  14. 生物标志物-血清脑钠素在充血性心力衰竭诊断中的价值%Measurement of Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level as a Biomarker for Congestive Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王频佳; 王娴

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of Brain Natriuretic pepfide (BNP) in estimating the degree of seriousness of congestive heart failure (HF) and study BNP level of CHF caused by various cardiovascular diseases.Methods 100 patients with CHF were divided into three classes (classⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ)by New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification Standard. 100 healthy individuals were selected into control group.Serum BNP concentration Were measured by electrochemical luminescence assay (Elecsys 2010,Roche Diagnostics).Results Mean serum BNP concentration of patients with CHF was 4 745.49±3 698.70 ng/ml,which was higher significantly than that of normal control (66.18±44.30ng/ml).Moreover,the growth in BNP level was increased with NYHA functional classification:class Ⅳ (1 0251±9 326.8 ng/ml) >class Ⅲ(1 239±1 063.8 ng/ml) > class Ⅱ (167.4±143.4 ng/ml),which was statistically significant (P0.05),但NYHAⅡ级各病因组间BNP水平差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 CHF患者血清BNP水平显著增高,且随着NYHA分级增加而增加,可作为评价CHF严重程度的客观指标.

  15. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  16. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:27479451

  17. Protection of the blood-brain barrier by pentosan against amyloid-β-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Mária A; Veszelka, Szilvia; Csiszár, Boglárka; Tóth, Andrea; Kittel, Agnes; Csete, Mária; Sipos, Aron; Szalai, Anikó; Fülöp, Lívia; Penke, Botond; Abrahám, Csongor S; Niwa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cells of brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier play an important role in the pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are key pathological elements in the development of the disease. A blood-brain barrier model, based on primary rat brain endothelial cells was used in which the barrier properties were induced by glial cells. The effects of amyloid peptides have been tested on cell viability and barrier functions. Aβ showed toxic effects on primary rat brain endothelial cells measured by MTT dye conversion and the lactate dehydrogenase release. Morphologically cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the structure of cytoplasmic organelles and tight junctions could be observed in brain endothelial cells. Treatment with Aβ1-42 decreased the electrical resistance, and increased the permeability of brain endothelial cell monolayers for both fluorescein and albumin. Serum amyloid P component which stabilizes Aβ fibrils in cortical amyloid plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits significantly potentiated the barrier-weakening effect of Aβ1-42. Sulfated polysaccharide pentosan could decrease the toxic effects of Aβ peptides in brain endothelial cells. It could also significantly protect the barrier integrity of monolayers from damaging actions of peptides. Pentosan modified the size, and significantly decreased the number of amyloid aggregates demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. The present data further support the toxic effects of amyloid peptides on brain endothelial cells, and can contribute to the development of molecules protecting the blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Protective effect of cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in ischemic brain injury%可卡因-苯丙胺调节转录肽在缺血性脑损伤中的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金佳丽; 徐运

    2010-01-01

    可卡因-苯丙胺调节转录肽(cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript,CART)是一种内源性神经肽,广泛分布于脑、胃肠道和胰腺等器官组织,具有多种重要的生理功能,包括进食与肥胖、应激、精神焦虑行为、药物成瘾和内分泌调节等.前期研究提示,CART在中枢神经系统广泛分布,并且参与调节多种生理学过程,具有一定的中枢保护作用,是一种很有潜力的神经保护剂.文章就CART对卒中以及神经变性疾病的神经保护作用及其机制,以及其在中枢神经系统疾病治疗作用等方面的研究进展进行了综述.%Cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), an endogenous neuropeptide, is widely distributed in human organs and tissues, such as brain, gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. It has a variety of important physiological functions, including eating and obesity, stress, mental anxiety, drug addition, and endocrine regulation. Previous studies have suggested that CART is widely distributed in the central nervous system, and it involves in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes and has some central protective effects. It is a potential neuroprotective agent. This article reviews the recent progress in research on the neuroprotective effect of CART on stroke and neurodegenerative disease and its mechanisms, as well as its therapeutic effect in central nervous system diseases.

  19. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  20. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides in Echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are important immune effector molecules for invertebrates, including echinoderms, which lack a vertebrate-type adaptive immune system. Here we summarize the knowledge of such peptides in echinoderms. Strongylocins are a novel family of cysteine-rich AMPs, recently identified in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and S. purpuratus. Although these molecules present diverse amino acid sequences, they share an identical cysteine arrangement pattern, dissimilar to other known AMPs. A family of heterodimeric AMPs, named centrocins, are also present in S. droebachiensis. Lysozymes and fragments of larger proteins, such as beta-thymocins, actin, histone 2A and filamin A have also been shown to display antimicrobial activities in echinoderms. Future studies on AMPs should be aimed in revealing how echinoderms use these AMPs in the immune response against microbial pathogens.

  3. Impact of Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide on Decompensated Heart Failure and Vasoactive Substance%重组人脑利钠肽对冠心病DHF患者心力衰竭症状及血管活性物质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏雯

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究重组人脑利钠肽对冠心病失常性心力衰竭(DHF)患者心力衰竭症状及血管活性物质的影响.方法 以冠心病DHF为关键字,rhBNP为相关词,对CNKI数据库进行近3年资料的全面检索,将人选的21份资料纳入观察,进行临床随机对照试验,对方法、结果、结论等方面进行评价,用SPSS 18.0进行Meta分析.结果 rhBNP降低平均收缩压4.66mmHg,95% CI(-4.33~-2.99,P<0.005);呼吸困难改善有效差-15.5%,95% CI(-14.25~ -2.24,P<0.01);心脏指数增加平均0.10L/(min·m),95% CI(0.03 ~0.16,P<0.05);脑利钠肽(BNP)、血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)、内皮素-1(ET-1)等血管活性指标均有不同程度的改善.且均具有统计学意义.结论 使用rhBNP能有效的改善冠心病失常性心力衰竭患者心力衰竭症状及血流动力,敏感性较强,且较为稳定,安全性好,值得广泛推广于临床.%Objective To study the impact of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide(rhBNP) on decompensated heart failure ( DHF) and vasoactive substance. Methods We took DHF as the key word and rhBNP as the related word for the whole retrieval of literature from CNKI database in recent 3 years, and studied the selected 21 pieces of data. Then we took the randomized clinical trials to e-valuate the methods, results and conclusion, as well as the meta analysis by SPSS 18. 0. Results rhBNP decreased the average diastolic pressure of 4. 66mmHg, with 95% CI ( - 4. 33~ - 2. 99, P < 0. 005 ). The significant difference in the dyspnea improvement was -15.5% , with 95% Cl ( -14.25~-2.24, P<0.01). The average increase of cardiac index was 0. 10L/(min· m), with 95% CI (0. 03 - 0.16, P < 0.05 ). There were improvements on vasoactive indexes of brain natriuretic peptide ( BNP), angiotensin II ( Ang II ) and endothelin - 1 (ET - 1) , with the statistical significance. Conclusion The application of rhBNP can effectively improve the symptoms of heart failure and the hemodynamics for

  4. 无创正压通气对慢性阻塞性肺疾病肺动脉高压及脑钠肽的影响%Effect of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pulmonary Hypertension and Brain Natriuretic Peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭慧群; 林伟革; 刘龙英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (AP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) effect. Methods 30 cases of COPD complicated with AP in our hospital from 2008 January to 2013 January were treated patients as the research object, using non-invasive positive pressure ventilator mask to patients on ventilation for 7 days, al of the patients receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation ventilation before and after PaCO2 (mmHg), PaO2 (mmHg), AP (mmHg), BNP (pg/ml) were observed, compared. Results All patients in this study, 17 patients in after 7 days of treatment, in which PaCO2, PaO2, AP, BNP levels before and after treatment has obvious dif erence, with statistical significance, <0.05. 5 patients in the course of treatment for invasive ventilation in the treatment of transit. Conclusion NIPPV on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in both on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pulmonary hypertension and brain natriuretic peptide significantly improved.%目的:本文探讨无创正压通气(NIPPV)慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)肺动脉高压(AP)及脑钠肽(BNP)的影响。方法选择我院2008年1月~2013年1月所收治的30例COPD合并AP的患者作为研究对象,采用无创正压呼吸机面罩来对患者进行辅助通气治疗7d,对所有患者在接受无创正压通气前以及通气后PaCO2(mmHg)、PaO2(mmHg)、 AP(mmHg)、BNP(pg/ml)变化进行观察、比较。结果本研究所有患者中,有17例患者在经过7d的治疗后,其体内的PaCO2、PaO2、AP、BNP水平与治疗前存在明显差异,具有统计学意义,P<0.05。5例患者在治疗的过程中转为有创通气治疗。结论 NIPPV对无创正压通气对慢性阻塞性肺疾病肺动脉高压及脑钠肽都有明显改善。

  5. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  6. Novel Functional Association of Serine Palmitoyltransferase Subunit 1-A Peptide in Sphingolipid Metabolism with Cytochrome P4501A1 Transactivation and Proliferative Capacity of the Human Glioma LN18 Brain Tumor Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stewart

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical modulators of cytochrome P4501A1, Cyp1A1, expression also perturb the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, SPT, a heterodimeric protein responsible for catalyzing the first reaction in sphingolipid biosynthesis. The effect of altered SPT activity on Cyp1A1 expression has generally been attributed to changes in the composition of bioactive sphingolipids, generated downstream in the SPT metabolic pathway, but the precise mechanism remains poorly defined. A generally accepted model for chemical-induced transactivation of the Cyp1A1 gene involves intracellular signaling mediated by proteins including the arylhydrocarbon receptor, AhR, whose interaction with the 90 kilo Dalton heat shock protein, Hsp90, is essential for maintaining a high affinity ligandbinding receptor conformation. Because ligand-induced Cyp1A1 expression is important in the bioactivation of environmentally relevant compounds to genotoxic derivatives capable of perturbing cellular processes, binding to Hsp90 represents an important regulatory point in the cytotoxicity process. In the present study, based on evidence that indicates subunit 1 of serine palmitoyltransferase, SPT1, interacts with Hsp90, both ligand-induced Cyp1A1 transactivation and capacity for proliferation were evaluated using the wild type Glioma LN18 human brain cancer cell line and its recombinant counterparts expressing green fluorescent SPT1 fusion proteins. Exposure to the prototypical Cyp1A1 inducer, 3-methylcholanthrene, 3-MC, resulted in the translocation of SPT1 from a primarily cytoplasmic domain to sites of focal adhesion complexes. Immunolabel for Hsp90, which was dispersed throughout the cell, became primarily cytoplasmic, while the distribution of AhR remained unaffected. When compared to the wild type, cells transfected with recombinant SPT1-GFP vectors had significantly attenuated levels of 3-MC-induced Cyp1A1 mRNA, as determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Although

  7. Curative Effect of Recombinant Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide Compared with Milrinone on Refractory Elderly Congestive Heart Failure%重组人脑钠肽和米力农治疗老年充血性心力衰竭的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄馨

    2012-01-01

    目的:本文应用重组人脑钠肽(rhBNP) 和米力农对顽固性的老年充血性心力衰竭进行治疗,并观察临床治疗的疗效比较.方法:将30 例老年充血性心力衰竭患者随机分为两组,一组在常规治疗的基础上加用米力农,另一组在常规治疗的基础上加用重组人脑钠肽,观察治疗前后两组患者的临床症状、体征、心功能等的改善情况.结果:两组治疗前后,重组人脑钠肽疗效明显优于米力农组,两者比较,差异有统计学意义.结论:重组人脑钠肽治疗老年充血性心力衰竭疗效确切,较米力农改善更加明显.%Objective:To compare the clinical curative effect of treatment recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) and milrinone in treatment of refractory elderly congestive heart failure patients.Methods:30 elderly patients with congestive heart failure on the basis of the conventional treatment were randomly divided into two groups (rhBNP group and milrinone group).Observe the patient's clinical symptoms,signs,cardiac function before and after treatment.Results:Clinical symptoms, signs, cardiac function,rhBNP group were significantly better than those in the milrinone group(all P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical curative effect of rhBNP in treatment of refractory elderly congestive heart failure patients is superior to milrinone.

  8. Natriuretic peptide vs. clinical information for diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter Rolf; Pouwels Claudia; Kleta Sibylle; Wetzel Dirk; Kochen Michael M; Lüers Claus; Scherer Martin; Koschack Janka; Herrmann-Lingen Christoph; Pieske Burkert; Binder Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Screening of primary care patients at risk for left ventricular systolic dysfunction by a simple blood-test might reduce referral rates for echocardiography. Whether or not natriuretic peptide testing is a useful and cost-effective diagnostic instrument in primary care settings, however, is still a matter of debate. Methods N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, clinical information, and echocardiographic data of left ventricular systolic function wer...

  9. [The role of B type natriuretic peptide in the assessment of post myocardial infarction prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, A; Ibn el Hadj, Z; Chrigui, R; Kammoun, I; Lefi, A; Chine, S; Gargouri, S; Keskes, H; Kachboura, S

    2006-10-01

    Recently cardiac peptides have received close attention as cardiovascular markers. Brain (B type) natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized predominantly in ventricular myocardium. Previous studies have shown that this hormone can provide prognostic information in patients with myocardial infarction. The aim of this review is to evaluate the impact of plasma levels of BNP on prediction of left ventricular ejection fraction and remodelling and major cardiac events after myocardial infarction.

