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Sample records for brain magnetic resonance

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain What's in this article? What It ...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózik-Kotlorz, D.

    2014-01-01

    I give a brief description of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the human brain examinations. MRS allows a noninvasive chemical analysis of the brain using a standard high field MR system. Nowadays, the dominant form of MR brain spectroscopy is proton spectroscopy. Two main techniques of MRS, which utilize the chemical shift of metabolites in the external magnetic field, are SVS (single voxel) and CSI (single slice). The major peaks in the spectrum of a normal brain include NAA, Cr, Cho and m-Ins, which are neuronal, energetic, membrane turnover and glial markers, respectively. In disease, two pathological metabolites can be found in the brain spectra: Lac, which is end product of anaerobic glycolysis and Lip, which is a marker of membrane breakdown, occurring in necrosis. The common way to analyze clinical spectra is to determine metabolite ratios, e.g. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA. This analysis permits a safe and noninvasive examination of the brain tissue as each disease state has its own characteristic spectroscopic image. MRS is a valuable diagnostic tool in such clinical applications as detecting brain tumors and differentiating tumors from inflammatory and infectious processes. Proton MRS is also very helpful in diagnostic of ischemic lesions, Alzheimer's disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The MRS brain spectra should always be correlated with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results and alone cannot make neurological diagnosis.

  4. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Adolescent Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GIEDD, JAY N

    2004-01-01

    A bstract : Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides accurate anatomical brain images without the use of ionizing radiation, allowing longitudinal studies of brain morphometry during adolescent development...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse brain injury

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    Yokota, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Henmi, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Toshibumi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Nakazawa, Shozo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    Forty cases diagnosed as diffuse brain injury (DBI) were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within 3 days after injury. These cases were divided into two groups, which were the concussion group and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) group established by Gennarelli. There were no findings on computerized tomography (CT) in the concussion group except for two cases which had a brain edema or subarachnoid hemorrhage. But on MRI, high intensity areas on T2 weighted imaging were demonstrated in the cerebral white matter in this group. Many lesions in this group were thought to be edemas of the cerebral white matter, because of the fact that on serial MRI, they were isointense. In mild types of DAI, the lesions on MRI were located only in the cerebral white matter, whereas, in the severe types of DAI, lesions were located in the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum, the dorsal part of the brain stem as well as in the cerebral white matter. As for CT findings, parenchymal lesions were not visualized especially in mild DAI. Our results suggested that the lesions in cerebral concussion were edemas in cerebral white matter. In mild DAI they were non-hemorrhagic contusion; and in severe DAI they were hemorrhagic contusions in the cerebral white matter, the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum or the dorsal part of the brain stem. (author).

  6. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder through Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder through Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging THESIS MARCH 2016 Kyle A. Palko, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT...declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-123 DIAGNOSING AUTISM SPECTRUM...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-123 DIAGNOSING AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER THROUGH BRAIN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Kyle

  7. Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) -- Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is ...

  8. Brain magnetic resonance imaging examination in a patient with non-magnetic resonance conditional pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Nakai, MD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical dilemmas arise when patients with a non-magnetic resonance (MR conditional pacemaker are required to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We encountered a pacemaker patient with debilitating non-motor symptoms of Parkinson׳s disease, who required an MRI prior to deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery. MRI was performed safely without adverse events despite the presence of a conventional pacemaker.

  9. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings of children with kernicterus

    OpenAIRE

    Sarı, Sahabettin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Batur, Aabdussamet; Bora, Aydın; Caksen, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is used to describe pathological bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum, and is associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Kernicterus generally occurs in untreated hyperbilirubinemia or cases where treatment is delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have shown characteristic findings in kernicterus. The objective of our study was to describe the role of 1H magnetic resonance spectrosc...

  10. Brain Biochemistry and Personality: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ryman, Sephira G.; Gasparovic, Chuck; Bedrick, Edward J.; Flores, Ranee A.; Marshall, Alison N.; Jung, Rex E.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical correlates of normal personality we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Our sample consisted of 60 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 32 (27 females). Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We measured brain biochemistry within the precuneus, the cingulate cortex, and underlying white matter. We hypothesized that brain biochemistry within these regions would predict individual differences across major domai...

  11. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...

  13. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

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    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  14. Issues and Problems in Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novanto Yudistira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many issues and problems in the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI area that haven’t solved or reached satisfying result yet. This paper presents an overview of the various issues and problems of the segmentation, correction, optimization, description and their application in MRI. The overview is started by describing the segmentation properties that are the most important and challenging in MRI brain manipulation. Then correction for reconstructing the brain MRI cortex, classification is utilized to classify the segmented brain image, and also review the uses of description is the great prospecting issue while some neurologist need the information resulted from brain imaging process including their potential problems from application applied by each technique. In each case, it is provided some general background information.

  15. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  16. Lupus anticoagulant: correlation with magnetic resonance imaging of brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molad, Y; Sidi, Y; Gornish, M; Lerner, M; Pinkhas, J; Weinberger, A

    1992-04-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 21 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without lupus anticoagulant (LAC), one lupus-like patient and 5 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Thirteen patients had white matter focal brain lesions on MRI, 10 of whom had LAC (p = 0.03). We found no correlation between these lesions and neurologic manifestations, nor any clinical or serologic indices of activity of SLE. Our MRI lesions were similar to those described in multiple sclerosis and may indicate a similar pathologic process.

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J; Wolansky, L J; Khatry, D; Geba, G P; Molfino, N A

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with asthma, potential central nervous system changes can occur as a consequence of their asthma or therapy. Clinical trials of anti-asthmatic therapies might benefit from using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess potential brain abnormalities. As part of the clinical safety evaluation of a monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-9 for the treatment of asthma, we assessed whether brain MRI is an appropriate screening tool to evaluate potential neurotoxicity. Brain MRIs were conducted as part of a prespecified safety evaluation in adults aged 19 to 47 years with mild to moderate asthma treated with either the investigational monoclonal antibody or placebo. An independent neuroradiologist performed a blinded review of brain MRI scans obtained at baseline before dosing and day 28 after dosing from two separate clinical studies. Fifteen brain MRI abnormalities were noted in 13 of 21 subjects with asthma (62%). Nonspecific deep white matter hyperintensities (24%), perivascular space (24%), and abnormal anatomic findings (14%) were noted either at baseline or follow-up. Only 8 of 21 subjects (38%) with asthma had normal brain MRI results. The high rate of incidental brain MRI findings suggests that these abnormalities are relatively common in patients with asthma. Thus, brain MRI may not be an appropriate screening tool to evaluate potential neurotoxicity in subjects during routine clinical studies without a baseline examination. Due to artifacts simulating lesions, an experienced radiologist should interpret all brain MRI results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging based noninvasive measurements of brain hemodynamics in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, Jill B; Alderliesten, Thomas; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal disturbances of brain hemodynamics can have a detrimental effect on the brain's parenchyma with consequently adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Noninvasive, reliable tools to evaluate the neonate's brain hemodynamics are scarce. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have provided new...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings of children with kernicterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Sahabettin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Batur, Aabdussamet; Bora, Aydın; Caksen, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The term kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is used to describe pathological bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum, and is associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Kernicterus generally occurs in untreated hyperbilirubinemia or cases where treatment is delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have shown characteristic findings in kernicterus. The objective of our study was to describe the role of (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in demonstrating these metabolic changes and to review conventional MRI findings of kernicterus. Forty-eight pediatric cases with kernicterus were included in this study. MRI and MRS examinations were performed on variable dates (10-29 days after birth). NAA, Cr, Cho, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and Cho/Cr values were evaluated visually and by computer analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the NAA and Cho levels in the acute kernicterus patients and the control group (healthy patients), whereas both were significantly elevated in the chronic kernicterus patients. Both the mean NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio values were significantly higher in the acute and chronic cases compared to the control group. The NAA/Cho ratio value was statistically lower in the acute cases than in the control group while it was similar in the chronic cases. Conventional MR imaging and (1)H-MRS are important complementary tools in the diagnostics of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. This study provided important information for applying these MR modalities in the evaluation of neonates with bilirubin encephalopathy.

  1. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in brain death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtmann, M.; Beuing, O.; Skalej, M.; Kohl, J.; Serowy, S.; Bernarding, J.; Firsching, R.

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of brain death in addition to clinical findings may shorten observation time required in some countries and may add certainty to the diagnosis under specific circumstances. The practicability of Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to confirm cerebral circulatory arrest was assessed after the diagnosis of brain death in 15 patients using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. In all 15 patients extracranial blood flow distal to the external carotid arteries was undisturbed. In 14 patients no contrast medium was noted within intracerebral vessels above the proximal level of the intracerebral arteries. In one patient more distal segments of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (A3 and M3) were filled with contrast medium. Gadolinium-enhanced MRA may be considered conclusive evidence of cerebral circulatory arrest, when major intracranial vessels fail to fill with contrast medium while extracranial vessels show normal blood flow.

  2. Brain biochemistry and personality: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Sephira G; Gasparovic, Chuck; Bedrick, Edward J; Flores, Ranee A; Marshall, Alison N; Jung, Rex E

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical correlates of normal personality we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Our sample consisted of 60 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 32 (27 females). Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We measured brain biochemistry within the precuneus, the cingulate cortex, and underlying white matter. We hypothesized that brain biochemistry within these regions would predict individual differences across major domains of personality functioning. Biochemical models were fit for all personality domains including Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Our findings involved differing concentrations of Choline (Cho), Creatine (Cre), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in regions both within (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex) and white matter underlying (i.e., precuneus) the Default Mode Network (DMN). These results add to an emerging literature regarding personality neuroscience, and implicate biochemical integrity within the default mode network as constraining major personality domains within normal human subjects.

  3. Brain biochemistry and personality: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sephira G Ryman

    Full Text Available To investigate the biochemical correlates of normal personality we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS. Our sample consisted of 60 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 32 (27 females. Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. We measured brain biochemistry within the precuneus, the cingulate cortex, and underlying white matter. We hypothesized that brain biochemistry within these regions would predict individual differences across major domains of personality functioning. Biochemical models were fit for all personality domains including Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Our findings involved differing concentrations of Choline (Cho, Creatine (Cre, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA in regions both within (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex and white matter underlying (i.e., precuneus the Default Mode Network (DMN. These results add to an emerging literature regarding personality neuroscience, and implicate biochemical integrity within the default mode network as constraining major personality domains within normal human subjects.

  4. Brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study by repeated magnetic resonance examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, Marianne; Raininko, Raili; Bustamante, Mariana; von Seth, Charlotta; Borg, Jörgen

    2013-09-01

    To explore brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury by repeated magnetic resonance examination. A prospective follow-up study. Nineteen patients with mild traumatic brain injury presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14-15. The patients were examined on day 2 or 3 and 3-7 months after the injury. The magnetic resonance protocol comprised conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), two susceptibility-weighted sequences to reveal haemorrhages, and diffusion-weighted sequences. Computer-aided volume comparison was performed. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). At follow-up, 7 patients (37%) reported ≥  3 symptoms in RPQ, 5 reported some anxiety and 1 reported mild depression. Fifteen patients reported upper level of good recovery and 4 patients lower level of good recovery (GOSE 8 and 7, respectively). Magnetic resonance pathology was found in 1 patient at the first examination, but 4 patients (21%) showed volume loss at the second examination, at which 3 of them reported brain volume, demonstrated by computer-aided magnetic resonance imaging volumetry, may be a feasible marker of brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury.

  5. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in relapsing neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Gómez, José A; Quevedo-Sotolongo, L; González-Quevedo, A; Lima, S; Real-González, Y; Cristófol-Corominas, M; Romero-García, K; Ugarte-Sánchez, C; Jordán-González, J; de la Nuez, J E González; Lahera, J García; Tellez, R; Pedroso-Ibañez, I; Roca, R Rodríguez; Cabrera-Núñez, A Y

    2007-03-01

    Some studies showed abnormalities in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of relapsing neuromyelitis optica (R-NMO) from 12 to 46%. These abnormalities are described as compatible/non-compatible with multiple sclerosis (MS). To describe the abnormal brain MRI lesions in R-NMO with imaging studies conducted with more sensitive white matter change techniques. Thirty patients with R-NMO were selected. All MRI brain studies were performed with a 1.5-T Siemens MRI system according to the Standardized MR Imaging Protocol for Multiple Sclerosis from the Consortium of MS Centers Consensus Guidelines. Brain MRI images were evaluated in 29 R-NMO cases because in one case the MRI images were not appropriate for the study. Of these 29 brain MRI studies, 19 cases (65.5%) had at least one or more lesions (1-57) and 10 were negative (34.4%). Brain MRI findings in 19 cases were characterized in T2/fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) by the presence of subcortical/deep white matter lesions in 16 (84.2%) cases (1-50), most of them 3 mm, were observed in 4 (21.05%) cases without cerebellar involvement. T1 studies demonstrated absence of hypointense regions. Optic nerve enhancement was observed in 6/19 patients (31.5%). None of the brain MRI abnormalities observed were compatible with Barkhof et al. criteria of MS. This study, based on a Cuban patient population, with long duration of disease, good sample size and detailed characterization by MRI, demonstrated the brain MRI pattern of R-NMO patients, which is different from MS.

  6. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laveaucoupet, J; Audibert, F; Guis, F; Rambaud, C; Suarez, B; Boithias-Guérot, C; Musset, D

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the usefulness of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ischemic brain injury. We report seven cases of fetal brain ischemia prenatally suspected on ultrasound (US) and confirmed by fetal MRI. Sonographic abnormalities included ventricular dilatation (n=3), microcephaly (n=1), twin pregnancy with in utero death of a twin and suspected cerebral lesion in the surviving co-twin (n=3). MRI was performed with a 1.0 T unit using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences between 28 and 35 weeks of gestation. US and MRI images were compared with pathologic findings or postnatal imaging. MRI diagnosed hydranencephaly (n=1), porencephaly (n=2), multicystic encephalomalacia (n=2), unilateral capsular ischemia (n=1), corpus callosum and cerebral atrophy (n=1). In comparison with US, visualization of fetal brain anomalies was superior with MRI. The present cases demonstrate that MRI is a valuable complementary means of investigation when a brain pathology is discovered or suspected during prenatal US. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  8. Conventional Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance in Brain Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Juan Nicolas; Bermudez, Sonia

    2018-02-01

    Conventional neuroimaging is still the mainstay in the assessment of the acute, follow-up, and chronic settings of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Computed tomography (CT) is preferred for the initial assessment of acute mTBI, repeat evaluation in acute mTBI with neurologic deterioration, and cautious use in children with mTBI. Clinical rules have been developed to identify pediatric and adult patients with mTBI who can safely forego CT. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is mostly used in patients with acute mTBI when initial or follow-up CT is normal and there are persistent neurologic findings and in subacute or chronic mTBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Probabilistic brain tissue segmentation in neonatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbeek, Petronella; Vincken, Koen L; Groenendaal, Floris; Koeman, Annemieke; van Osch, Matthias J P; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2008-02-01

    A fully automated method has been developed for segmentation of four different structures in the neonatal brain: white matter (WM), central gray matter (CEGM), cortical gray matter (COGM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The segmentation algorithm is based on information from T2-weighted (T2-w) and inversion recovery (IR) scans. The method uses a K nearest neighbor (KNN) classification technique with features derived from spatial information and voxel intensities. Probabilistic segmentations of each tissue type were generated. By applying thresholds on these probability maps, binary segmentations were obtained. These final segmentations were evaluated by comparison with a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, and Dice similarity index (SI) were calculated for quantitative validation of the results. High sensitivity and specificity with respect to the gold standard were reached: sensitivity >0.82 and specificity >0.9 for all tissue types. Tissue volumes were calculated from the binary and probabilistic segmentations. The probabilistic segmentation volumes of all tissue types accurately estimated the gold standard volumes. The KNN approach offers valuable ways for neonatal brain segmentation. The probabilistic outcomes provide a useful tool for accurate volume measurements. The described method is based on routine diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is suitable for large population studies.

  10. Features of magnetic resonance imaging brain in eclampsia: clinicoradiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatima Mubarak, Muhammad Idris, Quratulain HadiDepartment of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PakistanObjective: Eclampsia is a gestational hypertensive condition that typically occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy and is characterized by hypertension, peripheral edema, proteinuria, and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of these patients, so it is essential to describe features of the brain MRI in these cases.Methods: MRI was performed on eleven consecutive patients with eclampsia. All patients underwent follow-up neurologic examinations until all symptoms resolved. Nine of those eleven patients underwent follow-up MRI. The clinical signs and symptoms were correlated with findings on initial and follow-up MRI.Results: MRI typically demonstrated bilateral hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images and hypointense lesions on T1-weighted images without diffusion restriction. MRI abnormalities are most commonly located in the distribution of the posterior cerebral circulation mainly in occipital and parietal lobes, and are associated with visual disturbances and dizziness. Almost all lesions seen at MRI in patients with eclampsia were reversible in our series of patients.Conclusion: Involvement of the parietal and occipital lobes is common in patients with eclampsia, and the signal abnormalities on MRI are reversible if recognized and treated early.Keywords: pregnancy, seizures, hypertension, brain, MRI findings, reversible

  11. Clinical application of magnetic resonance in acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Dionei F.; Gaia, Felipe F.P. [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia]. E-mail: centro@cerebroecoluna.com.br; Spotti, Antonio R.; Tognola, Waldir A. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Neurologicas; Andrade, Almir F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Neurocirurgia da Emergencia

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): to identify the type, quantity, severity; and improvement clinical-radiological correlation. Method: Assessment of 55 patients who were imaged using CT and MRI, 34 (61.8%) males and 21 (38.2%) females, with acute (0 to 5 days) and closed TBI. Results: Statistical significant differences (McNemar test): occurred fractures were detected by CT in 29.1% and by MRI in 3.6% of the patients; subdural hematoma by CT in 10.9% and MRI in 36.4 %; diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by CT in 1.8% and MRI in 50.9%; cortical contusions by CT in 9.1% and MRI in 41.8%; subarachnoid hemorrhage by CT in 18.2% and MRI in 41.8%. Conclusion: MRI was superior to the CT in the identification of DAI, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortical contusions, and acute subdural hematoma; however it was inferior in diagnosing fractures. The detection of DAI was associated with the severity of acute TBI. (author)

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  15. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  16. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Preserved Function in a Preterm Infant with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Charlotte; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Wild, Conor J; Linke, Annika C; Han, Victor K; Lee, David S C; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    We studied developmental plasticity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a preterm infant with brain injury on structural MRI. fMRI showed preserved brain function and subsequent neurodevelopment was within the normal range. Multimodal neuroimaging including fMRI can improve understanding of neural plasticity after preterm birth and brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adrenomyeloneuropathy, a dynamic progressive disorder: brain magnetic resonance imaging of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yuan-Heng; Chen, Ya-Fang; Liu, Hon-Man [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, 100, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2004-04-01

    Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) is a phenotype variant of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We present two patients with adult-onset AMN who were initially suspected to have demyelinating disorders radiologically and finally diagnosed on the basis of laboratory data. The brain magnetic resonance images showed abnormal signal intensity at pyramidal tracts and cerebellar hemisphere bilaterally with abnormal enhancement after contrast medium administration. Review of the literature shows that the brain magnetic resonance findings of adrenomyeloneuropathy may include normal brain, tract demyelination, white matter demyelination, or brain atrophy. Disease progression was demonstrated by follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and cell-based neurorestorative therapy after brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restorative cell-based therapies for experimental brain injury, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury, substantially improve functional outcome. We discuss and review state of the art magnetic resonance imaging methodologies and their applications related to cell-based treatment after brain injury. We focus on the potential of magnetic resonance imaging technique and its associated challenges to obtain useful new information related to cell migration, distribution, and quantitation, as well as vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to cell-based therapy after brain injury. The noninvasive nature of imaging might more readily help with translation of cell-based therapy from the laboratory to the clinic.

  19. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

  20. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with ADHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastura, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.pastura@terra.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Pediatria; Mattos, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Psiquiatria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Neuropediatria

    2011-04-15

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects about 5% of school-aged child. Previous published works using different techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have demonstrated that there may be some differences between the brain of people with and without this condition. This review aims at providing neurologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists an update on the differences between the brain of children with and without ADHD using advanced techniques of magnetic resonance imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging, brain volumetry and cortical thickness, spectroscopy and functional MRI. Data was obtained by a comprehensive, non-systematic review of medical literature. The regions with a greater number of abnormalities are splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulated gyrus, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. The brain regions where abnormalities are observed in studies of diffusion tensor, volumetry, spectroscopy and cortical thickness are the same involved in neurobiological theories of ADHD coming from studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  1. Admission criteria to the Danish Brain Cancer Program are moderately associated with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Mie Kiszka; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Danish Brain Cancer Program by examining the criteria for admission to the program and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in 359 patients referred to the program at the Odense University Hospital during one year...

  2. Language Development and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics in Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Choi, Yoon Seong; Park, Eun Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of language development in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the other contributing factors to language development in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 172 children with CP who underwent brain MRI and language…

  3. In vivo magnetic resonance diffusion measurement in the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of water self-diffusion in the brain in 25 patients with multiple sclerosis was performed by magnetic resonance imaging. Quantitative diffusion measurements were obtained using single spin-echo pulse sequences with pulsed magnetic field gradients of different magnitude. Twenty...

  4. Soap bubble appearance in brain magnetic resonance imaging: cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo Adriano da Cunha e Silva; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Ribeiro, José Carlos Castelo Branco; Nunes-Filho, Lucídio Portella; Rabelo, Marcos Glebson Gomes; Almeida-Neto, Walfrido Salmito de

    2013-01-01

    Although cryptococcal infections begin in the lungs, meningoencephalitis is the most frequently encountered manifestation of cryptococcosis among individuals with advanced immunosuppression. As the infection progresses along the Virchow-Robin spaces, these structures may become dilated with mucoid material produced by the capsule of the organism. We report a case of a 24-year-old man with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in which magnetic resonance imaging showed clusters of gelatinous pseudocysts in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, mammillary bodies, midbrain peduncles and nucleus dentatus with a soap bubble appearance.

  5. Soap bubble appearance in brain magnetic resonance imaging: cryptococcal meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha e Silva Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cryptococcal infections begin in the lungs, meningoencephalitis is the most frequently encountered manifestation of cryptococcosis among individuals with advanced immunosuppression. As the infection progresses along the Virchow-Robin spaces, these structures may become dilated with mucoid material produced by the capsule of the organism. We report a case of a 24-year-old man with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in which magnetic resonance imaging showed clusters of gelatinous pseudocysts in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, mammillary bodies, midbrain peduncles and nucleus dentatus with a soap bubble appearance.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, C.; Issakainen, J.; Kewitz, G.; Kikinis, R.; Martin, E.; Boltshauser, E.

    1989-01-01

    The children (age 2 months to 8 years) with a congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 2.35 Tesla magnet. CMV infection was confirmed by serological investigations and virus culture in the neonatal period. Nine children had severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy, 1 patient suffered from microcephaly, ataxia and deafness. The cranial MRI examination showed the following abnormalities (N): Dilated lateral ventricles (10) and subarachnoid space (8), oligo/pacgyria (8), delayed/pathological myelination (7), paraventricular cysts (6), intra-cerebral calcification (1). This lack of sensitivity for calcification is explainable by the basic principles of MRI. The paraventricular cystic lesions were adjacent ot the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles and separated only by a thin membrane. This finding might represent a 'new sign' for congenital CMV infection in MRI examinations, being characteristic but nevertheless nonspecific, like calcification in CT.

  7. Magnetic resonance electric property imaging of brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The electric properties (EPs) of brain tissues, i.e., the electric conductivity and permittivity, can provide important information for diagnosis of various brain disorders. A high-field MRI system is accompanied by significant wave propagation effects, and the radio frequency (RF) radiation is dependent on EPs of the biological tissue. Based on the measurement of the active transverse magnetic component of the applied RF field (known as B1-mapping technique), we have developed a dual-excitation algorithm, which uses two sets of measured B1 data, to noninvasively reconstruct the biological tissue's electric properties. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method on a 3-D head model within a birdcage coil and a transverse electromagnetic coil. Compared with other B1-mapping based reconstruction algorithms, our approach provides superior performance without the need for iterative computations. The present simulation results indicate good reconstruction of electric properties of brain tissues from noninvasive MRI B1 mapping.

  8. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  9. Brain Activation during Semantic Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders via Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gordon J.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Clark, Jill; Urban, Trinity; Aharon, Itzhak; Steele, Shelley; McGrath, Lauren; Condouris, Karen; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), even in high-functioning adults with ASD. This study investigated brain activation patterns using functional magnetic resonance imaging in right-handed adult males with ASD and a control group, matched on age, handedness, and verbal IQ. Semantic processing in…

  10. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Giedd Jay N; Raznahan Armin; Mills Kathryn L; Lenroot Rhoshel K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasi...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may sense a temporary metallic taste in their mouth after the contrast injection. If you do not ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  15. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain : MRI of the brain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    while deoxyhaemoglobin is paramagnetic; these different magnetic properties give rise to contrast in magnetic resonance images. Coupling of the haemodynamic changes to neuronal activation is still poorly understood due to an incomplete appreciation for the mechanisms responsible for regulation of local cerebral blood ...

  16. Noninvasive detection of temozolomide in brain tumor xenografts by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Y.; Holm, David Alberg; Okollie, B.

    2010-01-01

    detection of drug directly in the tumor can be critically important for accessing, predicting, and eventually improving effectiveness of therapy. In this study, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to detect an anticancer agent, temozolomide (TMZ), in vivo in murine xenotransplants of U87......MG human brain cancer. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the low-molecular-weight contrast agent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (GdDTPA), was used to evaluate tumor vascular parameters. Carbon-13-labeled TMZ ([C-13]TMZ, 99%) was intraperitoneally administered at a dose...... experiments demonstrated slower recovery of MRI signal following an intravenous bolus injection of GdDTPA, higher vascular flow and volume obtained by T-2*-weighted MRI, as well as enhanced uptake of the contrast agent in the brain tumor compared with normal brain detected by T-1-weighted MRI. These data...

  17. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical applications in patients with brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Ramin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Proton spectroscopy has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method that, coupled with magnetic resonance imaging techniques, allows for the correlation of anatomical and physiological changes in the metabolic and biochemical processes occurring within previously-determined volumes in the brain. There are two methods of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: single voxel and chemical shift imaging OBJECTIVE: The present work focused on the clinical applications of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with brain lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo proton spectroscopy allows the detection of certain metabolites in brain tissue, such as N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, myoinositol, amino acids and lipids, among others. N-acetyl aspartate is a neuronal marker and, as such, its concentration will decrease in the presence of aggression to the brain. Choline increase is the main indicator of neoplastic diseases. Myoinositol is raised in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Amino acids are encountered in brain abscesses. The presence of lipids is related to necrotic processes.

  18. Tuberculoma of the brain - A diagnostic dilemma: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy a new ray of hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculoma of the brain is an important clinical entity. The main challenge in the management of brain tuberculoma is its diagnosis. Appearance in computed tomography (CT scan of brain is common and consists of solitary or multiple ring-enhancing lesions with moderate perilesional edema, but these are not specific for tuberculoma as neurocysticercosis (NCC, coccidiomycosis, toxoplasmosis, metastasis and few other diseases may also have similar appearance on CT scan brain. Cerebrospinal fluid examination is often normal and biopsy and tissue culture from the lesion though the diagnosis of choice is technically too demanding and not feasible in most of the times. All these put the clinicians in a great dilemma as regard to a confidant diagnosis of tuberculoma of the brain. With advancement of imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has shown a great hope in this context as MRS shows a specific lipid peak in cases of tuberculoma which is not seen in any other differential diagnoses of tuberculoma. This review article is written to have an overview regarding the current diagnostic approach for brain tuberculoma with special emphasis on the role of MRS. Extensive literature review of the articles published in English was conducted using Google search, Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline using the keywords such as ring-enhancing lesions, etiology, tuberculoma, NCC, CT scan brain, MRI, MRS, images.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  1. An unusual finding of brain magnetic resonance imaging in a hypertensive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris A. Ngow

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy frequently affects the parieto-occipital white matter. Hypertensive encephalopathy is thus included as a differential diagnosis in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Diffuse white matter involvement rarely occurs. We report a 41-year old woman with hypertensive encephalopathy with diffuse and non-enhancing white matter hyper-intensities throughout the whole brain on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. These hyperintensities spared the grey matter on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequence. These unusual finding on brain MRI was attributed to severe vasogenic cerebral edema resulting from accelerated hypertension.