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury and the Effect on the Brain-Gut Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrazian, Datis

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. One commonly overlooked effect of TBI is the disruption of the brain-gut axis, leading to gastrointestinal dysfunction. The brain-gut axis consists of the cortical areas of the insular cortex, cingulate, and hypothalamus that have bidirectional communication with the visceral enteric nervous system through afferent and efferent projections into the pontine vagal complex and nucleus tractus solitarius. Communication with the brain also occurs through messenger signals from the gut's microbiota, involving gut peptides, cytokines, and lipopolysaccharides. Disruption of the brain-gut axis from TBI can lead to a chronic, inflammatory, vicious sequela, involving both the brain and the gastrointestinal system, with both neuroregulatory and neuroimmunological loops. PMID:26348611

  11. Impacts on the Contents of Brain-Gut Peptides(GAS,NPY and CGRP)in Colonic Mucosa of Depression Model Rats Treated with Different Electroacupuncture%不同电针对抑郁模型大鼠结肠黏膜脑肠肽GAS、NPY、CGRP含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕金艳; 李志刚; 白妍; 赛音朝克图

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察不同电针"百会""印堂"对抑郁模型大鼠结肠黏膜三种胃肠道相关脑肠肽胃泌素(GAS)、神经肽Y(NPY)及降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)的影响,为揭示针刺治疗抑郁症胃肠道躯体化症状作用途径提供实验依据,并比较不同电针的作用效果.方法 将60只健康SD大鼠随机分为空白组、模型组、百优解组、脉冲电针组、音乐电针组,每组12只.采用慢性不可预见的温和刺激结合孤养方法制备抑郁模型.百忧解组每天将百忧解以生理盐水配制灌胃给药.脉冲电针组针刺大鼠"百会"和"印堂"穴,接脉冲电针治疗仪.音乐电针组取穴同脉冲点针组,接音乐电针治疗仪.采用放射免疫法测定各组大鼠结肠黏膜GAS、NPY、CGRP含量.结果 模型组与空白组相比,大鼠结肠黏膜GAS含量显著降低(P<0.05),NPY含量显著升高(P<0.05),CGRP含量极显著升高(P<0.01);脉冲电针组、音乐电针组及百忧解组与模型组相比,大鼠结肠黏膜GAS含量显著升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),NPY含量显著降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),CGRP含量显著降低(P<0.05或P<0.01);音乐电针组与脉冲电针组相比,大鼠结肠黏膜CGRP含量降低水平更为显著(P<0.05).结论 电针治疗可通过调整抑郁后胃肠道兴奋性激素与抑制性激素的失平衡来影响肠道中脑肠肽含量,从而调控脑-肠轴,使抑郁后胃肠功能紊乱状态得到改善,而且音乐电针组优于脉冲电针组.%Objective To observe the impacts on three gastrointestinal tract related brain — gut pep-tides , named gastrin( GAS ), nenropeptide Y( NPY ) and calcitonin gene related peptide( CGRP ) in colonic mucosa treated with electroacupimctnre( EA )at Baihni( GV20 Jand Yintang( Extra Jin depression model rats so as to discover the experimental evidences for acupuncture effective approach in the treatment of gastrointestinal somatization symptoms of depression and make the comparison of the effects

  12. Efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on acute heart failure with renal function insufficiency%重组人脑钠肽治疗急性心力衰竭合并肾功能不全的近期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鑫; 胡桃红; 谢晓春; 刘胜林; 李慧君; 张玮; 王晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) treating congestive heart failure complicated with renal failure.Methods A retrospective analysis of 105 cases of heart failure and renal failure patients were randomly divided into two groups:group rhBNP (55 cases,on the basis of conventional therapy plus rhBNP) and routine treatment group (50 cases,treated with routine therapy).The effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide [0.007 5 μg/(kg · min) micro pump intravenous infusion,once a day,each lasting approximately 10 hours,7 days for a course of treatment] was recorded before treatment,7 days and 3 months after treatment,including left ventricular ejection fraction,left ventricular end diastolic volume,left ventricular systolic end diastolic volume,24 hour urine volume,blood urea nitrogen,serum creatinine,serum cystatin C,NT-proBNP and creatinine clearance rate.Results Compared with routine therapy group after 7 days,NT-proBNP[(1 516 ±432)ng/L vs (4 951 ± 1 314)ng/L],the left ventricular ejection fraction[(46.9 ±6.8)% vs (30.6 ± 2.5) %],left ventricular end diastolic diameter [(50 ± 3) mm vs (57 ± 5) mm],left ventricular end systolic diameter [(35 ±6)mm vs (43 ±3)mm],24 hours urine volume [(975 ± 172) ml vs (786 ± 143)ml],urea nitrogen [(7.3 ± 2.3)mmol/L vs (12.9 ± 3.2)mmol/L],serum creatinine [(93 ± 8)μmol/L vs (234 ± 69) μmol/L],glomerular filtration rate [(46 ±6)ml/min vs (34 ±3)ml/min],serum cystatin C[(1.4 ± 0.1)mg/L vs (3.2 ± 1.9)mg/L] had significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion The recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide is safe and can improve the renal function in chronic heart failure.%目的 观察重组人脑钠肽(rhBNP)治疗心力衰竭合并肾功能不全的近期疗效.方法 回顾性分析心力衰竭合并肾功能不全的患者105例,根据不同治疗分为2组,常规治疗组50例,给予常规治疗;rhBNP组55例,常规治疗

  13. 重组人脑利钠肽对体外循环心脏瓣膜置换术患者血浆内毒素及全身炎性反应的影响%The effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the plasma endotoxin and systemic inflammatory response in patients with cardiac valve replacement during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国强; 罗万俊; 李迎秋; 蒋海河

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the plasma endotoxin and systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to explore its mechanism.Methods 32 patients with elective heart valve replacement surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass were divided into a control group and a treatment group randomly.The patients of treatment group were recievel rhBN (1.5 μg · kg-1 · min-1 bolus intravenous injection before aortic cross-clamping followed by 0.0075 μg · kg-1 · min-1 for 24 hours),while the patients of control group received the same volume of 0.9% sodium chloride.The plasma levels of endothelin -1 ( ET-1 ),diamine oxidase(DAO),lipopolysaccharide ( LPS),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) before skin incision ( T1 ),the end of CPB ( T2 ),4 h after the end of CPB ( T3 ),8 h after the end of CPB (T4),24h after the end of CPB (T5) respectively.Results Before skin incision ( T1 ),plasma ET-1,DAO,LPS,TNF-α of two group patients showed no significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) ; At each time point after the end of CPB ( T2,T3,T4,T5 ) Plasma DAO,LPS,TNF-α levels of two groups patients were significantly higher than before skin incision ( T1 ) levels ( P < 0.01 ).There was no significant difference of the plasma levels of ET-1 between T5 and T1 in treatment group patients ( P =0.24).At each time point after the end of CPB ( T2,T3,T4,T5 ),treatment group patients'plasma ET-1,DAO,LPS,TNF-α levels were significantly lower than the control group respectively (P <0.01 ).The increase in blood ET-1 was highly positive correlated with the increase in blood DAO (r=0.51,P <0.01 ).The increase in blood DAO was highly positive correlated with the increase in blood LPS (r =0.77,P < 0.01 ).The increase in blood LPS was significantly positive correlated with the increase in blood TNF-α ( r =0.48,P <0.01 ).Conclusion Recombinant human brain natriuretic

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  20. Relaxin peptide hormones are protective during the early stages of ischemic stroke in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Lindsay H; Willcox, Jordan M; Alibhai, Faisal J; Connell, Barry J; Saleh, Tarek M; Wilson, Brian C; Summerlee, Alastair J S

    2015-02-01

    The pregnancy hormone relaxin protects tissue from ischemic damage. The ability of relaxin-3, a relaxin paralog, to do so has not been explored. The cerebral expression levels of these peptides and their receptors make them logical targets for study in the ischemic brain. We assessed relaxin peptide-mediated protection, relative relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) involvement, and protective mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats receiving permanent (pMCAO) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusions (tMCAO) were treated with relaxin peptides, and brains were collected for infarct analysis. Activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway was evaluated as a potential protective mechanism. Primary cortical rat astrocytes were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation and treated with relaxin peptides, and viability was examined. Receptor involvement was explored using RXFP3 antagonist or agonist treatment and real-time PCR. Relaxin and relaxin-3 reduced infarct size after pMCAO. Both peptides activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Because relaxin-3 has not previously been associated with this pathway and displays promiscuous RXFP binding, we explored the receptor contribution. Expression of rxfp1 was greater than that of rxfp3 in rat brain, although peptide binding at either receptor resulted in similar overall protection after pMCAO. Only RXFP3 activation reduced infarct size after tMCAO. In astrocytes, rxfp3 gene expression was greater than that of rxfp1. Selective activation of RXFP3 maintained astrocyte viability after oxygen glucose deprivation. Relaxin peptides are protective during the early stages of ischemic stroke. Differential responses among treatments and models suggest that RXFP1 and RXFP3 initiate different protective mechanisms. This preliminary work is a pivotal first step in identifying the clinical implications of relaxin peptides in ischemic stroke. PMID:25456068

  1. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  2. Hormone-like peptides in the venoms of marine cone snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Li, Qing; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.;

    2016-01-01

    /neuropeptide-like toxins, including peptides similar to the bee brain hormone prohormone-4, the mollusc ganglia neuropeptide elevenin, and thyrostimulin, a member of the glycoprotein hormone family, and confirmed the presence of insulin. We confirmed that at least two of these peptides are not only expressed in the venom......The venoms of cone snails (genus Conus) are remarkably complex, consisting of hundreds of typically short, disulfide-rich peptides termed conotoxins. These peptides have diverse pharmacological targets, with injection of venom eliciting a range of physiological responses, including sedation......, paralysis and sensory overload. Most conotoxins target the prey's nervous system but evidence of venom peptides targeting neuroendocrine processes is emerging. Examples include vasopressin, RFamide neuropeptides and recently also insulin. To investigate the diversity of hormone/neuropeptide-like molecules...

  3. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor in high-grade astrocytoma by CHemotaxis Inhibitory Protein of S. aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. C.; Domanska, U. M.; Timmer-Bosscha, H.; Boer, I. G. J.; de Haas, C. J. C.; Joseph, J. V.; Kruyt, F. A. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; van Strijp, J. A. G.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High-grade astrocytomas are malignant brain tumours that infiltrate the surrounding brain tissue and have a poor prognosis. Activation of formyl peptide receptor (FPR1) on the human astrocytoma cell line U87 promotes cell motility, growth and angiogenesis. We therefore investigated the F

  4. The PeptideAtlas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    PeptideAtlas is a multi-species compendium of peptides observed with tandem mass spectrometry methods. Raw mass spectrometer output files are collected from the community and reprocessed through a uniform analysis and validation pipeline that continues to advance. The results are loaded into a database and the information derived from the raw data is returned to the community via several web-based data exploration tools. The PeptideAtlas resource is useful for experiment planning, improving g...

  5. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Guangshun Wang

    2014-01-01

    As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified ...

  6. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brainpeptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  7. Predictive value of natriuretic peptides in dogs with mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier; Kvart, Clarence;

    2009-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides are useful in diagnosing heart failure in dogs. However, their usefulness in detecting early stages of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) has been debated. This study evaluated N-terminal (NT) fragment pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic...... peptide (NT-proBNP) in 39 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with pre-clinical mitral valve regurgitation (MR), sixteen dogs with clinical signs of heart failure (HF) and thirteen healthy control dogs. Twenty seven CKCS and ten control dogs were re-examined 4 years after the initial examination and the...

  8. Metabolism of cryptic peptides derived from neuropeptide FF precursors: the involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Niedziolka, Magdalena; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-09-22

    The term "cryptome" refers to the subset of cryptic peptides with bioactivities that are often unpredictable and very different from the parent protein. These cryptic peptides are generated by proteolytic cleavage of proteases, whose identification in vivo can be very challenging. In this work, we show that insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is able to degrade specific amino acid sequences present in the neuropeptide pro-NPFFA (NPFF precursor), generating some cryptic peptides that are also observed after incubation with rat brain cortex homogenate. The reported experimental findings support the increasingly accredited hypothesis, according to which, due to its wide substrate selectivity, IDE is involved in a wide variety of physiopathological processes.

  9. Specific interactions between amyloid-β peptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  10. Peptides that influence membrane topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the mechanism of a range of polypeptides that influence membrane topology, including antimicrobial peptides, cell penetrating peptides, viral fusion peptides, and apoptosis proteins, and show how a combination of geometry, coordination chemistry, and soft matter physics can be used to approach a unified understanding. We will also show how such peptides can impact biomedical problems such as auto-immune diseases (psoriasis, lupus), infectious diseases (viral and bacterial infections), and mitochondrial pathologies (under-regulated apoptosis leads to neurodegenerative diseases whereas over-regulated apoptosis leads to cancer.)

  11. NCAM Mimetic Peptides: An Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    sequences contain one or several NCAM homophilic binding sites involved in NCAM binding to itself, have been identified. By means of NMR titration analysis and molecular modeling a number of peptides derived from NCAM and targeting NCAM heterophilic ligands such as the fibroblast growth factor receptor...... and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) have been identified. The FGL, dekaCAM, FRM/EncaminA, BCL, EncaminC and EncaminE peptides all target the FGF receptor whereas the heparin binding peptide HBP targets HSPG. Moreover, a number of NCAM binding peptides have been identified employing screening...

  12. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology. PMID:26279082

  13. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  14. Biodiscovery of aluminum binding peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2013-05-01

    Cell surface peptide display systems are large and diverse libraries of peptides (7-15 amino acids) which are presented by a display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high affinity binders to a given target of interest, and those binders quickly identified. Peptide display systems have traditionally been utilized in conjunction with organic-based targets, such as protein toxins or carbon nanotubes. However, this technology has been expanded for use with inorganic targets, such as metals, for biofabrication, hybrid material assembly and corrosion prevention. While most current peptide display systems employ viruses to host the display scaffold, we have recently shown that a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, displaying peptides in the ubiquitous, membrane protein scaffold eCPX can also provide specific peptide binders to an organic target. We have, for the first time, extended the use of this bacterial peptide display system for the biodiscovery of aluminum binding 15mer peptides. We will present the process of biopanning with macroscopic inorganic targets, binder enrichment, and binder isolation and discovery.

  15. Neuroactive peptides as putative mediators of antiepileptic ketogenic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela eGiordano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various ketogenic diet (KD therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs. In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the

  16. Polyclonal Peptide Antisera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Tina H; Illigen, Kristin E; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce and may supplement monoclonal antibodies for some applications or even have some advantages. The choice of species for production of (peptide) antisera is based on practical considerations, including availability of immunogen (vaccine) and animals. Two major factors govern the production of antisera: the nature of adaptive immune responses, which take place over days/weeks and ethical guidelines for animal welfare. Here, simple procedures for immunization of mice, rabbits, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens are presented. PMID:26424267

  17. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  18. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  19. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

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    Full Text Available ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ... normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the ...

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ...

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

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    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts Depression, Sustains Remission in Older ...

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    Full Text Available ... treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

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    Full Text Available ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

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    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... NIMH Strategic Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET General Health Information ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... sends impulses and extends from cell bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons ... in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

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    Full Text Available ... and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

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    Full Text Available ... These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change the way a gene is ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... or serious and cause severe disability. Through research, we know that mental disorders are brain disorders. Evidence ... many different types of cells in the body. We say that cells differentiate as the embryo develops, ...

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    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  19. Brain Health

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    ... Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay Mentally and Socially Active We Can Help ... of any wellness plan. Learn More Adopt a Healthy Diet > Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... stay focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this ...

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  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the ... as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control and memory. serotonin —A neurotransmitter ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mental disorder, or perhaps you have experienced one yourself at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  9. APP17肽调节胰岛素受体底物1在糖尿病小鼠脑内分布及对脑海马区神经元退行性变的作用%Effects of amyloid beta protein precursor 17 peptide on distribution of insulin receptor substrate-1 in brain and degeneration of neurons in hippocampus of diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆珊; 雷亚平; 崔艳君; 王蓬文; 盛树力

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In brain insulin does its work through the insulin receptor substrate (IRS). Amyloid beta protein precursor 17 (APP17) peptide has the neurotrophic function, which may improve diabetic encephalopathy resulted from insulin deficiency by affecting insulin receptor substrate.OBJECTIVE: The mouse diabetic model was produced to observe the effect of APP17 peptide on the distribution of IRS-1 in brain tissues.DESIGN: Randomized control animal experiment.SETTING: Staff Room of Pathology, College of Basic Medical Sciences,Capital University of Medical Sciences; Beijing Research Laboratory for Brain Aging of Xuanwu Hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Staff Room of Pathology,College of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital University of Medical Sciences and Beijing Research Laboratory for Brain Aging of Xuanwu Hospital from September to October 2003. Totally 18 male kunming mice were employed,and randomly assigned into control group, diabetic group and APP17 peptide treatment group with 6 mice in each group.METHODS: ①The mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, Sigma) by 200 mg/kg, and 3 days later, the tail blood was sampled to examine non-fasting blood glucose, and the blood glucose over 15 mmol/L was set as the criteria for successful diabetic model establishment. ②In APP17 + diabetes mellitus group, the mice received subcutaneous injection of 0.35 μg APP17 peptide once daily for 2 weeks. The mice in the normal control group were not interfered. ③Then brain was removed and crystat sections were prepared. Immunohistochemical staining was done for IRS-1 at four weeks after giving streptozotocin.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pattern and distribution of IRS-1 positive cells of mice in each group.RESULTS: Totally 18 mice were involved in the result analysis. ①In the brains of diabetic mice the IRS-1 immunohistochemical positive cells distributed at cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and so on, while the positive

  10. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, P.; Sosabowski, J.K.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of resea

  11. Urinary Peptides in Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaas, K. M.; Skjeldal, O.; Gardner, M. L. G.; Kase, B. F.; Reichelt, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A study found a significantly higher level of peptides in the urine of 53 girls with Rett syndrome compared with controls. The elevation was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than those with congenital Rett syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptide...

  13. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  14. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulášková, B; Maletínská, L; Zicha, J; Kuneš, J

    2016-11-15

    Obesity is a risk factor that worsens cardiovascular events leading to higher morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of relation between obesity and cardiovascular events are unclear. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that pharmacological therapy for obesity has great potential to improve some cardiovascular problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the common mechanisms regulating both food intake and blood pressure. Several hormones produced by peripheral tissues work together with neuropeptides involved in the regulation of both food intake and blood pressure. Anorexigenic (food intake lowering) hormones such as leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin cooperate with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated peptide as well as prolactin-releasing peptide. Curiously their collective actions result in increased sympathetic activity, especially in the kidney, which could be one of the factors responsible for the blood pressure increases seen in obesity. On the other hand, orexigenic (food intake enhancing) peptides, especially ghrelin released from the stomach and acting in the brain, cooperates with orexins, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin, which leads to decreased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. This paradox should be intensively studied in the future. Moreover, it is important to know that the hypothalamus together with the brainstem seem to be major structures in the regulation of food intake and blood pressure. Thus, the above mentioned regions might be essential brain components in the transmission of peripheral signals to the central effects. In this short review, we summarize the current information on cardiovascular effects of food intake regulating peptides.

  15. Extending the scope of neuropeptidomics in the mammalian brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhe Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are signaling molecules of intermediate size that are involved in neurotransmission and endocrine regulation. Complete monitoring of neuropeptides using neuropeptidomics approaches remains an important goal for describing targeted physiological regulation pathways. Considerable effort has been expended, particularly in terms of technique and methodology development, to extend the scope of neuropeptidomics. The capability of peptide characterization has been gradually improved, thus responding to increasing demands for broad detection and determination of various peptides. In this review, we discuss some achievements for the improvement of peptide identification coverage and their application for brain diseases and studying consequences of drug applications.

  16. CRF and urocortin peptides as modulators of energy balance and feeding behavior during stress

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eStengel; Yvette France Taché

    2014-01-01

    Early on, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a hallmark brain peptide mediating many components of the stress response, was shown to affect food intake inducing a robust anorexigenic response when injected into the rodent brain. Subsequently, other members of the CRF signaling family have been identified, namely urocortin (Ucn) 1, Ucn 2 and Ucn 3 which were also shown to decrease food intake upon central or peripheral injection. However, the kinetics of feeding suppression was different wi...

  17. CRF and urocortin peptides as modulators of energy balance and feeding behavior during stress

    OpenAIRE

    Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    Early on, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a hallmark brain peptide mediating many components of the stress response, was shown to affect food intake inducing a robust anorexigenic response when injected into the rodent brain. Subsequently, other members of the CRF signaling family have been identified, namely urocortin (Ucn) 1, Ucn 2, and Ucn 3 which were also shown to decrease food intake upon central or peripheral injection. However, the kinetics of feeding suppression was different w...

  18. Behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents: Implications for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Josh; Fletcher, Paul J; Nobrega, José N; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Dohan proposed that an overload of dietary peptides, such as those derived from wheat gluten and milk casein, could be a factor relevant to the development or maintenance of schizophrenia (SZ) symptoms in at least a subset of vulnerable individuals. Rodent behavioral models may offer insight into the plausibility of Dohan's exorphin hypothesis by providing a means to directly study the effects of such peptides. Accordingly, a review of the literature on the behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents was undertaken. Studies using a variety of behavioral tests to examine the effects of several classes of food-derived opioid-like peptides were identified and reviewed. Peptides derived from casein (β-casomorphins; BCMs, n=19), spinach (rubiscolins; RCs, n=4), and soy (soymorphins; SMs, n=1) were behaviorally active in various paradigms assessing nociception, spontaneous behavior, and memory. Surprisingly, only a single study evaluating a gluten-derived peptide (gliadorphin-7; GD-7, n=1) was identified and included in this review. In conclusion, food-derived peptides can affect rodent behavior, but more studies of GDs using diverse behavioral batteries are warranted. Assuming they occur in sufficient quantities during protein digestion and can access central opioid receptors (which entails crossing both the gastrointestinal and blood-brain barriers intact), these peptides may affect human behavior. Although BCMs and GDs may not be directly pathogenic in SZ, documented associations of casein and gluten sensitivity with SZ justify increased patient screening and dietary intervention where necessary. PMID:25661529

  19. Relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac function in patients with chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病患者血浆氨基末端前体脑钠肽与心功能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向莉; 杨敏; 潘家荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) and cardiac function in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD). Methods Plasma NT-proBNP was examined in 152 CKD patients and 20 healthy subjects. The relationship of plasma NT-proBNP and echocardiographic and biochemistry parameter was analyzed. Results Plasma NT-proBNP level of CKD patients with heart failure was much higher than that of CKD cases in same stage but without heart failure. Plasma NT-proBNP level of CKD patients without heart failure increased with the decrease of the level of estimated glomerular filtration rate( eGFR),which was not in CKD patients with heart failure. NT-proBNP level was positively correlated with left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVEDD) and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD),but negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection frection(LVEF). Conclusion Plasma NT-proBNP is a sensitive marker for diagnosing early symptomless heart failure in CKD patients.%目的 研究血浆氨基末端前体脑钠肽(NT-proBNP)与心功能的关系.方法 采用固相免疫层析法检测152例不同分期慢性肾脏病(CKD)组患者与20例对照组血浆NT-proBNP水平,分析其与心脏彩超各指标、生化指标的关系.结果 伴有心衰的各期CKD患者NT-proBNP水平远高于同一分期无心衰患者;非心衰组CKD患者的NT-proBNP水平随着肾小球滤过率的下降逐渐升高;NT-proBNP水平与左房内径以及左室舒张末内径、左室收缩末内径均呈正相关,与心脏射血分数呈负相关.结论 NT-proBNP是早期诊断CKD患者无症状性心功能不全的敏感指标.

  20. Conus venom peptide pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Dutertre, Sébastien; Vetter, Irina; Christie, MacDonald J

    2012-04-01

    Conopeptides are a diverse group of recently evolved venom peptides used for prey capture and/or defense. Each species of cone snails produces in excess of 1000 conopeptides, with those pharmacologically characterized (≈ 0.1%) targeting a diverse range of membrane proteins typically with high potency and specificity. The majority of conopeptides inhibit voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels, providing valuable research tools for the dissection of the role played by specific ion channels in excitable cells. It is noteworthy that many of these targets are found to be expressed in pain pathways, with several conopeptides having entered the clinic as potential treatments for pain [e.g., pyroglutamate1-MrIA (Xen2174)] and one now marketed for intrathecal treatment of severe pain [ziconotide (Prialt)]. This review discusses the diversity, pharmacology, structure-activity relationships, and therapeutic potential of cone snail venom peptide families acting at voltage-gated ion channels (ω-, μ-, μO-, δ-, ι-, and κ-conotoxins), ligand-gated ion channels (α-conotoxins, σ-conotoxin, ikot-ikot, and conantokins), G-protein-coupled receptors (ρ-conopeptides, conopressins, and contulakins), and neurotransmitter transporters (χ-conopeptides), with expanded discussion on the clinical potential of sodium and calcium channel inhibitors and α-conotoxins. Expanding the discovery of new bioactives using proteomic/transcriptomic approaches combined with high-throughput platforms and better defining conopeptide structure-activity relationships using relevant membrane protein crystal structures are expected to grow the already significant impact conopeptides have had as both research probes and leads to new therapies. PMID:22407615

  1. Potential of phage-displayed peptide library technology to identify functional targeting peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpe, Lauren RH; Mori, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial peptide library technology is a valuable resource for drug discovery and development. Several peptide drugs developed through phage-displayed peptide library technology are presently in clinical trials and the authors envision that phage-displayed peptide library technology will assist in the discovery and development of many more. This review attempts to compile and summarize recent literature on targeting peptides developed through peptide library technology, with special emphasis on novel peptides with targeting capacity evaluated in vivo. PMID:20150977

  2. Apelin-13 as a novel target for intervention in secondary injury after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hai-Jun; Qiu, Hai-Yang; Kuai, Jin-Xia; Song, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Shao-Xian; Wang, Chao-Qun; Peng, Hua-Bin; Han, Wen-Can; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The adipocytokine, apelin-13, is an abundantly expressed peptide in the nervous system. Apelin-13 protects the brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury and attenuates traumatic brain injury by suppressing autophagy. However, secondary apelin-13 effects on traumatic brain injury-induced neural cell death and blood-brain barrier integrity are still not clear. Here, we found that apelin-13 significantly decreases cerebral water content, mitigates blood-brain barrier destruction, reduces aquaporin-4 expression, diminishes caspase-3 and Bax expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and reduces apoptosis. These results show that apelin-13 attenuates secondary injury after traumatic brain injury and exerts a neuroprotective effect. PMID:27630697

  3. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  4. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  5. Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Receptor targeting with radiolabelled peptides has become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in the past few years. The overexpression of many peptide receptors in numerous cancers, compared to their relatively low density in physiological organs, represents the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled peptide-based probes. The prototypes are analogs of somatostatin which are routinely used in the clinic. More recent developments include somatostatin analogs with a broader receptor subtype profile or with antagonistic properties. Many other peptide families such as bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) etc. have been explored during the last few years and quite a number of potential radiolabelled probes have been derived from them. On the other hand, a variety of strategies and optimized protocols for efficient labelling of peptides with clinically relevant radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc, M{sup 3+} radiometals ({sup 111}In, {sup 86/90}Y, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 67/68}Ga), {sup 64/67}Cu, {sup 18}F or radioisotopes of iodine have been developed. The labelling approaches include direct labelling, the use of bifunctional chelators or prosthetic groups. The choice of the labelling approach is driven by the nature and the chemical properties of the radionuclide. Additionally, chemical strategies, including modification of the amino acid sequence and introduction of linkers/spacers with different characteristics, have been explored for the improvement of the overall performance of the radiopeptides, e.g. metabolic stability and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we discuss the development of peptides as radiopharmaceuticals starting from the choice of the labelling method and the conditions to the design and optimization of the peptide probe, as well as some recent developments, focusing on a selected list of peptide families, including somatostatin

  6. Peptide primary messengers in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The peptide primary messengers regulate embryonic development,cell growth and many other activities in animal cells. But recent evidence verified that peptide primary messengers are also involved in plant defense responses, the recognition between pollen and stigma and keep the balance between cell proliferation and differentiations in shoot apical meristems. Those results suggest that plants may actually make wide use of peptide primary messengers, both in embryonic development and late life when they rally their cells to defend against pathogens and insect pests. The recent advance in those aspects is reviewed.