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarabino, Tommaso; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro; Salvolini, Ugo

    1999-05-01

    H1-MRS is a non-invasive technique which provides different levels of information on brain tissue: the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is an indicator of neuronal development, the choline containing compound peak (Cho) provides information on myelination and on cell membrane turnover and gliosis, inositol (Ins) is considered a marker of neuronal degeneration. Lactate may be detected in presence of defective energy metabolism. In the perineonatal period, the brain is apt to be insulted by a variety of events including asphyxia, hypoxemia, hemorrhage, which may subsequently cause delay in development. It is clinically important to assess the degree of brain damage and to obtain the prognostic information in the neonatal and early infantile period. MRS has become available for clinical examinations of the brain during development and these techniques can be used to document improvement or the progression towards irreversible damage.

  3. Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Magn. Reson. Imaging Clin. N. Am. 17, 47–61. Barth, M., Reichenbach, J.R., Venkatesan, R., Moser , E., Haacke, E.M., 1999. High-resolu- tion, multiple...Transcranial Doppler Sonography ( Christian et al. 2010). The clinical application of LDF is limited by a number of problems. It can only access a small volume

  4. Probabilistic brain tissue segmentation in neonatal magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anbeek, Petronella; Vincken, Koen L.; Groenendaal, Floris; Koeman, Annemieke; Van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Van der Grond, Jeroen

    A fully automated method has been developed for segmentation of four different structures in the neonatal brain: white matter (WM), central gray matter (CEGM), cortical gray matter (COGM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The segmentation algorithm is based on information from T2-weighted (T2-w) and

  5. Psychosis and autism: magnetic resonance imaging study of brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toal, Fiona; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Deeley, Quinton; Tunstall, Nigel; Daly, Eileen M.; Page, Lisa; Brammer, Michael J.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism-spectrum disorder is increasingly recognised, with recent studies estimating that 1% of children in South London are affected. However, the biology of comorbid mental health problems in people with autism-spectrum disorder is poorly understood. AIMS: To investigate the brain

  6. Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    26:349–354. Nagamoto-Combs K, McNeal DW, Morecraft RJ, Combs CK. 2007. Pro- longed microgliosis in the rhesus monkey central nervous system after...of whole brain networks, they reported reduced overall strength in connectivity and increased “small- worldness ” of TBI pa- tients at 3 months after...syringe (two smallest air bubbles were excluded from this study, owing to the limitation in volume estimation of small objects; details are provided in

  7. Prospective analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebl, Ariane; Frechinger, Bettina; Fellner, Christine Maria; Ehrenmüller, Margit; Povysil, Brigitte; Fellner, Franz; Schmitt, Klaus; Furthner, Dieter

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have addressed the prevalence of incidental findings in adult populations. There are few studies following paediatric patients, most of data were retrieved retrospectively. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of incidental, pathologic and normal findings in a symptomatic paediatric population. The subjects of this prospective single centre study are 436 children aged 0-18 years with clinical symptoms and subsequent first brain MRI. Normal, incidental as well as pathologic MRI findings are documented in association with age, gender, neurological examination and previous investigations (CCT, EEG). Secondary outcome parameters are defined as MRI results and their implications. Two board-certified radiologists prospectively analysed MR images without knowing the result from each other. The 436 patients with brain MRI were categorized into three groups as follows: 155 (35.5%) patients had normal findings, 163 (37.4%) had incidental findings and 118 (27.1%) had pathological findings in brain MRI. When adding patients with pathologic and incidental findings we report even more (47.9%). We analysed the correlation between neurologic examination and MRI result and it was significant (p-value 0.0008). The p-value for concordance of both radiology reports was MRI in symptomatic children. Incidental findings are common in paediatric patients but we report the highest prevalence. Our data may help guiding management decision in a consistent and clinically appropriate manner. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for assessment of brain injury in the rat model of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Miaoyun; Lian, Zhesi; Huang, Linqiang; Zhu, Senzhi; Hu, Bei; Han, Yongli; Deng, Yiyu; Zeng, Hongke

    2017-11-01

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and serum markers of brain injury in a rat model of sepsis were investigated. Rats were randomly divided into the control group and 6, 12 and 24 h after lipopolysaccharide-injection groups. Brain morphology and metabolism were assessed with T2WI magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRS. Serum and brain tissue samples were then collected to examine the concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100-β protein. Brain T2WI showed no differences between the groups. N-acetylaspartate/choline (NAA/Cr) ratio measured by MRS showed different degrees of decrease in the sepsis groups, and serum NSE and S100-β concentrations were increased compared with the control group. Apoptosis rates were measured in the right hippocampal area, and there were statistically significant differences between the indicated groups and the control group (p<0.05). The correlation between apoptosis rate and NAA/Cr ratio was closer than that between apoptosis rate and NSE or S100-β (-0.925 vs. 0.434 vs. 0.517, respectively). In conclusion, MRS is a sensitive, non-invasive method to investigate complications of brain injury in septic rats, which may be utilized for the early diagnosis of brain injury caused by sepsis.

  9. BRAIN MAGNETIC RESONANCE EVALUATION AND PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT VARIATIONS AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fonseca

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first work to address the relation of pubertal maturation timing and central nervous system development using brain magnetic resonance imaging. The observed tendency for an increased volume of the subcortical structures may be related to a possible delayed development of the nucleus accumbens in early-maturers, and may explain the increased vulnerability of this group to risk behaviours.

  10. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in hypoxic full-term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Kudrevičienė, Aušrelė; Lukoševičius, Saulius; Laurynaitienė, Jūratė; Marmienė, Vitalija; Tamelienė, Rasa; Basevičius, Algidas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the studies on diagnostic and prognostic value of radiological investigations (cranial sonography, Doppler ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging) in the detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries in full-term newborns. Materials and Methods. A systematic search of studies on the diagnostic and prognostic possibilities of radiological investigations for the detection of hypoxic-ischemic injuries in full-term newborns was performed. Results. A t...

  11. Asymptomatic Brain Lesions on Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dolapcioglu, Can; Guleryuzlu, Yuksel; Uygur-Bayramicli, Oya; Ahishali, Emel; Dabak, Resat

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to examine the frequency and type of asymptomatic neurological involvement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Fifty-one IBD patients with no known neurological diseases or symptoms and 30 controls with unspecified headaches without neurological origins were included. Patients and controls underwent cranial MRI assessments for white matter lesions, sinusitis, otitis-mastoiditis, and other brain parenchyma...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain myelination; Mielinizacja mozgu w obrazie rezonansu magnetycznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraj, B. [Dzial Diagnostyki Obrazowej, Centrum Zdrowia Matki Polki, Lodz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The variability of magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the brain during early childhood depends in great part on the progression of myelination. The sequence of human white matter myelination was discussed in the paper and MRI visualization of this process was presented and illustrated. The short characteristics of myelin sheath and factors modifying white matter signal intensity in MRI were also discussed. (author) 12 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  13. Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    of imaging may provide a means for monitor- ing longitudinal changes in iron content in dementia, multiple sclerosis , traumatic brain injury, and...criteria: Patients aged 18 or older with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 13-15 in ED with any period of loss of consciousness less than 30...n=18), 61% 8 were men and 39% women, and the average patient age was 34.83±14.30 years. There 9 was no age difference between patient and controls

  14. Topology-preserving tissue classification of magnetic resonance brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Dzung L

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a new framework for multiple object segmentation in medical images that respects the topological properties and relationships of structures as given by a template. The technique, known as topology-preserving, anatomy-driven segmentation (TOADS), combines advantages of statistical tissue classification, topology-preserving fast marching methods, and image registration to enforce object-level relationships with little constraint over the geometry. When applied to the problem of brain segmentation, it directly provides a cortical surface with spherical topology while segmenting the main cerebral structures. Validation on simulated and real images characterises the performance of the algorithm with regard to noise, inhomogeneities, and anatomical variations.

  15. Correlation between magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging of radiation brain injury and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X J; Duan, C F; Fu, W W; Niu, L; Li, Y; Sui, Q L; Xu, W J

    2015-12-08

    We used magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging and pathological evaluation to examine different stages of radiation-induced brain injury and to investigate the correlation between the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Thirty adult rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and radiation group. The control group was not subjected to irradiation. The irradiation group rats were examined by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after radiation treatment. We measured the rCBV, mean transit time, and time to peak. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, and electron microscopy were performed. VEGF absorbance was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Compared with the control group, the differences in rCBV, mean transit time, time to peak, and VEGF absorbance after 3 months were statistically significant (P brain tissue after irradiation. Decreased expression of VEGF plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury.

  16. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  17. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallery, F.; Michel, D.; Constans, J.M.; Gondry-Jouet, C. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amiens (France); Bouzerar, R.; Promelle, V.; Baledent, O. [University Hospital, Department of Imaging and Biophysics, Amiens (France); Attencourt, C. [University Hospital, Departement of Pathology, Amiens (France); Peltier, J. [University Hospital, Departement of Neurosurgery, Amiens (France)

    2017-11-15

    The use of DSC-MR imaging in pediatric neuroradiology is gradually growing. However, the number of studies listed in the literature remains limited. We propose to assess the perfusion and permeability parameters in pediatric brain tumor grading. Thirty children with a brain tumor having benefited from a DSC-MR perfusion sequence have been retrospectively explored. Relative CBF and CBV were computed on the ROI with the largest lesion coverage. Assessment of the lesion's permeability was also performed through the semi-quantitative PSR parameter and the K2 model-based parameter on the whole-lesion ROI and a reduced ROI drawn on the permeability maps. A statistical comparison of high- and low-grade groups (HG, LG) as well as a ROC analysis was performed on the histogram-based parameters. Our results showed a statistically significant difference between LG and HG groups for mean rCBV (p < 10{sup -3}), rCBF (p < 10{sup -3}), and for PSR (p = 0.03) but not for the K2 factor (p = 0.5). However, the ratio K2/PSR was shown to be a strong discriminating factor between the two groups of lesions (p < 10{sup -3}). For rCBV and rCBF indicators, high values of ROC AUC were obtained (> 0.9) and mean value thresholds were observed at 1.07 and 1.03, respectively. For K2/PSR in the reduced area, AUC was also superior to 0.9. The implementation of a dynamic T2* perfusion sequence provided reliable results using an objective whole-lesion ROI. Perfusion parameters as well as a new permeability indicator could efficiently discriminate high-grade from low-grade lesions in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  19. Brain changes detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Kun; Fan, Yi-Hong; Xu, Li; Xu, Mao-Sheng

    2017-05-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD. Furthermore, investigations have shown white-matter lesions and neurologic deficits in patients with IBD. Based on these findings, brain activity changes in CD patients have been detected by blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). BOLD-fMRI functions by detecting a local increase in relative blood oxygenation that results from neurotransmitter activity and thus reflects local neuronal firing rates. Therefore, biochemical concentrations of neurotransmitters or metabolites may change in corresponding brain regions of CD patients. To further study this phenomenon, brain changes of CD patients can be detected non-invasively, effectively and accurately by BOLD-fMRI combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This approach can further shed light on the mechanisms of the occurrence and development of neurological CD. Overall, this paper reviews the current status and prospects on fMRI and MRS for evaluation of patients with CD based on the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis.

  20. Quantitative estimation of regional brain iron with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W R Wayne

    2009-12-01

    Biochemical studies have reported increased iron content in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in Parkinson disease (PD), with changes most marked in severe disease, suggesting that measurement of regional iron content in the nigra may provide an indication of the pathologic severity of the disease. Although basal ganglia structures, including the substantia nigra, are readily visualized with MRI, in part because of their high iron content, conventional imaging techniques have failed to show definitive abnormalities in individuals with PD. We have developed MRI-based methodology to estimate regional iron content utilizing a 1.5 tesla system and have shown a correlation between age and striatal iron, as well as a significant increase in putaminal and pallidal iron in PD that correlated with the severity of clinical symptomatology. Several investigators have utilized novel MR techniques implemented on 3 tesla magnets and have suggested the presence of increased nigral iron content in treated patients with PD, in addition to a correlation between nigral iron and simple reaction time. We have applied a modification of our original method to determine whether SNc changes evident at 3 tesla corresponded anatomically to the distribution of neuropathologic changes reported previously. Our results indicate the presence of lateral SNc abnormalities in untreated patients with early PD, consistent with increased iron content and corresponding to the known distribution of neuronal loss occurring in this disorder. We suggest that this may ultimately provide an imaging marker for disease progression in PD, although longitudinal studies are required.

  1. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a ... the limitations of MRI defecography? What is magnetic resonance (MR) defecography? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  2. Technical and experimental features of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of brain glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Francisca; Gruetter, Rolf; Lei, Hongxia

    2017-07-15

    In the brain, glycogen is a source of glucose not only in emergency situations but also during normal brain activity. Altered brain glycogen metabolism is associated with energetic dysregulation in pathological conditions, such as diabetes or epilepsy. Both in humans and animals, brain glycogen levels have been assessed non-invasively by Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C-MRS) in vivo. With this approach, glycogen synthesis and degradation may be followed in real time, thereby providing valuable insights into brain glycogen dynamics. However, compared to the liver and muscle, where glycogen is abundant, the sensitivity for detection of brain glycogen by 13C-MRS is inherently low. In this review we focus on strategies used to optimize the sensitivity for 13C-MRS detection of glycogen. Namely, we explore several technical perspectives, such as magnetic field strength, field homogeneity, coil design, decoupling, and localization methods. Furthermore, we also address basic principles underlying the use of 13C-labeled precursors to enhance the detectable glycogen signal, emphasizing specific experimental aspects relevant for obtaining kinetic information on brain glycogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during urodynamic testing identifies brain structures initiating micturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Michael; Fung, Steve; Boone, Timothy B; Karmonik, Christof; Fletcher, Sophie G; Khavari, Rose

    2014-10-01

    Normal voiding in neurologically intact patients is triggered by the release of tonic inhibition from suprapontine centers, allowing the pontine micturition center to trigger the voiding reflex. Supraspinal mechanisms of voluntary voiding in humans are just beginning to be described via functional neuroimaging. We further elucidated brain activity processes during voiding using functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal females to gain better understanding of normal voiding as well as changes that may occur in voiding dysfunction. We screened 13 healthy premenopausal female volunteers using baseline clinic urodynamics to document normal voiding parameters. We then recorded brain activity via functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous urodynamics, including the pressure flow voiding phase. After motion correction of functional magnetic resonance images we performed activation and connectivity analyses in 10 subjects. Group analysis revealed consistent activation areas, including regions for motor control (cerebellum, thalamus, caudate, lentiform nucleus, red nucleus, supplementary motor area and post-central gyrus), emotion (anterior/posterior cingulate gyrus and insula), executive function (left superior frontal gyrus) and a focal region in the pons. Connectivity analysis demonstrated strong interconnectivity of the pontine micturition center with many short-range and long-range cortical clusters. Our study is one of the first reports of brain activation centers associated with micturition initiation in normal healthy females. Results show activation of a brain network consisting of regions for motor control, executive function and emotion processing. Further studies are planned to create and validate a model of brain activity during normal voiding in women. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo detection of brain Krebs cycle intermediate by hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovsky, Mor; Comment, Arnaud; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-12-01

    The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo. This study reports the first direct in vivo observation of a TCA cycle intermediate in intact brain, namely, 2-oxoglutarate, a key biomolecule connecting metabolism to neuronal activity. Our observation reveals important information about in vivo biochemical processes hitherto considered undetectable. In particular, it provides direct evidence that transport across the inner mitochondria membrane is rate limiting in the brain. The hyperpolarized magnetic resonance protocol designed for this study opens the way to direct and real-time studies of TCA cycle kinetics.

  5. Demyelinating and ischemic brain diseases: detection algorithm through regular magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D.; Samaniego, René; Jiménez, Y.; Cuenca, L.; Vivanco, O.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents the advance to development of an algorithm for automatic detection of demyelinating lesions and cerebral ischemia through magnetic resonance images, which have contributed in paramount importance in the diagnosis of brain diseases. The sequences of images to be used are T1, T2, and FLAIR. Brain demyelination lesions occur due to damage of the myelin layer of nerve fibers; and therefore this deterioration is the cause of serious pathologies such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leukodystrophy, disseminated acute encephalomyelitis. Cerebral or cerebrovascular ischemia is the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, thus interrupting; the flow of oxygen and nutrients needed to maintain the functioning of brain cells. The algorithm allows the differentiation between these lesions.

  6. Functional Magnetic Resonance Study of Non-conventional Morphological Brains: malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition during brain development can cause serious problems that can be irreversible. Dysfunctional patterns of brain activity can be detected with functional MRI. We used BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to investigate region differences of brain activity between control and malnourished rats. The food-competition method was applied to a rat model to induce malnutrition during lactation. A 7T magnet was used to detect changes of the BOLD signal associated with changes in brain activity caused by the trigeminal nerve stimulation in malnourished and control rats. Major neuronal activation was observed in malnourished rats in several brain regions, including cerebellum, somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Statistical analysis of the BOLD signals from various brain areas revealed significant differences in somatosensory cortex between the control and experimental groups, as well as a significant difference between the cerebellum and other structures in the experimental group. This study, particularly in malnourished rats, demonstrates increased BOLD activation in the cerebellum.

  7. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  8. Body mass index and magnetic resonance markers of brain integrity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, Stefan; Kornak, John; Weiner, Michael W; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2008-05-01

    Obesity and being overweight during adulthood have been consistently linked to increased risk for development of dementia later in life, especially Alzheimer's disease. They have also been associated with cognitive dysfunction and brain structural alterations in otherwise healthy adults. Although proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may distinguish between neuronal and glial components of the brain and may point to neurobiological mechanisms underlying brain atrophy and cognitive changes, no spectroscopic studies have yet assessed the relationships between adiposity and brain metabolites. We have utilized magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data from 50 healthy middle-aged participants (mean age, 41.7 +/- 8.5 years; 17 women), who were scanned as control subjects for another study. After adjustment for age and sex, greater body mass indices (BMIs) correlated with: (1) lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (spectroscopic marker of neuronal viability) in frontal (p = 0.001), parietal (p = 0.006), and temporal (p = 0.008) white matter; (2) lower N-acetylaspartate in frontal gray matter (p = 0.01); and (3) lower concentrations of choline-containing metabolites (associated with membrane metabolism) in frontal white matter (p = 0.05). These results suggest that increased BMI at midlife is associated with neuronal and/or myelin abnormalities, primarily in the frontal lobe. Because white matter in the frontal lobes is more prone to the effects of aging than in other lobes, our results may reflect accelerated aging in individuals with high levels of adiposity. Thus, greater BMI may increase the odds of developing an age-related disease, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, O J; Rega, A; Guimiot, F; Belarbi, N; Rosenblatt, J; Biran, V; Elmaleh, M; Sebag, G; Alison, M

    2017-07-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a sensitive method for assessing brain maturation and detecting brain lesions, providing apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as a measure of water diffusion. Abnormal ADC values are seen in ischemic brain lesions, such as those associated with acute or chronic hypoxia. The aim of this study was to assess whether ADC values in the fetal brain were different in fetuses with severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with normal controls. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with single-shot axial DWI (b = 0 and b = 700 s/mm2 ) was performed in 30 fetuses with severe IUGR (estimated fetal weight IUGR fetuses and controls. There was no difference in gestational age at MRI between IUGR and control fetuses (IUGR, 30.2 ± 1.6 weeks vs controls, 30.7 ± 1.4 weeks). Fetal brain morphology and signals were normal in all fetuses. Brain dimensions (supratentorial ± infratentorial) were decreased (Z-score, IUGR fetuses. Compared with controls, IUGR fetuses had significantly lower ADC values in frontal white matter (1.97 ± 0.23 vs 2.17 ± 0.22 × 10-3 mm2 /s; P IUGR fetuses had a lower frontal-occipital ADC ratio than did normal fetuses (1.00 ± 0.11 vs 1.08 ± 0.05; P = 0.003). ADC values in IUGR fetuses were significantly lower than in normal controls in the frontal white matter, thalami, centrum semiovale and pons, suggesting abnormal maturation in these regions. However, the prognostic value of these ADC changes is still unknown. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... techniques that time the imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (ECG). ... Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... bones of the skull and spine without radiation. MRI of the brain and spine is used to: detect a variety ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT ... and Radiation Safety ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  15. Glutathione in the human brain: Review of its roles and measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D; Williams, Stephen R

    2017-07-15

    We review the transport, synthesis and catabolism of glutathione in the brain as well as its compartmentation and biochemistry in different brain cells. The major reactions involving glutathione are reviewed and the factors limiting its availability in brain cells are discussed. We also describe and critique current methods for measuring glutathione in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and review the literature on glutathione measurements in healthy brains and in neurological, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions In summary: Healthy human brain glutathione concentration is ∼1-2 mM, but it varies by brain region, with evidence of gender differences and age effects; in neurological disease glutathione appears reduced in multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease and epilepsy, while being increased in meningiomas; in psychiatric disease the picture is complex and confounded by methodological differences, regional effects, length of disease and drug-treatment. Both increases and decreases in glutathione have been reported in depression and schizophrenia. In Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment there is evidence for a decrease in glutathione compared to age-matched healthy controls. Improved methods to measure glutathione in vivo will provide better precision in glutathione determination and help resolve the complex biochemistry of this molecule in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implications of neurovascular uncoupling in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Rebecca W; Hadjiabadi, Darian H; Senarathna, Janaka; Agarwal, Shruti; Thakor, Nitish V; Pillai, Jay J; Pathak, Arvind P

    2017-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) serves as a critical tool for presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex and changes in neurological function in patients diagnosed with brain tumors. However, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism underlying fMRI assumes that neurovascular coupling remains intact during brain tumor progression, and that measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) are correlated with neuronal function. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that even low-grade brain tumors can exhibit neurovascular uncoupling (NVU), which can confound interpretation of fMRI data. Therefore, to avoid neurosurgical complications, it is crucial to understand the biophysical basis of NVU and its impact on fMRI. Here we review the physiology of the neurovascular unit, how it is remodeled, and functionally altered by brain cancer cells. We first discuss the latest findings about the components of the neurovascular unit. Next, we synthesize results from preclinical and clinical studies to illustrate how brain tumor induced NVU affects fMRI data interpretation. We examine advances in functional imaging methods that permit the clinical evaluation of brain tumors with NVU. Finally, we discuss how the suppression of anomalous tumor blood vessel formation with antiangiogenic therapies can "normalize" the brain tumor vasculature, and potentially restore neurovascular coupling.

  17. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the human brain: technique, findings and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Lucy V.; Johnson, Curtis L.; Barnhill, Eric; McGarry, Matt D. J.; Huston 3rd, John; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Starr, John M.; Roberts, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Neurological disorders are one of the most important public health concerns in developed countries. Established brain imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and x-ray computerised tomography (CT) have been essential in the identification and diagnosis of a wide range of disorders, although usually are insufficient in sensitivity for detecting subtle pathological alterations to the brain prior to the onset of clinical symptoms—at a time when prognosis for treatment is more favourable. The mechanical properties of biological tissue provide information related to the strength and integrity of the cellular microstructure. In recent years, mechanical properties of the brain have been visualised and measured non-invasively with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a particularly sensitive medical imaging technique that may increase the potential for early diagnosis. This review begins with an introduction to the various methods used for the acquisition and analysis of MRE data. A systematic literature search is then conducted to identify studies that have specifically utilised MRE to investigate the human brain. Through the conversion of MRE-derived measurements to shear stiffness (kPa) and, where possible, the loss tangent (rad), a summary of results for global brain tissue and grey and white matter across studies is provided for healthy participants, as potential baseline values to be used in future clinical investigations. In addition, the extent to which MRE has revealed significant alterations to the brain in patients with neurological disorders is assessed and discussed in terms of known pathophysiology. The review concludes by predicting the trends for future MRE research and applications in neuroscience.

  18. Toward 20 T magnetic resonance for human brain studies: opportunities for discovery and neuroscience rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Mark D.; Frydman, Lucio; Long, Joanna R.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Rooney, William D.; Rosen, Bruce; Schenck, John F.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Sherry, A. Dean; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Springer, Charles S.; Thulborn, Keith R.; Uğurbil, Kamil; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    An initiative to design and build magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) instruments at 14 T and beyond to 20 T has been underway since 2012. This initiative has been supported by 22 interested participants from the USA and Europe, of which 15 are authors of this review. Advances in high temperature superconductor materials, advances in cryocooling engineering, prospects for non-persistent mode stable magnets, and experiences gained from large-bore, high-field magnet engineering for the nuclear fusion endeavors support the feasibility of a human brain MRI and MRS system with 1 ppm homogeneity over at least a 16-cm diameter volume and a bore size of 68 cm. Twelve neuroscience opportunities are presented as well as an analysis of the biophysical and physiological effects to be investigated before exposing human subjects to the high fields of 14 T and beyond. PMID:27194154

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... an IV line, into a vein in your hand or arm. A saline solution may be used ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  1. Numerical studies of radiofrequency of the electromagnetic radiation power absorption in paediatrics undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Subaar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging current operating frequencies are above 100 kHz which is converted to heat through resistive tissue losses during imaging. The imaging is coupled with a concurring increase in temperature in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has seen a rising clinical request during diagnosis and therefore become imperative that its safety issues be assessed. This study modelled Pennes' classical bio-heat equation using Finite Difference Method (FDM approach and with the help of MATLAB programming language, predicted three dimensional steady state temperature distributions in patients during magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-four paediatric patients' referred for (head brain magnetic resonance imaging scan at 37 Military Hospital and the Diagnostic Center Limited, Ghana, pre-scan and post-scan temperatures were measured at the right tympanic. The numerically steady state temperature distribution during magnetic resonance imaging shows that there is excessive temperature elevation at the skin surface of the patients. The resulting skin heating during magnetic resonance imaging can reach dangerous level which suggests that the ohmic heating of tissue is greatest at the surface and minimal at the center of the patient's brain. Though the experimental results show that patients brain temperature increase after imaging, all measured temperatures were within acceptable safe levels.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of the brain in embolic left atrial myxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazuela, M.; Yebra, M.; Diego, J.; Durantez, A.; Garcia-Merino, A.; Brasa, J.M.

    1989-05-01

    A case of left atrial myxoma presenting exclusively with neurological symptoms, studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with cerebral angiography and computed tomography (CT) is reported. Typical angiographic findings suggested the diagnosis of myxoma. MRI showed multiple ischemic lesions disseminated throughout the entire brain, some of which had been clinically asymptomatic. Because of its sensitivity in identifying small cerebral infarcts, MRI should prove in the future to be a first-choice technique in the evaluation of the presence of an extent of cerebral involvement in embolic left atrial myxoma.

  3. USE OF PROTON MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING DATA IN PLANNING FOCAL RADIATION THERAPIES FOR BRAIN TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Graves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms have produced techniques such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery, capable of delivering an ablative dose to a specific, irregular volume of tissue. However, efficient use of these techniques requires the identification of a target volume that will produce the best therapeutic response while sparing surrounding normal brain tissue. Accomplishing this task using conventional computed tomography (CT and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques has proven difficult because of the difficulties in identifying the effective tumor margin. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI has been shown to offer a clinically-feasible metabolic assessment of the presence and extent of neoplasm that can complement conventional anatomic imaging. This paper reviews current Gamma Knife protocols and MRSI acquisition, reconstruction, and interpretation techniques, and discusses the motivation for including magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings while planning focal radiation therapies. A treatment selection and planning strategy incorporating MRSI is then proposed, which can be used in the future to assess the efficacy of spectroscopy-based therapy planning.

  4. Characterization of eddy current distortion effects on magnetic resonance axonography of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafiey, Ibrahim; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2002-05-01

    Axonography of human brain, based on diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), has recently gained popularity because of its potential in providing crucial information about intercommunication between different regions of brain. This technique exploits the sensitivity of MRI to random water diffusion in tissues in the presence of diffusion gradient pulses incorporated into the imaging sequence. Large diffusion weighting that is necessary for the generation of axonography with high SNR is achieved by increasing the magnitude of diffusion pulses. However large diffusion gradients induce strong eddy currents in the metallic structure of the cryostat that houses the superconducting coil of the scanner magnet, resulting in distortion of magnetic resonance images. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of eddy currents on images obtained using the DT-MRI of human brain. Characterization of eddy current effects is essential for optimizing the scanning parameters and improving image quality. All MRI studies were performed on 1.5-T GE scanner, using single shot diffusion weighed echo planar imaging sequence. All acquisitions were cardiac gated for minimizing the pulsation effect of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the images. Diffusion gradient- or b-space was explored using a set of 62 directions along the two poles, and 60 other directions. Total scan time was less than three minutes. The exploration of the b-space helps quantify the relationship between the orientation of diffusion gradients and eddy current levels. Experimental results demonstrate that certain directions are more prone to eddy current-induced image distortions. Determining the optimum gradient directions should present a powerful technique for reducing eddy current distortion, and thus enhance the use of MRI axonography for a noninvasive assessment of human brain.

  5. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and MRI Reveal No Evidence for Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis. W. W.; Richards, Todd L.; Estes, Annette M.; Friedman, Seth D.; Petropoulos, Helen; Artru, Alan A.; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an etiologic factor in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ([superscript 1]HMRS) and MRI were used to assess for evidence of brain mitochondrial dysfunction in longitudinal samples of children with ASD or developmental delay (DD), and cross-sectionally…

  6. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E

    1988-01-01

    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our spe...

  7. Mannitol as a Potential Pitfall for Peak Assignment on Magnetic Resonance Spectra (MRS) for Brain Tumors: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Yu, Won Jong; Kim, Bum Soo [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Sung [Catholic University, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Mannitol is a xenobiotic commonly used for the control of brain edema in patients with brain tumors. Although not typically identifiable with the use of routine proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we report a case where the mannitol peak was clearly visible on the MR spectra of a recurrent meningioma.

  8. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  9. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurbil, Kamil

    2016-10-05

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a 'golden technique' that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Brain injury after moderate drowning: subtle alterations detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Mariana P; Lukasova, Katerina; Sato, João R; Amaro, Edson

    2017-10-01

    To describe cerebral (structural and functional MRI) and neuropsychological long term changes in moderate drowning victim's compared to healthy volunteers in working memory and motor domains. We studied 15 adult drowning victim's in chronic stage (DV - out of 157 eligible cases of sea water rescues with moderate drowning classification) paired to 18 healthy controls (HC). All participants were investigated using intelligence, memory, and attention neuropsychological standard tests and underwent functional (motor and working memory tasks) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 3 T system. All images were preprocessed for head movement correction and quantitative analysis was performed using FSL and freesurfer software packages. We found no between group differences in neuropsychological assessments. No MRI brain lesion was observed in patients, neither difference on morphometric parameters in any cortical or subcortical brain structure. In constrast, functional MRI revealed that patients showed increased brain response in the motor (left putamen and insula) and memory (left cuneus and lingual gyrus - not the classical memory network) tasks. Functional brain changes in motor and visual brain regions in victims of moderate drowning may indicate reduced brain reserve, despite the lack of structural and behavior alterations. More attention should be given to investigate ageing effects in this nonfatal drowning group.

  11. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a ‘golden technique’ that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574313

  12. Brain damages in ketamine addicts as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging

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    Chunmei eWang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, a known antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA glutamate receptors, had been used as an anesthetic particularly for pediatric or for cardiac patients. Unfortunately, ketamine has become an abusive drug in many parts of the world while chronic and prolonged usage led to damages of many organs including the brain. However, no studies on possible damages in the brains induced by chronic ketamine abuse have been documented in the human via neuroimaging. This paper described for the first time via employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI the changes in ketamine addicts of 0.5 to 12 years and illustrated the possible brain regions susceptible to ketamine abuse. Twenty-one ketamine addicts were recruited and the results showed that the lesions in the brains of ketamine addicts were located in many regions which appeared 2-4 years after ketamine addiction. Cortical atrophy was usually evident in the frontal, parietal or occipital cortices of addicts. Such study confirmed that many brain regions in the human were susceptible to chronic ketamine injury and presented a diffuse effect of ketamine on the brain which might differ from other central nervous system (CNS drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine.

  13. Brain magnetic resonance immediately before surgery in single ventricles and surgical postponement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2014-11-01

    Single-ventricle patients undergoing surgical reconstruction experience a high rate of brain injury. Incidental findings on preoperative brain scans may result in safety considerations involving hemorrhage extension during cardiopulmonary bypass that result in surgical postponement. Single-ventricle patients were studied with brain scans immediately preoperatively, as part of a National Institutes of Health study, and were reviewed by neuroradiology immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass. Of 144 consecutive patients recruited into the project, 33 were studied before stage I (3.7±1.8 days), 34 before bidirectional Glenn (5.8±0.5 months), and 67 before Fontan (3.3±1.1 years) operations. Six operations (4.5%), 2 before stage I, 3 before bidirectional Glenn, and 1 before Fontan, were postponed because of concerning findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Five were due to unexpected incidental findings of acute intracranial hemorrhage, and 1 was due to diffuse cerebellar cytotoxic edema; none who proceeded to operation had these lesions. Prematurity and genetic syndromes were not present in any patients with a postponed operation. Four of 4 before bidirectional Glenn/Fontan with surgical delays had hypoplastic left heart syndrome compared with 44 of 97 who did not (p=0.048). After observation and follow-up, all eventually had successful operations with bypass. Preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging performed in children with single ventricles disclosed injuries in 4.5% leading to surgical delay; hemorrhagic lesions were most common and raised concerns for extension during the operation. The true risk of progression and need for delay of the operation due to heparinization associated with these lesions remains uncertain. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Auto-context Convolutional Neural Network (Auto-Net) for Brain Extraction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

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    Salehi, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni; Erdogmus, Deniz; Gholipour, Ali

    2017-06-28

    Brain extraction or whole brain segmentation is an important first step in many of the neuroimage analysis pipelines. The accuracy and robustness of brain extraction, therefore, is crucial for the accuracy of the entire brain analysis process. State-of-the-art brain extraction techniques rely heavily on the accuracy of alignment or registration between brain atlases and query brain anatomy, and/or make assumptions about the image geometry; therefore have limited success when these assumptions do not hold or image registration fails. With the aim of designing an accurate, learning-based, geometry-independent and registration-free brain extraction tool in this study, we present a technique based on an auto-context convolutional neural network (CNN), in which intrinsic local and global image features are learned through 2D patches of different window sizes. We consider two different architectures: 1) a voxelwise approach based on three parallel 2D convolutional pathways for three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) that implicitly learn 3D image information without the need for computationally expensive 3D convolutions, and 2) a fully convolutional network based on the U-net architecture. Posterior probability maps generated by the networks are used iteratively as context information along with the original image patches to learn the local shape and connectedness of the brain to extract it from non-brain tissue. The brain extraction results we have obtained from our CNNs are superior to the recently reported results in the literature on two publicly available benchmark datasets, namely LPBA40 and OASIS, in which we obtained Dice overlap coefficients of 97.73% and 97.62%, respectively. Significant improvement was achieved via our auto-context algorithm. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of our algorithm in the challenging problem of extracting arbitrarily-oriented fetal brains in reconstructed fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

  15. •Primary brain tumors: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis and histopathological correlation

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    Abdurrahim Dusak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent advances in treatment of primary brain tumors have increased the interest in radiological imaging in respect to both the diagnosis of tumor and the evaluation of the efficiency of therapy. Conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR imaging is commonly used for diagnosis and follows up of the primary brain tumors, but it fails in grading of the tumors. MR spectroscopy permits in-vivo biochemical evaluation of brain lesions. Methods: Twenty three patients with histopathologic diagnosis of primary brain tumor and control group consisting of 23 healthy volunteers were investigated. In addition to conventional MR imaging of all patients were underwent point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS sequence via single voxel MR spectroscopy. Using MR spectroscopy, metabolites [N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (mI, lipid, lactate and alanine] and their ratio to creatine (Cr were measured quantitatively. Results: MR spectroscopic imaging of neuroglial primary brain tumors revealed that the NAA/Cr and mI/Cr ratios were decreased. In extra axial primary brain tumors, which consist of meningioma, NAA wasn’t detected, Cho/Cr ratio was remarkably increased, mI/Cr, lipid/Cr and lactate/Cr ratios were mildly increased. Alanine peak was detected only in meningioma. In high grade neuroglial tumors in proportion to low grade ones NAA/Cr and mI/Cr ratios were decreased, Cho/Cr, lipid/Cr and lactate/Cr ratios were remarkably increased. Conclusion: MR spectroscopy provides extra information in classification of primary brain tumors as intra-axial and extra-axial, and in grading of neuroglial primary brain tumors as high grade or low grade. It was concluded that using conventional MR imaging in cooperation with MR spectroscopy is beneficial in differential diagnosis and in grading of primary brain tumors. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 233-241

  16. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Brain and Prostate Cancer

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    John Kurhanewicz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI for the study of brain and prostate cancer have expanded significantly over the past 10 years. Proton MRSI studies of the brain and prostate have demonstrated the feasibility of noninvasively assessing human cancers based on metabolite levels before and after therapy in a clinically reasonable amount of time. MRSI provides a unique biochemical “window” to study cellular metabolism noninvasively. MRSI studies have demonstrated dramatic spectral differences between normal brain tissue (low choline and high N-acetyl aspartate, NAA and prostate (low choline and high citrate compared to brain (low NAA, high choline and prostate (low citrate, high choline tumors. The presence of edema and necrosis in both the prostate and brain was reflected by a reduction of the intensity of all resonances due to reduced cell density. MRSI was able to discriminate necrosis (absence of all metabolites, except lipids and lactate from viable normal tissue and cancer following therapy. The results of current MRSI studies also provide evidence that the magnitude of metabolic changes in regions of cancer before therapy as well as the magnitude and time course of metabolic changes after therapy can improve our understanding of cancer aggressiveness and mechanisms of therapeutic response. Clinically, combined MRI/MRSI has already demonstrated the potential for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment planning of brain and prostate cancer. Additionally, studies are under way to determine the accuracy of anatomic and metabolic parameters in providing an objective quantitative basis for assessing disease progression and response to therapy.

  17. Brain of rats intoxicated with acrylamide: observation with 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y; Matsumura, H; Igisu, H; Yokota, A

    2000-10-01

    When rats were injected intraperitoneally with acrylamide (50 mg/kg per day) for 8 days, all animals developed ataxia and weakness in the hindlimbs. On examining their brain with an ultrahigh-field (4.7 T) magnetic resonance (MR) spectrometer, the lateral ventricles on both sides and the third ventricle were dilated. The aqueduct and cisterns were also enlarged. The size of the cerebral cortex was quantified in three MR image slices covering the cerebrum. Compared with the images of the brain of body weight-matched controls, the cerebral cortex of rats intoxicated with acrylamide was found to be smaller in the primary motor area in all slices, and in the primary or secondary sensory area in two slices. Taken together with previous enzymatic analyses, rats intoxicated with acrylamide (50 mg/kg per day for 8 days) seem to represent an animal model of acrylamide encephalopathy not only biochemically but also structurally.

  18. The social brain in adolescence: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Stephanie; Sebastian, Catherine; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is the collection of cognitive processes required to understand and interact with others. The term ‘social brain’ refers to the network of brain regions that underlies these processes. Recent evidence suggests that a number of social cognitive functions continue to develop during adolescence, resulting in age differences in tasks that assess cognitive domains including face processing, mental state inference and responding to peer influence and social evaluation. Concurrently, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show differences between adolescent and adult groups within parts of the social brain. Understanding the relationship between these neural and behavioural observations is a challenge. This review discusses current research findings on adolescent social cognitive development and its functional MRI correlates, then integrates and interprets these findings in the context of hypothesised developmental neurocognitive and neurophysiological mechanisms. PMID:21036192

  19. A Magnetic Resonance Compatible Soft Wearable Robotic Glove for Hand Rehabilitation and Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Kai Yap; Kamaldin, Nazir; Jeong Hoon Lim; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Goh, James Cho Hong; Chen-Hua Yeow

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and evaluation of a soft wearable robotic glove, which can be used with functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) during the hand rehabilitation and task specific training. The soft wearable robotic glove, called MR-Glove, consists of two major components: a) a set of soft pneumatic actuators and b) a glove. The soft pneumatic actuators, which are made of silicone elastomers, generate bending motion and actuate finger joints upon pressurization. The device is MR-compatible as it contains no ferromagnetic materials and operates pneumatically. Our results show that the device did not cause artifacts to fMRI images during hand rehabilitation and task-specific exercises. This study demonstrated the possibility of using fMRI and MR-compatible soft wearable robotic device to study brain activities and motor performances during hand rehabilitation, and to unravel the functional effects of rehabilitation robotics on brain stimulation.

  20. Brain structure in prenatal stroke: quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Sunita; Archibald, Sarah L; Trauner, Doris A

    2007-07-01

    Neonatal stroke outcome studies demonstrate variable findings of either relatively spared intellectual function or persistent impairments. Volumetric measurement of the brain can provide more precise data on lesion-cognition outcomes. We studied 7 children with unilateral focal lesions from prenatal stroke. Whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed to produce volumes of cortical gray matter, total white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, lesion, and lesion constricted fluid, and we ascertained the relationship of morphometric variables to intellectual and clinical outcome. Children with cystic encephalomalacia plus atrophy had poorer outcomes than children with atrophy or gliosis alone. These children also demonstrated the largest lesion size, smallest gray matter volume, and greatest proportion of hyperintense white matter in the affected hemisphere. Findings suggest that the type and size of the lesion, in addition to the integrity of white matter and residual cortex, may be better predictors of intellectual functioning than either of these indices alone.

  1. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and studies of degenerative diseases of the developing human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviness, V.S. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Phil, D.; Filipek, P.A.; Kennedy, D.N.

    1992-05-01

    The Rett syndrome is a progressive disorder which is associated with regression of psychomotor development and precipitous deceleration of brain growth during the first year of life. General histopathological surveys in postmortem specimens have identified degeneration of subpopulations of neurons of the nigrostriatal system but no other evidence of degenerative process. Magnetic resonance imaging-based morphometry may usefully guide application of rigorous but demanding quantitative histologic search for evidence of neuronal degeneration. The volumes of the principal set of cortical and nuclear structures of principal interest in the disorder may be measured by currently avaiable MRI-based methods. Opimized levels of precision now allow detection of volumetric changes over time in the same brain of approximately 10% at the 95% confidence level. (author).

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging brain activation in first-episode bipolar mania during a response inhibition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Lamy, Martine; Fleck, David E; Lee, Jing-Huei; DelBello, Melissa P

    2008-11-01

    Impulsivity is common in bipolar disorder, especially during mania. Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of response inhibition, one component of impulsivity, might clarify the neural substrate of bipolar disorder. Sixteen DSM-IV first-episode, manic bipolar patients and 16 matched healthy subjects were examined during a first manic episode using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a response inhibition task. All subjects were studied using a 4.0 Tesla Varian Unity INOVA Whole Body MRI/MRS system. The response inhibition task was presented using non-ferromagnetic goggles, and task performance was recorded during scan acquisition. Imaging data were analysed using analysis of functional neuroimages. Group contrasts were made for the specific response inhibition measure. The groups performed the task similarly, although both demonstrated relatively poor rates of target response, but high rates of successful 'stops'. Despite similar behavioural results, the groups showed significantly different patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain activation. Specifically, during response inhibition, the healthy subjects exhibited significantly greater activation in anterior and posterior cingulate, medial dorsal thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus. The bipolar patients exhibited prefrontal activation (BA 10) that was not observed in healthy subjects. Bipolar and healthy subjects exhibit different patterns of brain activation to response inhibition; these differences may reflect different functional neuroanatomic approaches to response inhibition between the two groups.

  3. MR_CHIROD v.2: magnetic resonance compatible smart hand rehabilitation device for brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanicheh, Azadeh; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Weinberg, Brian; Tzika, A Aria; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel, one degree-of-freedom, magnetic resonance compatible smart hand interfaced rehabilitation device (MR_CHIROD v.2), which may be used in brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during handgrip rehabilitation. A key feature of the device is the use of electrorheological fluids (ERFs) to achieve computer controlled, variable, and tunable resistive force generation. The device consists of three major subsystems: 1) an ERF based resistive element, 2) handles, and c) two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. MR_CHIROD v.2 is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Our results demonstrate that the MR environment does not interfere with the performance of the MR_CHIROD v.2, and, reciprocally, its use does not cause fMR image artifacts. The results are encouraging in jointly using MR_CHIROD v.2 and brain MR imaging to study motor performance and assess rehabilitation after neurological injuries such as stroke.

  4. THE STUDY OF THE BRAIN IN A PATIENT WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS USING TECHNIQUES OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Samoylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is now widely distributed worldwide and in theRussian Federation, it is an important medical and social problem in connection with the development of serious, disabling complications. Some of these complications could make changes in the brain which are accompanied by cognitive impairments that decrease quality of life and worsening disease compensation. The diagnosis of these disorders to date, possible by using modern methods of magnetic resonance imaging, which describe not only the morphological changes of the brain, but also the metabolism of nervous tissue. The study of the brain, namely structural and metabolic manifestations of diabetes, is one of the priority problem of modern medical science.The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamics in the different techniques of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of brain changes in patients with T1DM.Research methods included physical examination, in accordance with the diagnostic algorithm of patients with T1DM, a neurologist consultation, an assessment of cognitive function, analysis of brain changes using standard magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Statistical processing was performed using software package R-system. This publication presents a clinical case of a patient with T1DM and severe cognitive impairments are associated with changes in the brain, diagnosed using standard magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The study shows the positive role of correction of carbohydrate metabolism in improving cognitive function in a patient with T1DM.In addition, the process analysis revealed the absence of dynamic changes in the brain of a patient with T1DM according to standard magnetic resonance imaging. This required the use of additional techniques – magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which revealed changes of metabolism in the thalamus N-acetyl aspartate, choline and creatinine.

  5. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedd Jay N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.

  6. Effects of Recent Concussion on Brain Bioenergetics: A Phosphorus-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikoglu, Elif M; Liso Navarro, Ana A; Czerniak, Suzanne M; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-12-01

    Although clinical evaluations and neurocognitive assessments are commonly used to evaluate the extent of and recovery from concussion, brain bioenergetics could provide a more quantitative marker. The neurometabolic response to a concussion is thought to increase neuronal energy consumption and thus the demand for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). We investigated the possible disruption in high-energy metabolism within the prefrontal cortex of college athletes who had either had a concussion within the past 6 months (n=14) or had never had a concussion (n=13). We hypothesized that concussed athletes would have imbalanced brain bioenergetics resulting from increased NTP consumption, and these biochemical changes would correspond to impaired cognitive abilities. We used phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify high-energy phosphates. We performed the neuroimaging in conjunction with neurocognitive assessments targeting prefrontal cortex-mediated tasks. Our results revealed significantly lower γ-NTP levels in the athletes after concussion. Although the concussed and non-concussed participants performed similarly in neurocognitive assessments, lower levels of γ-NTP were associated with worse scores on neurocognitive tasks. Our results support the concept of increased energy demand in the prefrontal cortex of a concussed brain, and we found that while neurocognitive assessments appear normal, brain energetics may be abnormal. A longitudinal study could help establish brain NTP levels as a biomarker to aid in diagnosis and to assess recovery in concussed patients.

  7. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L.; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (pCompared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  8. Structural Abnormality on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Late-onset Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fen Lin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural abnormalities of patients with late-onset major depressive disorder using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and to assess clinical correlates of these structural abnormalities. Thirty-seven elderly patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder that first occurred after the age of 50 years, and 18 control subjects without depression were recruited. All participants underwent comprehensive psychiatric assessment and cerebral MRI. Brain ventricular and sulcal sizes and white matter hyperintensities were assessed visually. Relative to control subjects, patients with late-life major depressive disorder showed more severe brain atrophy (p = 0.043 and white matter hyperintensities (p = 0.024, especially in the periventricular area (p = 0.012. Over 60% of the patient group had significant brain MRI hyperintensities. White matter hyperintensity was correlated with later onset of depressive illness (r = 0.49, p = 0.002 among patients. Brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities are prevalent in patients with late-onset major depressive disorders. These two abnormalities may represent different pathophysiologic processes of depressive disorders. White matter hyperintensities may be predisposing factors for late-onset major depressive disorder.

  9. Brain atrophy rates in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia using serial magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Emma J; McKeith, Ian G; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2005-12-01

    Increased rates of brain atrophy are seen in Alzheimer's disease, but whether rates are similarly increased in other dementias such as Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) has not been well examined. We determined the rates of brain atrophy using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in PDD and compared this finding to rates seen in cognitively intact Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and age-matched control subjects. Thirty-one patients (PD = 18, PDD = 13) and 24 age-matched controls underwent serial volumetric 1.5 T MRI scans, approximately 1 year apart. Baseline and repeat scans were registered and quantification of the brain boundary shift integral was used to determine whole-brain atrophy rates. Rates of brain atrophy were significantly increased in PDD (1.12 +/- 0.98%/year) compared to PD (0.31 +/- 0.69%/year; P = 0.018) and control subjects (0.34 +/- 0.76%/year; P = 0.015). There were no differences in atrophy rates between controls and PD (P = 0.79). No correlations between increased atrophy rates and age or dementia severity (Mini-Mental State Examination score) were observed. Serial MRI may be a useful tool for monitoring disease progression in PDD and further studies should investigate its utility for early diagnosis.

  10. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific information about your own examination. What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? What is MRI used for? How safe ... What is the MRI examination like? What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a ...

  12. Brain activity during bladder filling and pelvic floor muscle contractions: a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging and synchronous urodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krhut, Jan; Holy, Petr; Tintera, Jaroslav; Zachoval, Roman; Zvara, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To map the brain activity during bladder filling by functional magnetic resonance imaging using a refined scanning protocol including synchronous urodynamics and pelvic floor muscle contractions. A total of 23 healthy female volunteers (age 20-68 years) were enrolled. Participants were asked to contract their pelvic floor muscles. This was followed by a urodynamic examination consisting of repeated filling cycles. Brain activity was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging using a 3T magnetic resonance system. Measurements of brain activity consisted of 120 functional scans during pelvic floor contractions and 210 scans during bladder filling. Each functional magnetic resonance imaging scan covered the brain with 35 slices. Statistical analyses used the general linear model and independent component analysis. Areas of activation were visualized using group statistics. The following main clusters of activation were observed during pelvic floor muscle contractions: medial surface of the frontal lobe (primary motor area), bilaterally; supplementary motor area, bilaterally; and left gyrus precentralis. During bladder filling, activation was detected in the inferior frontal lobe bordering the frontal cingulum, left gyrus parietalis superior, left central area, right insula, brainstem and thalamus with subcortical gray matter nuclei. Our work extends an existing functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for researching the neural control of the lower urinary tract. The present results are consistent with the available literature and agree with the present hypothetical functional model of lower urinary tract neural control. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Brain Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging of Sleep Homeostasis and Restoration in Drug Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Trksak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented a high occurrence of sleep difficulties in drug-dependent populations, prompting researchers to characterize sleep profiles and physiology in drug abusing populations. This mini-review examines studies indicating that drug-dependent populations exhibit alterations in sleep homeostatic and restoration processes in response to sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is a principal sleep research tool that results in marked physiological challenge, which provides a means to examine sleep homeostatic processes in response to extended wakefulness. A report from our laboratory demonstrated that following recovery sleep from sleep deprivation, brain high-energy phosphates particularly beta–nucleoside triphosphate (beta-NTP are markedly increased as measured with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. A more recent study examined the effects of sleep deprivation in opiate-dependent methadone-maintained (MM subjects. The study demonstrated increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep. Interestingly, these increases were of a markedly greater magnitude in MM subjects compared to control subjects. A similar study examined sleep deprivation in cocaine-dependent subjects demonstrating that cocaine-dependent subjects exhibit greater increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep when compared to control subjects. The studies suggest that sleep deprivation in both MM subjects and cocaine-dependent subjects is characterized by greater changes in brain ATP levels than control subjects. Greater enhancements in brain ATP following recovery sleep may reflect a greater disruption to or impact of sleep deprivation in drug dependent subjects, whereby sleep restoration processes may be unable to properly regulate brain ATP and maintain brain high-energy equilibrium. These studies support the notion of a greater susceptibility to sleep loss in drug dependent populations. Additional sleep studies in drug abusing

  14. Anatomical Characterization of Human Fetal Brain Development with Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Jiangyang; Ren, Tianbo; Richards, Linda J.; Yarowsky, Paul; Miller, Michael I.; Mori, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    The human brain is extraordinarily complex, and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Characterizing its anatomy at different stages of human fetal brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process but also provides clues to detecting abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. During the second trimester of human fetal development, neural structures in the brain undergo significant morphological changes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a novel method of magnetic resonance imaging, is capable of delineating anatomical components with high contrast and revealing structures at the microscopic level. In this study, high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise-ratio DTI data of fixed tissues of second-trimester human fetal brains were acquired and analyzed. DTI color maps and tractography revealed that important white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum and uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, become apparent during this period. Three-dimensional reconstruction shows that major brain fissures appear while most of the cerebral surface remains smooth until the end of the second trimester. A dominant radial organization was identified at 15 gestational weeks, followed by both laminar and radial architectures in the cerebral wall throughout the remainder of the second trimester. Volumetric measurements of different structures indicate that the volumes of basal ganglia and ganglionic eminence increase along with that of the whole brain, while the ventricle size decreases in the later second trimester. The developing fetal brain DTI database presented can be used for education, as an anatomical research reference, and for data registration. PMID:19339620

  15. Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Resection of Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Merkel, Andreas; Zimmermann, Max; Sommer, Björn; Buchfelder, Michael; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Rössler, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Tissue oxygen tension is an important parameter for brain tissue viability and its noninvasive intraoperative monitoring in the whole brain is of highly clinical relevance. The purpose of this study was the introduction of a multiparametric quantitative blood oxygenation dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach for intraoperative examination of oxygen metabolism during the resection of brain lesions. Sixteen patients suffering from brain lesions were examined intraoperatively twice (before craniotomy and after gross-total resection) via the quantitative blood oxygenation dependent technique and a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner, which is installed in an operating room. The MRI protocol included T2*- and T2 mapping and dynamic susceptibility weighted perfusion. Data analysis was performed with a custom-made, in-house MatLab software for calculation of maps of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) as well as of cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow. Perilesional edema showed a significant increase in both perfusion (cerebral blood volume +21%, cerebral blood flow +13%) and oxygen metabolism (OEF +32%, CMRO 2  +16%) after resection of the lesions. In perilesional nonedematous tissue only, however, oxygen metabolism (OEF +19%, CMRO 2  +11%) was significantly increased, but not perfusion. No changes were found in normal brain. Fortunately, no neurovascular adverse events were observed. This approach for intraoperative examination of oxygen metabolism in the whole brain is a new application of intraoperative MRI additionally to resection control (residual tumor detection) and updating of neuronavigation (brain shift detection). It may help to detect neurovascular adverse events early during surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the rabbit brain at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllhaupt, Désirée; Augsburger, Heinz; Schwarz, Andrea; Fischer, Gregor; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Ohlerth, Stefanie

    2015-08-28

    Rabbits are widely accepted as an animal model in neuroscience research. They also represent very popular pet animals, and, in selected clinical cases with neurological signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated for imaging the rabbit brain. Literature on the normal MRI anatomy of the rabbit brain and associated structures as well as related reference values is sparse. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to generate an MRI atlas of the normal rabbit brain including the pituitary gland, the cranial nerves and major vessels by the use of a 3 T magnet. Based on transverse, dorsal and sagittal T2-weighted (T2w) and pre- and post-contrast 3D T1-weighted (T1w) sequences, 60 intracranial structures were identified and labeled. Typical features of a lissencephalic brain type were described. In the 5 investigated rabbits, on T1w images a crescent-shaped hyperintense area caudodorsally in the pituitary gland most likely corresponded to a part of the neurohypophysis. The optic, trigeminal, and in part, the facial, vestibulocochlear and trochlear nerves were identified. Mild contrast enhancement of the trigeminal nerve was present in all rabbits. Absolute and relative size of the pituitary gland, midline area of the cranial and caudal cranial fossa and height of the tel- and diencephalon, 3rd and 4th ventricles were also determined. These data established normal MRI appearance and measurements of the rabbit brain. Results provide reference for research studies in rabbits and, in rare instances, clinical cases in veterinary medicine.