  7. Action of Caffeine as an Amyloid Inhibitor in the Aggregation of Aβ16-22 Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused due to aggregation of Aβ peptides in the brain tissues. Recently, several studies on AD transgenic mice have shown the effect of caffeine in significantly reducing the Aβ amyloid level in their brains. However, the mechanism and mode of caffeine action on amyloid aggregation are not known. Therefore, in this study, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of five amyloid-forming Aβ16-22 peptides in pure water and in a regime of caffeine solutions, with different caffeine/peptide stoichiometric ratios. The secondary structure analyses of peptides in pure water show the formation of β-sheet conformations, whereas on addition of caffeine, these ordered conformations become negligible. The radial distribution function, contact map, nonbonding interaction energy, hydrogen bonding, potential of mean force, and hydration analyses show that there is less interpeptide interaction in the presence of caffeine, and the effect is greater with an increasing caffeine ratio. The interaction of aromatic phenylalanine residues of peptides with caffeine restricts the interpeptide interaction tendency. Upon increasing the number of caffeine molecules, interaction of caffeine with other hydrophobic residues also increases. Thus, the hydrophobic core-recognition motif of amyloid formation of peptides is physically blocked by caffeine, thereby abolishing the self-assembly formation. PMID:27487451

  8. Effects of Xinfeng Capsules on Heart Function and Serum and Myocardial Brain Natriuretic Peptides in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis%新风胶囊对佐剂性关节炎大鼠心功能及血清和心肌脑利钠肽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹云祥; 刘健; 朱艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of Xinfeng Capsules (XFC), a traditional Chinese prescription for invigorating spleen-qi, dissipating dampness and removing obstacles from collaterals, on heart function and serum and myocardial brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) in rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA). Methods Sixty rats were averagely randomized into control group, model control group, methotrexatc (MTX) treated group, Triptcrygium glycosides Tablet (TGT) treated group, and XFC treated group. Except for rats in normal control group, other rats were induced to AA model by intradermally injecting Freund's complete adjuvant into the right paw. Nineteen days after inducing AA model, rats in normal control group and model control group were administered with normal saline, and rats in the remaining three groups were treated with MTX, TGT, and XFC, respcctively. The swelling degree of voix pedis, arthritis index (AI), heart function, serum levels of BNP and the expression of myocardial BNP mRNA were observed in rats of each group. Results (1) Compared with those in normal control group, heart rate (HR), heart index (HI), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) increased significantly (P<0.05) in model control group, while the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure of development or decline (±dp/dtmax) decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with those in model control group, HI, LVSP and LVEDP decreased significantly (P<0.05, or P<0.01) in XFC treatcd group, while ± dp/dtmax increased significantly (P<0.05, or P<0.01 ). Compared with thosc in MTX treated group, LVSP and LVEDP significantly decreased (P<0.05), and +dp/dtmax increased significantly in XFC treated group (P<0. 05). (2) Compared with those in normal control group, the scrum levels of BNP and the expression levels of myocardial BNP mRNA increased significantly in modcl control group (P<0. 05, or P<0. 01).Compared with those in model

  9. Short-term prognosis evaluation of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration on the non-diabetic acute myocardial infarction patients with stress hyperglycemia%血浆脑钠肽水平对非糖尿病急性心肌梗死并发应激性高血糖患者近期预后评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永东; 董春花; 刘丹

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察非糖尿病急性心肌梗死(AMI)并发应激性高血糖患者血浆脑钠肽(BNP)水平变化,探讨血浆BNP在非糖尿病AMI并发应激性高血糖患者近期预后评估中的作用.方法:将60例AMI患者根据空腹血糖值分为2组,非糖尿病AMI并发应激性高血糖组(试验组)(血糖≥7.0 mmol/L) 36例,AMI未并发应激性高血糖组(对照组)(血糖<7.0 mmol/L)24例,对AMI患者在发病后24 h时测定血浆BNP水平.所有入选患者入院后2周行心脏彩超检查,测定和计算左室舒张末期内径(LVDd)、左室收缩末期内径(LVSd)、左室射血分数(LVEF);同时行24 h动态心电图检测,记录2组患者心律失常发生率;并观察住院2周内心绞痛、心力衰竭、心源性休克、心源性猝死等主要不良心血管事件(MACE)发生率.结果:①发病后24 h血浆BNP浓度试验组明显高于对照组[(671.87±631.71)ng/L∶(299.53±455.67)ng/L,P<0.01].②试验组LVDd、LVSd均高于对照组[(53.01±4.00)mm∶(50.50±3.20)mm,(45.32±5.92)mm∶ (42.52±3.27)mm,均P<0.05],LVEF低于对照组[(52.86±5.79)%∶(61.00±7.54)%,P<0.05].③试验组室性心律失常、室上性心律失常、严重窦性心动过缓和房室传导阻滞发生率均高于对照组(分别为66.67%∶41.67%,63.89%∶37.50%,47.22%∶20.83%,均P<0.05).④试验组与对照组住院2周内MACE发生率,包括心力衰竭(36.11%∶ 12.50%)、心源性休克(16.67%∶0.00%)、梗死后心绞痛(25.00%∶4.17%)均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05);死亡率(2.78%∶0.00%)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:非糖尿病AMI并发应激性高血糖患者近期预后差,血浆BNP水平升高更为明显.%Objective:To observe the change of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in the non-diabetic acute myocardial infarction patients with stress hyperglycemia, and to study its role in prognosis evaluation. Method:Sixty patients with acute myocardial

  10. Screening of TACE Peptide Inhibitors from Phage Display Peptide Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) ectodomain and use it as a selective molecule for the screening of TACE peptide inhibitors, the cDNA coding catalytic domain (T800) and full-length ectodomain (T1300) of TACE were amplified by RTPCR, and the expression plasmids were constructed by inserting T800 and T1300 into plasmid pET28a and pET-28c respectively. The recombinant T800 and T1300 were induced by IPTG, and SDSPAGE and Western blotting analysis results revealed that T800 and T1300 were highly expressed in the form of inclusion body. After Ni2+-NTA resin affinity chromatography, the recombinant proteins were used in the screening of TACE-binding peptides from phage display peptide library respectively. After 4 rounds of biopanning, the positive phage clones were analyzed by ELISA, competitive inhibition assay and DNA sequencing. A common amino acid sequence (TRWLVYFSRPYLVAT) was found and synthesized. The synthetic peptide could inhibit the TNF-α release from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) up to 60.3 %. FACS analysis revealed that the peptide mediated the accumulation of TNF-α on the cell surface. These results demonstrate that the TACE-binding peptide is an effective antagonist of TACE.

  11. Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Curr...

  12. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as ... making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD , schizophrenia , and depression . Hippocampus —Helps create and file new memories. When the hippocampus is damaged, a ... portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A ...

  17. New vasoactive peptides in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Goetze, Jens Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis have substantial circulatory imbalance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilating forces. The study of circulatory vasoactive peptides may provide important pathophysiological information. This study aimed to assess concentrations, organ extraction and relations...

  18. Peptide-LNA oligonucleotide conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup; Vester, Birte;

    2013-01-01

    properties, peptides were introduced into oligonucleotides via a 2'-alkyne-2'-amino-LNA scaffold. Derivatives of methionine- and leucine-enkephalins were chosen as model peptides of mixed amino acid content, which were singly and doubly incorporated into LNA/DNA strands using highly efficient copper......(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" chemistry. DNA/RNA target binding affinity and selectivity of the resulting POCs were improved in comparison to LNA/DNA mixmers and unmodified DNA controls. This clearly demonstrates that internal attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides can significantly...... improve biomolecular recognition by synthetic nucleic acid analogues. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements showed no distortion of the duplex structure by the incorporated peptide chains while studies in human serum indicated superior stability of the POCs compared to LNA/DNA mixmers and unmodified DNA...

  19. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26846352

  20. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  1. Tailored delivery of analgesic ziconotide across a blood brain barrier model using viral nanocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Prachi; O'Neil, Alison; Lin, Emily; Douglas, Trevor; Holford, Mandë

    2015-08-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is often an insurmountable obstacle for a large number of candidate drugs, including peptides, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents. Devising an adroit delivery method to cross the BBB is essential to unlocking widespread application of peptide therapeutics. Presented here is an engineered nanocontainer for delivering peptidic drugs across the BBB encapsulating the analgesic marine snail peptide ziconotide (Prialt®). We developed a bi-functional viral nanocontainer based on the Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage P22 capsid, genetically incorporating ziconotide in the interior cavity, and chemically attaching cell penetrating HIV-Tat peptide on the exterior of the capsid. Virus like particles (VLPs) of P22 containing ziconotide were successfully transported in several BBB models of rat and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) using a recyclable noncytotoxic endocytic pathway. This work demonstrates proof in principle for developing a possible alternative to intrathecal injection of ziconotide using a tunable VLP drug delivery nanocontainer to cross the BBB.

  2. Peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  3. Kinins and peptide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Domenico; Gobeil, Fernand

    2016-04-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first contains the essential elements of the opening lecture presented by Pr. Regoli to the 2015 International Kinin Symposium in S. Paulo, Brazil on June 28th and the second is the celebration of Dr. Regoli's 60 years of research on vasoactive peptides. The cardiovascular homeostasis derives from a balance of two systems, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). The biologically active effector entity of RAS is angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1R), and that of KKS is bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). The first mediates vasoconstriction, the second is the most potent and efficient vasodilator. Thanks to its complex and multi-functional mechanism of action, involving nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelial hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). B2R is instrumental for the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrition to tissues. KKS is present on the vascular endothelium and functions as an autacoid playing major roles in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. KKS exerts a paramount role in the prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Such knowledge emphasizes the already prominent value of the ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) for the treatment of CVDs and diabetes. Indeed, the ACEIs, thanks to their double action (block of the RAS and potentiation of the KKS) are the ideal agents for a rational treatment of these diseases. PMID:26408609

  4. Antimicrobial peptides in annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tasiemski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are widely distributed among living organisms including plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They constitute important effectors of the innate immune response by exerting multiple roles as mediators of inflammation with impact on epithelial and inflammatory cells influencing diverse processes such as cytokine release, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing, chemotaxis and immune induction. In invertebrates, most of the data describe the characterization and/or the function of AMPs in the numerically and economically most representative group which are arthropods. Annelids are among the first coelomates and are therefore of special phylogenetic interest. Compared to other invertebrate groups, data on annelid’s immunity reveal heavier emphasis on the cellular than on the humoral response suggesting that immune defense of annelids seems to be principally developed as cellular immunity.This paper gives an overview of the variety of AMPs identified in the three classes of annelids, i.e. polychaetes, oligochaetes and achaetes. Their functions, when they have been studied, in the humoral or cellular response of annelids are also mentioned.

  5. Antimicrobial peptides in crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are a large and diverse invertebrate animal group that mounts a complex and efficient innate immune response against a variety of microorganisms. The crustacean immune system is primarily related to cellular responses and the production and release of important immune effectors into the hemolymph. Antimicrobial proteins and/or peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, 15 distinct AMP families are currently recognized, although the great majority (14 families comes from members of the order Decapoda. Crustacean AMPs are generally cationic, gene-encoded molecules that are mainly produced by circulating immune-competent cells (hemocytes or are derived from unrelated proteins primarily involved in other biological functions. In this review, we tentatively classified the crustacean AMPs into four main groups based on their amino acid composition, structural features and multi-functionality. We also attempted to summarize the current knowledge on their implication both in an efficient response to microbial infections and in crustacean survival.

  6. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  7. Collagen-like antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Ryo; Kudo, Masakazu; Dazai, Yui; Mima, Takehiko; Koide, Takaki

    2016-11-01

    Combinatorial library composed of rigid rod-like peptides with a triple-helical scaffold was constructed. The component peptides were designed to have various combinations of basic and neutral (or hydrophobic) amino acid residues based on collagen-like (Gly-Pro-Yaa)-repeating sequences, inspired from the basic and amphiphilic nature of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Screening of the peptide pools resulted in identification of antimicrobial peptides. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the position of Arg-cluster at N-terminus and cystine knots at C-terminus in the triple helix significantly contributed to the antimicrobial activity. The most potent peptide RO-A showed activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. In addition, Escherichia coli exposed to RO-A resulted in abnormal elongation of the cells. RO-A was also shown to have remarkable stability in human serum and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 453-459, 2016. PMID:27271210

  8. The physiology of glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a 30-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the intestinal epithelial endocrine L-cells by differential processing of proglucagon, the gene which is expressed in these cells. The current knowledge regarding regulation of proglucagon gene expression in the gut...... and in the brain and mechanisms responsible for the posttranslational processing are reviewed. GLP-1 is released in response to meal intake, and the stimuli and molecular mechanisms involved are discussed. GLP-1 is extremely rapidly metabolized and inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV even before...... the hormone has left the gut, raising the possibility that the actions of GLP-1 are transmitted via sensory neurons in the intestine and the liver expressing the GLP-1 receptor. Because of this, it is important to distinguish between measurements of the intact hormone (responsible for endocrine actions...

  9. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients...... with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia....... METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain...

  10. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  11. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  12. Successful adjuvant-free vaccination of BALB/c mice with mutated amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahi Monika M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent human clinical trial of an Alzheimer's disease (AD vaccine using amyloid beta (Aβ 1–42 plus QS-21 adjuvant produced some positive results, but was halted due to meningoencephalitis in some participants. The development of a vaccine with mutant Aβ peptides that avoids the use of an adjuvant may result in an effective and safer human vaccine. Results All peptides tested showed high antibody responses, were long-lasting, and demonstrated good memory response. Epitope mapping indicated that peptide mutation did not lead to epitope switching. Mutant peptides induced different inflammation responses as evidenced by cytokine profiles. Ig isotyping indicated that adjuvant-free vaccination with peptides drove an adequate Th2 response. All anti-sera from vaccinated mice cross-reacted with human Aβ in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse brain tissue. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that an adjuvant-free vaccine with different Aβ peptides can be an effective and safe vaccination approach against AD. This study represents the first report of adjuvant-free vaccines utilizing Aβ peptides carrying diverse mutations in the T-cell epitope. These largely positive results provide encouragement for the future of the development of human vaccinations for AD.

  13. DHPC strongly affects the structure and oligomerization propensity of Alzheimer's Aβ(1-40) peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahse, Kirsten; Garvey, Megan; Kovermann, Michael; Vogel, Alexander; Balbach, Jochen; Fändrich, Marcus; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to depend on the deleterious action of amyloid fibrils or oligomers derived from β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Out of various known Aβ alloforms, the 40-residue peptide Aβ(1-40) occurs at highest concentrations inside the brains of AD patients. Its aggregation properties critically depend on lipids, and it was thus proposed that lipids could play a major role in AD. To better understand their possible effects on the structure of Aβ and on the ability of this peptide to form potentially detrimental amyloid structures, we here analyze the interactions between Aβ(1-40) and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC). DHPC has served, due to its controlled properties, as a major model system for studying general lipid properties. Here, we show that DHPC concentrations of 8 mM or higher exert dramatic effects on the conformation of soluble Aβ(1-40) peptide and induce the formation of β-sheet structure at high levels. By contrast, we find that DHPC concentrations well below the critical micelle concentration present no discernible effect on the conformation of soluble Aβ, although they substantially affect the peptide's oligomerization and fibrillation kinetics. These data imply that subtle lipid-peptide interactions suffice in controlling the overall aggregation properties and drastically accelerate, or delay, the fibrillation kinetics of Aβ peptide in near-physiological buffer solutions.

  14. BDNF pro-peptide actions facilitate hippocampal LTD and are altered by the common BDNF polymorphism Val66Met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Lume, Maria; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Hara, Tomoko; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Takahashi, Masami; Shiosaka, Sadao; Itami, Chiaki; Uegaki, Koichi; Saarma, Mart; Kojima, Masami

    2015-06-01

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursor proteins and subsequently processed into their mature form by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in simultaneous removal of a pro-peptide. However, compared with that of mature form, the biological role of the pro-peptide is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological role of the pro-peptide of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and first showed that the pro-peptide is expressed and secreted in hippocampal tissues and cultures, respectively. Interestingly, we found that the BDNF pro-peptide directly facilitates hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), requiring the activation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). The BDNF pro-peptide also enhances NMDA-induced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor endocytosis, a mechanism crucial for LTD expression. Thus, the BDNF pro-peptide is involved in synaptic plasticity that regulates a mechanism responsible for promoting LTD. The well-known BDNF polymorphism valine for methionine at amino acid position 66 (Val66Met) affects human memory function. Here, the BDNF pro-peptide with Met mutation completely inhibits hippocampal LTD. These findings demonstrate functional roles for the BDNF pro-peptide and a naturally occurring human BDNF polymorphism in hippocampal synaptic depression. PMID:26015580

  15. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mäde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  16. Quantum Brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Skoulakis, E M C

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a novel model of memory and brain function, we focus our approach on the sub-molecular (electron), molecular (tubulin) and macromolecular (microtubule) components of the neural cytoskeleton. Due to their size and geometry, these systems may be approached using the principles of quantum physics. We identify quantum-physics derived mechanisms conceivably underlying the integrated yet differentiated aspects of memory encoding/recall as well as the molecular basis of the engram. We treat the tubulin molecule as the fundamental computation unit (qubit) in a quantum-computational network that consists of microtubules (MTs), networks of MTs and ultimately entire neurons and neural networks. We derive experimentally testable predictions of our quantum brain hypothesis and perform experiments on these.