  17. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  18. Multigrid Nonlocal Gaussian Mixture Model for Segmentation of Brain Tissues in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel segmentation method based on regional and nonlocal information to overcome the impact of image intensity inhomogeneities and noise in human brain magnetic resonance images. With the consideration of the spatial distribution of different tissues in brain images, our method does not need preestimation or precorrection procedures for intensity inhomogeneities and noise. A nonlocal information based Gaussian mixture model (NGMM is proposed to reduce the effect of noise. To reduce the effect of intensity inhomogeneity, the multigrid nonlocal Gaussian mixture model (MNGMM is proposed to segment brain MR images in each nonoverlapping multigrid generated by using a new multigrid generation method. Therefore the proposed model can simultaneously overcome the impact of noise and intensity inhomogeneity and automatically classify 2D and 3D MR data into tissues of white matter, gray matter, and cerebral spinal fluid. To maintain the statistical reliability and spatial continuity of the segmentation, a fusion strategy is adopted to integrate the clustering results from different grid. The experiments on synthetic and clinical brain MR images demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed model comparing with several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  19. A Nested Phosphorus and Proton Coil Array for Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik; Madelin, Guillaume; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2015-01-01

    A dual-nuclei radiofrequency coil array was constructed for phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the human brain at 7 Tesla. An eight-channel transceive degenerate birdcage phosphorus module was implemented to provide whole-brain coverage and significant sensitivity improvement over a standard dual-tuned loop coil. A nested eight-channel proton module provided adequate sensitivity for anatomical localization without substantially sacrificing performance on the phosphorus module. The developed array enabled phosphorus spectroscopy, a saturation transfer technique to calculate the global creatine kinase forward reaction rate, and single-metabolite whole-brain imaging with 1.4 cm nominal isotropic resolution in 15 min (2.3 cm actual resolution), while additionally enabling 1 mm isotropic proton imaging. This study demonstrates that a multi-channel array can be utilized for phosphorus and proton applications with improved coverage and/or sensitivity over traditional single-channel coils. The efficient multi-channel coil array, time-efficient pulse sequences, and the enhanced signal strength available at ultra-high fields can be combined to allow volumetric assessment of the brain and could provide new insights into the underlying energy metabolism impairment in several neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, as well as mental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26375209

  20. Multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography of the brain reveals tissue degeneration in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Fehlner, Andreas; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Pache, Florence [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Lacheta, Anna; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Brandt, Alexander [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Bellmann-Strobl, Judith [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, Klemens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Braun, Juergen [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany); Paul, Friedemann [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, Jens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC AG), Basel (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    Application of multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MMRE) of the brain parenchyma in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) compared to age matched healthy controls (HC). 15 NMOSD patients and 17 age- and gender-matched HC were examined using MMRE. Two three-dimensional viscoelastic parameter maps, the magnitude G* and phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus were reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave-field data in 1.9-mm isotropic resolution at 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. In NMOSD patients, a significant reduction of G* was observed within the white matter fraction (p = 0.017), predominantly within the thalamic regions (p = 0.003), compared to HC. These parameters exceeded the reduction in brain volume measured in patients versus HC (p = 0.02 whole-brain volume reduction). Volumetric differences in white matter fraction and the thalami were not detectable between patients and HC. However, phase angle φ was decreased in patients within the white matter (p = 0.03) and both thalamic regions (p = 0.044). MMRE reveals global tissue degeneration with accelerated softening of the brain parenchyma in patients with NMOSD. The predominant reduction of stiffness is found within the thalamic region and related white matter tracts, presumably reflecting Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  1. Methods for optimizing the display conditions of brain magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yusuke; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Hata, Hirofumi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a method for optimizing the display conditions of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. We retrospectively analyzed brain MR images of 120 adults classified into screening, acute cerebral infarction, and brain tumor groups (n = 40 each). Two observers independently displayed the images on a monitor and optimized the display conditions using the W/L and U/L methods. In the W/L method, the observers manipulated the width and level of the display window, while in the U/L method they manipulated the upper and lower levels of the window. The times required were compared between the two methods. Additionally, the appropriateness of the determined window setting was evaluated visually by the respective observer to exclude the possibility that rough, suboptimal adjustment shortened the adjustment time. For both observers and all groups, the time required for optimization was significantly shorter for the U/L method than for the W/L method. The appropriateness of the window setting for the U/L method was equal to or better than that for the W/L method. Manipulating the upper and lower levels of the display window appears to improve the efficiency of interpreting brain MR images through rapid optimization of the display condition.

  2. Brain magnetic resonance imaging screening is not useful for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Teruya, Katsuji; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the diagnostic usefulness of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms in detecting intracranial diseases at early stages. In this retrospective analysis, the study patients were HIV-1-infected patients who underwent brain MRI scan in clinical practice between 2001 and 2013. We excluded patients with MRI for (1) follow-up examination for prediagnosed intracranial diseases, (2) cancer staging, (3) screening mycobacterium/bacteria/fungi disease proliferation in the brain, and (4) evaluation for meningitis/encephalitis. The study patients (n=485) were classified into two groups: those who underwent brain MRI scan without any neurological symptoms/signs (asymptomatic patients, n=158) and those who underwent MRI due to such symptoms (symptomatic patients, n=327). Asymptomatic patients had lower CD4 counts than symptomatic patients (median 78 versus 241/μl). Intracranial diseases were detected in three (2%) of the asymptomatic patients [two toxoplasmosis and one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)] compared to 58 (19%) of the symptomatic patients (the χ(2) test, pMRI screening for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms is of little value.

  3. Hydrogen magnetic resonance spectroscopy follow-up after radiation therapy of human brain cancer: Unexpected inverse correlation between the changes in tumor choline level and post-gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Sijens (Paul); C.J. Vecht (Charles); P.C. Levendag (Peter); P. van Dijk (Pieter); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES The anatomic and metabolic changes in human brain tumors treated by radiation therapy were compared using gadolinium–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The study was intended to assess the potential

  4. Classification of brain disease in magnetic resonance images using two-stage local feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Wu; Yang, Yehui

    2017-01-01

    Background Many classification methods have been proposed based on magnetic resonance images. Most methods rely on measures such as volume, the cerebral cortical thickness and grey matter density. These measures are susceptible to the performance of registration and limited in representation of anatomical structure. This paper proposes a two-stage local feature fusion method, in which deformable registration is not desired and anatomical information is represented from moderate scale. Methods Keypoints are firstly extracted from scale-space to represent anatomical structure. Then, two kinds of local features are calculated around the keypoints, one for correspondence and the other for representation. Scores are assigned for keypoints to quantify their effect in classification. The sum of scores for all effective keypoints is used to determine which group the test subject belongs to. Results We apply this method to magnetic resonance images of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The advantage of local feature in correspondence and representation contributes to the final classification. With the help of local feature (Scale Invariant Feature Transform, SIFT) in correspondence, the performance becomes better. Local feature (Histogram of Oriented Gradient, HOG) extracted from 16×16 cell block obtains better results compared with 4×4 and 8×8 cell block. Discussion This paper presents a method which combines the effect of SIFT descriptor in correspondence and the representation ability of HOG descriptor in anatomical structure. This method has the potential in distinguishing patients with brain disease from controls. PMID:28207873

  5. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabian Shima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer’s disease. Few cases have so far described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer’s disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation The patient presented here is a 33 year old Bulgarian male, whose clinical features include progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes over the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (Mini Mental State Examination score was 16/30 with impaired memory and attention, and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, and extrapyramidal signs, as well as dysarthria and impairment in coordination, were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with noticeable bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test/Treponema pallidum hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High-dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. At 6 month follow up, improvements were noted clinically, on neuropsychological examinations, and in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition which requires early aggressive antibiotic therapy.

  6. Brain metabolic pattern analysis using a magnetic resonance spectra classification software in experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Davila, Myriam; Candiota, Ana Paula; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Ortega-Martorell, Sandra; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Arús, Carles; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan

    2017-01-13

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain Regions Classifier in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke using SpectraClassifier. A total of 164 single-voxel proton spectra obtained with a 7 Tesla magnet at an echo time of 12 ms from non-infarcted parenchyma, subventricular zones and infarcted parenchyma were analyzed with SpectraClassifier ( http://gabrmn.uab.es/?q=sc ). The spectra corresponded to Sprague-Dawley rats (healthy rats, n = 7) and stroke rats at day 1 post-stroke (acute phase, n = 6 rats) and at days 7 ± 1 post-stroke (subacute phase, n = 14). In the Infarct Evolution Classifier, spectral features contributed by lactate + mobile lipids (1.33 ppm), total creatine (3.05 ppm) and mobile lipids (0.85 ppm) distinguished among non-infarcted parenchyma (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity), acute phase of infarct (100% sensitivity and 95% specificity) and subacute phase of infarct (78% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In the Brain Regions Classifier, spectral features contributed by myoinositol (3.62 ppm) and total creatine (3.04/3.05 ppm) distinguished among infarcted parenchyma (100% sensitivity and 98% specificity), non-infarcted parenchyma (84% sensitivity and 84% specificity) and subventricular zones (76% sensitivity and 93% specificity). SpectraClassifier identified candidate biomarkers for infarct evolution (mobile lipids accumulation) and different brain regions (myoinositol content).

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  8. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Image Dept.], e-mail: jrl.ferraz@terra.com.br; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Radiology Dept.; Sanches, Rafael Angelo [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2009-06-15

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  9. Measurement and correction of microscopic head motion during magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Maclaren

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a widely used method for non-invasive study of the structure and function of the human brain. Increasing magnetic field strengths enable higher resolution imaging; however, long scan times and high motion sensitivity mean that image quality is often limited by the involuntary motion of the subject. Prospective motion correction is a technique that addresses this problem by tracking head motion and continuously updating the imaging pulse sequence, locking the imaging volume position and orientation relative to the moving brain. The accuracy and precision of current MR-compatible tracking systems and navigator methods allows the quantification and correction of large-scale motion, but not the correction of very small involuntary movements in six degrees of freedom. In this work, we present an MR-compatible tracking system comprising a single camera and a single 15 mm marker that provides tracking precision in the order of 10 m and 0.01 degrees. We show preliminary results, which indicate that when used for prospective motion correction, the system enables improvement in image quality at both 3 T and 7 T, even in experienced and cooperative subjects trained to remain motionless during imaging. We also report direct observation and quantification of the mechanical ballistocardiogram (BCG during simultaneous MR imaging. This is particularly apparent in the head-feet direction, with a peak-to-peak displacement of 140 m.

  10. Is preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging reliable for language areas mapping in brain tumor surgery? Review of language functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct cortical stimulation correlation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Carlo; Roux, Frank-Emmanuel; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Sganzerla, Erik Pietro; Pirillo, David; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used extensively in the past decade for both clinical and research purposes. Its integration in the preoperative imaging assessment of brain lesions involving eloquent areas is progressively more diffused in neurosurgical practice. Nevertheless, the reliability of language fMRI is unclear. To understand the reliability of preoperative language fMRI in patients operated on for brain tumors, the surgical studies that compared language fMRI with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) were reviewed. Articles comparing language fMRI with DCS of language areas were reviewed with attention to the lesion pathology, the magnetic field, the language tasks used pre- and intraoperatively, and the validation modalities adopted to establish the reliability of language fMRI. We tried to explore the effectiveness of language fMRI in gliomas. Nine language brain mapping studies compared the findings of fMRI with those of DCS. The studies are not homogeneous for tumor types, magnetic fields, pre- and intraoperative language tasks, intraoperative matching criteria, and results. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated in 5 studies (respectively ranging from 59% to 100% and from 0% to 97%). The contradictory results of these studies do not allow consideration of language fMRI as an alternative tool to DCS in brain lesions located in language areas, especially in gliomas because of the pattern of growth of these tumors. However, language fMRI conducted with high magnet fields is a promising brain mapping tool that must be validated by DCS in methodological robust studies.

  11. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with bilateral inferior collicular hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. An 8-year-old boy presented with progressive behavioral changes, cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks, progressing to a bed bound state over 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in the subcortical areas of the left occipital lobe and brachium of the inferior colliculus on both sides. EEG showed bilateral, synchronous periodic discharges. Serum/cerebrospinal fluid measles IgG titer was significantly positive. The overall features were suggestive of SSPE. MRI finding of bilateral inferior colliculus changes on MRI without significant involvement of other commonly involved areas suggests an uncommon/rare imaging pattern of SSPE.

  12. In vivo measurement of water self diffusion in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1987-01-01

    coefficient of water with different temperatures. This phantom study showed that the water self diffusion could be measured accurately and that the inplane deviation was less than +/- 10 per cent. Seven healthy volunteers were studied with a 10 mm thick slice through the lateral ventricles, clear differences......A new pulse sequence for in vivo diffusion measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is introduced. The pulse sequence was tested on phantoms to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility and inplane variations. The sensitivity of the sequence was tested by measuring the self diffusion...... intracranial hypertension. The results indicate that brain water self diffusion can be measured in vivo with reasonable accuracy. The clinical examples suggest that diffusion measurements may be clinically useful adding further information about in vivo MR tissue characterization....

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with bilateral inferior collicular hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Maya; Sivadasan, Ajith; Alexander, Mathew; Patil, Anil Kumar B

    2012-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. An 8-year-old boy presented with progressive behavioral changes, cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks, progressing to a bed bound state over 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in the subcortical areas of the left occipital lobe and brachium of the inferior colliculus on both sides. EEG showed bilateral, synchronous periodic discharges. Serum/cerebrospinal fluid measles IgG titer was significantly positive. The overall features were suggestive of SSPE. MRI finding of bilateral inferior colliculus changes on MRI without significant involvement of other commonly involved areas suggests an uncommon/rare imaging pattern of SSPE.

  14. Segmentation of brain tumor images using in vivo spectroscopy, relaxometry and diffusometry by magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin L, M. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, A.P. 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    A new methodology is developed for the segmentation of brain tumor images using information obtained by different magnetic resonance techniques such as in vivo spectroscopy, relaxometry and diffusometry. In vivo spectroscopy is used as a sort of virtual biopsy to characterize the different tissue types present in the lesion (active tumor, necrotic tissue or edema and normal or non-affected tissue). Due to the fact that in vivo spectroscopy information lacks the spatial resolution for treatment considerations, this information has to be combined or fused with images obtained by relaxometry and diffusometry with excellent spatial resolution. Some segmentation schemes are presented and discussed, using the high spatial resolution techniques individually or combined. The results show that segmentation done in this way is highly reliable for the application of future therapies such as radiosurgery or radiotherapy. (Author)

  15. Detectability of Neuronal Currents in Human Brain with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Howland D. T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Edward V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayer, Andrew R. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caprihan, Arvind [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gasparovic, Charles [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blagoev, Krastan B. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haaland, David M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used in a high-risk, high-payoff search for neuronal current (NC) signals in the free induction decay (FID) data from the visual cortex of human subjects during visual stimulation. If successful, this approach could make possible the detection of neuronal currents in the brain at high spatial and temporal resolution. Our initial experiments indicated the presence of a statistically significant change in the FID containing the NC relative to FIDs with the NC absent, and this signal was consistent with the presence of NC. Unfortunately, two follow-on experiments were not able to confirm or replicate the positive findings of the first experiment. However, even if the result from the first experiment were evidence of NC in the FID, it is clear that its effect is so small, that a true NC imaging experiment would not be possible with the current instrumentation and experimental protocol used here.

  16. In vivo measurement of water self diffusion in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1987-01-01

    A new pulse sequence for in vivo diffusion measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is introduced. The pulse sequence was tested on phantoms to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility and inplane variations. The sensitivity of the sequence was tested by measuring the self diffusion...... coefficient of water with different temperatures. This phantom study showed that the water self diffusion could be measured accurately and that the inplane deviation was less than +/- 10 per cent. Seven healthy volunteers were studied with a 10 mm thick slice through the lateral ventricles, clear differences...... between grey and white matter as well as regional differences within the white matter were seen. In two patients with infarction, alternations in water self diffusion were seen in the region of the infarct. Likewise, pronounced changes in brain water self diffusion were observed in a patient with benign...

  17. Brain activation during manipulation of the myoelectric prosthetic hand: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruishi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Ozawa, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miyatani, Makoto; Kawahara, Junichiro

    2004-04-01

    Neuroimaging data, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings, have not been reported in users of the myoelectric or electromyographic (EMG) prosthetic hand. We developed a virtual EMG prosthetic hand system to eliminate mutual signal noise interference between fMRI imaging and the EMG prosthesis. We used fMRI to localize activation in the human brain during manipulation of the virtual EMG prosthetic hand. Fourteen right-handed normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes closed (CEG); repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes open to obtain visual feedback of their own hand movement (OEG); and repetitive grasping with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand with the eyes open to obtain visual feedback of the prosthetic hand movement (VRG). The specific site activated during manipulation of the EMG prosthetic hand was the right ventral premotor cortex. Both paradigms with visual feedback also (OEG and VRG) demonstrated activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. The center of activation of the right posterior parietal cortex shifted laterally for visual feedback with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand compared to a subject's own hand. The results suggest that the EMG prosthetic hand might be recognized in the brain as a high-performance alternative to a real hand, being controlled through a "mirror system" in the brain.

  18. Temporal filtering of longitudinal brain magnetic resonance images for consistent segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehashis Roy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal analysis of magnetic resonance images of the human brain provides knowledge of brain changes during both normal aging as well as the progression of many diseases. Previous longitudinal segmentation methods have either ignored temporal information or have incorporated temporal consistency constraints within the algorithm. In this work, we assume that some anatomical brain changes can be explained by temporal transitions in image intensities. Once the images are aligned in the same space, the intensities of each scan at the same voxel constitute a temporal (or 4D intensity trend at that voxel. Temporal intensity variations due to noise or other artifacts are corrected by a 4D intensity-based filter that smooths the intensity values where appropriate, while preserving real anatomical changes such as atrophy. Here smoothing refers to removal of sudden changes or discontinuities in intensities. Images processed with the 4D filter can be used as a pre-processing step to any segmentation method. We show that such a longitudinal pre-processing step produces robust and consistent longitudinal segmentation results, even when applying 3D segmentation algorithms. We compare with state-of-the-art 4D segmentation algorithms. Specifically, we experimented on three longitudinal datasets containing 4–12 time-points, and showed that the 4D temporal filter is more robust and has more power in distinguishing between healthy subjects and those with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, as well as different phenotypes of multiple sclerosis.

  19. Identification of cellular infiltrates during early stages of brain inflammation with magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Waiczies

    Full Text Available A comprehensive view of brain inflammation during the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalomyelitis can be achieved with the aid of high resolution non-invasive imaging techniques such as microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of cryogenically-cooled RF coils to produce μMRI in vivo, with sufficient detail to reveal brain pathology in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model. We could visualize inflammatory infiltrates in detail within various regions of the brain, already at an early phase of EAE. Importantly, this pathology could be seen clearly even without the use of contrast agents, and showed excellent correspondence with conventional histology. The cryogenically-cooled coil enabled the acquisition of high resolution images within short scan times: an important practical consideration in conducting animal experiments. The detail of the cellular infiltrates visualized by in vivo μMRI allows the opportunity to follow neuroinflammatory processes even during the early stages of disease progression. Thus μMRI will not only complement conventional histological examination but will also enable longitudinal studies on the kinetics and dynamics of immune cell infiltration.

  20. Malnutrition and Risk of Structural Brain Changes Seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Lonterman-Monasch, Sabine; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Kramer, Mark H; Maier, Andrea B; Muller, Majon

    2016-12-01

    To study the associations between protein energy malnutrition, micronutrient malnutrition, brain atrophy, and cerebrovascular lesions. Cross-sectional. Geriatric outpatient clinic. Older adults (N = 475; mean age 80 ± 7). Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and according to serum micronutrient levels (vitamins B1, B6, B12, D; folic acid). White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), global cortical brain atrophy, and medial temporal lobe atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were rated using visual rating scales. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the three MNA categories (nutritional status. Results remained significant after further adjustments for cognitive function, depressive symptoms, cardiovascular risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking and alcohol use, and micronutrient levels. Lower vitamin B1 (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.11-2.08) and B12 (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.02-2.04) levels were also related to greater risk of severe WMHs, independent of age and sex. Results remained significant after additional adjustments. MNA and vitamin levels were not associated with measures of brain atrophy. Malnutrition and lower vitamin B1 and B12 levels were independently associated with greater risk of WMHs. Underlying mechanisms need to be further clarified, and whether nutritional interventions can modify these findings also needs to be studied. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Santos, A. C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de, E-mail: murta@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-01-15

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  2. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.B. Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously.

  3. [CLIPPERS syndrome with atypical distribution of lesions in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canneti, Beatrice; Mosqueira, Antonio J; Gilo, Francisco; Carreras, Teresa; Barbosa, Antonio; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Vivancos, José

    2013-10-16

    CLIPPERS syndrome (chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) is an inflammatory process of the central nervous system whose distinguishing features are the enhancing punctiform lesions in the brainstem that appear in the magnetic resonance images. Clinically, it is accompanied by dysarthria, ataxia and diplopia, and usually responds to treatment with corticoids. Pathologically, T lymphocytes appear infiltrated in the perivascular spaces of the brainstem. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with an initial subacute clinical picture of binocular diplopia, ataxia and dysarthria. The magnetic resonance brain scan revealed T2 hyperintense punctiform lesions in the stem, cerebellum, diencephalons and cortico-subcortical areas of both hemispheres, which were enhanced with contrast. An aetiological study was performed to rule out any underlying infectious, neoplastic or inflammatory origin, the results being negative. The patient was treated on two occasions with methylprednisolone, with a gradual lowering of the dosage, the response being favourable. Diplopia and ataxia, as in our case, are practically always present. The MR findings consist of punctiform enhancing lesions located in the pons extending towards the cerebellum, basal ganglia and corpus callosum, the enhancement gradient becoming lower as the distance increases rostrally away from the cortex, and caudally towards the spinal cord. In the case of our patient, this gradient is not respected, and the density found was similar to that of lesions at the supratentorial level. The differential diagnosis is wide-ranging and justifies an extensive diagnostic study with, in certain cases, a biopsy study of brain tissue. The disease courses in a relapsing-remitting pattern and the earlier steroid therapy is established and the more prolonged it is, the better the prognosis will be.

  4. Love-related changes in the brain: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen eSong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have found activation increases in brain regions involved in processing of reward, emotion, motivation when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known on whether romantic love affects the brain’s functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity (FC across a lover group (LG, N=34, currently intensely in love, ended-love group (ELG, N=34, romantic relationship ended recently, and single group (SG, N=32, never fallen in love.The results showed that:1 ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG; 2 ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; 3 functional connectivity (FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala and nucleus accumbens and the social cognition network (temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, inferior parietal, precuneus and temporal lobe was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG; 4 in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the love duration in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations of brain functional architecture. The results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate the possibility of applying a resting state approach for investigating romantic love.

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and apparent diffusion coefficient in evaluation of solid brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Baloš Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques can provide insight in physiological changes within pathological canges and contribute to better distinquishing between different tumor types and their discrimination from non-neoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC in distinguishing intracranial glial tumors from tumor like nonneoplastic lesions, as well as for differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas. Methods. This retrospective study included 47 patients with solid brain lesions (25 nonneoplastic, 14 low-grade and 8 anaplastic glial tumors. In all patients 1H-MRS (at a TE of 135 ms and 30 ms and diffusion- weighted imaging (DWI were performed. The choline to creatine (Cho/Cr, choline to N-acetyl aspartate (Cho/NAA, N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr and myoinositol to creatine (mIn/Cr ratios and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were determined. Results. The Cho/Cr ratio was significantly higher in glial tumors grade II than in non-neoplastic lesions (p = 0.008 and in glial tumors grade III than in non-neoplastic lesions (p = 0.001. The Cho/NAA ratio was significantly higher in glial tumors grade II than in non-neoplastic lesions (p = 0.037. ΔADC/ADC between glial tumors grade II and glial tumors grade III showed a statistical significance (p = 0.023. Conclusion. Our study showed that 1H-MRS and apparent diffusion coefficients can help in evaluation and differentiation of solid brain lesions.

  6. A Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, ME; Hamoda, HM; Schneiderman, JS; Bouix, S; Pasternak, O; Rathi, Y; M-A, Vu; Purohit, MP; Helmer, K; Koerte, I; Lin, AP; C-F, Westin; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Stern, RA; Zafonte, R

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also referred to as concussion, remains a controversial diagnosis because the brain often appears quite normal on conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Such conventional tools, however, do not adequately depict brain injury in mTBI because they are not sensitive to detecting diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), also described as traumatic axonal injuries (TAI), the major brain injuries in mTBI. Furthermore, for the 15 to 30% of those diagnosed with mTBI on the basis of cognitive and clinical symptoms, i.e., the “miserable minority,” the cognitive and physical symptoms do not resolve following the first three months post-injury. Instead, they persist, and in some cases lead to long-term disability. The explanation given for these chronic symptoms, i.e., postconcussive syndrome, particularly in cases where there is no discernible radiological evidence for brain injury, has led some to posit a psychogenic origin. Such attributions are made all the easier since both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are frequently co-morbid with mTBI. The challenge is thus to use neuroimaging tools that are sensitive to DAI/TAI, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in order to detect brain injuries in mTBI. Of note here, recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, such as DTI, make it possible to characterize better extant brain abnormalities in mTBI. These advances may lead to the development of biomarkers of injury, as well as to staging of reorganization and reversal of white matter changes following injury, and to the ability to track and to characterize changes in brain injury over time. Such tools will likely be used in future research to evaluate treatment efficacy, given their enhanced sensitivity to alterations in the brain. In this article we review the incidence of mTBI and the importance of characterizing this patient population using objective radiological measures. Evidence

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain tumors; MR-Spektroskopie bei Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditter, P.; Hattingen, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, FE Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) in brain tumors. The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by {sup 1}H-MRS. It is based on the principle that chemical proton compounds of certain brain metabolites focally attenuate the external magnetic field and change the proton resonance frequency according to typical patterns. In addition, parameter maps of MRS imaging (MRSI) can show the tumor heterogeneity as well as changes in the surrounding brain tissue. In this context, the patterns of N-acetylaspartate, total choline (tCho) and creatine are relatively robust, whereas the patterns of other metabolites, such as myoinositol, glutamate, lactate or lipids greatly depend on the external field strength and echo time. The signal intensity of tCho in vital tumor tissue increases with the WHO grade of the brain tumor, i.e. increases with the level of malignancy. The use of MRSI facilitates the WHO grading of gliomas by determining target points in biopsies. Different distribution patterns and specific metabolite signals enable a better differentiation between abscesses, metastases, central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas and gliomas. The use of {sup 1}H-MRS provides valuable information on the differential diagnosis and graduation of brain tumors; however, so far artefacts, signal strength, parameter selection and a lack of standardization impede the establishment of {sup 1}H-MRS for use in clinical routine diagnostics. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle MRT ermoeglicht unter Beruecksichtigung klinischer Information bei einem Grossteil zerebraler Raumforderungen die richtige

  8. Parkinson's disease and brain mitochondrial dysfunction: a functional phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Mario; Bonifati, Cristiana; Bresolin, Nereo

    2006-02-01

    In spite of several evidences for a mitochondrial impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD), so far it has not been possible to show in vivo mitochondrial dysfunction in the human brain of PD patients. The authors used the high temporal and spatial resolution 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) technique, which they have previously developed in normal subjects and in patients with mitochondrial diseases to study mitochondrial function by observing high-energy phosphates (HEPs) and intracellular pH (pH) in the visual cortex of 20 patients with PD and 20 normal subjects at rest, during, and after visual activation. In normal subjects, HEPs remained unchanged during activation, but rose significantly (by 16%) during recovery, and pH increased during visual activation with a slow return to rest values. In PD patients, HEPs were within the normal range at rest and did not change during activation, but fell significantly (by 36%) in the recovery period; pH did not reveal a homogeneous pattern with a wide spread of values. Energy unbalance under increased oxidative metabolism requirements, that is, the postactivation phase, discloses a mitochondrial dysfunction that is present in the brain of patients with PD even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations, as in the visual cortex. This is in agreement with our previous findings in patients with mitochondrial disease without clinical central nervous system (CNS) involvement. The heterogeneity of the physicochemical environment (i.e., pH) suggests various degrees of subclinical brain involvement in PD. The combined use of MRS and brain activation is fundamental for the study of brain energetics in patients with PD and may prove an important tool for diagnostic purposes and, possibly, to monitor therapeutic interventions.

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Dividing Cells in Live Rodent Brain by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRS) and LCModel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, June-Hee; Lee, Hedok; Makaryus, Rany

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dividing cells can be detected in the live brain by positron emission tomography or optical imaging. Here we apply proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) and a widely used spectral fitting algorithm to characterize the effect of increased neurogenesis after electroconvulsive sh...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children and Radiation Safety Videos related to Children’s ( ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's ( ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  13. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a tool for a better understanding of normal and abnormal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sahar N

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the developing fetal brain is essential to detect abnormalities and understand their pathogenesis. Capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the brain in utero and to differentiate between its various tissues makes fetal MRI a potential diagnostic and research tool for the developing brain. This article provides an approach to understand the normal and abnormal brain development through schematic interpretation of fetal brain MR images. MRI is a potential screening tool in the second trimester of pregnancies in fetuses at risk for brain anomalies and helps in describing new brain syndromes with in utero presentation. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps genetic counseling, facilitates management decisions, and guides therapy. Fetal MRI can help in better understanding the pathogenesis of fetal brain malformations and can support research that could lead to disease-specific interventions.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Malaria Patients Reveals Distinct Pathogenetic Processes in Different Parts of the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjib Mohanty; Benjamin, Laura A; Megharay Majhi; Premanand Panda; Sam Kampondeni; Sahu, Praveen K.; Akshaya Mohanty; Mahanta, Kishore C.; Rajyabardhan Pattnaik; Rashmi R. Mohanty; Sonia Joshi; Anita Mohanty; Ian W. Turnbull; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanisms underlying the rapidly reversible brain swelling described in patients with cerebral malaria (CM) are unknown. Using a 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we undertook an observational study in Rourkela, India, of 11 Indian patients hospitalized with CM and increased brain volume. Among the 11 cases, there were 5 adults and 6 children. All patients had reduced consciousness and various degrees of cortical swelling at baseline. The latter was predomi...

  15. USE OF DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FOR REVEALING HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAIN LESIONS IN NEONATES

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Shimchenko; E. I. Kleshchenko; K. F. Goloseyev

    2014-01-01

    The article presents advantages of use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) for revealing hypoxic-ischemic brain lesions in neonates. The trial included 97 neonates with perinatal brain lesion who had been undergoing treatment at a resuscitation department or neonatal pathology department in the first month of life. The article shows high information value of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) for diagnostics of hypoxic-ischemic lesions in comparison with regular standard mo...

  16. Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Graham S.; O’Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods present...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  18. Imaging of brain oxygenation with magnetic resonance imaging: A validation with positron emission tomography in the healthy and tumoural brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valable, Samuel; Corroyer-Dulmont, Aurélien; Chakhoyan, Ararat; Durand, Lucile; Toutain, Jérôme; Divoux, Didier; Barré, Louisa; MacKenzie, Eric T; Petit, Edwige; Bernaudin, Myriam; Touzani, Omar; Barbier, Emmanuel L

    2017-07-01

    The partial pressure in oxygen remains challenging to map in the brain. Two main strategies exist to obtain surrogate measures of tissue oxygenation: the tissue saturation studied by magnetic resonance imaging (S t O 2 -MRI) and the identification of hypoxia by a positron emission tomography (PET) biomarker with 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol ([ 18 F]-FMISO) as the leading radiopharmaceutical. Nonetheless, a formal validation of S t O 2 -MRI against FMISO-PET has not been performed. The objective of our studies was to compare the two approaches in (a) the normal rat brain when the rats were submitted to hypoxemia; (b) animals implanted with four tumour types differentiated by their oxygenation. Rats were submitted to normoxic and hypoxemic conditions. For the brain tumour experiments, U87-MG, U251-MG, 9L and C6 glioma cells were orthotopically inoculated in rats. For both experiments, S t O 2 -MRI and [ 18 F]-FMISO PET were performed sequentially. Under hypoxemia conditions, S t O 2 -MRI revealed a decrease in oxygen saturation in the brain. Nonetheless, [ 18 F]-FMISO PET, pimonidazole immunohistochemistry and molecular biology were insensitive to hypoxia. Within the context of tumours, S t O 2 -MRI was able to detect hypoxia in the hypoxic models, mimicking [ 18 F]-FMISO PET with high sensitivity/specificity. Altogether, our data clearly support that, in brain pathologies, S t O 2 -MRI could be a robust and specific imaging biomarker to assess hypoxia.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of brain maturation in preterm neonates with punctate white matter lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramenghi, Luca A.; Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Mosca, Fabio [University of Milan, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Bianchini, Elena; Triulzi, Fabio [Ospedale Pediatrico ' ' Buzzi' ' -ICP, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Early white matter (WM) injury affects brain maturation in preterm infants as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term postmenstrual age (PMA). The aim of the study was to assess quantitatively brain maturation in preterm infants with and without milder forms of WM damage (punctate WM lesions, PWML) using conventional MRI. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using a previously validated scoring system (total maturation score, TMS) which utilizes four parameters (progressive myelination and cortical infolding, progressive involution of glial cell migration bands and germinal matrix tissue). PWML were defined as foci of increased signal on T1-weighted images and decreased signal on T2-weighted images with no evidence of cystic degeneration. A group of 22 preterm infants with PWML at term PMA (PWML group) were compared with 22 matched controls with a normal MR appearance. The two groups were comparable concerning gestational age, birth weight and PMA. TMS was significantly lower in the PWML group than in the control group (mean TMS 12.44 {+-} 2.31 vs 14.00 {+-} 1.44; P = 0.011). Myelination (mean 2.76 {+-} 0.42 PWML group vs 3.32 {+-} 0.55 control group, P = 0.003) and cortical folding (3.64 {+-} 0.79 vs 4.09 {+-} 0.43, P = 0.027) appeared to be significantly delayed in babies with PWML. Conventional MRI appears able to quantify morphological changes in brain maturation of preterm babies with PWML; delayed myelination and reduced cortical infolding seem to be the most significant aspects. (orig.)

  20. Predicting brain metastases for non-small cell lung cancer based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Li, Churong; Chen, Heng; Luo, Yangkun; Orlandini, Lucia Clara; Wang, Pei; Lang, Jinyi

    2017-02-01

    In this study the relationship between brain structure and brain metastases (BM) occurrence was analyzed. A model for predicting the time of BM onset in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was proposed. Twenty patients were used to develop the model, whereas the remaining 69 were used for independent validation and verification of the model. Magnetic resonance images were segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM), and white matter using voxel-based morphometry. Automatic anatomic labeling template was used to extract 116 brain regions from the GM volume. The elapsed time between the MRI acquisitions and BM diagnosed was analyzed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. The model was validated using the leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) and permutation test. The GM volume of the extracted 11 regions of interest increased with the progression of BM from NSCLC. LOOCV test on the model indicated that the measured and predicted BM onset were highly correlated (r = 0.834, P = 0.0000). For the 69 independent validating patients, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the model for predicting BM occurrence were 70, 75, and 66%, respectively, in 6 months and 74, 82, and 60%, respectively, in 1 year. The extracted brain GM volumes and interval times for BM occurrence were correlated. The established model based on MRI data may reliably predict BM in 6 months or 1 year. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to validate the findings in a clinical setting.

  1. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging findings in the brains of professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Niyazi; Bastepe-Gray, Serap; Sagiroglu, Ayse; Gumus, Kazim Z; Degirmencioglu, Levent; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Ozic, Muhammet Usame

    2018-03-01

    Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seven male musicians playing an instrument and seven age- and gender-matched non-musicians. We evaluated the volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and calculated total intracranial volume (TIV) and measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) of pre-selected WM bundles: corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tract (CST), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major (ForMaj), forceps minor (ForMin), and arcuate fasciculus (AF). The mean WM/TIV volume in musicians was higher compared to non-musicians. The mean FA was lower in CC, SLF, ForMaj, ForMin, and right AF but higher in right CST in the musicians. The mean value of the total number of fibers was larger in the CST, SLF, left AF, and ForMaj in the musicians. The observed differences were not statistically significant between the groups (p>0.05). However, increased GM volume was found in the musicians compared to the non-musicians in the right and left cerebellum and supramarginal and angular gyrus, left superior and inferior parietal lobule and as well as left middle temporal gyrus. Our findings suggest differing brain structure in musicians and the confirmation of the results on a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongwen; Zou, Zhiling; Kou, Juan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lizhuang; Zilverstand, Anna; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found activation increases in brain regions involved in the processing of reward, motivation and emotion regulation, when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known about whether romantic love affects the brain's functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) across an "in-love" group (LG, N = 34, currently intensely in love), an "ended-love" group (ELG, N = 34, ended romantic relationship recently), and a "single" group (SG, N = 32, never fallen in love). Results show that: (1) ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG); (2) ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; (3) FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion regulation network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens) as well as FC in the social cognition network [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior parietal, precuneus, and temporal lobe] was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG); (4) in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the duration of love in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration of time since breakup in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations in brain functional architecture. Furthermore, the results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate the

  3. Magnetic resonance volumetry reveals focal brain atrophy in transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher; van Erp, Willemijn; Bhaduri, Amit; Hammers, Alexander; Heckemann, Rolf; Zeman, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a recently described epilepsy syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of isolated memory loss. It is associated with two unusual forms of interictal memory impairment: accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and autobiographical amnesia. We investigated the neural basis of TEA using manual volumetry and automated multi-atlas-based segmentation of whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 40 patients with TEA and 20 healthy controls. Both methods confirmed the presence of subtle, bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Additional atrophy was revealed in perirhinal and orbitofrontal cortices. The volumes of these regions correlated with anterograde memory performance. No structural correlates were found for ALF or autobiographical amnesia. The results support the hypothesis that TEA is a focal medial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome but reveal additional pathology in connected brain regions. The unusual interictal memory deficits of TEA remain unexplained by structural pathology and may reflect physiological disruption of memory networks by subclinical epileptiform activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional brain changes in bipolar I depression: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Lori; Bookheimer, Susan; Townsend, Jennifer; Proenza, Manuel A; Sabb, Fred; Mintz, Jim; Cohen, Mark S

    2008-09-01

    To investigate neural activity in prefrontal cortex and amygdala during bipolar depression. Eleven bipolar I depressed and 17 normal subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a task known to activate prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Whole brain activation patterns were determined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) when subjects matched faces displaying neutral or negative affect (match condition) or matched a geometric form (control condition). Contrasts for each group for the match versus control conditions were used in a second-level random effects analysis. Random effects between-group analysis revealed significant attenuation in right and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA47) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (BA9) in bipolar depressed subjects. Additionally, random effects analysis showed a significantly increased activation in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (BA10) in the bipolar depressed versus control subjects. Within-group contrasts demonstrated significant amygdala activation in the controls and no significant amygdala activation in the bipolar depressed subjects. The amygdala between-group difference, however, was not significant. Bipolar depression is associated with attenuated bilateral orbitofrontal (BA47) activation, attenuated right DLPFC (BA9) activation and heightened left orbitofrontal (BA10) activation. BA47 attenuation has also been reported in mania and may thus represent a trait feature of the disorder. Increased left prefrontal (BA10) activation may be a state marker to bipolar depression. Our findings suggest dissociation between mood-dependent and disease-dependent functional brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder.

  5. An algorithm for automatic segmentation and classification of magnetic resonance brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, B J; Avula, R T

    1998-05-01

    In this article, we describe the development and validation of an automatic algorithm to segment brain from extracranial tissues, and to classify intracranial tissues as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) or pathology. T1 weighted spin echo, dual echo fast spin echo (T2 weighted and proton density (PD) weighted images) and fast Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in 100 normal patients and 9 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. One of the normal studies had synthesized MS-like lesions superimposed. This allowed precise measurement of the accuracy of the classification. The 9 MS patients were imaged twice in one week. The algorithm was applied to these data sets to measure reproducibility. The accuracy was measured based on the synthetic lesion images, where the true voxel class was known. Ninety-six percent of normal intradural tissue voxels (GM, WM, and CSF) were labeled correctly, and 94% of pathological tissues were labeled correctly. A low coefficient of variation (COV) was found (mean, 4.1%) for measurement of brain tissues and pathology when comparing MRI scans on the 9 patients. A totally automatic segmentation algorithm has been described which accurately and reproducibly segments and classifies intradural tissues based on both synthetic and actual images.

  6. Automated Segmentation of in Vivo and Ex Vivo Mouse Brain Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize E.H. Scheenstra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data is required for many applications, such as the comparison of different structures or time points, and for annotation purposes. Currently, the gold standard for automated image segmentation is nonlinear atlas-based segmentation. However, these methods are either not sufficient or highly time consuming for mouse brains, owing to the low signal to noise ratio and low contrast between structures compared with other applications. We present a novel generic approach to reduce processing time for segmentation of various structures of mouse brains, in vivo and ex vivo. The segmentation consists of a rough affine registration to a template followed by a clustering approach to refine the rough segmentation near the edges. Compared with manual segmentations, the presented segmentation method has an average kappa index of 0.7 for 7 of 12 structures in in vivo MRI and 11 of 12 structures in ex vivo MRI. Furthermore, we found that these results were equal to the performance of a nonlinear segmentation method, but with the advantage of being 8 times faster. The presented automatic segmentation method is quick and intuitive and can be used for image registration, volume quantification of structures, and annotation.

  7. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients under 60 years with patent foramen ovale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutet, Claire, E-mail: claire.boutet@chu-st-etienne.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Rouffiange-Leclair, Laure, E-mail: laurerouffiange@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Garnier, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.garnier@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Quenet, Sara, E-mail: sara.quenet@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Delsart, Daphné, E-mail: daphne.delsart@hotmail.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Therapeutic Medicine, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne (France); Inserm, CIE3, F-42055 Saint-Etienne (France); Varvat, Jérôme, E-mail: jvarvat@9online.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Epinat, Magali, E-mail: magali.epinat@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Schneider, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.schneider@univ-st-etienne.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Antoine, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: j.christophe.antoine@chu-st-etienne.fr [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM U1028 – CNRS UMR5292 (France); EA 4338, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); and others

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain feature in cryptogenic stroke patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO), cryptogenic stroke patients without PFO and patients with cardioembolic stroke. Materials and methods: The ethics committee required neither institutional review board approval nor informed patient consent for retrospective analyses of the patients’ medical records and imaging data. The patients’ medical files were retrospectively reviewed in accordance with human subject research protocols. Ninety-two patients under 60 years of age were included: 15 with cardioembolic stroke, 32 with cryptogenic stroke with PFO and 45 with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain MRI was performed by a radiologist blinded to clinical data. Univariate, Fischer's exact test for qualitative data and non-parametric Wilcoxon test for quantitative data were used. Results: There was no statistically significant difference found between MRI features of patients with PFO and those with cardioembolic stroke (p < .05). Patients without PFO present more corticosubcortical single lesions (p < .05) than patients with PFO. Patients with PFO have more often subcortical single lesions larger than 15 mm, involvement of posterior cerebral arterial territory and intracranial occlusion (p < .05) than patients with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Conclusion: Our study suggests a cardioembolic mechanism in ischemic stroke with PFO.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess Blood–Brain Barrier Damage in Murine Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jean; McCabe, Christopher; Gettinby, George; Bradley, Barbara; Condon, Barrie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of trypanosomes to invade the brain and induce an inflammatory reaction is well-recognized. This study uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with a murine model of central nervous system (CNS) stage trypanosomiasis to investigate this phenomenon at the level of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Mice were scanned before and after administration of the contrast agent. Signal enhancement maps were generated, and the percentage signal change was calculated. The severity of the neuroinflammation was also assessed. Statistical analysis of the signal change data revealed a significantly (P = 0.028) higher signal enhancement in mice at 28 days post-infection (least squares mean = 26.709) compared with uninfected animals (6.298), indicating the presence of BBB impairment. Leukocytes were found in the meninges and perivascular space of some blood vessels in the infected mice. This study shows that the integrity of the BBB is compromised during CNS stage trypanosomiasis and that the impairment does not correlate with inflammatory cell infiltration. PMID:21292912

  9. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in paediatrics: The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P.E.; Oudkerk, M.

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies, a paediatric application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy that has already become a diagnostic tool in clinical practice, is reviewed and illustrated with results from recent examinations

  10. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-qun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3 and Taixi (KI3 using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19, inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18 and cuneus (Brodmann area 18, but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11, inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44 and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  11. Brain activation and inhibition after acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi: resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Qun; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chen, Jun-Qi; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Jia-Rong; Ouyang, Huai-Liang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chun-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Acupuncture can induce changes in the brain. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on a single acupoint at a time. In the present study, we observed activity changes in the brains of healthy volunteers before and after acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Taixi (KI3) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 15 minutes before acupuncture, then received acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi using the nail-pressing needle insertion method, after which the needle was retained in place for 30 minutes. Fifteen minutes after withdrawal of the needle, the volunteers underwent a further session of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, a measure of spontaneous neuronal activity, increased mainly in the cerebral occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18/19), inferior occipital gyrus (Brodmann area 18) and cuneus (Brodmann area 18), but decreased mainly in the gyrus rectus of the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 11), inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 44) and the center of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The present findings indicate that acupuncture at Taichong and Taixi specifically promote blood flow and activation in the brain areas related to vision, emotion and cognition, and inhibit brain areas related to emotion, attention, phonological and semantic processing, and memory.

  12. Vessel segmentation in 4D arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance angiography images of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phellan, Renzo; Lindner, Thomas; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    4D arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance angiography (4D ASL MRA) is a non-invasive and safe modality for cerebrovascular imaging procedures. It uses the patient's magnetically labeled blood as intrinsic contrast agent, so that no external contrast media is required. It provides important 3D structure and blood flow information but a sufficient cerebrovascular segmentation is important since it can help clinicians to analyze and diagnose vascular diseases faster, and with higher confidence as compared to simple visual rating of raw ASL MRA images. This work presents a new method for automatic cerebrovascular segmentation in 4D ASL MRA images of the brain. In this process images are denoised, corresponding image label/control image pairs of the 4D ASL MRA sequences are subtracted, and temporal intensity averaging is used to generate a static representation of the vascular system. After that, sets of vessel and background seeds are extracted and provided as input for the image foresting transform algorithm to segment the vascular system. Four 4D ASL MRA datasets of the brain arteries of healthy subjects and corresponding time-of-flight (TOF) MRA images were available for this preliminary study. For evaluation of the segmentation results of the proposed method, the cerebrovascular system was automatically segmented in the high-resolution TOF MRA images using a validated algorithm and the segmentation results were registered to the 4D ASL datasets. Corresponding segmentation pairs were compared using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). On average, a DSC of 0.9025 was achieved, indicating that vessels can be extracted successfully from 4D ASL MRA datasets by the proposed segmentation method.

  13. Characterisation of Lesions after Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Impact of Delayed Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S; Gufler, H; Eichner, G; Lanfermann, H

    2017-03-01

    To investigate if brain metastases and radiation injuries after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have different signal intensity (SI) time courses up to 55 min after contrast agent application and if delayed contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contributes to improve diagnostic accuracy. Thirty-four consecutive patients treated with SRS for cerebral metastases were prospectively enrolled in the study. T1-weighted images were acquired on a 3-Tesla MR unit at three time points, at 2 (TP1), 15 (TP2) and 55 (TP3) min after administering contrast agent. A simultaneous, matched-pairs approach was used for region of interest analysis of the entire contrast-enhancing lesion (SI-e), the centre (SI-c), the border of the lesion (SI-b) and the adjacent non-contrast-enhancing tissue (SI-p). SIs of brain metastases and radiation injuries after SRS were compared using a two-level, linear, mixed-effects regression model. In total, 41 lesions were analysed: 16 metastases and 25 radiation injuries. The SI time course of SI-e, SI-c and SI-b proved to be significantly different for both entities (P < 0.001) from TP2 to TP3. The SI of 39/41 lesions increased from TP1 to TP2 for the three parameters. Radiation injuries showed a further signal increase at least for SI-c from TP2 to TP3, whereas for all the three parameters SI decreased in all metastases. Brain metastases and radiation injuries after SRS have a characteristic and statistically significantly different SI time course on sequential gadolinium enhancement MRI when late MR studies are included. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain glutamate in anorexia nervosa: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy case control study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Beata R; Pike, Alexandra; Sharpley, Ann L; Ayton, Agnes; Park, Rebecca J; Cowen, Philip J; Emir, Uzay E

    2017-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. There are no established pharmacological treatments and the neurobiology of the condition is poorly understood. Previous studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown that AN may be associated with reductions in indices of brain glutamate; however, at conventional field strengths (≤3 T), it is difficult to separate glutamate from its precursor and metabolite, glutamine. The objective of the present study was to use high field (7 T) MRS to measure concentrations of glutamate, in three separate brain voxels, in women with AN. We studied 13 female participants with AN and 12 healthy female controls who underwent MRS scanning at 7 T with voxels placed in anterior cingulate cortex, occipital cortex and putamen. Neurometabolites were calculated using the unsuppressed water signal as a reference and corrected for individual cerebrospinal fluid concentration in the voxel. We found that participants with AN had significantly lower concentrations of glutamate in all three voxels (mean reduction 8%, p = 0.002) but glutamine levels were not altered. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, GABA and glutathione were also unchanged. However, inositol was lower in AN participants in anterior cingulate (p = 0.022) and occipital cortex (p = 0.002). Women with AN apparently have widespread reductions in brain glutamate. Further work will be needed to assess if this change has pathophysiological relevance or whether it is a consequence of the many physical changes produced in AN by food restriction.

  15. Threshold segmentation algorithm for automatic extraction of cerebral vessels from brain magnetic resonance angiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Chao; Wang, Jie; Wei, Xiaoer; Li, Yuehua; Zhu, Yuemin; Zhang, Su

    2015-02-15

    Cerebrovascular segmentation plays an important role in medical diagnosis. This study was conducted to develop a threshold segmentation algorithm for automatic extraction and volumetric quantification of cerebral vessels on brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images. The MRA images of 10 individuals were acquired using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Intera-achieva SMI-2.1, Philips Medical Systems). Otsu's method was used to divide the brain MRA images into two parts, namely, foreground and background regions. To extract the cerebral vessels, we performed the threshold segmentation algorithm on the foreground region by comparing two different statistical distributions. Automatically segmented vessels were compared with manually segmented vessels. Different similarity metrics were used to assess the changes in segmentation performance as a function of a weighted parameter w used in segmentation algorithm. Varying w from 2 to 100 resulted in a false positive rate ranging from 117% to 3.21%, and a false negative rate ranging from 8.23% to 28.97%. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which reflected the segmentation accuracy, initially increased and then decreased as w increased. The suggested range of values for w is [10, 20] given that the maximum DSC (e.g., DSC=0.84) was obtained within this range. The performance of our method was validated by comparing with manual segmentation. The proposed threshold segmentation method can be used to accurately and efficiently extract cerebral vessels from brain MRA images. Threshold segmentation may be used for studies focusing on three-dimensional visualization and volumetric quantification of cerebral vessels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Change in brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy after treatment during acute HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napapon Sailasuta

    Full Text Available Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART.Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (tCHO, creatine (CR, myoinositol (MI, and glutamate and glutamine (GLX were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31 and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26 and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10 from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM, frontal white matter (FWM, occipital gray matter (OGM, and basal ganglia (BG. Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART.After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection compared to control (p = 0.0014, as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023. A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022 with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months.We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury.

  17. Incidental extracerebral findings on brain nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging: frequency, nondetection rate, and clinical importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ming-Liang; Wei, Xiao-Er [School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Lu, Li-Yan [Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing (China); Li, Wen-Bin [School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Kashgar Prefecture Second People' s Hospital, Imaging Center, Kashgar (China)

    2017-03-15

    This study aims to elucidate the frequency, nondetection rate, and clinical importance of incidental extracerebral findings (IECFs) on brain nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 8284 brain MRIs performed between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 were evaluated for the presence of IECFs and the distribution of IECFs was analyzed. IECFs were categorized as E1 (clinically unimportant, e.g., sinus mucosal thickening); E2 (likely unimportant, e.g., pharyngeal mucosal symmetrical thickening); and E3 (potentially important, e.g., pharyngeal mucosal asymmetrical thickening). The nondetection rate was determined by comparing the results of the structured approach with the initial MRI reports. The medical records were examined for patients with E3 IECFs to assess clinical importance and outcome of these lesions. A total of 5992 IECFs were found in 4469 of the 8284 patients (54.0%). E1 findings constituted 82.2% (4924/5992) of all IECFs; E2 constituted 16.6% (995/5992) and E3 constituted 1.2% (73/5992). Overall IECFs and E1 findings were significantly more common in male patients (P < 0.05). Statistically significant difference was also seen between the different age groups (P < 0.001). The nondetection rate was 56.9% (3409/5992) for overall IECFs and 32.9% (24/73) for E3 IECFs. Of the 73 patients with E3 IECFs, 34 (46.6%) received final diagnosis and appropriate treatment during the study period. IECFs are prevalent in clinical patients on brain MR images with a nondetection rate of 32.9% for potentially important (E3) findings. The reporting of IECFs according to clinical importance is helpful for patients' management. (orig.)

  18. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: eleni.orphanidou@googlemail.com [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: dorothee.auer@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: marie-anne.brundler@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: nigel.davies@nhs.net [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: tim.jaspan@nuh.nhs.uk [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: Lesley.MacPherson@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: Kal.Natarajan@uhb.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-06-15

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  19. Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongwen; Zou, Zhiling; Kou, Juan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lizhuang; Zilverstand, Anna; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found activation increases in brain regions involved in the processing of reward, motivation and emotion regulation, when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known about whether romantic love affects the brain’s functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) across an “in-love” group (LG, N = 34, currently intensely in love), an “ended-love” group (ELG, N = 34, ended romantic relationship recently), and a “single” group (SG, N = 32, never fallen in love). Results show that: (1) ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG); (2) ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; (3) FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion regulation network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens) as well as FC in the social cognition network [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior parietal, precuneus, and temporal lobe] was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG); (4) in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the duration of love in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration of time since breakup in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations in brain functional architecture. Furthermore, the results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate

  20. Human in-vivo brain magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan; Hanson, Lars G.; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and MR electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) are two emerging modalities, which combine weak time-varying currents injected via surface electrodes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to acquire information about the current flow and ohmic......-FID measurements, we demonstrate a strong influence of magnetic stray fields on the ΔBz,c images, caused by non-ideal paths of the electrode cables, and validate a correction method. Finally, we perform measurements with two different current injection profiles in five subjects. We demonstrate reliable recordings...... conductivity distribution at high spatial resolution. The injected current flow creates a magnetic field in the head, and the component of the induced magnetic field ΔBz,c parallel to the main scanner field causes small shifts in the precession frequency of the magnetization. The measured MRI signal...