  17. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  18. Peptides: A new class of anticancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Smolarczyk

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents embracing two distinct categories: natural antibacterial peptides, which are preferentially bound by cancer cells, and chemically synthesized peptides, which bind specifically to precise molecular targets located on the surface of tumor cells. Antibacterial peptides bind to both cell and mitochondrial membranes. Some of these peptides attach to the cell membrane, resulting in its disorganization. Other antibacterial peptides penetrate cancer cells without causing cell membrane damage, but they disrupt mitochondrial membranes. Thanks to phage and aptamer libraries, it has become possible to obtain synthetic peptides blocking or activating some target proteins found in cancer cells as well as in cells forming the tumor environment. These synthetic peptides can feature anti-angiogenic properties, block enzymes indispensable for sustained tumor growth, and reduce tumor ability to metastasize. In this review the properties of peptides belonging to both categories are discussed and attempts of their application for therapeutic purposes are outlined.

  19. Perspectives and Peptides of the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Kim A.

    Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobial peptides from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were recognized as the next potential generation of pharmaceuticals to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food, or to sanitize surfaces. Initial research focused on identifying the spectrum of antimicrobial agents, determining the range of antimicrobial activities against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and assessing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides versus their natural counterparts. Subsequent research then focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in model membrane systems not only to identify the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in microorganisms but also to discern differences in cytotoxicity for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recent, contemporary work now focuses on current and future efforts to construct hybrid peptides, peptide congeners, stabilized peptides, peptide conjugates, and immobilized peptides for unique and specific applications to control the growth of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Exploration of the Medicinal Peptide Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Bert; Stalmans, Sofie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The chemical properties of peptide medicines, known as the 'medicinal peptide space' is considered a multi-dimensional subset of the global peptide space, where each dimension represents a chemical descriptor. These descriptors can be linked to biofunctional, medicinal properties to varying degrees. Knowledge of this space can increase the efficiency of the peptide-drug discovery and development process, as well as advance our understanding and classification of peptide medicines. For 245 peptide drugs, already available on the market or in clinical development, multivariate dataexploration was performed using peptide relevant physicochemical descriptors, their specific peptidedrug target and their clinical use. Our retrospective analysis indicates that clusters in the medicinal peptide space are located in a relatively narrow range of the physicochemical space: dense and empty regions were found, which can be explored for the discovery of novel peptide drugs. PMID:26876881

  1. 最新糖化血红蛋白水平与急性心力衰竭患者B型尿钠肽、血肌酐的分析%The correlation between brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕; 韩凌; 杨静娜; 陈欣; 李晓红; 马杰; 陈萍; 孙一光; 胡文泽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP),creatinine (Cr) and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with heart failure,and to explore the correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and heart failure.Methods We selected 106 cases with congestive heart failure in the Fuxing Hospital Affiliated to Capital University of Medical Sciences.We tested BNP,serum creatinine level,evaluation of glycated hemoglobin level of patients with heart failure immediately after admission.Results The BNP levels in patients whose glycosylated hemoglobin level more than 6.5% of BNP levels was (1 356.47 ± 398.69) ng/L,and significantly higher than (686.27 ± 188.31) ng/L of patients whose glycosylated hemoglobin in normal group (P < 0.01).Serum creatinine level(159.32 ±42.31) μ mol/L in patients whose glycosylated hemoglobin level more than 6.5% was significantly higher than creatinine level (105.32 ±11.03) μ mol/L in glycated hemoglobin normal group (P < 0.01).Conclusions Blood BNP,serum ereatinine level in patients with heart failure in the glycosylated hemoglobin level more than 6.5% patients was higher than glycosylated hemoglobin normal level group.The higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with severe heart failure and poor renal function.The latest glycosylated hemoglobin can be a marker for the risk of heart failure.%目的 通过检测心力衰竭患者B型尿钠肽(BNP)、血肌酐(Cr)与糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)的水平,探讨HbA1c异常与心力衰竭患者是否存在相关性.方法 入选106例心力衰竭患者,测定患者入院即刻BNP、血Cr水平,评价HbA1c水平异常与心力衰竭患者BNP、血Cr是否存在相关性.结果 HbA1c≥6.5%患者BNP水平(1 356.47±398.69) ng/L明显高于HbA1c正常组的(686.27±188.31) ng/L (P< 0.01).HbA1c≥6.5%患者血Cr水平(159.32±42.31)μ mol/L高于HbA1c正常组的(105.32± 11.03) μmol/L (P<0.01).结论 心力衰竭患者最新HbA1c增高组患者

  2. 早期康复训练对急性心肌梗死患者N端脑利钠肽前体水平的影响%Effect of early rehabilitation training on N in patients with acute myocardial infarction terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌云

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察进行早期康复训练的急性心肌梗死(aMi)患者血清 n 端脑利钠肽前体(nt-pro BnP)水平。方法选取我院176例急性心肌梗死(aMi)患者,分为康复组和对照组,每组均给予相应基础药物治疗,康复组按要求进行早期康复干预训练,入选时及6个月随访时对各组进行血压测量、心电图检查和血清 nt-pro BnP 水平测定。结果入选时各组血压、心电图检及血清 nt-pro BnP 水平差异均无统计学意义,6个月随访时,康复组再次住院例数和其中因心功能恶化再次住院比率明显低于对照组(P<0.05),心电图 st-t 段改善率亦明显高于对照组。与训练前比较,康复组血清 nt-pro BnP 显著下降。结论早期康复干预安全性较好,可降低 nt-pro BnP 水平,改善心功能。%Objective To investigate the influence of early exercise rehabilitation on serum level of NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide(nt-pro BnP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction.(aMi) . Methods 178 cases of patients with aMi followed up for 6 moths were divided into two groups, 96 with early exercise rehabilitation and 82 only accepted conventional treatment as control. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram and the levels of serum nt-pro BnP were detected.Results during the 6 moths of treatment, the risk of total cardiovascular events in the rehabilitation group was significant less than the control group (P<0.05). after 6 moths of treatment, levels of nt-pro BnP were significant decreased in both of the groups (P<0.01, P<0.01) and significant lower in the rehabilitation group (P<0.05), and the improvement rate of st-t of ecG were higher in the rehabilitation group (P<0.05). Conclusion the early exercise rehabilitation is security for aMi patients, and may improve cardiac function and decrease the levels of serum nt-pro BnP.

  3. 运动锻炼对高血压伴单纯左室舒张功能不全患者心功能及血脑钠肽的影响%Effects of physical exercises on cardiac function and plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in hypertensive patients with diastolic cardiac disfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鲁; 闫素华; 刘纪改; 解建; 戴红艳; 何涛; 尤淑玲; 徐民; 薛梅; 周秀花; 李涛; 蔡卫东

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨运动锻炼对高血压伴单纯左室舒张功能不全患者心功能及血脑钠肽的影响.方法 将66例高血压伴单纯左室舒张功能不全患者随机分为干预组和对照组.干预组在药物治疗基础上给予为期6个月的运动锻炼,对照组药物治疗同前,并保持平静生活方式.结果 通过6个月的运动锻炼,干预组与对照组比较:体重[(68 ±7)、(72±8)]kg;收缩压[(135.4±5.1)、(140.9±5.2)] mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)、舒张压[(81.1±4.0)、(84.7 ±4.6)]mm Hg;纽约心脏学会分级(1.4±0.3)、(1.8±0.4);N-端B型钠尿肽原[ (526±126)、(741±189)] ng/L明显下降;左室射血分数(62.9±6.7)、(59.O±5.6),E/A( 1.1±0.3)、(0.9±0.3)明显升高(均P<0.05).结论 运动锻炼明显降低高血压伴单纯左室舒张功能不全患者血压、体重,同时改善心脏功能,是简单易行的健康教育项目.%Objective To investigate the effects of physical exercises on cardiac function and plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in hypertensive patients combined with diastolic cardiac dysfunction.Methods A total of 66 essential hypertension patients who had abnormal left ventricular relaxation and normal systolic function were assigned to the intervention group ( n =33 ; doing physical exercises once a day,5 days a week) or control group (n =33 ).All the patients received standard treatment.At 6 months,body weight,blood pressure,heart rate,NT-proBNP,and echocardiography were measured.Results At 6 months,body weight [ (68 ± 7 ) kg vs (72 ± 8 ) kg ],systolic blood pressure [ (135.4 ±5.1) mm Hg (1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa) vs (141.9 ±5.2) mm Hg ],diastolic blood pressure [ (81.1 ±4.0) mm Hg vs (84.7 ±4.6) mm Hg],New York Heart Association class (1.4 ±0.3 vs 1.8 ±0.4),NT-proBNP level [ (526 ± 126 ) ng/L vs (741 ± 189 ) ng/L] were significantly decreased in the intervention group when compared with the control group ( all P < 0.05 ) although left

  4. 慢性心力衰竭患者血浆脑钠肽浓度与体质量指数的相关性%Study on relationship between plamsa brain natriuretic peptide levels and body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄; 崔俊友; 李健

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性心力衰竭患者脑钠肽(BNP)水平与体质量指数(BMI)的关系,明确BNP水平对慢性肥胖心力衰竭患者预后评估的影响.方法:老年充血性心力衰竭患者54例(男性30例,女性24例,左室射血分数<50%),测量患者身高、体重,根据BMI将患者分为3组:对照组(BMI<24 kg·m-2)、超重组(BMI=24~27.9kg·m-2)及肥胖组(BMI≥28kg·m-2),通过免疫荧光方法测定患者血浆BNP水平,比较各组血浆BNP水平及BNP水平与BMI的相关性.结果:(1) 肥胖组患者血浆BNP水平[(1 460±87)ng·L-1]明显低于对照组[(1 857±145)ng·L-1]及超重组[(1 756±100)ng·L-1](均为P<0.01);(2) BNP与BMI之间存在负相关关系(r=-0.91,P<0.01).结论:心力衰竭患者血浆中BNP浓度随BMI增加而降低,在应用BNP对心力衰竭患者进行心功能评价时,应同时考虑肥胖因素对其产生的影响.%Objective; To explore the relationship between levels of plasma brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) and body mass index ( BMI) , and to examine the influence of plasma BNP levels on the prognosis value for obesity heart failure patients. Methods; Fifty-four heart failure patients were enrolled in this study(30 males,24 females and LVEF < 50% ) , and heights and weights of each patient were measured and BMI were calculated with these parameter. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI; controll group ( BMI < 24 kg · m ) , overweight group (BMI =24-27. 9 kg · m~ ) and obese group (BMI <28 kg · m~ ). The plasma concentrations of BNP were measured by immunofluorescence method. Results; The concentrations of BNP were significantly lower in obese group [ ( 1 460 ± 87 ) ng · L ] compared to normal group [ ( 1 857 ± 145 ) ng · L ] and overweight group [ ( 1 756 ± 100)ng · L-1 ] (P <0. 01). BNP levels were inversely correlated with BMI. Conclusion; In heart failure patients, plasma BNP levels are affected by BMI. The influence of BMI must be considered, when assessing the heart

  5. 血浆B型脑钠肽与冠心病患者冠状动脉病变程度的相关性%Relationship between plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide and the severity of coronary artery lesions in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 夏勇; 郝骥; 汪自龙

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心病患者血浆B型脑钠肽(BNP)水平与其冠状动脉病变程度的关系。方法136例行冠状动脉造影(CAG)检查者,CAG正常者30例作为对照组;冠心病患者106例,根据冠状动脉病变支数分1支、2支、3支病变组分别为38例、36例、32例;按冠状动脉病变类型分A型、B型、C型病变组分别为42例、36例、28例。分析BNP水平在冠状动脉病变不同支数组、不同类型冠状动脉病变组间的关系。结果随着冠状动脉病变支数的增加,BNP明显增高,三支病变组较单支、双支差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);随着冠状动脉病变类型严重程度的增加,BNP明显增高,BNP 在冠状动脉病变正常组、A 型、B 型、C 型病变组间两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),左心室舒张末期压力(LVEDP)在上述组间两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),直线相关回归分析表明BNP水平与Gensini积分存在明显正相关关系(r=0.463,P<0.01)。结论 BNP可反映冠状动脉粥样硬化病变的程度,其能较灵敏地反映左心室功能受损的血流动力学变化。%ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) and the severity of coronary lesions in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD). Methods136 cases undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) and left ventricular pressure curves recording during CAG were enrolled. Among them there were 30 cases without CAD and 106 cases with CAD. The patients were further divided into 38 single-, 36 double-, 32 triple vessel disease groups and 42 A-, 36 B-, 28 C type of coronary lesions. Plasma BNP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular end-distolic pressure(LVEDP) were recorded by left ventricular pressure curves. Gensini score indicated the result of CAG. The relationship between BNP and the severity of coronary disease was analyzed

  6. Effectiveness of alprostadil on insulin resistance index, brain natriuretic peptide and nuclear factor-κB in 2 diabetic patients combined with heart failure%前列地尔对2型糖尿病合并心力衰竭患者胰岛素抵抗、血脑钠肽和核因子-κB的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜茜; 秦玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨前列地尔对2型糖尿病合并心力衰竭患者胰岛素抵抗、血脑钠肽和核因子-κB的影响.方法 选取住院治疗的糖尿病合并心力衰竭患者80例,采用抽签法随机分为对照组(n=40)和治疗组(n=40).在维持血糖、血压、血脂达标的情况下,对照组给予常规抗心力衰竭治疗,包括一般治疗与药物治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用前列地尔20 pg,每日1次,共2周.治疗前后留取空腹血液标本,检测脑钠肽、核因子-κB,借助心脏超声检查评价患者心功能,计算胰岛素抵抗指数.结果 治疗后,两组患者左心室射血分数、胰岛素抵抗指数、脑钠肽、核因子-κB均显著改善,并且胰岛素抵抗指数、脑钠肽、核因子-κB较对照组改善更好,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 前列地尔可显著增强2型糖尿病合并心力衰竭患者射血分数,纠正胰岛素抵抗,减少脑钠肽和核因子-κB的表达,进而改善患者的临床症状及预后.%OBJECTIVE To study the effectiveness of alprostadil on insulin resistance index (IR) , brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and nuclear factor— κB (NF-κB) in 2 diabetic patients combined with heart failure (HF). METHODS Eighty 2 diabetic patients combined with HF were enrolled and randomly assigned to the control group (n = 40) and the treatment group (n = 40). In keeping glucose, blood pressure and lipid to reach purpose, subjects of the control group received routine treatment. Those of the treatment group additionally had 20pg alprostadil once per day for two weeks. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), IR, BNP and NF-kB were tested before and after the intervention. RESULTS After the intervention, 6 — Illinute walking test (6MWT). LVEF, IR, B NP and NF-κB were significantly improved in both groups. IR BNP and NF-κB in treatment group were supior to those in control group. CONCLUSION Alprostadil may be able to significantly improve myocardium LVEF, correct