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cognitive Control following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall S. Scheibel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel and non-routine tasks often require information processing and behavior to adapt from moment to moment depending on task requirements and current performance. This ability to adapt is an executive function that is referred to as cognitive control. Patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI have been reported to exhibit impairments in cognitive control and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided evidence for TBI-related alterations in brain activation using various fMRI cognitive control paradigms. There is some support for greater and more extensive cognitive control-related brain activation in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI, relative to comparison subjects without TBI. In addition, some studies have reported a correlation between these activation increases and measures of injury severity. Explanations that have been proposed for increased activation within structures that are thought to be directly involved in cognitive control, as well as the extension of this over-activation into other brain structures, have included compensatory mechanisms, increased demand upon normal processes required to maintain adequate performance, less efficient utilization of neural resources, and greater vulnerability to cognitive fatigue. Recent findings are also consistent with the possibility that activation increases within some structures, such as the posterior cingulate gyrus, may reflect a failure to deactivate components of the default mode network (DMN and that some cognitive control impairment may result from ineffective coordination between the DMN and components of the salience network. Functional neuroimaging studies examining cognitive control-related activation following mild TBI (mTBI have yielded more variable results, with reports of increases, decreases, and no significant change. These discrepancies may reflect differences among the various mTBI samples under study, recovery of function in some

  2. Magnetic resonance angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRA; Angiography - magnetic resonance ... Kwong RY. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular ...

  3. Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain differentiates the inborn metabolic encephalopathies in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, B.; Salvan, A.M.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Vion-Dury, J.; Cozzone, P.J. [Hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1995-09-01

    Localized brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been performed using a STEAM (Stimulated echo-acquisition mode) method with a short-echo time (20ms) in 10 children suffering from different lysosomal diseases, 6 boys with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and 5 healthy children. Metabolic data from localized spectra were processed by principal component analysis (PCA) of 7 metabolic variables recorded on the MR spectra. PCA allows to delineate different clusters corresponding to the 2 pathological groups which are separated from each other and from the control group. The position of each spectrum on the patient map correlates with the clinical data and to the evolution of the patients subjected to a follow-up. These results also confirm the metabolic features characterizing the pathologies of the lysosome (increase in inositol) and the peroxisome (increase in choline and free lipids). PCA constitutes an alternative to the classical statistical methods to analyze and compare metabolic modifications in small populations of patients and allows to identify the most critical parameters defining the organization of the pathological populations. This analysis clearly increases the discrimination among pathologies based on the metabolic profiles obtained by MRS. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Asymptomatic Brain Lesions on Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleryuzlu, Yuksel; Uygur-Bayramicli, Oya; Ahishali, Emel; Dabak, Resat

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to examine the frequency and type of asymptomatic neurological involvement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Fifty-one IBD patients with no known neurological diseases or symptoms and 30 controls with unspecified headaches without neurological origins were included. Patients and controls underwent cranial MRI assessments for white matter lesions, sinusitis, otitis-mastoiditis, and other brain parenchymal findings. Results The frequencies of white matter lesions, other brainstem parenchymal lesions, and otitis-mastoiditis were similar in IBD patients and controls (p>0.05), whereas sinusitis was significantly more frequent in IBD patients (56.9% vs 33.3%, p=0.041). However, among those subjects with white matter lesions, the number of such lesions was significantly higher in IBD patients compared to controls (12.75±9.78 vs 3.20±2.90, p0.05 for all). Conclusions The incidence of white matter lesions seemed to be similar in IBD patients and normal healthy individuals, and the lesions detected did not pose any clinical significance. However, long-term clinical follow-up of the lesions is warranted. PMID:23560152

  5. Visualizing functional pathways in the human brain using correlation tensors and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaohua; Xu, Ran; Bailey, Stephen K; Wu, Tung-Lin; Morgan, Victoria L; Cutting, Laurie E; Anderson, Adam W; Gore, John C

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging usually detects changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions, and is most effective in detecting activity in brain cortex which is irrigated by rich vasculature to meet high metabolic demands. We recently demonstrated that MRI signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions in a resting state exhibit structure-specific temporal correlations along white matter tracts. In this report we validate our preliminary findings and introduce spatio-temporal functional correlation tensors to characterize the directional preferences of temporal correlations in MRI signals acquired at rest. The results bear a remarkable similarity to data obtained by diffusion tensor imaging but without any diffusion-encoding gradients. Just as in gray matter, temporal correlations in resting state signals may reflect intrinsic synchronizations of neural activity in white matter. Here we demonstrate that functional correlation tensors are able to visualize long range white matter tracts as well as short range sub-cortical fibers imaged at rest, and that evoked functional activities alter these structures and enhance the visualization of relevant neural circuitry. Furthermore, we explore the biophysical mechanisms underlying these phenomena by comparing pulse sequences, which suggest that white matter signal variations are consistent with hemodynamic (BOLD) changes associated with neural activity. These results suggest new ways to evaluate MRI signal changes within white matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing implementations of magnetic-resonance-guided fluorescence molecular tomography for diagnostic classification of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-09-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) systems coupled to conventional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography provide unique opportunities to combine data sets and improve image quality and content. Yet, the ideal approach to combine these complementary data is still not obvious. This preclinical study compares several methods for incorporating MRI spatial prior information into FMT imaging algorithms in the context of in vivo tissue diagnosis. Populations of mice inoculated with brain tumors that expressed either high or low levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were imaged using an EGF-bound near-infrared dye and a spectrometer-based MRI-FMT scanner. All data were spectrally unmixed to extract the dye fluorescence from the tissue autofluorescence. Methods to combine the two data sets were compared using student's t-tests and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Bulk fluorescence measurements that made up the optical imaging data set were also considered in the comparison. While most techniques were able to distinguish EGFR(+) tumors from EGFR(-) tumors and control animals, with area-under-the-curve values=1, only a handful were able to distinguish EGFR(-) tumors from controls. Bulk fluorescence spectroscopy techniques performed as well as most imaging techniques, suggesting that complex imaging algorithms may be unnecessary to diagnose EGFR status in these tissue volumes.

  7. Glioblastoma multiforme versus solitary supratentorial brain metastasis. Differentiation based on morphology and magnetic resonance signal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Martin H.; Wuestefeld, J.; Schaefer, M.L.; Wiener, E. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Synowitz, M.; Lohkamp, L.N. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie; Badakshi, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of a multi-factor analysis of morphometric parameters and magnetic resonance (MR) signal characteristics of a mass and peritumoral area to distinguish solitary supratentorial metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Materials and Methods: MR examinations of 51 patients with histologically proven GBM and 44 with a single supratentorial metastasis were evaluated. A large variety of morphologic criteria and MR signal characteristics in different sequences were analyzed. The data were subjected to logistic regression to investigate their ability to discriminate between GBM and cerebral metastasis. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to select an optimal cut-off point for prediction and to assess the predictive value in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the final model. Results: The logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratio of the maximum diameter of the peritumoral area measured on T2-weighted images (d T2) to the maximum diameter of the enhancing mass area (d T1, post-contrast) is the only useful criterion to distinguish single supratentorial brain metastasis from GBM with a lower ratio favoring GBM (accuracy 68 %, sensitivity 84 % and specificity 45 %). The cut-off point for the ratio d T2/d T1 post-contrast was calculated as 2.35. Conclusion: Measurement of maximum diameters of the peritumoral area in relation to the enhancing mass can be evaluated easily in the clinical routine to discriminate GBM from solitary supratentorial metastasis with an accuracy comparable to that of advanced MRI techniques. (orig.)

  8. Prediction of memory rehabilitation outcomes in traumatic brain injury by using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Gary E; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Goldstein, Richard; Kelkar, Kalika; Katz, Douglas I; Burke, David; Rauch, Scott L; Savage, Cary R; Glenn, Mel B

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures collected from people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to provide predictive value for rehabilitation outcomes over and above standard predictors. Prospective study. Academic medical center. Persons (N=54) with TBI greater than 1 year postinjury. A novel 12-session group rehabilitation program focusing on internal strategies to improve memory. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) delayed recall score. fMRI measures were collected while participants performed a strategically directed word memorization task. Prediction models were multiple linear regressions with the following primary predictors of outcome: age, education, injury severity, preintervention HVLT-R, and task-related fMRI activation of the left dorsolateral and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Baseline HVLT-R was a significant predictor of outcome (P=.007), as was injury severity (for severe vs mild, P=.049). We also found a significant quadratic (inverted-U) effect of fMRI in the VLPFC (P=.007). This study supports previous evidence that left prefrontal activity is related to strategic verbal learning, and the magnitude of this activation predicted success in response to cognitive memory rehabilitation strategies. Extreme under- or overactivation of VLPFC was associated with less successful learning after rehabilitation. Further study is necessary to clarify this relationship and to expand and optimize the possible uses of functional imaging to guide rehabilitation therapies.

  9. Cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the Stroop task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akio; Iwama, Toru [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Gifu City (Japan); Nakashima, Toshihiko; Okumura, Ayumi; Shinoda, Jun [Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Chubu Medical Center for Prolonged Traumatic Brain Dysfunction, Department of Neurosurgery, Minokamo (Japan); Kuwata, Kazuo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Gifu (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in cognition, motor function, and emotion processing. However, little is known about how traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the ACC system. Our purpose was to compare, by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the patterns of cortical activation in patients with cognitive impairment after TBI and those of normal subjects. Cortical activation maps of 11 right-handed healthy control subjects and five TBI patients with cognitive impairment were recorded in response to a Stroop task during a block-designed fMRI experiment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) was used for individual subjects and group analysis. In TBI patients and controls, cortical activation, found in similar regions of the frontal, occipital, and parietal lobes, resembled patterns of activation documented in previous neuroimaging studies of the Stroop task in healthy controls. However, the TBI patients showed a relative decrease in ACC activity compared with the controls. Cognitive impairment in TBI patients seems to be associated with alterations in functional cerebral activity, especially less activation of the ACC. These changes are probably the result of destruction of neural networks after diffuse axonal injury and may reflect cortical disinhibition attributable to disconnection or compensation for an inefficient cognitive process. (orig.)

  10. Abnormal baseline brain activity in bipolar depression: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng; Li, Su-Fang; Wang, Yong-Jun; Tie, Chang-Le; Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Jie; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We examined resting state brain activity in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder (BD) by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. Unlike functional connectivity, the ALFF approach reflects local properties in specific regions and provides direct information about impaired foci. Groups of 26 patients with BD depression and 26 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects participated in fMRI scans. We examined group differences in ALFF findings as well as correlations between clinical measurements and ALFF in the regions showing significant group differences. Our results showed that patients with BD depression had significantly increased ALFF in the left insula, the right caudate nucleus, the temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. They also had decreased ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus, the left parahippocampal gyrus, and the cerebellum. Moderate negative correlations were found between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score and ALFF in the left insular cortex in the patient group. These results support a model of BD that involves dysfunction in the prefrontal-limbic networks and associated striatal systems. We also demonstrated the feasibility of ALFF as a technique to investigate persistent cerebral dysfunction in BD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of Intraoperative Computed Tomography during Deep Brain Stimulation Procedures: Comparison with Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Maarten; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Bakay, Roy; Stebbins, Glenn; Verhagen Metman, Leo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) in localizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes by comparing this modality with postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Optimal lead placement is a critical factor for the outcome of DBS procedures and preferably confirmed during surgery. iCT offers 3-dimensional verification of both microelectrode and lead location during DBS surgery. However, accurate electrode representation on iCT has not been extensively studied. DBS surgery was performed using the Leksell stereotactic G frame. Stereotactic coordinates of 52 DBS leads were determined on both iCT and postoperative MRI and compared with intended final target coordinates. The resulting absolute differences in X (medial-lateral), Y (anterior-posterior), and Z (dorsal-ventral) coordinates (ΔX, ΔY, and ΔZ) for both modalities were then used to calculate the euclidean distance. Euclidean distances were 2.7 ± 1.1 and 2.5 ± 1.2 mm for MRI and iCT, respectively (p = 0.2). Postoperative MRI and iCT show equivalent DBS lead representation. Intraoperative localization of both microelectrode and DBS lead in stereotactic space enables direct adjustments. Verification of lead placement with postoperative MRI, considered to be the gold standard, is unnecessary. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Does Not Contribute to the Diagnosis of Chronic Neuroborreliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, A.; Sjoewall, J.; Davidsson, L.; Forsberg, P.; Smedby, Oe. [Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Medicine and Care, and Div. of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Background: Borrelia infections, especially chronic neuroborreliosis (NB), may cause considerable diagnostic problems. This diagnosis is based on symptoms and findings in the cerebrospinal fluid but is not always conclusive. Purpose: To evaluate brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic NB, to compare the findings with healthy controls, and to correlate MRI findings with disease duration. Material and Methods: Sixteen well-characterized patients with chronic NB and 16 matched controls were examined in a 1.5T scanner with a standard head coil. T1- (with and without gadolinium), T2-, and diffusion-weighted imaging plus fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging were used. Results: White matter lesions and lesions in the basal ganglia were seen in 12 patients and 10 controls (no significant difference). Subependymal lesions were detected in patients down to the age of 25 and in the controls down to the age of 43. The number of lesions was correlated to age both in patients ( = 0.83, P<0.01) and in controls ( = 0.61, P<0.05), but not to the duration of disease. Most lesions were detected with FLAIR, but many also with T2-weighted imaging. Conclusion: A number of MRI findings were detected in patients with chronic NB, although the findings were unspecific when compared with matched controls and did not correlate with disease duration. However, subependymal lesions may constitute a potential finding in chronic NB.

  13. Magnetic resonance diffusion tractography of the preterm infant brain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Kerstin; Scheck, Simon M; Colditz, Paul B; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen E

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) combined with tractography can be used to assess non-invasively white matter microstructure and brain development in preterm infants. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the current evidence obtained from tractography studies of preterm infants in whom MRI was performed up to term-equivalent age. Databases were searched for dMRI tractography studies of preterm infants. Twenty-two studies were assessed. The most frequently assessed tracts included the corticospinal tract, the corpus callosum, and the optic radiations. The superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the anterior and superior thalamic radiations were investigated less frequently. A clear relationship exists between diffusion metrics and postmenstrual age at the time of scanning, although the evidence of an effect of gestational age at birth and white matter injury is conflicting. Sex and laterality may play an important role in the relationship between diffusion metrics, early clinical assessment, and outcomes. Studies involving infants of all gestational ages are required to elucidate the relationship between gestational age and diffusion metrics, and to establish the utility of tractography as a predictive tool. There is a need for more robust acquisition and analysis methods to improve the accuracy of assessing development of white matter pathways. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Incidental paranasal sinusitis on routine brain magnetic resonance scans: association with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Peter A; Lundy, Katherine C; Massoglia, Dino P; Payne, Elizabeth H; Gilbert, Gregory; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta

    2016-12-01

    Incidental paranasal sinusitis (IPS) is common on imaging for non-sinusitis disorders, usually without symptoms or obstructive features, and possibly arising from periodontitis (PD). PD associations with atherosclerosis have been widely reported. We test if IPS may also be associated with atherosclerosis. IPS was scored retrospectively in a random sample of 180 magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans and compared with chart review for atherosclerosis (all subtypes), rhinosinusitis, and related factors (smoking, asthma, and relevant surgery). IPS was scored out of 30, from all sinuses, with maxillary sinuses weighted double volumetrically. Significant IPS (Sig IPS) was designated as 6 or more out of 30. Bivariate logistic regression was used to test for associations of Sig IPS to the clinical data, with multivariate analysis then testing for potential confounders. A total of 173 subjects were analyzed (7 exclusions). MR indications included suspected acute/prior stroke (22.0%). Sig IPS found in 20 (11.6%). Positive histories for atherosclerosis were cerebral, 57 (32.9%); coronary, 48 (27.7%); and peripheral arterial disease, 14 (8.1%). IPS ≥6 was strongly associated with cerebrovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.0, p Sig IPS to cerebrovascular disease persisted (modified OR 5.2, p = 0.002). Significant incidental sinusitis, which is mostly subclinical sinusitis, is associated with cerebrovascular disease but not other atheroscleroses. This suggests possible common causation of both by PD. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Longitudinal noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of brain microhemorrhages in BACE inhibitor-treated APP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nicolau; Doelemeyer, Arno; Zurbruegg, Stefan; Bigot, Karine; Theil, Diethilde; Frieauff, Wilfried; Kolly, Carine; Moulin, Pierre; Neddermann, Daniel; Kreutzer, Robert; Perrot, Ludovic; Brzak, Irena; Jacobson, Laura H; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Neumann, Ulf; Shimshek, Derya R

    2016-09-01

    Currently, several immunotherapies and BACE (Beta Site APP Cleaving Enzyme) inhibitor approaches are being tested in the clinic for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A crucial mechanism-related safety concern is the exacerbation of microhemorrhages, which are already present in the majority of Alzheimer patients. To investigate potential safety liabilities of long-term BACE inhibitor therapy, we used aged amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice (APP23), which robustly develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy. T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a translational method applicable in preclinical and clinical studies, was used for the detection of microhemorrhages throughout the entire brain, with subsequent histological validation. Three-dimensional reconstruction based on in vivo MRI and serial Perls' stained sections demonstrated a one-to-one matching of the lesions thus allowing for their histopathological characterization. MRI detected small Perls' positive areas with a high spatial resolution. Our data demonstrate that volumetric assessment by noninvasive MRI is well suited to monitor cerebral microhemorrhages in vivo. Furthermore, 3 months treatment of aged APP23 with the potent BACE-inhibitor NB-360 did not exacerbate microhemorrhages in contrast to Aβ-antibody β1. These results substantiate the safe use of BACE inhibitors regarding microhemorrhages in long-term clinical studies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) distinctions between tumefactive demyelination and brain tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Eppie M; Laughlin, Suzanne; Verhey, Leonard H; Banwell, Brenda L

    2014-05-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions can be difficult to distinguish from tumors. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of children with tumefactive demyelination and supratentorial brain tumors were compared. Patients were identified through a 23-site national demyelinating disease study, and from a single-site neuroradiology database. For inclusion, lesions met at least 1 of 3 criteria: maximal cross-sectional diameter >20 mm, local or global cerebral mass effect, or presence of perilesional edema. Thirty-one children with tumefactive demyelination (5 with solitary lesions) were identified: 27 of 189 (14.3%) from the demyelinating disease study and 4 from the database. Thirty-three children with tumors were identified. Children with tumefactive demyelination were more likely to have an abnormal neurologic examination and polyfocal neurologic deficits compared to children with tumors. Tumefactive demyelination was distinguished from tumor by the presence of multiple lesions, absence of cortical involvement, and decrease in lesion size or detection of new lesions on serial imaging.

  17. Cognitive event-related potentials and brain magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, T; Ikeda, T; Uyama, E; Uchino, M; Okabe, H; Ando, M

    1994-10-01

    Auditory and visual cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 14 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and in 36 normal controls. In the HAM patients, the latencies of P300 and N200 by the auditory tone method were significantly delayed, and N100 by the auditory click method was significantly delayed in latency. No abnormal ERP components were observed with visual methods. While these auditory abnormal ERPs were present in the HAM patients, there was no evidence of visual abnormal ERPs. Abnormal lesions on the white matter were evident at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 (75%) of 8 patients. There was no correlation between MRI lesions and the abnormalities of ERPs, but there was a significant correlation between bifrontal index on MRI and P300 amplitudes at Cz and Pz sites by auditory tone method. In one patient, atrophy of bilateral parietal lobes was seen on MRI and P300 latencies delayed using various methods. Therefore, the possibility that electrophysiological cognitive impairment in patients with HAM is related to brain atrophy rather than to white matter lesions requires attention.

  18. Providing and optimizing functional MR (Magnetic Resonance) of motor cortex of human brain by MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) facilities of Imam Khomeinie Hospital

    CERN Document Server

    Khosravie, H R

    2000-01-01

    During the stimulation, an observable increased signal (%2-%5)in respective sensory-motor cortex was obtained after correcting for partial volume effects, optimizing S/N,and incorporating small vowels. The 2 D F A S T functional image obtained by this method, showed an anatomical association of the increased signal with gray matter of sensory-motor cortex(in T 1 weighted image). The resultant data showed the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging using optimized gradient echo sequences on a standard 1.5 T imager. Display of human brain cortical activity is accomplished using various techniques, by them different spatial and temporal resolution may be obtained. F MRI technique with proper spatial and temporal resolution due to its noninvasivity is one of the promising techniques for detection of brain activities. This can be used as an important tool by neurologists, since a great development has been achieved for display different brain function. This thesis report the results of simulation effe...

  19. Nonhemorrhagic brain lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging in closed head injured patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Hiraide, Atsushi; Yoshioka, Toshiji; Sugimoto, Tadashi (Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Ichimura, Teruhisa; Saito, Akira; Ohno, Yoshioki

    1990-05-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 83 closed head injured patients in whom CT failed to detect focal intra or extraaxial hematoma and/or apparent brain contusion. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of unconsciousness duration: Group 1 comprised 50 patients diagnosed as having classical cerebral concussion; group 2 comprised 19 patients who presented to the hospital with 6-hr unconsciousness and was recovered within a week; and group 3 comprised 14 patients whose unconsciousness persisted for a week or more. There was no CT evidence of abnormal findings for group 1; and intraventricular hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage were visualized on CT in 26% and 16%, respectively, for group 2 and 71% and 14% for group 3. Intraaxial nonhemorrhagic lesions were detected on T2-weighted MRI. According to high signal intensity, diffuse axonal injury and cortical contusion could be distinguished; i.e., in the former the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, or brain stem showed a high signal intensity, and in the latter the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobe adjacent to the skull showed a low signal intensity. T2-weighted MRI revealed cortical contusion in 6% for group 1, 37% for group 2, and 14% for group 3; and diffuse axonal injury in 42% for group 2 and 79% for group 3. For 62 patients with normal CT findings, diffuse axonal injury was detected in 88%. There was a good correlation between intraventricular hemorrhage on CT and diffuse axonal injury on MRI. In conclusion, T2-weighted MRI was significantly superior to CT in detecting nonhemorrhagic lesions, and it was of great help for predicting neurologic recovery in closed head injured patients without apparent focal lesions on CT. (N.K.).

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Preoperative Planning in Brain Tumour Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jonathan C; Kosteniuk, Suzanne E; Bihari, Frank; Megyesi, Joseph F

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being increasingly used for the preoperative evaluation of patients with brain tumours. The study is a retrospective chart review investigating the use of clinical fMRI from 2002 through 2013 in the preoperative evaluation of brain tumour patients. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected. The specific fMRI protocols used for each patient were recorded. Sixty patients were identified over the 12-year period. The tumour types most commonly investigated were high-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade III or IV), low-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II), and meningioma. Most common presenting symptoms were seizures (69.6%), language deficits (23.2%), and headache (19.6%). There was a predominance of left hemispheric lesions investigated with fMRI (76.8% vs 23.2% for right). The most commonly involved lobes were frontal (64.3%), temporal (33.9%), parietal (21.4%), and insular (7.1%). The most common fMRI paradigms were language (83.9%), motor (75.0%), sensory (16.1%), and memory (10.7%). The majority of patients ultimately underwent a craniotomy (75.0%), whereas smaller groups underwent stereotactic biopsy (8.9%) and nonsurgical management (16.1%). Time from request for fMRI to actual fMRI acquisition was 3.1±2.3 weeks. Time from fMRI acquisition to intervention was 4.9±5.5 weeks. We have characterized patient demographics in a retrospective single-surgeon cohort undergoing preoperative clinical fMRI at a Canadian centre. Our experience suggests an acceptable wait time from scan request to scan completion/analysis and from scan to intervention.

  1. Local texture descriptors for the assessment of differences in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Felix Sebastian Leo; Delrieux, Claudio Augusto; de Luis-García, Rodrigo

    2017-03-01

    Descriptors extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain can be employed to locate and characterize a wide range of pathologies. Scalar measures are typically derived within a single-voxel unit, but neighborhood-based texture measures can also be applied. In this work, we propose a new set of descriptors to compute local texture characteristics from scalar measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), such as mean and radial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy. We employ weighted rotational invariant local operators, namely standard deviation, inter-quartile range, coefficient of variation, quartile coefficient of variation and skewness. Sensitivity and specificity of those texture descriptors were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics of the white matter on a diffusion MRI group study of elderly healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, robustness against noise has been assessed with a realistic diffusion-weighted imaging phantom and the contamination of the local neighborhood with gray matter has been measured. The new texture operators showed an increased ability for finding formerly undetected differences between groups compared to conventional DTI methods. In particular, the coefficient of variation, quartile coefficient of variation, standard deviation and inter-quartile range of the mean and radial diffusivity detected significant differences even between previously not significantly discernible groups, such as MCI versus moderate AD and mild versus moderate AD. The analysis provided evidence of low contamination of the local neighborhood with gray matter and high robustness against noise. The local operators applied here enhance the identification and localization of areas of the brain where cognitive impairment takes place and thus indicate them as promising extensions in diffusion MRI group studies.

  2. MAGNETIC RESONANCE WATER SELF-DIFFUSION TENSOR ENCODING OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR FULL BRAIN ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader M Hasan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Water diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI is a non-invasive and sensitive modality that is becoming increasingly popular in diagnostic radiology. DT-MRI provides in vivo directional information about the organization and microdynamics of deep brain tissue that is not available by other MRI relaxationbased methods. The DT-MRI experiment involves a host of imaging and diffusion parameters that influence the efficiency (signal-to-noise ratio per unit time, accuracy, and specificity of the information sought. These parameters may include typical imaging parameters such as TE, TR, slice thickness, sampling rate, etc. The DTI relevant parameter space includes pulse duration, separation, direction, number of directions (Ne, order, sign and strength of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses. The goal of this work is to present and compare different tensor encoding strategies used to obtain the DT-MRI information for the whole brain. In this paper an evaluation of tensor encoding advantage is presented using a multi-dimensional non-parametric Bootstrap resampling method. This work also explores the relationship between different tensor encoding schemes using the analytical encoding approach. This work shows that the minimum energy optimization approach can produce uniformly distributed tensor encoding that are comparable to the icosahedral sets. The minimum condition encoding sets are not uniformly distributed and are shown to be suboptimal and related to a commonly used heuristic tensor encoding set. This work shows that the icosahedral set is the only uniformly distributed set with Ne = 6. At equal imaging time, the Bootstrap experiments show that optimal tensor encoding sets can have 6 < Ne < 24.

  3. Late-Onset Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation with Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Syed Omar Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that includes a movement disorder, cognitive decline, and characteristic findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI due to abnormal iron deposition. Here, we present a late-onset case, along with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 74-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history who presented for evaluation of orofacial dyskinesia, suspected to be edentulous dyskinesia given her history of ill-fitting dentures. She had also developed slowly progressive dysarthria, dysphagia, visual hallucinations as well as stereotypic movements of her hands and feet. Results: The eye-of-the-tiger sign was demonstrated on T2 MRI. Increased fractional anisotropy and T2 hypointensity were observed in the periphery of the globus pallidus, putamen, substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus. T2 hyperintensity was present in the medial dentate nucleus and central globus pallidus. Discussion: The pallidal MRI findings were more typical of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN, but given additional dentate and putamenal involvement, lack of retinopathy, and advanced age of onset, PKAN was less likely. Although the patient’s ferritin levels were within low normal range, her clinical and imaging features led to a diagnosis of neuroferritinopathy. Conclusion: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is a rare cause of orofacial dyskinesia. DTI MRI can confirm abnormal iron deposition. The location of abnormal iron deposits helps in differentiating NBIA subtypes. Degeneration of the dentate and globus pallidus may occur via an analogous process given their similar T2 and DTI MRI appearance.

  4. The value of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of glioma recurrence and radiation brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhi GE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the application of a combination of diFFusion weighted imaging (DWI, perfusion weighted imaging (PWI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in the differential diagnosis of glioma recurrence and radiation brain injury. Methods The clinical and imaging data of 32 patients were retrospectively analyzed, including 15 cases of glioma recurrence and 17 cases of radiation brain injury, admitted from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013 in General Hospital of Beijing Command. The DWI, PWI and MRS data of the 32 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The following values were compared between abnormal enhancement area and contralateral normal area: magnetic resonance apparent diFFusion coeFFcient (ADC, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, relative mean transit time (rMTT, choline/creatine (Cho/Cr and choline/N-acetyl aspartate (Cho/ NAA ratio. Results No statistical significance of ADC and rMTT values was found between glioma recurrence group and radiation brain injury group (P>0.05; The maximum and average rCBF and rCBV values were significantly higher in glioma recurrence group than in radiation brain injury group (P0.05. The ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA were higher in glioma recurrence group than in radiation brain injury group (P<0.05. The diagnostic sensitivity of PWI to glioma recurrence was 80.0%, of MRS was 73.3%, and of PWI combined with MRS was 93.3%. The diagnostic sensitivity of PWI to radiation brain injury was 82.4%, of MRS was 70.6%, and of PWI combined with MRS was 88.2%. Conclusion Combined application of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging technology may improve the diagnostic accuracy to glioma recurrence and radiation brain injury, thus provide a good guidance for clinical treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.13

  5. Three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain. Application to assess Wallerian degeneration

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    Igarashi, Hironaka; Katayama, Yasuo; Tsuganezawa, Toshikazu; Yamamuro, Manabu; Terashi, Akiro; Owan, Chojin [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance imaging is a new algorithm for the treatment of apparent diffusion tensor using the three primary colors. To determine if 3DAC has a clinical application for human brain, six normal volunteers and twenty patients with supratentorial cerebrovascular accidents were examined using clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the changes in the 3DAC images associated with Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract were evaluated. The 3DAC images exhibited impressive anatomical resolution. In all chronic stage patients with hemiparesis, the colors in the pyramidal tract were faded. Patients examined during the acute stage who later recovered from hemiparesis had no visible changes of the 3DAC image, whereas patients who recovered poorly showed distinct color fading in the pyramidal tract within 14 days following stroke. In conclusion, very fine anatomical structures are visible on 3DAC images, and it can be used as a diagnostic tool for the human brain. (author)

  6. A clinical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of a brain tumor in a patient with segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, S; Ben Yahia, S; Boughammoura-Bouatay, A; Salem, R; Golli, M; Khairallah, M; Frih-Ayed, M

    2010-08-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis 1 (segmental NF-1) is a rare genodermatosis caused by somatic mutations in the NF-1 gene. It consists of localized characteristic skin lesions. A serial study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of a brain tumor in a 16-year-old patient with segmental NF-1 is reported. A 16-year-old boy with congenital dorsal scoliosis and segmental NF-1 was evaluated for bilateral optic atrophy. Neurological examination showed an isolated tetra pyramidal syndrome. The cerebral MRI showed a bilateral brain lesion involving the basal ganglia, optic pathways, temporal lobes, and the midbrain. Serial MRSs showed a decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine ratio and increased choline/creatine ratio. An increase in the myoinositol (MYO)/creatine ratio and the presence of a lipid/lactate peak were also recorded. A neuroimaging follow-up with MRI and MRS performed 2 years later showed similar findings. We describe an MRS study of a brain tumor in a patient with segmental NF-1 for the first time. The MRS study showed similar findings, described earlier in rare studies of patients with the classic form of NF-1. MRS is a noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of tumor tissue in the brain through its metabolic activity. MRS plays an important role in clinical studies and it can be used to differentiate malignant and nonmalignant brain lesions from normal brain tissue. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Density-weighted concentric circle trajectories for high resolution brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingerl, Lukas; Bogner, Wolfgang; Moser, Philipp; Považan, Michal; Hangel, Gilbert; Heckova, Eva; Gruber, Stephan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Strasser, Bernhard

    2017-11-06

    Full-slice magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ≥7 T is especially vulnerable to lipid contaminations arising from regions close to the skull. This contamination can be mitigated by improving the point spread function via higher spatial resolution sampling and k-space filtering, but this prolongs scan times and reduces the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. Currently applied parallel imaging methods accelerate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging scans at 7T, but increase lipid artifacts and lower SNR-efficiency further. In this study, we propose an SNR-efficient spatial-spectral sampling scheme using concentric circle echo planar trajectories (CONCEPT), which was adapted to intrinsically acquire a Hamming-weighted k-space, thus termed density-weighted-CONCEPT. This minimizes voxel bleeding, while preserving an optimal SNR. Trajectories were theoretically derived and verified in phantoms as well as in the human brain via measurements of five volunteers (single-slice, field-of-view 220 × 220 mm 2 , matrix 64 × 64, scan time 6 min) with free induction decay magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Density-weighted-CONCEPT was compared to (a) the originally proposed CONCEPT with equidistant circles (here termed e-CONCEPT), (b) elliptical phase-encoding, and (c) 5-fold Controlled Aliasing In Parallel Imaging Results IN Higher Acceleration accelerated elliptical phase-encoding. By intrinsically sampling a Hamming-weighted k-space, density-weighted-CONCEPT removed Gibbs-ringing artifacts and had in vivo +9.5%, +24.4%, and +39.7% higher SNR than e-CONCEPT, elliptical phase-encoding, and the Controlled Aliasing In Parallel Imaging Results IN Higher Acceleration accelerated elliptical phase-encoding (all P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with optimal SNR at 7T. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

  8. Metric to quantify white matter damage on brain magnetic resonance images

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    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Anblagan, Devasuda; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); UK Dementia Research Institute, Edinburgh Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Chappell, Francesca M.; Morris, Zoe; Sakka, Eleni [University of Edinburgh, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); UK Dementia Research Institute, Edinburgh Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Dickie, David Alexander; Royle, Natalie A. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Deary, Ian J. [University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Department of Psychology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    Quantitative assessment of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. It is important to harmonise results from different software tools considering not only the volume but also the signal intensity. Here we propose and evaluate a metric of white matter (WM) damage that addresses this need. We obtained WMH and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes from brain structural MRI from community dwelling older individuals and stroke patients enrolled in three different studies, using two automatic methods followed by manual editing by two to four observers blind to each other. We calculated the average intensity values on brain structural fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for the NAWM and WMH. The white matter damage metric is calculated as the proportion of WMH in brain tissue weighted by the relative image contrast of the WMH-to-NAWM. The new metric was evaluated using tissue microstructure parameters and visual ratings of small vessel disease burden and WMH: Fazekas score for WMH burden and Prins scale for WMH change. The correlation between the WM damage metric and the visual rating scores (Spearman ρ > =0.74, p < 0.0001) was slightly stronger than between the latter and WMH volumes (Spearman ρ > =0.72, p < 0.0001). The repeatability of the WM damage metric was better than WM volume (average median difference between measurements 3.26% (IQR 2.76%) and 5.88% (IQR 5.32%) respectively). The follow-up WM damage was highly related to total Prins score even when adjusted for baseline WM damage (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001), which was not always the case for WMH volume, as total Prins was highly associated with the change in the intense WMH volume (p = 0.0079, increase of 4.42 ml per unit change in total Prins, 95%CI [1.17 7.67]), but not with the change in less-intense, subtle WMH, which determined the volumetric change. The new metric is practical and simple to calculate. It is robust to variations in

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood-brain barrier permeability in ischemic stroke using diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Yash V; Lu, Jianfei; Shen, Qiang; Cerqueira, Bianca; Duong, Timothy Q

    2017-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (K w ) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using K w magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group K w magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal K w . Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals. (ii) At two days after stroke, K w magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant blood-brain barrier disruption. Regions with abnormal K w showed substantial overlap with regions of hyperintense T 2 (vasogenic edema) and hyperperfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology confirmed these findings in the same animals. The K w values in the normal contralesional hemisphere and the ipsilesional ischemic core two days after stroke were: 363 ± 17 and 261 ± 18 min -1 , respectively (P magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to blood-brain barrier permeability changes in stroke, consistent with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue extravasation. K w magnetic resonance imaging offers advantages over existing techniques because contrast agent is not needed and repeated measurements can be made for longitudinal monitoring or averaging.

  10. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis and White (Ceratotherium simum African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhil Bhagwandin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  11. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E

    1988-01-01

    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our...... and after chemotherapy. The spectra showed considerable changes during chemotherapy. It is concluded that 31P spectroscopy using surface coils is of limited value for tumour characterization, but may add useful information in monitoring the effect of chemotherapy....

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in classification of congenital muscular dystrophies with brain abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKnaap, MS; Smit, LME; Barth, PG; CatsmanBerrevoets, CE; Brouwer, OF; Begeer, JH; deCoo, IFM; Valk, J.

    A survey was performed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 21 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (QID) with cerebral abnormalities to evaluate the contribution of MRI to the classification of CMD patients. In 5 patients with Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), MRI showed

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in classification of congenital muscular dystrophies with brain abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, M. S.; Smit, L. M.; Barth, P. G.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C. E.; Brouwer, O. F.; Begeer, J. H.; de Coo, I. F.; Valk, J.

    1997-01-01

    A survey was performed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 21 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) with cerebral abnormalities to evaluate the contribution of MRI to the classification of CMD patients. In 5 patients with Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), MRI showed

  14. Evaluation of biexponential relaxation behaviour in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of individual biologic components in relaxation curves obtained in vivo may increase the specificity of tissue characterization by magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, the potential of biexponential curve analysis was evaluated in T1 and T2 measurements on the human...

  15. Hemodynamic quantification in brain arteriovenous malformations with time-resolved spin-labeled magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Hélène; Bannier, Elise; Maurel, Pierre; Neyton, Clément; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Schmitt, Peter; Barillot, Christian; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves

    2014-08-01

    Unenhanced time-resolved spin-labeled magnetic resonance angiography enables hemodynamic quantification in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Our purpose was to identify quantitative parameters that discriminate among different AVM components and to relate hemodynamic patterns with rupture risk. Sixteen patients presenting with AVMs (7 women, 9 men; mean age 37.1±15.9 years) were assigned to the high rupture risk or low rupture risk group according to anatomic AVM characteristics and rupture history. High temporal resolution (magnetic resonance angiography was performed on a 3-T MR system. After dedicated image processing, hemodynamic quantitative parameters were computed. T tests were used to compare quantitative parameters among AVM components, between the high rupture risk and low rupture risk groups, and between the hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic groups. Among the quantitative parameters, time-to-peak (Pmagnetic resonance angiography allows AVM-specific combined anatomic and quantitative analysis of AVM hemodynamics. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Accurate classification of brain gliomas by discriminate dictionary learning based on projective dictionary pair learning of proton magnetic resonance spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebileje, Sikiru Afolabi; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Aiyelabegan, Hammed Tanimowo; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful noninvasive technique that complements the structural images of cMRI, which aids biomedical and clinical researches, by identifying and visualizing the compositions of various metabolites within the tissues of interest. However, accurate classification of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is still a challenging issue in clinics due to low signal-to-noise ratio, overlapping peaks of metabolites, and the presence of background macromolecules. This paper evaluates the performance of a discriminate dictionary learning classifiers based on projective dictionary pair learning method for brain gliomas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra classification task, and the result were compared with the sub-dictionary learning methods. The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data contain a total of 150 spectra (74 healthy, 23 grade II, 23 grade III, and 30 grade IV) from two databases. The datasets from both databases were first coupled together, followed by column normalization. The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to split the datasets into its training and test sets. Performance comparison based on the overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision was conducted. Based on the overall accuracy of our classification scheme, the dictionary pair learning method was found to outperform the sub-dictionary learning methods 97.78% compared with 68.89%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Writing affects the brain network of reading in Chinese: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Vu, Marianne; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Lawrence, Jason M; Harris, Lindsay N; Guan, Qun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Live vs. Post Mortem Rat Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ipek; Yaxley, Richard; Budin, Francois; Hoogstoel, Marion; Lee, Joohwi; Maltbie, Eric; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an increasingly popular technique for examining neurobiology in rodents because it is both noninvasive and nondestructive. MRI scans can be acquired from either live or post mortem specimens. In vivo scans have a key advantage in that subjects can be scanned at multiple time-points in longitudinal studies. However, repeated exposure to anesthesia and stress may confound studies. In contrast, post mortem scans offer improved image quality and increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to several key advantages: First, the images are not disrupted by motion and pulsation artifacts. Second, they allow the brain tissue to be perfused with contrast agents, enhancing tissue contrast. Third, they allow longer image acquisition times, yielding higher resolution and/or improved SNR. Fourth, they allow assessment of groups of animals at the same age without scheduling complications. Despite these advantages, researchers are often skeptical of post mortem MRI scans because of uncertainty about whether the fixation process alters the MRI measurements. To address these concerns, we present a thorough comparative study of in vivo and post mortem MRI scans in healthy male Wistar rats at three age points throughout adolescence (postnatal days 28 through 80). For each subject, an in vivo scan was acquired, followed by perfusion and two post mortem scans at two different MRI facilities. The goal was to assess robustness of measurements, to detect any changes in volumetric measurements after fixation, and to investigate any differential bias that may exist between image acquisition techniques. We present this volumetric analysis for comparison of 22 anatomical structures between in vivo and post mortem scans. No significant changes in volumetric measurements were detected; however, as hypothesized, the image quality is dramatically improved in post mortem scans. These findings illustrate the validity and utility of using post mortem scans in

  19. Brain and arterial abnormalities following prenatal X-ray irradiation in mice assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Murase, Kenya

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively characterize changes in the whole brain and arterial morphology in response to prenatal ionizing irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) were used to evaluate brain and arterial abnormalities in 8-week-old male mice prenatally exposed to X-ray radiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy on embryonic day (E) 13. Irradiated mice demonstrated decreased brain volume, increased ventricular volume, and arterial malformation. Additionally, MRA signal intensity and arterial thickness in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and basilar artery were lower in radiation-exposed mice than in control mice. MRI and MRA are useful tools for assessing brain and arterial abnormalities after prenatal exposure to radiation. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to explore tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Meek, Judith; Jackson, Deborah; Tracey, Irene; Robertson, Nicola; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. Methods We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate stimulation and, in one case, nontissue damaging pinprick stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot. Initial whole brain analysis was followed by region of interest analysis of specific brain areas. Results Distinct patterns of functional brain activation were evoked by brush and vFh punctate stimulation, which were reduced, but still present, under chloral hydrate sedation. Brain activation increased with increasing stimulus intensity. The feasibility of using pinprick stimulation in fMRI studies was established in one unsedated healthy full-term infant. Conclusion Distinct brain activity patterns can be measured in response to different modalities and intensities of skin sensory stimulation in term infants. This indicates the potential for fMRI studies in exploring tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain. PMID:25358870

  1. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Ege Univ. Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated

  2. Correlation between voxel based morphometry and manual volumetry in magnetic resonance images of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R. Uchida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a comparative study between manual volumetry (MV and voxel based morphometry (VBM as methods of evaluating the volume of brain structures in magnetic resonance images. The volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala of 16 panic disorder patients and 16 healthy controls measured through MV were correlated with the volumes of gray matter estimated by optimized modulated VBM. The chosen structures are composed almost exclusively of gray matter. Using a 4 mm Gaussian filter, statistically significant clusters were found bilaterally in the hippocampus and in the right amygdala in the statistical parametric map correlating with the respective manual volume. With the conventional 12 mm filter,a significant correlation was found only for the right hippocampus. Therefore,narrowfilters increase the sensitivity of the correlation procedure, especially when small brain structures are analyzed. The two techniques seem to consistently measure structural volume.Trata-se de estudo comparativo entre a volumetria manual(VM e a morfometria baseada no vóxel (MBV, como métodos de avaliação do volume de estruturas cerebrais. Os volumes do hipocampo e da amídala de 16 pacientes de pânico e 16 controles sadios medidos através da VM foram correlacionados com os volumes de matéria cinzenta estimados pela MBV.As estruturas escolhidas são constituídas quase exclusivamente de matéria cinzenta. Utilizando um filtro Gaussiano de 4 mm, encontram-se, bilateralmente, aglomerados significativos de correlação nas duas estruturas no mapa estatístico paramétrico, correspondendo ao respectivo volume manual. Com o filtro convencional de 12 mm, apenas uma correlação significativa foi encontrada no hipocampo direito. Portanto, filtros estreitos aumentam a sensibilidade do procedimento de correlação,especialmente quando estruturas pequenas são analisadas. Ambas as técnicas parecem medir consistentemente o volume estrutural.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging features of brain and spinal cord injury in a fatal case of isopropanol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan PS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parag Suresh Mahajan,1 Joyal Jacob Mathew,2 Abhilash Pulincherry Jayaram,1 Vidya Chander Negi,1 Mohamed Milad Abu Hmaira21Department of Radiology, 2Department of Medicine, Al-Khor Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarAbstract: A 60-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness, and disorientation one day after consumption of isopropanol along with ethanol. Computed tomography (CT of the brain performed immediately was unremarkable. The patient collapsed within the hospital 30 minutes after the CT scan was done, and remained comatose until death, showing no improvement with symptomatic treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine done 6 days after admission revealed bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities involving the cerebral and cerebellar cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, thalami, and brainstem on T2-weighted, fluid attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion weighted images; similar hyperintensities were seen involving the swollen and edematous cervical spinal cord and cerebellar tonsillar herniation compressing the proximal cervical cord. Petechial hemorrhages were also noted within the brainstem. These features are compatible with toxic injury to the brain and cervical spinal cord. To our knowledge, the magnetic resonance imaging features of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebellar tonsillar herniation, secondary to isopropanol intoxication have not been reported in the published literature before.Keywords: alcohol intoxication, computed tomography, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, toxicity

  4. Quantification of N-Acetyl Aspartyl Glutamate in Human Brain using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elywa, M.

    2015-07-01

    The separation of N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and other metabolites, such as glutamate, by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T is described. This method is based on the stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), with short and long echo time (TE) and allows quantitative measurements of NAAG in the parietal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) of human brain. Two basesets for the LCModel have been established using nuclear magnetic resonance simulator software (NMR-SIM). Six healthy volunteers (age 25-35 years) have been examined at 7 T. It has been established that NAAG can be separated and quantified in the parietal location and does not get quantified in the pgACC location when using a short echo time, TE = 20 ms. On the other hand, by using a long echo time, TE = 74 ms, NAAG can be quantified in pgACC structures.

  5. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals region specific metabolic responses to SIV infection in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Chan-Gyu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS studies of HIV-infected humans have demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities that vary by brain region, but the causes are poorly understood. Metabolic changes in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and white matter in 18 SIV-infected macaques were investigated using MRS during the first month of infection. Results Changes in the N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI, creatine (Cr and glutamine/glutamate (Glx resonances were quantified both in absolute terms and relative to the creatine resonance. Most abnormalities were observed at the time of peak viremia, 2 weeks post infection (wpi. At that time point, significant decreases in NAA and NAA/Cr, reflecting neuronal injury, were observed only in the frontal cortex. Cr was significantly elevated only in the white matter. Changes in Cho and Cho/Cr were similar across the brain regions, increasing at 2 wpi, and falling below baseline levels at 4 wpi. MI and MI/Cr levels were increased across all brain regions. Conclusion These data best support the hypothesis that different brain regions have variable intrinsic vulnerabilities to neuronal injury caused by the AIDS virus.

  6. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Concurrent Urodynamic Testing Identifies Brain Structures Involved in Micturition Cycle in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, Rose; Karmonik, Christof; Shy, Michael; Fletcher, Sophie; Boone, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, which is common in patients with multiple sclerosis, has a significant impact on quality of life. In this study we sought to determine brain activity processes during the micturition cycle in female patients with multiple sclerosis and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. We report brain activity on functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous urodynamic testing in 23 ambulatory female patients with multiple sclerosis. Individual functional magnetic resonance imaging activation maps at strong desire to void and at initiation of voiding were calculated and averaged at Montreal Neuroimaging Institute. Areas of significant activation were identified in these average maps. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with elicitable neurogenic detrusor overactivity or detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Group analysis of all patients at strong desire to void yielded areas of activation in regions associated with executive function (frontal gyrus), emotional regulation (cingulate gyrus) and motor control (putamen, cerebellum and precuneus). Comparison of the average change in activation between previously reported healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis showed predominantly stronger, more focal activation in the former and lower, more diffused activation in the latter. Patients with multiple sclerosis who had demonstrable neurogenic detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia showed a trend toward distinct brain activation at full urge and at initiation of voiding respectively. We successfully studied brain activation during the entire micturition cycle in female patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and multiple sclerosis using a concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging/urodynamic testing platform. Understanding the central neural processes involved in specific parts of micturition in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction may identify areas

  7. Preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative delirium after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Hiroki; Yoshitani, Kenji; Yamada, Naoaki; Yamada, Naoki; Kubota, Yosuke; Takahashi, Kanae; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Delirium after cardiac surgery is a serious complication, increasing morbidity and mortality. Despite its high expectations, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has largely failed to reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications. To further investigate the reasons for this failure, we used perioperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the relation between MRI findings and postoperative delirium. Altogether, 98 patients undergoing elective OPCAB were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Patients underwent brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before and after surgery to identify cerebral infarction, white matter lesions, and intracranial artery stenosis. Postoperative delirium in the intensive care unit was measured using the delirium rating scale. The relation between postoperative delirium and MRI findings was examined using logistic regression. Magnetic resonance imaging and MRA was completed in 88 (90%) of the patients. New ischemic lesions were present in seven (7.9%) patients. Delirium rating scale scores of 0, 1-7, and ≥ 8 were found in 25 (31%), 48 (60%), and seven (9%) patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that new ischemic lesions (odds ratio [OR] 11.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53 to 80.03; P = 0.017), carotid artery stenosis (OR 7.06, 95% CI: 1.59 to 31.13; P = 0.010), history of myocardial infarction (OR 3.78, 95% CI: 1.05 to 13.65; P = 0.043), and deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (OR 3.04, 95% CI: 1.14 to 8.12; P = 0.027) were significantly associated with postoperative delirium. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of new cerebral ischemic lesions, carotid stenosis, and deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity correlated significantly with postoperative delirium in patients who had undergone OPCAB surgery.

  8. Minipig Model of Huntington's Disease: H-1 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jozefovičová, M.; Herynek, V.; Jírů, F.; Dezortová, M.; Juhásová, Jana; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2016), s. 155-163 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * minipigs * magnetic resonance spectroscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  9. Is it Possible to Extract Brain Metabolic Pathways Information from In Vivo H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data?

    CERN Document Server

    de Lara, Alejandro Chinea Manrique

    2010-01-01

    In vivo H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an important tool for performing non-invasive quantitative assessments of brain tumour glucose metabolism. Brain tumours are considered as fast-growth tumours because of their high rate of proliferation. In addition, tumour cells exhibit profound genetic, biochemical and histological differences with respect to the original non-transformed cellular types. Therefore, there is a strong interest from the clinical investigator point of view in understanding the role of brain metabolites in normal and pathological conditions and especially on the development of early tumour detection techniques. Unfortunately, current diagnosis techniques ignore the dynamic aspects of these signals. It is largely believed that temporal variations of NMR Spectra are noisy or just simply do not carry enough information to be exploited by any reliable diagnosis procedure. Thus, current diagnosis procedures are mainly based on empirical observations extracted from single avera...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation and scatter corrections in three-dimensional brain positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H; Slosman, D O

    2003-01-01

    Reliable attenuation correction represents an essential component of the long chain of modules required for the reconstruction of artifact-free, quantitative brain positron emission tomography (PET) images. In this work we demonstrate the proof of principle of segmented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided attenuation and scatter corrections in 3D brain PET. We have developed a method for attenuation correction based on registered T1-weighted MRI, eliminating the need of an additional transmission (TX) scan. The MR images were realigned to preliminary reconstructions of PET data using an automatic algorithm and then segmented by means of a fuzzy clustering technique which identifies tissues of significantly different density and composition. The voxels belonging to different regions were classified into air, skull, brain tissue and nasal sinuses. These voxels were then assigned theoretical tissue-dependent attenuation coefficients as reported in the ICRU 44 report followed by Gaussian smoothing and additio...

  11. USE OF DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FOR REVEALING HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAIN LESIONS IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shimchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents advantages of use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI for revealing hypoxic-ischemic brain lesions in neonates. The trial included 97 neonates with perinatal brain lesion who had been undergoing treatment at a resuscitation department or neonatal pathology department in the first month of life. The article shows high information value of diffusion-weighted images (DWI for diagnostics of hypoxic-ischemic lesions in comparison with regular standard modes. In the event of no structural brain lesions of neonates, pronounced increase in signal characteristics revealed by DWI indicated considerable pathophysiological alterations. Subsequently, children developed structural alterations in the form of cystic encephalomalacia with expansion of cerebrospinal fluid spaces manifested with pronounced neurological deficit. DW MRI has been offered as a method of prognosticating further neurological development of children on early stages. 

  12. Pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of brain tissue extracts from rats anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is routinely used as a surgical procedure and its safety has been endorsed by clinical outcomes; however, its effects at the molecular level have not been elucidated. General anesthetics influence glucose metabolism in the brain. However, the effects of anesthetics on brain metabolites other than those related to glucose have not been well characterized. We used a pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to visualize the changes in holistic brain metabolic phenotypes in response to the widely used intravenous anesthetic propofol and the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7 each group. Propofol and isoflurane were administered to two groups each, for 2 or 6 h. The control group received no anesthesia. Brains were removed directly after anesthesia. Hydrophilic compounds were extracted from excised whole brains and measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All spectral data were processed and analyzed by principal component analysis for comparison of the metabolite profiles. Data were visualized by plotting principal component (PC scores. In the plots, each point represents an individual sample. The propofol and isoflurane groups were clustered separately on the plots, and this separation was especially pronounced when comparing the 6-h groups. The PC scores of the propofol group were clearly distinct from those of the control group, particularly in the 6-h group, whereas the difference in PC scores was more subtle in the isoflurane group and control groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study showed that propofol and isoflurane exerted differential effects on holistic brain metabolism under anesthesia.

  13. Dual-Targeting Lactoferrin-Conjugated Polymerized Magnetic Polydiacetylene-Assembled Nanocarriers with Self-Responsive Fluorescence/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for In Vivo Brain Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jen-Hung; Chiu, Tsung-Lang; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lai, Yen-Ho; Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Chen, You-Yin; Chen, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining a high concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain is difficult due to the restrictions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rapid removal from blood circulation. To enable controlled drug release and enhance the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-crossing efficiency for brain tumor therapy, a new dual-targeting magnetic polydiacetylene nanocarriers (PDNCs) delivery system modified with lactoferrin (Lf) is developed. The PDNCs are synthesized using the ultraviolet (UV) cross-linkable 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomers through spontaneous assembling onto the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to form micelles-polymerized structures. The results demonstrate that PDNCs will reduce the drug leakage and further control the drug release, and display self-responsive fluorescence upon intracellular uptake for cell trafficking and imaging-guided tumor treatment. The magnetic Lf-modified PDNCs with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-targeting ability can enhance the transportation of the PDNCs across the BBB for tracking and targeting gliomas. An enhanced therapeutic efficiency can be obtained using Lf-Cur (Curcumin)-PDNCs by improving the retention time of the encapsulated Cur and producing fourfold higher Cur amounts in the brain compared to free Cur. Animal studies also confirm that Lf targeting and controlled release act synergistically to significantly suppress tumors in orthotopic brain-bearing rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A tumefactive multiple sclerosis lesion in the brain: An uncommon site with atypical magnetic resonance image findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is a rare type of demyelinating disease. Typical magnetic resonance (MR) image findings show incomplete ring enhancement with a mild mass effect. This lesion is otherwise indistinguishable from other mass-like lesions in the brain. Knowledge of the MR imaging findings for tumefactive MS is thus helpful for correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In this report we describe the MR image findings for pathology-confirmed tumefactive MS in an uncommon location, alongside a discussion of its aggressive features.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain caused by an injury or a stroke diagnose infectious or autoimmune diseases like encephalopathy or ... broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, and muscular and bone ... (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Articles and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's ( ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain ...

  18. Handedness- and brain size-related efficiency differences in small-world brain networks: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Chen, Heng; Lu, Fengmei; Wu, Guorong; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-05-01

    The human brain has been described as a complex network, which integrates information with high efficiency. However, the relationships between the efficiency of human brain functional networks and handedness and brain size remain unclear. Twenty-one left-handed and 32 right-handed healthy subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding Pearson correlation matrices of 90 cortical and subcortical regions. Graph theory-based methods were employed to further analyze their topological properties. As expected, all participants demonstrated small-world topology, suggesting a highly efficient topological structure. Furthermore, we found that smaller brains showed higher local efficiency, whereas larger brains showed higher global efficiency, reflecting a suitable efficiency balance between local specialization and global integration of brain functional activity. Compared with right-handers, significant alterations in nodal efficiency were revealed in left-handers, involving the anterior and median cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, angular gyrus, and amygdala. Our findings indicated that the functional network organization in the human brain was associated with handedness and brain size.