  7. 血浆脑钠肽检测在老年射血分数正常心力衰竭患者诊治中的价值%The value of plasma brain natriuretic peptide detection in diagnosis and treatment of the patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段明勤; 黄改荣; 王丽霞; 韩跃刚; 徐先静; 曹选超

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血浆脑钠肽(BNP)水平对老年左心室射血分数(LVEF)正常的心力衰竭(心衰)患者诊断和治疗的价值.方法 选取在我院住院治疗,心脏彩色超声检查LVEF≥45%的患者78例,符合心衰诊断标准的52例为心衰组,左心室舒张功能正常27例为对照组,比较对照组和心衰组心脏超声舒张功能指标和BNP浓度的变化.结果 对照组与心衰组比较,BNP浓度(108.7±32.2)ng/L与(190.3±41.5)ng/L、左心室后壁厚度(11.3±1.7)mm与(13.6±1.4)mm、左心室重量指数(119.3±10.2)g/m2与(130.7±8.9)g/m2均升高(P<0.01).结论 BNP检测可作为诊断心衰的方法之一,BNP与超声心动图联合应用,可提高对老年LVEF正常的心衰患者诊断的准确性.%Objective To investigate the value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) detection in the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure patients with normal ejection fraction.Methods Totally 78 elderly patient were selected in our hospital,with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥45 %,among which 52 cases of patients were consistent of heart failure criteria (heart failure group),27 cases with normal left ventricular diastolic function as control group.The echocardiographic indices of diastolic function and the change of the concentration of BNP were compared.Results As compared with heart failure group,BNP concentration (108.7 ± 32.2) ng/L vs.(190.3 ± 41.5) ng/L,left ventricular posterior wall thickness (11.3 ± 1.7) mm vs.(13.6 ± 1.4) mm,left ventricular mass index (119.3±10.2)g/m2 vs.(130.7±8.9)g/m2 were elevated in heart failure group (all P<0.01).Conclusions BNP detection can be used for a diagnosis of heart failure as a simple and easy method.The BNP and ultrasound heart beat graph combination can improve heart failure diagnostic accuracywith normal ejection fraction in elderly patients.

  8. 血浆脑钠肽与同型半胱氨酸的检测在急性冠状动脉综合征诊断中的应用%Application of plasma concentrations of Brain Natriuretic peptide and Homocysteine in the diagnosis of acute cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡汉宁; 李小明; 陈薇; 涂建成

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆脑钠肽(BNP)和同型半胱氨酸(HCY)的浓度变化,在冠状动脉综合征(ACS)患者中的临床意义及其应用价值.方法:选择稳定型心绞痛(SA)31例,不稳定型心绞痛(UA)29例,急性心肌梗死( AMI)45例,健康组65例.入院后第二天清晨或症状发作后24h内采集血标本,分别采用免疫化学发光法测定血中BNP浓度,循环酶法测定血HCY浓度.上述各组中有31例SA、15例UA、25例健康者进行心电图、超声、运动平板实验,在实验前后分别采集血标本,检测运动前后血中BNP,HCY水平的变化.并进行统计学分析.结果:UA组患者血浆BNP浓度分别高于SA组及对照组(P<0.01).AMI组BNP浓度高于UA组(P<0.05).UA组的HCY水平分别高于SA组及对照组(P<0.O1).各组运动平板实验后血中BNP水平显著高于运动前(P<0.01),HCY水平运动前后差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:BNP水平增高表明与心脏缺血或缺氧有关,不稳定心绞痛患者血浆BNP和HCY水平明显升高,AMI组较UA组的更高,提示2者在急性心血管疾病的发病机制中起有重要作用.%Objective;To investigate the clinical significance and application value of the co-relations between plasma concentration variation of Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and Homocysteine (HCY) in acute cardiovascular disease. Methods:Stable angina(SA, 31 cases) , unstable angina(UA, 29 cases) , acute myo-cardial infarction(AMI, 45 cases), together with healthy controls(65 cases) were enrolled into this study. Blood samples were taken early next morning or within 24 hours of symptom onset. BNP and HCY levels were determined by Chemiluminescence Immunoassay and Enzymatic cycling assay, respectively. Electrocardiogram, Doppler echocardiography and treadmill exercising test have been applied in 31 SA cases, 15 UA cases and 25 healthy cases. Blood samples were collected before and after the motion for detecting the levels of BNP and HCY. Results: BNP and HCY

  9. 晚期肺癌患者血浆N-端脑利钠肽前体水平变化及临床分析%The change and clinical analysis of the level of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in advanced lung cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传文; 魏庆娟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨晚期肺癌患者血浆N-端脑利钠肽前体(NT-proBNP)水平变化及其临床意义.方法 选取40例晚期肺癌患者为观察组,另选同期住院28例早期肺癌患者为对照组.分别评定观察组和对照组入院第2天和第9天的心功能分级,检测两组患者血浆NT-proBNP水平、左室射血分数(LVEF),并比较2个时间点各指标的差异.结果 入院第2天观察组患者心功能分级与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P> 0.05);入院第9天观察组心功能衰竭发生率为15.0%(6/40),与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05).入院第2天、第9天观察组NT-proBNP与对照组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01),观察组入院第9天NT-proBNP与第2天比较有统计学差异(P< 0.01).结论 在患者心功能分级并未出现差异的情况下,观察组血浆NT-proBNP水平已明显升高,血浆NT-proBNP水平变化可以为患者心力衰竭并发症早期诊断和治疗提供依据,具有重要的临床应用价值.%Objective To explore the change of the level of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in advanced lung cancer patients and its clinical significance.Methods 40 cases of advanced lung cancer were selected as observation group,and 28 cases of early lung cancer were selected as control group.At the 2nd,9th day after hospitalization,assessed cardiac functional grading,tested the level of plasma NT-proBNP and LVEF,and compared the differences of above indexes at different time points.Results There was no statistically significant difference in cardiac functional grading between two groups at the 2nd day after hospitalization (P>0.05);at the 9th day after hospitalization,the incidence of heart failure in observation group was 15.0%(6/40),significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the level of NT-proBNP between two groups at the 2nd,9th day after hospitalization (P<0.05).The level

  10. 类风湿关节炎合并急性冠状动脉综合征患者血清脑钠肽水平及心功能特点分析%Cardiac function and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndrome complicated with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽丽; 王天

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cardiac function and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) complicated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Methods Sixty-eight ACS patients complicated with RA (observation group) and 65 ACS patients without RA (control group) from January 2012 to June 2013 were enrolled.The age,gender,body mass index (BMI),blood pressure,relative risk factors of cardiovascular disease were recorded and compared between the two groups.The levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP),erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),serum triglyceride (TG),total cholesterol (TC),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),homocysteine (Hcy) and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were compared between the two groups.The echocardiography was used to determine the changes of cardiac morphology and function.Results The BMI was significantly higher in observation group than that in control group [(28 ±4) kg/m2 vs (25 ±4) kg/m2].There were no differences regarding the age,gender,blood pressure,relative risk factors of cardiovascular disease,and the levels of TG,TC and LDL-C between the two groups.The HDL level was significantly lower in observation group than that in control group[(1.0 ±0.3) mmol/L vs (1.2 ± 0.2) mmol/L] (P < 0.05).The serum CRP,ESR and Hcy levels in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group[(10 ± 6) mg/L vs (4 ± 3) mg/L,(28 ± 16) mm/1 h vs (9 ±4) mm/1 h,(17 ±6) μmol/L vs (14 ±4) μmol/L] (P<0.05).The level of BNP was significantly higher and the LVEF was significantly lower in observation group than that in control group [(387 ± 226)ng/L vs (258 ± 139) ng/L,(44 ± 13)% vs (61 ± 10)%].Reduction of diastolic function was found in 66 cases (96.7%) of observation group,higher than that in control group [62.3% (40/65)] (P < 0.01).Conclusions ACS patients complicated with RA are more likely to be afflicted

  11. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidang Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines.

  12. Recent development of peptide self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiubo Zhao; Fang Pan; Jian R. Lu

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks to build peptides and proteins. Recent development in peptide synthesis has however enabled us to mimic this natural process by preparing various long and short peptides possessing different conformations and biological functions. The self-assembly of short designed peptides into molecular nanostructures is becoming a growing interest in nanobiotechnology. Self-assembled peptides exhibit several attractive features for applications in tissue regeneration, drug delivery, biological surface engineering as well as in food science, cosmetic industry and antibiotics. The aim of this review is to introduce the readers to a number of representative studies on peptide self-assembly.

  13. The predictive value of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels on outcome in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Baysal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In children undergoing congenital heart surgery, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels may have a role in development of low cardiac output syndrome that is defined as a combination of clinical findings and interventions to augment cardiac output in children with pulmonary hypertension. Methods: In a prospective observational study, fifty-one children undergoing congenital heart surgery with preoperative echocardiographic study showing pulmonary hypertension were enrolled. The plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were collected before operation, 12, 24 and 48 h after operation. The patients enrolled into the study were divided into two groups depending on: (1 Development of LCOS which is defined as a combination of clinical findings or interventions to augment cardiac output postoperatively; (2 Determination of preoperative brain natriuretic peptide cut-off value by receiver operating curve analysis for low cardiac output syndrome. The secondary end points were: (1 duration of mechanical ventilation ≥72 h, (2 intensive care unit stay >7days, and (3 mortality. Results: The differences in preoperative and postoperative brain natriuretic peptide levels of patients with or without low cardiac output syndrome (n = 35, n = 16, respectively showed significant differences in repeated measurement time points (p = 0.0001. The preoperative brain natriuretic peptide cut-off value of 125.5 pg mL−1 was found to have the highest sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 96.9% in predicting low cardiac output syndrome in patients with pulmonary hypertension. A good correlation was found between preoperative plasma brain natriuretic peptide level and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.67, p = 0.0001. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing congenital heart surgery, 91% of patients with preoperative plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels above 125.5 pg mL−1 are at risk of developing low cardiac

  14. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  15. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10-5 kDa, 5-1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10?5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  16. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  17. A New Peptide with Membrane-permeable Function Derived from Human Circadian Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao PENG; Ying-Hui LIU; Chun-Lei YANG; Chao-Min WAN; Yao-Qi WANG; Zheng-Rong WANG

    2004-01-01

    Basic peptides such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1) Tat-(48-60) and Drosophila Antennapedia-(43-58) have been reported to have a membrane permeability and a carrier function for intracellular protein delivery. Based on the fluorescence microscopic observations of the vascular endothelial cells (ECV-304) and the primary cultured neuroglial ceils, we found that human Clock protein DNA-binding peptide [residue 35-47, hClock-(35-47)] had a translocation activity very similar to Tat-(48-60). The cellular uptake of hClock-(35-47) increases with the increase of incubation time and concentration. The internalization effect at 4 ℃ was same as that at 37 ℃. Internalization of hClock-(35-47) was saturable and could be inhibited by the excess of the other MPPs. Moreover, The uptake of these peptides were significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate. These results strongly suggested that the hClock-(35-47) shared a common or very similar internalization pathway with other MPPs. Furthermore, we injected rat through the common carotid artery with hClock-(35-47)-FITC peptide, and cryostat sections of the brain were prepared and observed using a fluorescence microscope. Result showed that the peptide had the ability to translocate through the blood-brain barrier. It is promising to provide a new safe carrier for the intracellular and encephalic treatment.

  18. Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, S.; Barkhem, T.; Norberg, A.; Persson, H.; Schalling, M.; Hoekfelt, T.; Magnusson, G.

    1987-01-01

    The gene encoding the human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the histidine-methionine amide (PHM-27) peptide hormone was isolated from lambda phage libraries. The human gene was found to be composed of seven exons spanning approx. = 9 kilobase pairs. The first exon codes for an untranslated leader sequence, and the second exon codes for a putative signal peptide. DNA sequences coding for the VIP and PHM-27 hormones are located in two different exons. Southern blot analysis with genomic DNA suggested that a single copy of the VIP/PHM-27 gene is present in the human haploid genome. The expression of VIP/PHM-27 precursor mRNA in various tissues in the rate was analyzed by RNA gel blot hybridization. In the organs examined, expression was only detected in the brain and duodenum. RNA isolated from various regions of the rat brain - including the cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus - hybridized to both VIP- and PHM-27-specific probes. The same pattern of hybridization was found when VIP- and PHM-27-specific probes were used, suggested that possible differences in the localization of VIP and PHM-27 peptides between different brain regions cannot be accounted for by differential RNA processing.

  19. Peptide Antibiotics for ESKAPE Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thomas Thyge

    is considered poor compared to medicines for lifestyle diseases. According to the WHO we could be moving towards a post-antibiotic era in which previously treatable infections become fatal. Of special importance are multidrug resistant bacteria from the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus...... a cecropin-mellitin hybrid peptide and proved effective in killing colistin resistant Gram-negative A. baumannii in vitro. The molecule was improved with regard to toxicity, as measured by hemolytic ability. Further, this peptide is capable of specifically killing non-growing cells of colistin resistant A...

  20. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  1. An enhancer peptide for membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NP4P is a synthetic peptide derived from a natural, non-antimicrobial peptide fragment (pro-region of nematode cecropin P4 by substitution of all acidic amino acid residues with amides (i.e., Glu → Gln, and Asp → Asn. Results In the presence of NP4P, some membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides (ASABF-α, polymyxin B, and nisin killed microbes at lower concentration (e.g., 10 times lower minimum bactericidal concentration for ASABF-α against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas NP4P itself was not bactericidal and did not interfere with bacterial growth at ≤ 300 μg/mL. In contrast, the activities of antimicrobial agents with a distinct mode of action (indolicidin, ampicillin, kanamycin, and enrofloxacin were unaffected. Although the membrane-disrupting activity of NP4P was slight or undetectable, ASABF-α permeabilized S. aureus membranes with enhanced efficacy in the presence of NP4P. Conclusions NP4P selectively enhanced the bactericidal activities of membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides by increasing the efficacy of membrane disruption against the cytoplasmic membrane.

  2. Strategic approaches to optimizing peptide ADME properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li

    2015-01-01

    Development of peptide drugs is challenging but also quite rewarding. Five blockbuster peptide drugs are currently on the market, and six new peptides received first marketing approval as new molecular entities in 2012. Although peptides only represent 2% of the drug market, the market is growing twice as quickly and might soon occupy a larger niche. Natural peptides typically have poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties with rapid clearance, short half-life, low permeability, and sometimes low solubility. Strategies have been developed to improve peptide drugability through enhancing permeability, reducing proteolysis and renal clearance, and prolonging half-life. In vivo, in vitro, and in silico tools are available to evaluate ADME properties of peptides, and structural modification strategies are in place to improve peptide developability. PMID:25366889

  3. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  4. Lipoxygenase inhibitor peptides and their use

    OpenAIRE

    Schurink, M.; Boeriu, C.G.; Berkel, van, A.M.; Wichers, H J

    2006-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of enzyme inhibition. In particular it relates to peptide inhibitors for lipoxygenases. The lipoxygenase peptide inhibitors of have the potential to be used as therapeutic drugs as well as food preservatives.

  5. Natriuretic peptides in cardiometabolic regulation and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Bartels, Emil Daniel; Hunter, Ingrid;

    2014-01-01

    decade. Dysregulation of the natriuretic peptide system has been associated with obesity, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and essential hypertension. Moreover, the natriuretic peptides have been implicated in the protection against atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial ischaemia. All...

  6. Understanding peptide biology: The discovery and characterization of the novel hormone, neuronostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosten, Gina L C; Elrick, Mollisa M; Salvatori, Alison; Stein, Lauren M; Kolar, Grant R; Ren, Jun; Corbett, John A; Samson, Willis K

    2015-10-01

    The Human Genome Project provided the opportunity to use bioinformatic approaches to discover novel, endogenous hormones. Using this approach we have identified two novel peptide hormones and review here our strategy for the identification and characterization of the hormone, neuronostatin. We describe in this mini-review our strategy for determining neuronostatin's actions in brain, heart and pancreas. More importantly, we detail our deductive reasoning strategy for the identification of a neuronostatin receptor and our progress in establishing the physiological relevance of the peptide. PMID:26051024

  7. Purification, structure and function of bioactive peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eriste, Elo

    2004-01-01

    Peptides are vitally important molecules and many evoke cellular responses. The completion of several genome sequencing projects has revealed a number of new genes. However, as functional peptides often contain posttranslational modifications and/or occur at various lengths, it is of great importance to detect, purify and characterize novel bioactive peptides. To achieve these goals, new methods for peptide detection, isolation and functional characterization have to be d...

  8. Development and use of engineered peptide deformylase in chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Toma, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Deze thesis beschrijft het onderzoek naar potentieel van het gebruik van het peptide deformylase (PDF) in chemo enzymatische peptide synthese. PDF is geschikt voor selective N terminale deformylatie van bepaalde N-formyl-peptides zonder gelijktijdige hydrolyse van de peptide binding. Door de uitdagi

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases intracerebral glucose content by activating hexokinase and changing glucose clearance during hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Egefjord, Lærke; Lerche, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia with the resulting increase of glucose concentrations in the brain impair the outcome of ischemic stroke, and may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reports indicate that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may be neuroprotective in models of AD...... in the actions of GLUT1 and glucose metabolism: GLP-1 ensures less fluctuation of brain glucose levels in response to alterations in plasma glucose, which may prove to be neuroprotective during hyperglycemia....

  10. Parallel synthesis of cell-penetrating peptide conjugates of PMO toward exon skipping enhancement in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Liz; Okamoto, Itaru; Arzumanov, Andrey A; Williams, Donna L; Deuss, Peter; Gait, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    We describe two new methods of parallel chemical synthesis of libraries of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) cargoes on a scale suitable for cell screening prior to in vivo analysis for therapeutic development. The methods represent an extension of the SELection of PEPtide CONjugates (SELPEPCON) approach previously developed for parallel peptide-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) synthesis. However, these new methods allow for the utilization of commercial PMO as cargo with both C- and N-termini unfunctionalized. The synthetic methods involve conjugation in solution phase, followed by rapid purification via biotin-streptavidin immobilization and subsequent reductive release into solution, avoiding the need for painstaking high-performance liquid chromatography purifications. The synthesis methods were applied for screening of PMO conjugates of a 16-member library of variants of a 10-residue ApoE peptide, which was suggested for blood-brain barrier crossing. In this work the conjugate library was tested in an exon skipping assay using skeletal mouse mdx cells, a model of Duchene's muscular dystrophy where higher activity peptide-PMO conjugates were identified compared with the starting peptide-PMO. The results demonstrate the power of the parallel synthesis methods for increasing the speed of optimization of peptide sequences in conjugates of PMO for therapeutic screening. PMID:25412073

  11. Interpreting peptide mass spectra by VEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Rune; Lundsgaard, M.; Welinder, Karen G.;

    2003-01-01

    of peptide MS/MS spectra imported in text file format. Peaks are annotated, the monoisotopic peaks retained, and the b-and y-ion series identified in an interactive manner. The called peptide sequence is searched against a local protein database for sequence identity and peptide mass. The report compares...

  12. Synthetic Procedures for Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI-TOF-MS an...

  14. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Peptides and metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogan, M.J.; Olmedo, I.; Hosta, L.; Guerrero, A.R.; Cruz Ricondo, L.J.; Albericio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we describe the contribution of peptides to the biomedical applications of metallic nanoparticles. We also discuss strategies for the preparation of peptide-nanoparticle conjugates and the synthesis of the peptides and metallic nanoparticles. An overview of the techniques used for th

  16. Diversity of wheat anti-microbial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Tsezi A; Odintsova, Tatyana I; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V

    2005-11-01

    From seeds of Triticum kiharae Dorof. et Migusch., 24 novel anti-microbial peptides were isolated and characterized by a combination of three-step HPLC (affinity, size-exclusion and reversed-phase) with matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Based on sequence similarity and cysteine motifs, partially sequenced peptides were assigned to 7 families: defensins, thionins, lipid-transfer proteins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-like peptides, glycine-rich peptides, and MBP-1 homologs. A novel subfamily of defensins consisting of 6 peptides and a new family of glycine-rich (8 peptides with different repeat motifs) were identified. Three 6-cysteine knottin-like peptides represented by N- and C-terminally truncated variants revealed no sequence homology to any known plant anti-microbial peptides. A new 8-cysteine hevein-like peptide and three 4-cysteine peptides homologous to MBP-1 from maize were isolated. This is the first communication on the occurrence of nearly all families of plant anti-microbial peptides in a single species. PMID:16269343

  17. Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-08-01

    The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  18. Bioactive peptides in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Marletta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions and conditions and may ultimately influence health. Most of the biological activities are encrypted within the primary sequence of the native protein and can be released by enzymatic hydrolysis and proteolysis or by food processing. Milk is a rich source of bioactive peptides which may contribute to regulate the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems as well as the immune system, confirming the added value of dairy products that, in certain cases, can be considered functional foods. The main biological activities of these peptides and their bioavailability in dairy products are reviewed. The natural concentration of these biomolecules is quite low and, to date one of the main goals has been to realize products enriched with bioactive peptides that have beneficial effects on human health and proven safety. Even though several health-enhancing products have already been launched and their integration in the diet could help in the prevention of chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer and osteoporosis, more clinical trials are required in order to develop a deeper understanding of the activity of biopeptides on the human physiological mechanisms and also to assess the efficacy of their effects in a long term view. New scientific data are also needed to support their commercialisation in compliance with current regulations.

  19. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  1. Novel and Convenient Method for the Preparation of Phosphonate Peptides and Phosphonamidate Peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jia-Xi; FU Nan-Yan; GAO Yuan-He; ZHNAG Qi-Han; DUAN Li-Fang

    2003-01-01

    @@ Phosphonate and phosphonamidate peptides are phosphorus analogues of natural peptides. They have been great used as stable mimetics of tetrahedral transition states as enzyme inhibitors and as haptens for catalytic antibody research in recent years. Although several methods are available for the preparation of phosphonate peptides and phosphonamidate peptides, all of them use phosphonic acid derivatives as starting materials. The overall yields from the synthesis of phosphonic acid derivatives to desired peptides are not satisfactory in most cases.

  2. Design of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography: do large bioconjugates provide an opportunity for in vivo brain imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Reader, Andrew; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Schirrmacher, Esther; Wängler, Björn; Wängler, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The development of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography and other in vivo imaging modalities mostly relies on small compounds of low MW as a result of the restricted transport of larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, across the blood-brain barrier. Besides passive transport, only a few active carrier mechanisms, such as glucose transporters and amino acid transporters, have so far been exploited to mediate the accumulation of imaging probes in the brain. An important question for the future is whether some of the abundant active carrier systems located at the blood-brain barrier can be used to shuttle potential, but non-crossing, imaging agents into the brain. What are the biological and chemical constrictions toward such bioconjugates and is it worthwhile to persue such a delivery strategy?

  3. 电刺激大鼠上矢状窦区硬脑膜后血浆与脑组织中降钙素基因相关肽、P物质和前列腺素 E2释放差异%Release difference of calcitonin gene-related peptide,substance P and prostaglandin E2 in orbital venous plexus plasma and brain tissues from rats with dura mater of superior sagittal sinus following electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 吕新勇; 孙晓萍; 陈春苗; 周军; 王振中; 萧伟

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Toexplorethefeasibilityofpreparingamigrainemodelusingratdura materofsuperiorsagittalsinusinfollowingelectricalstimulation.METHODS MaleSDratswereexposed to 1 h electrical stimulation after brain electrode implantation,at 3 V,6 Hz,and a pulse of 0.25 ms.At 0, 1 5,30 min,and 1 h,orbital blood and brain tissue were taken.The content of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP),substance P and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 )in the plas ma and brain tissue was detec-tedbyradioimmunoassay.RESULTS ThebraintissuecontentofCGRP,substancePandPGE2in the sham group and normal group was not significantly different.CGRP,substance P and PGE2 in brain tissue of model group were 3.41 ±0.93,1 .80 ±0.64,3.41 ±0.93 and (1 .80 ±0.64)ng·g -1 respec-tively,significantly different from sham group(P<0.05).At different time points,the content of CGRP, substance P and PGE2 in plasma orbital venous plexus showed no significant difference between sham groupandmodelgroup.CONCLUSION ThereleaseofCGRP,PGE2andsubstancePinbraintissue is significantly different fro m that of plas ma after electrical sti mulation.The results suggest that a model of migraine can be constructed by electrical stimulation.%目的:探讨电刺激大鼠上矢状窦区硬脑膜制备偏头痛模型的可行性。方法雄性SD 大鼠,脑部电极植入术后行电压3 V、频率6 Hz、脉宽0.25 ms、时间1 h电刺激,并于刺激0,15和30 min和1 h进行眼眶采血,采血后取脑组织。采用放射免疫法检测血浆和脑组织中降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)、P物质和前列腺素E2(PGE2)含量。结果手术对照组与正常对照组大鼠脑组织中 CGRP 含量、P 物质含量和PGE2含量为均无显著性差异;模型组大鼠脑组织中CGRP、P物质和 PGE2分别为3.41±0.93,1.80±0.64和(5.17±0.69)ng·g -1,与手术对照组大鼠相比均有显著性差异(P<0.05)。各时间点手术对照组与模型组大鼠外周

  4. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  5. Computer-Aided Design of Antimicrobial Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjell, Christopher D.; Hancock, Robert E.W.; Jenssen, Håvard

    2010-01-01

    chemical parameters with biological activities of the peptide, using statistical methods. In this review we will discuss two different in silico strategies of computer-aided antibacterial peptide design, a linear correlation model build as an extension of traditional principal component analysis (PCA......) and a non-linear artificial neural network model. Studies on structurally diverse peptides, have concluded that the PCA derived model are able to guide the antibacterial peptide design in a meaningful way, however requiring rather a high homology between the peptides in the test-set and the in silico...

  6. Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel ...

  7. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  8. Intranasal Delivery of Camptothecin-Loaded Tat-Modified Nanomicells for Treatment of Intracranial Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Takashima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG/poly(e-caprolactone (PCL amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG-PCL-Tat didn’t show any cytotoxicity, even at high concentrations (2 mmol/mL. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles significantly prolonged the median survival of rats. These results indicate that intranasal delivery of anti-cancer drugs with cell penetrating peptide-modified nanomicelles might be an effective therapy for brain tumors.

  9. Peptide-enhanced oral delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Foged, Camilla; Berthelsen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    Systemic therapy upon oral delivery of biologics, such as peptide and protein drugs is limited due to their large molecular size, their low enzymatic stability and their inability to cross the intestinal epithelium. Ways to overcome the epithelial barrier include the use of peptide-based excipients...... throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, chemical stability is an inherent challenge when employing amino acid-based excipients for oral delivery, and multiple approaches have been investigated to improve this. The exact mechanisms of transepithelial translocation are discussed, and it is believed...... that CPP-mediated translocation involves transcytosis and/or direct translocation through the epithelial cells; whereas TJMP-mediated translocation is dependent on interaction with transmembrane or peripheral TJ proteins. This review focuses on the CPPs and the TJMPs currently employed as excipients...

  10. Safety Evaluation of Self-assembling Peptide Gel after Intracranial Administration to Rats Using the Open Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Masashi; Sugaya, Chiemi; Sugiura, Yumiko; Nagai, Yusuke; Sakanishi, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling peptides have been developed as clinical materials, which could scaffold to regenerate nerve cells and hemostatic materials in vivo. However, there has not been enough information for their in vivo application. The safety of self-assembling peptides for the application on the brain was examined using behavioral tests for each rat in this study. Self-assembling peptide gel was administered to the surface of the brain at a volume of 20 µL at 1.5%. After 2 months, the open field test and the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test were performed. There were no significant differences between the peptide gel and the control groups in locomotor distances and in %PPIs in the PPI test. The mean values of the percentage of time the rats stayed in the central area of the open field during the first 5 min and instances of center rearing or face washing in the peptide gel group were significantly higher than those in the control. There were amorphous substance in the subarachnoid region, and infiltrations of mononuclear cells were also observed in the self-assembling peptide gel group. Although the meaning of the effects observed in this study was not fully elucidated, the self-assembling gel produced marginal but significant behavioral and histological effects.

  11. Towards the MHC-peptide combinatorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangueane, P; Sakharkar, M K; Kolatkar, P R; Ren, E C

    2001-05-01

    The exponentially increased sequence information on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles points to the existence of a high degree of polymorphism within them. To understand the functional consequences of MHC alleles, 36 nonredundant MHC-peptide complexes in the protein data bank (PDB) were examined. Induced fit molecular recognition patterns such as those in MHC-peptide complexes are governed by numerous rules. The 36 complexes were clustered into 19 subgroups based on allele specificity and peptide length. The subgroups were further analyzed for identifying common features in MHC-peptide binding pattern. The four major observations made during the investigation were: (1) the positional preference of peptide residues defined by percentage burial upon complex formation is shown for all the 19 subgroups and the burial profiles within entries in a given subgroup are found to be similar; (2) in class I specific 8- and 9-mer peptides, the fourth residue is consistently solvent exposed, however this observation is not consistent in class I specific 10-mer peptides; (3) an anchor-shift in positional preference is observed towards the C terminal as the peptide length increases in class II specific peptides; and (4) peptide backbone atoms are proportionately dominant at the MHC-peptide interface.

  12. Perfusão da artéria pulmonar não melhora os índices de fator natriurético cerebral (BNP em estudo experimental em suínos Pulmonary artery perfusion does not improve brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in suine experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmo Atique Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    controlled perfusion over cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB modifies BNP levels expressed by the ventricular myocardium. METHODS: Experimental research involving 32 pigs, divided into two groups according to CPB strategy - group I (cardioplegia and group II (beating heart. Both groups were allocated into three subgroups according to lung perfusion strategy - subgroup A (control: no lung perfusion, subgroup B (lung perfusion with arterial blood and subgroup C (lung perfusion with venous blood. In subgroups B and C, lung was perfused for 30 minutes, using preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP as perfusion pressure, which was monitored through manometer. MPAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR were measured after coming off CPB using Swan-Ganz catheter. At preoperative time and 30 minutes after lung perfusion, specimens were taken from the right ventricular myocardium aiming to assess brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and histologic pattern. Immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin techniques were used to determine, respectively, BNP expression and inflammatory myocardial lesions. RESULTS: In animals submitted to controlled lung perfusion, there was a postoperative reduction of MPAP (P=0.03 and PVR (P=0.005.There was no differences among subgroups within the group, I (P=0.228 and subgroups within group II (P=0.325 as to postoperative BNP expression. There were no differences among subgroups with and without lung perfusion as to postoperative inflammatory lesions (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Main pulmonary artery controlled perfusion for 30 minutes did not yield substantial modifications in BNP expression and histologic pattern of the right ventricular myocardium.

  13. N末端B型利钠肽原与慢性心力衰竭患者心功能相关性的临床研究%Clinical research of the correlation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac function of the patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范倩; 李秀珍; 邱明峰; 刘暐; 娄序笙; 李冬梅; 张秀静; 鲁卫星

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the correlation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)and cardiac function of chronic heart failure(CHF).Methods Eighty patients of CHF were chosen as the observation group,and were classified according to the NYHA classification standard.Twenty healthy people were chosen as control group.The results of NT-proBNP and echocardiography indexes,such as left ventricular enddiastolic dimension(LVEDD),left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD),left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)were compared.Results ①In the same grade of NYHA,compared with the baseline of the observation group,the results of NT-proBNP after treatment were much lower [ grade Ⅱ (1913±707 )ng/L vs (2657±368)ng/L,grade Ⅲ (3403±1003 )ng/L vs (6037±1742)ng/L,grade Ⅳ (6429±1348 )ng/L vs (8324±679)ng/L,all P<0.01 ];②Compared with the baseline of the observation group,the results of indexes of echocardiography including LVEDD,LVESD and LVEF improved after treatment [ LVEDD (49±9 )mm vs (53±8)mm,LVESD(33±9)mm vs(39±10)mm,LVEF(58±9)% vs(53±10)%,P <0.01 ];③NT-proBNP and LVEDD/LVESD were positively correlated (r =0.640,r =0.694,P <0.01 ),while NT-proBNP and LVEF had negative correlation (r=-0.652,P< 0.01 ).Conclusions NT-proBNP can be used in clinical diagnosis of CHF.NT-proBNP shows a good correlation to NYHA and echocardiography indexes.%目的 观察慢性心力衰竭(CHF)患者N末端B型利钠肽原(NT-proBNP)与心功能的相关性.方法 选择80例CHF患者为观察组,另选20例健康人为对照组.观察组采用β受体阻滞剂、血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂小血管紧张素受体拮抗剂等规范治疗,共28 d.比较治疗前后NT-proBNP浓度、左心室舒张末期内径(LVEDD)、左心室收缩末期内径(LVESD)、左心室射血分数(LVEF)各指标的变化.结果 ①对照组NT-proBNP为(87±23)ng/L,观察组NYHAⅡ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ级患者(分别为27、40、13例)治疗后NT-proBNP浓度均明显低

  14. 步行运动训练对慢性充血性心衰患者左室结构和血浆B型脑利钠肽水平的影响%Influence of walking exercise training on heart function, left heart ventricle structure and plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华; 符春晖; 邹恩飞; 符允衡; 陈丽媛; 何东明; 黄军章; 赵志梅; 黄春燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of walking exercise training on heart function, left heart ventricle structure and plasma brain natriuretie peptide (BNP) concentration in patients with chronic heart failure ( CHF), to explore the sense of exercise training.Methods A total of 223 CHF patients were randomly assigned to a guided rehabilitation group, a non-guided rehabilitation group and a control group.All patients were given basic medicine treatment, and the guided rehabilitation group was administered guided walking exercise training program, while the non-guided rehabilitation group was encouraged to do exercise freely but with no guidance.Blood pressure, 6 min walking distance test, plasma concentration of BNP and echocardiography were measured in all patients before and after exercise training.Results At entry to the study, there was no significant difference among the 3 groups with regard to blood pressure, 6 rain walking distance and BNP level as well as echocardiographic parameters including left ventrieular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd).A follow-up at the 6th month after intervention, the amount of readmission patients in guided rehabilitation group were significantly less than those in non-guided rehabilitation and control groups ( P < 0.05 ).It was also revealed that the plasma concentration of BNP decreased significantly ( P < 0.01 ) ; LVEF and 6 min walking distance improved significantly ( P < 0.01 ) in the guided rehabilitation group when compared with baseline and 6-month follow-up of the non-guided rehabilitation and control groups.However, there observed no significant change with regard to LVEDd.Conclusion Walking exercise training can improve exercise endurance in CHF patients and is safety; but has no influence on left heart ventricular structure in short time.%目的 观察步行运动训练对慢性充血性心衰(CHF)患者左心室结构和血浆B型脑利钠肽(BNP)水平的影响,探

  15. Effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in rats%重组人脑利钠肽对大鼠液体胃排空和小肠传输功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世雄; 严祥; 王晶; 赵丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重组人脑利钠肽对大鼠液体胃排空和小肠传输的影响.方法 将72只健康雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别每日腹腔注射1次重组人脑利钠肽和生理盐水,1周后用葡萄糖酚红溶液灌胃,分别于灌胃后10、20、30 min处死大鼠,切取胃和小肠近、中、远各段留取内容物后,使用分光光度计测定胃肠各段酚红残留率.取治疗组和对照组大鼠各5只在灌胃前2h分别腹腔注射奥美拉唑,灌胃后10 min处死大鼠,测定胃内酚红残留率.结果 灌胃后10、20、30 min治疗组胃内酚红残留率分别为59.4%±1.9%、42.2%±1.7%和36.9%±2.7%,对照组为50.2%±2.0%、29.8%±1.1%和21.7%±1.3%,治疗组胃内酚红残留率高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组和对照组小肠近段与中段酚红残留率差异无统计学意义;治疗组远段小肠酚红残留率分别为0.2%±0.2%、0.4%±0.1%和2.1%±1.9%,对照组分别为2.7%±0.6%、5.9%±1.4%和7.8%±2.1%,两组比较治疗组酚红残留率低于对照组(P<0.05);奥美拉唑预处理灌胃后10 min治疗组较对照组胃内酚红残留率增多,分别为60.7%±8.1%和49.8%±6.4%(P<0.05),与未给予奥美拉唑预处理组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 重组人脑利钠肽可使大鼠液体胃排空减慢,小肠传输延迟.%Objective To assess the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhB-NP) on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in rats. Methods The male Wistar rats were randomly divided into rhBNP treatment group and control group. The rats in treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of rhBNP (15 /μg/kg, once daily), while the rats of control group only received an equal volume saline. They were gavage fed (1.5 mL) next week with phenol red in 5% glucose solution and sacrificed 10, 20, 30 min later. Dye recovery in the stomach, proximal, mid, and distal small

  16. Regulation of Zi-Bu Pi-Yin Method on β-amyloid Peptide and Insulin Degrading Enzyme in Brain Tissues of Spleen Yin Deficiency Diabetic Rats%滋补脾阴法对脾阴虚糖尿病大鼠脑组织茁淀粉样蛋白及胰岛素降解酶的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽娜; 战丽彬; 胡守玉; 闫云; 郑路平; 孙杰; 余丹

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe different forms of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) in the hippocampus and cortex in order to further explore the role of Aβ and IDE on spleen yin deficiency di-abetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD), and the effect of Zi-Bu Pi-Y in method. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, which were the blank control (Cont) group, diabetes (DM) group, spleen yin deficiency (pi) group, spleen yin deficiency diabetes (piDM) group and Zi-Bu Pi-Y in recipe (ZBPYR) group. Soluble and insoluble Aβ in the hippocampus and cortex of rats were extracted by gradient centrifugation, and then measured by ELISA. The ex-pression of IDE was observed by western blot. The results showed that the content of soluble and insoluble Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus and cortex of the DM group and piDM group were higher than the Cont group. The soluble and in-soluble Aβ1-42 content in the hippocampus and cortex of the ZBPYR group were reduced compared with the DM group and the piDM group. The soluble Aβ1-40 in the cortex of the DM group, pi group and piDM group were in-creased compared with the Cont group (P < 0.05). The soluble Aβ1-40 content of the ZBPYR group was decreased compared with the DM group and the piDM group (P < 0.05). The expression of IDE protein was decreased in the hippocampus of the DM group and the piDM group compared with the Cont group (P< 0.05), and the IDE protein level in the hippocampus of the ZBPYR group was increased compared with the DM group and the piDM group (P<0.05). The expression of IDE protein in the cortex of the DM group, pi group and piDM group was lower than the Cont group (P< 0.05). The IDE protein level in the cortex of the ZBPYR group was reduced compared to the DM group (P< 0.05). It was concluded that the increased Aβ1-42 in brain may be a major pathological change of DACD and spleen yin deficiency DACD. The decreased IDE expression may be one of the reasons to induce increasing of

  17. The Research of Joint Detection of C-Reactive Protein,Fibrinogen and N-terminal Pro-brain Natri-uretic Peptide in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Complicated by Possible Heart Failure%CRP、Fib和NT-proBNP联合检测在慢性心房颤动并发心力衰竭患者中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军艳; 何启强; 陆明海

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究慢性或持续性心房颤动(房颤)并发心力衰竭(心衰)或伴有心衰前期症状患者血清C反应蛋白(CRP)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、氨基末端脑钠肽前体(NT-proBNP)特点。方法回顾性分析2009年1月至2013年6月十堰市中医医院住院治疗的78例房颤或者房颤并发其他并发症患者,其中房颤并发重度心衰21例( A 组);持续性或持久性房颤伴明显心衰前期症状患者34例( B组);阵发性房颤患者23例( C组)。同时选取对照组健康正常人群30例( D组)。 A、B、C组患者入院时抽血,D组抽血时间不定,检测血清CRP、Fib、NT-proBNP水平。结果 A、B、C和D四组CRP水平分别为(120.3±22.7)、(50.3±15.7)、(4.1±1.3)mg/L和(3.7±1.2)mg/L,4组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);4组Fib分别(287.2±38.3)、(41.2±11.6)、(4.5±0.8) mg/L和(2.7±0.3) mg/L,其中A组Fib水平显著高于 B、C、D 组,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05);NT-proBNP分别为(1092.8±218.3)、(692.4±101.5)、(395.3±51.8) ng/L 和(172.4±32.0) ng/L,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。 CRP、Fib和NT-proBNP在房颤伴有心衰患者血清中升高呈正相关(P<0.05),但是在C组仅CRP与T-proBNP呈正相关(P<0.05)。结论 CRP、Fib和 NT-proBNP在房颤并发早期心衰患者血清中水平升高,明显高于正常健康人群血清水平,联合诊断可以提高房颤并发早期心衰诊断敏感性,使得临床及早干预。%Objective To research the characteristics of C-reactive protein(CRP),fibrinogen(Fib), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) in patients with chronic or persistent atrial fibril-lation possibly complicated with heart failure or early symptoms of heart failure .Methods From Jan.2009 to Jun.2013,a retrospective

  18. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  19. Flourescent Peptide-Stabilized Silver-Nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Simon

    for instance small molecules, DNA oligomers, and proteins. Peptides are an intriguing class of biomolecular ligands, due to the large combinatorial space these provide. Furthermore, as peptides have a propensity to fold up into well-defined and somewhat rigid secondary structures, they may serve as excellent...... throughput dramatically with regards to discovery of novel ligands. Our approach employs Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis on a PEGA resin which allows for on-resin screening of peptide ligands which, in turn, removes the tedious and labor-intensive work-up of synthesized peptides. The method allows for on......-resin formation of peptide-stabilized Ag-NCs in a reversible manner, which makes identification of novel lead compound from combinatorial peptide libraries possible with a few simple steps. This resulted in the discovery of at least one promising candidate (P262) showing brighter emission, spectral homogeneity...

  20. Peptide-induced emesis in dogs: possible relevance to radiation-induced emesis. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1982-09-01

    Results of earlier investigators indicate that radioemesis is mediated by some humoral agent(s). Peptides are likely candiates since they exert a number of biological effects and are released from storage sites by various stimuli, including radiation. Peptides at various concentrations were injected singly intravenously into conscious dogs, and the dog's emetic response was observed. Of the peptides tested, neurotensin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, oxytocin, and TRH produced consistent emetic responses. Inhibition of drug-induced emesis was studied both centrally (chlorpromazine) and peripherally (domperidone) acting dopamine antagonists. Results indicate inhibition by chlorpromazine, which crosses the blood brain barrier, but only partial blockade by domperidone, which does not cross the blood brain barrier. Preliminary studies were conducted attempting to characterize types of receptors on area postrema neurons. Single-cell recordings from these neurons, challenged by iontophoretic administration of various neurotransmitters, show stimulation by glutamic acid and serotonin and inhibiiton by norepinephrine.