  19. Improving Brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Segmentation via a Novel Algorithm based on Genetic and Regional Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A., Javadpour; A., Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background Regarding the importance of right diagnosis in medical applications, various methods have been exploited for processing medical images solar. The method of segmentation is used to analyze anal to miscall structures in medical imaging. Objective This study describes a new method for brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) segmentation via a novel algorithm based on genetic and regional growth. Methods Among medical imaging methods, brains MRI segmentation is important due to high contrast of non-intrusive soft tissue and high spatial resolution. Size variations of brain tissues are often accompanied by various diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. As our knowledge about the relation between various brain diseases and deviation of brain anatomy increases, MRI segmentation is exploited as the first step in early diagnosis. In this paper, regional growth method and auto-mate selection of initial points by genetic algorithm is used to introduce a new method for MRI segmentation. Primary pixels and similarity criterion are automatically by genetic algorithms to maximize the accuracy and validity in image segmentation. Results By using genetic algorithms and defining the fixed function of image segmentation, the initial points for the algorithm were found. The proposed algorithms are applied to the images and results are manually selected by regional growth in which the initial points were compared. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively. Conclusion The study concluded that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively and help us to diagnose brain diseases. PMID:27672629

  20. Quantitative assessment of brain glucose metabolic rates using in vivo deuterium magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yi; Mateescu, Gheorghe; Chen, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose consumption rate (CMR glc ) and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (V TCA ) is crucial for understanding neuroenergetics under physiopathological conditions. In this study, we report a novel in vivo Deuterium ( 2 H) MRS (DMRS) approach for simultaneously measuring and quantifying CMR glc and V TCA in rat brains at 16.4 Tesla. Following a brief infusion of deuterated glucose, dynamic changes of isotope-labeled glucose, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and water contents in the brain can be robustly monitored from their well-resolved 2 H resonances. Dynamic DMRS glucose and Glx data were employed to determine CMR glc and V TCA concurrently. To test the sensitivity of this method in response to altered glucose metabolism, two brain conditions with different anesthetics were investigated. Increased CMR glc (0.46 vs. 0.28 µmol/g/min) and V TCA (0.96 vs. 0.6 µmol/g/min) were found in rats under morphine as compared to deeper anesthesia using 2% isoflurane. This study demonstrates the feasibility and new utility of the in vivo DMRS approach to assess cerebral glucose metabolic rates at high/ultrahigh field. It provides an alternative MRS tool for in vivo study of metabolic coupling relationship between aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolisms in brain under physiopathological states.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in congenital rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, K.; Ando, M.; Makino, M.; Takanashi, J.; Fujimoto, N.; Niimi, H. (Chiba Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1991-06-01

    Two children with congenital rubella virus and six with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, were examined by magnetic resonance (MR) and CT. Cranial MR imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and inversion recovery (IR) sequences demonstrated the following: Periventricular hyperintensity (4), subcortical hyperintensity (5), delayed myelination (4), oligo/pachygyria (2), cerebellar hypoplasia (2). This study showed that the more-disabled children had more marked abnormal MRI findings. MRI was more effective in the detection of parenchymal lesion than was CT, although intraventricular calcification was better visualized with CT. (orig.).

  2. Magnetic resonance microscopy defines ethanol-induced brain abnormalities in prenatal mice: effects of acute insult on gestational day 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Scott E; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Godin, Elizabeth A; Dehart, Deborah B; Johnson, Brice W; Allan Johnson, G; Styner, Martin A; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microscopic levels, provides unprecedented opportunities to aid in defining the full spectrum of ethanol's insult to the developing brain. This is the first in a series of reports that, collectively, will provide an MRM-based atlas of developmental stage-dependent structural brain abnormalities in a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) mouse model. The ethanol exposure time and developmental stage examined for this report is gestational day (GD) 8 in mice, when the embryos are at early neurulation stages; stages present in humans early in the fourth week postfertilization. For this study, pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were administered an ethanol dosage of 2.8 g/kg intraperitoneally at 8 days, 0 hour and again at 8 days, 4 hours postfertilization. On GD 17, fetuses that were selected for MRM analyses were immersion fixed in a Bouin's/Prohance solution. Control fetuses from vehicle-treated dams were stage-matched to those that were ethanol-exposed. The fetal mice were scanned ex vivo at 7.0 T and 512 x 512 x 1024 image arrays were acquired using 3-D spin warp encoding. The resulting 29 microm (isotropic) resolution images were processed using ITK-SNAP, a 3-D segmentation/visualization tool. Linear and volume measurements were determined for selected brain, head, and body regions of each specimen. Comparisons were made between control and treated fetuses, with an emphasis on determining (dis)proportionate changes in specific brain regions. As compared with controls, the crown-rump lengths of stage-matched ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses were significantly reduced, as were brain and whole body volumes. Volume reductions were notable in every brain region examined, with the exception of the pituitary and septal region, and were accompanied by increased ventricular volumes. Disproportionate regional brain volume reductions were most marked on the right side and were significant for the olfactory bulb

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine ... limitations of MRI of the Spine? What is MRI of the Spine? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement of brain tumors at 3 tesla versus 1.5 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöbauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Barth, Markus; Schöggl, Alexander; Heimberger, Karl; Matula, Christian; Fog, Amura; Kaider, Alexandra; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2002-03-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of a standard dose of MRI contrast agent in the evaluation of primary brain tumors and metastases using a high-field 3 tesla MR unit versus a 1.5 tesla MR unit. Sixteen patients with brain tumors were examined at both field strengths using identical axial T1-SE protocols pre- and postcontrast (0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium), and postcontrast coronal 3D GRE with magnetization preparation (MP-RAGE), which was adjusted separately for each field strength. Evaluation of the images was performed quantitatively and, in the case of T1-SE images, also by visual assessment. Tumor-to-brain-contrast after gadolinium administration using statistical evaluation of MP-RAGE scans was significantly higher at 3 tesla (97.5) than at 1.5 tesla (46.3). The same was true for T1-SE sequences (93.0 vs. 72.1). Signal enhancement of the lesions in T1-SE sequences was not significantly different between both field strengths. Administration of a gadolinium contrast agent produces higher contrast between tumor and normal brain at 3 tesla than at 1.5 tesla.

  6. Studying brain function with concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, A.; Tong, Y.; Frederick, B. B.; Renshaw, P. F.; Ehrenberg, B. L.; Fantini, S.

    2005-04-01

    We present concurrent NIRS-fMRI measurements on a human subject during a finger tapping test. The optical data were collected with a frequency domain experimental apparatus (ISS, Inc., Champaign IL) comprising sixteen laser sources at 690 nm, sixteen laser sources at 830 nm and four photomultiplier tube detectors. The lasers were coupled to optical fibers that led the light onto the subject's head. A special optical helmet (fMRI-compatible) with a retractable and resilient set of optical fibers was devised to improve the coupling between the fibers and the scalp. The fMRI data were collected with a 3 Tesla Siemens Trio magnetic resonance scanner and a quadrature birdcage radiofrequency coil. The spatial and temporal comparison of the fMRI and NIRS signals associated with brain activation showed a very good agreement, confirming the role of NIRS as a reliable brain monitor for functional studies.

  7. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in APP transgenic mice: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Müller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fast in-vivo high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI of the mouse brain has recently been shown to enable cohort studies by the combination of appropriate pulse sequences and cryogenically cooled resonators (CCR. The objective of this study was to apply this DTI approach at the group level to β-amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice. METHODS: Twelve mice (5 wild type, 7 APP transgenic tg2576 underwent DTI examination at 156(2 × 250 µm(3 spatial resolution with a CCR at ultrahigh field (11.7 T. Diffusion images were acquired along 30 gradient directions plus 5 references without diffusion encoding with a total acquisition time of 35 minutes. Fractional anisotropy (FA maps were statistically compared by whole brain-based spatial statistics (WBSS at the group level vs. wild type controls. RESULTS: FA-map comparison showed characteristic regional patterns of differences between the groups with localizations associated with Alzheimer's disease in humans, such as the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, and the caudoputamen. CONCLUSION: In this proof-of-principle study, regions associated with amyloid-β deposition could be identified by WBSS of FA maps in APP transgenic mice vs. wild type mice. Thus, DTI in the mouse brain acquired at 11.7 T by use of a CCR was demonstrated to be feasible for cohort studies.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) system, developed by ARL, is the world's most sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis tool,...

  9. Alpha shape theory for 3D visualization and volumetric measurement of brain tumor progression using magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoud Al-Tamimi, Mohammed Sabbih; Sulong, Ghazali; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2015-07-01

    Resection of brain tumors is a tricky task in surgery due to its direct influence on the patients' survival rate. Determining the tumor resection extent for its complete information via-à-vis volume and dimensions in pre- and post-operative Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) requires accurate estimation and comparison. The active contour segmentation technique is used to segment brain tumors on pre-operative MR images using self-developed software. Tumor volume is acquired from its contours via alpha shape theory. The graphical user interface is developed for rendering, visualizing and estimating the volume of a brain tumor. Internet Brain Segmentation Repository dataset (IBSR) is employed to analyze and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of tumor volume. Accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the estimated volume using the proposed method with that of gold-standard. Segmentation by active contour technique is found to be capable of detecting the brain tumor boundaries. Furthermore, the volume description and visualization enable an interactive examination of tumor tissue and its surrounding. Admirable features of our results demonstrate that alpha shape theory in comparison to other existing standard methods is superior for precise volumetric measurement of tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients With Anisometropic Amblyopia Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Angcang; Chen, Taolin; Zhang, Junran; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Longqian

    2017-09-01

    To explore the abnormality of spontaneous activity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI). Twenty-four participants were split into two groups. The anisometropic amblyopia group had 10 patients, all of whom had anisometropic amblyopia of the right eye, and the control group had 14 healthy subjects. All participants underwent Rs-fMRI scanning. Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the brain, which is a measure of the amplitudes of spontaneous brain activity, was used to investigate brain changes between the anisometropic amblyopia and control groups. Compared with an age- and gender-matched control group, the anisometropic amblyopia group showed increased amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous brain activity in the left superior temporal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left pons, and the right inferior semi-lunar lobe. The anisometropic amblyopia group also showed decreased amplitude of low frequency fluctuations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus. This study demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activities in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under Rs-fMRI, and these abnormalities might contribute to the neuropathological mechanisms of anisometropic amblyopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(5):303-310.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Neural responses to various rewards and feedback in the brains of adolescent Internet addicts detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Son, Jung-Woo; Choi, Won-Hee; Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Jang-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in brain activation for various types of reward and feedback in adolescent Internet addicts (AIA) and normal adolescents (NA) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). AIA (n = 15) and NA (n = 15) underwent fMRI while performing easy tasks for which performance feedback (PF), social reward (SR) (such as compliments), or monetary reward (MR) was given. Using the no reward (NR) condition, three types of contrasts (PF-NR, SR-NR, and MR-NR) were analyzed. In NA, we observed activation in the reward-related subcortical system, self-related brain region, and other brain areas for the three contrasts, but these brain areas showed almost no activation in AIA. Instead, AIA showed significant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for the PF-NR contrast and the negative correlation was found between the level of activation in the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 22) and the duration of Internet game use per day in AIA. These findings suggest that AIA show reduced levels of self-related brain activation and decreased reward sensitivity irrespective of the type of reward and feedback. AIA may be only sensitive to error monitoring regardless of positive feelings, such as sense of satisfaction or achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Music modulation of pain perception and pain-related activity in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Christine E; Beynon, Michaela E; Bosma, Rachael L; Stroman, Patrick W

    2014-10-01

    The oldest known method for relieving pain is music, and yet, to date, the underlying neural mechanisms have not been studied. Here, we investigate these neural mechanisms by applying a well-defined painful stimulus while participants listened to their favorite music or to no music. Neural responses in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord were mapped with functional magnetic resonance imaging spanning the cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord. Subjective pain ratings were observed to be significantly lower when pain was administered with music than without music. The pain stimulus without music elicited neural activity in brain regions that are consistent with previous studies. Brain regions associated with pleasurable music listening included limbic, frontal, and auditory regions, when comparing music to non-music pain conditions. In addition, regions demonstrated activity indicative of descending pain modulation when contrasting the 2 conditions. These regions include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventromedial medulla, and dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord. This is the first imaging study to characterize the neural response of pain and how pain is mitigated by music, and it provides new insights into the neural mechanism of music-induced analgesia within the central nervous system. This article presents the first investigation of neural processes underlying music analgesia in human participants. Music modulates pain responses in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord, and neural activity changes are consistent with engagement of the descending analgesia system. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Paul

    2017-06-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to serve as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the type or types of biomarker it could provide remain to be determined. At this time there is not sufficient sensitivity or specificity for MRI to serve as an early diagnostic biomarker, i.e., it is unproven in its ability to determine if a single individual is normal, has mild PD, or has some other forms of degenerative parkinsonism. However there is accumulating evidence that MRI may be useful in staging and monitoring disease progression (staging biomarker), and also possibly as a means to monitor pathophysiological aspects of disease and associated response to treatments, i.e., theranostic marker. As there are increasing numbers of manuscripts that are dedicated to diffusion- and neuromelanin-based imaging methods, this review will focus on these topics cursorily and will delve into pharmacodynamic imaging as a means to get at theranostic aspects of PD.

  14. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... with ADHD and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre) in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two...... groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD...

  15. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging – the first description of a divided central sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate eSchweizer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation – bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the postcentral sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the postcentral sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented postcentral sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus.

  16. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging - the first description of a divided central sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Renate; Helms, Gunther; Frahm, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation - bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the post-central sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the post-central sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented post-central sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus.

  17. Automated brain tumor segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging based on sliding-window technique and symmetry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yanyun; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumor segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important step toward surgical planning, treatment planning, monitoring of therapy. However, manual tumor segmentation commonly used in clinic is time-consuming and challenging, and none of the existed automated methods are highly robust, reliable and efficient in clinic application. An accurate and automated tumor segmentation method has been developed for brain tumor segmentation that will provide reproducible and objective results close to manual segmentation results. Based on the symmetry of human brain, we employed sliding-window technique and correlation coefficient to locate the tumor position. At first, the image to be segmented was normalized, rotated, denoised, and bisected. Subsequently, through vertical and horizontal sliding-windows technique in turn, that is, two windows in the left and the right part of brain image moving simultaneously pixel by pixel in two parts of brain image, along with calculating of correlation coefficient of two windows, two windows with minimal correlation coefficient were obtained, and the window with bigger average gray value is the location of tumor and the pixel with biggest gray value is the locating point of tumor. At last, the segmentation threshold was decided by the average gray value of the pixels in the square with center at the locating point and 10 pixels of side length, and threshold segmentation and morphological operations were used to acquire the final tumor region. The method was evaluated on 3D FSPGR brain MR images of 10 patients. As a result, the average ratio of correct location was 93.4% for 575 slices containing tumor, the average Dice similarity coefficient was 0.77 for one scan, and the average time spent on one scan was 40 seconds. An fully automated, simple and efficient segmentation method for brain tumor is proposed and promising for future clinic use. Correlation coefficient is a new and effective feature for tumor location.

  18. Brain haemosiderin in older people: pathological evidence for an ischaemic origin of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaway, B M; Simpson, J E; Hoggard, N; Highley, J R; Forster, G; Drew, D; Gebril, O H; Matthews, F E; Brayne, C; Wharton, S B; Ince, P G

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cerebral microbleeds (CMB) arise from ferromagnetic haemosiderin iron assumed to derive from extravasation of erythrocytes. Light microscopy of ageing brain frequently reveals foci of haemosiderin from single crystalloids to larger, predominantly perivascular, aggregates. The pathological and radiological relationship between these findings is not resolved. Haemosiderin deposition and vascular pathology in the putamen were quantified in 200 brains donated to the population-representative Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Molecular markers of gliosis and tissue integrity were assessed by immunohistochemistry in brains with highest (n = 20) and lowest (n = 20) levels of putamen haemosiderin. The association between haemosiderin counts and degenerative and vascular brain pathology, clinical data, and the haemochromatosis (HFE) gene H63D genotype were analysed. The frequency of MRI CMB in 10 cases with highest and lowest burden of putamen haemosiderin, was compared using post mortem 3T MRI. Greater putamen haemosiderin was significantly associated with putaminal indices of small vessel ischaemia (microinfarcts, P brain region (P brain measures of neurodegenerative pathology. Higher levels of putamen haemosiderin correlated with more CMB (P MRI-CMB concept should take account of brain iron homeostasis, and small vessel ischaemic change in later life, rather than only as a marker for minor episodes of cerebrovascular extravasation. These data are of clinical relevance, suggesting that basal ganglia MRI microbleeds may be a surrogate for ischaemic small vessel disease rather than exclusively a haemorrhagic diathesis. © 2013 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  19. Single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy in distinguishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Assess diagnostic utility of combined magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRI, MRS) in differentiating focal neoplastic lesions from focal non- neoplastic (infective or degenerative) brain lesions. Design: Descriptive, analytical - prospective study. Setting: The Aga Khan University ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Morris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance finds countless applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, routinely in almost all research and medical institutions across the globe. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for a dedicated application. With beginnings in borehole logging for the petro-chemical industry Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as online process monitoring for food manufacture and medical point of care diagnostics. This great diversity is seeing exciting developments in magnetic resonance sensing technology published in application specific journals where they are often not seen by the wider sensor community. It is clear that there is enormous interest in magnetic resonance sensors which represents a significant growth area. The aim of this special edition of Sensors was to address the wide distribution of relevant articles by providing a forum to disseminate cutting edge research in this field in a single open source publication.[...

  1. Ghost magnetic resonance angiography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Edelman, Robert R

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) involve the radiofrequency excitation of vascular spins within a selected region of tissue, followed by gradient localization and imaging of those spins within that same region...

  2. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment for detecting brain injury in a prospective cohort of university amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M G; Housden, C R; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Young, A; Müller, U; Newcombe, V F J; Jalloh, I; Pearson, B; Cross, J; Trivedi, R A; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J; Hutchinson, P J

    2017-01-01

    The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up. A single MRI acquisition was made from control participants. Imaging analysis included cortical thickness measurements with Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTS) and FreeSurfer, voxel based morphometry (VBM), and Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was performed assessing attention, learning, memory and impulsivity. During the study period, one boxer developed seizures controlled with medication while another developed a chronic subdural hematoma requiring neurosurgical drainage. A total of 10 boxers contributed data at to the longitudinal assessment protocol. Reasons for withdrawal were: logistics (10), stopping boxing (7), withdrawal of consent (2), and development of a chronic subdural hematoma (1). No significant changes were detected using VBM, TBSS, cortical thickness measured with FreeSurfer or ANTS, either cross-sectionally at baseline, or longitudinally. Neuropsychological assessment of boxers found attention/concentration improved over time while planning and problem solving ability latency decreased after a bout but recovered after one year. While this neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment protocol could not detect any evidence of brain injury, one boxer developed seizures and another developed a chronic sub-dural haematoma.

  3. Brain magnetic resonance imaging pattern and outcome in children with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and neurological impairment treated with eculizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitiaux, Cyril; Krug, Pauline; Grevent, David; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Poncet, Sarah; Eisermann, Monika; Oualha, Mehdi; Boddaert, Nathalie; Salomon, Remi; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes in paediatric, diarrhoea-associated haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) with central nervous system impairment treated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody. The 14-month single-centre prospective study included seven children (three males, four females; age range 16 mo-7 y 8 mo; median age 3 y 7 mo) with typical D+HUS and acute neurological impairment. In the acute phase of the disease, neurological assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were performed, and neuropsychological evaluation and brain MRI were also carried out 6 months after disease onset. In the acute phase, basal ganglia and white matter abnormalities with ADC restriction were a common and reversible MRI finding. In all the surviving patients (5/7), follow-up MRI after 6 months was normal, indicating reversible lesions. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluations after 6 months were also normal. This specific brain MRI pattern consisting of an ADC decrease in basal ganglia and white matter without major T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) injury may be a key finding in the acute phase of the disease in favour of a vasculitis hypothesis. These reversible lesions were associated with a good neurological outcome. These results call for further evaluation of the potential role of eculizumab in the choice of treatment for severe D+HUS, particularly in the case of early neurological signs. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  4. The neuroanatomy of active hand movement in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Mukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the characteristics of the functional neuroanatomy of movements in severe traumatic brain injury (STBI patients with varying severity of motor defect versus that in healthy individuals for the study of brain neuroplasticity as a basis of compensation.Patients and methods. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 3T was used to analyze cerebral hemodynamic changes in 28 patients with STBI during an active right-hand finger tapping task. A control group consisted of 17 healthy individuals. The percentage of representation of individual brain structures involved in movements and volume activation (Vox was determined in fMRI responses.Results. The patient group showed a tendency for an increased fMRI response diffusion with the emergence of activation zones (the left frontal and parietal regions, as well as the occiptal and temporal regions of the cerebral hemispheres that are atypical for healthy individuals during motor exercises. This trend is more evident in patients with right-sided hemiparesis.Conclusion. The results of the study clarify the existing ideas about the neurophysiological mechanisms of motor impairment and compensation in traumatic brain injury, which is important for the development and improvement of neurorehabilitation techniques. There is evidence for the hypothesis that the extrapyramidal system may be actively involved in the compensation for post-traumatic musculoskeletal defect, which was earlier proposed by E.V. Sharova et al. (2014.

  5. Reading in the brain of children and adults: A meta‐analysis of 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anna; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used quantitative, coordinate‐based meta‐analysis to objectively synthesize age‐related commonalities and differences in brain activation patterns reported in 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reading in children and adults. Twenty fMRI studies with adults (age means: 23–34 years) were matched to 20 studies with children (age means: 7–12 years). The separate meta‐analyses of these two sets showed a pattern of reading‐related brain activation common to children and adults in left ventral occipito‐temporal (OT), inferior frontal, and posterior parietal regions. The direct statistical comparison between the two meta‐analytic maps of children and adults revealed higher convergence in studies with children in left superior temporal and bilateral supplementary motor regions. In contrast, higher convergence in studies with adults was identified in bilateral posterior OT/cerebellar and left dorsal precentral regions. The results are discussed in relation to current neuroanatomical models of reading and tentative functional interpretations of reading‐related activation clusters in children and adults are provided. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1963–1981, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. PMID:25628041

  6. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging shows altered brain network topology in Type 2 diabetic patients without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Zhang, Xin; Xing, Yue; Wen, Dong; Cui, Guang-Bin; Han, Ying

    2017-11-28

    We analyzed topology of brain functional networks in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without mild cognitive impairment. We recruited T2DM patients without mild cognitive impairment (4 males and 8 females) and healthy control subjects (8 males and 16 females) to undergo cognitive testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Graph theoretical analysis of functional brain networks revealed abnormal small-world architecture in T2DM patients as compared to control subjects. The functional brain networks of T2DM patients showed increased path length, decreased global efficiency and disrupted long-distance connections. Moreover, reduced nodal characteristics were distributed in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, while increased nodal characteristics were distributed in the frontal, occipital lobes, and basal ganglia in the T2DM patients. The disrupted topological properties correlated with cognitive performance of T2DM patients. These findings demonstrate altered topological organization of functional brain networks in T2DM patients without mild cognitive impairment.

  7. Associations of Newborn Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Impairments in Very Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J; Treyvaud, Karli; Neil, Jeffrey J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Hunt, Rodney W; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    To determine the relationship between brain abnormalities on newborn magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental impairment at 7 years of age in very preterm children. A total of 223 very preterm infants (brain MRI scan at term equivalent age. Scans were scored using a standardized system that assessed structural abnormality of cerebral white matter, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Children were assessed at 7 years on measures of general intelligence, motor functioning, academic achievement, and behavior. One hundred eighty-six very preterm children (83%) had both an MRI at term equivalent age and a 7-year follow-up assessment. Higher global brain, cerebral white matter, and deep gray matter abnormality scores were related to poorer intelligence quotient (IQ) (Ps MRI abnormality scores and outcomes. Moderate-severe global abnormality on newborn MRI was associated with a reduction in IQ (-6.9 points), math computation (-7.1 points), and motor (-1.9 points) scores independent of the other potential confounders. Structured evaluation of brain MRI at term equivalent is predictive of outcome at 7 years of age, independent of clinical and social factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain activity during chewing and occlusion by natural teeth and occlusal splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordass, Bernd; Lucas, Christian; Huetzen, Daniel; Zimmermann, Christian; Gedrange, Tomas; Langner, Soenke; Domin, Martin; Hosten, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Brain imaging based on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) is a useful tool for examination of neuronal networks and cerebral structures subserving visiospatial function. The purpose of this study was to compare the brain activity during chewing and occlusal function in centric occlusion on natural teeth or on occlusal splints. Four tasks were performed by 13 healthy, fully dentate subjects (21-32 years old, 6 female and 7 male): occlusal tap-tap movements in centric occlusion by natural teeth, after application of a maxillary occlusal splint and chewing movements on left and right sided rubberdam strips. In order to reveal which areas of the brain were more strongly activated, conjunction analyses between the different tasks were performed for each subject and for the average values of brain signal activity of all subjects. Whilst several known foci of activity were subtracted, differences of significant activity rested in areas of the sensorimotor cortex. Mainly ipsitaterality of hemispheres concerned the left and right sided chewing, whereas the conjunction between tap-tap movements on natural teeth and splint occlusion indicated only one weak, but significant activation foci. The study confirms fMRT as one of the most useful developing methods to clear up neuro-cortical effectiveness of occlusion and occlusal therapy.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, RH; Newton, MI

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance finds countless applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, routinely in almost all research and medical institutions across the globe. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for a dedicated application. With beginnings in borehole logging for the petro-chemical industry Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as online process monitoring for food manufacture and medica...

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Susanta Das. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 34-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0034-0049. Keywords.

  11. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals an impaired brain metabolic profile in mice resistant to cerebral malaria infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Kober, Frank; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Dalmasso, Christiane; Coltel, Nicolas; Liprandi, Agnès; Gulian, Jean-Marc; Grau, Georges E; Cozzone, Patrick J; Viola, Angèle

    2007-05-11

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with an annual death toll exceeding one million. Severe malaria is a complex multisystem disorder, including one or more of the following complications: cerebral malaria, anemia, acidosis, jaundice, respiratory distress, renal insufficiency, coagulation anomalies, and hyperparasitemia. Using a combined in vivo/in vitro metabolic-based approach, we investigated the putative pathogenic effects of Plasmodium berghei ANKA on brain, in a mouse strain developing malaria but resistant to cerebral malaria. The purpose was to determine whether the infection could cause a brain dysfunction distinct from the classic cerebral syndrome. Mice resistant to cerebral malaria were infected with P. berghei ANKA and explored during both the symptomless and the severe stage of the disease by using in vivo brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. The infected mice did not present the lesional and metabolic hallmarks of cerebral malaria. However, brain dysfunction caused by anemia, parasite burden, and hepatic damage was evidenced. We report an increase in cerebral blood flow, a process allowing temporary maintenance of oxygen supply to brain despite anemia. Besides, we document metabolic anomalies affecting choline-derived compounds, myo-inositol, glutamine, glycine, and alanine. The choline decrease appears related to parasite proliferation. Glutamine, myo-inositol, glycine, and alanine variations together indicate a hepatic encephalopathy, a finding in agreement with the liver damage detected in mice, which is also a feature of the human disease. These results reveal the vulnerability of brain to malaria infection at the severe stage of the disease even in the absence of cerebral malaria.

  12. Brain white matter lesions detected by magnetic resonance [correction of resosnance] imaging are associated with balance and gait speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J M; Leaper, S A; Murray, A D; Lemmon, H A; Staff, R T; Deary, I J; Whalley, L J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relations between premorbid and current mental ability, mood, and white matter signal abnormalities detected by T2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and impairment of balance and mobility in older adults. 97 subjects from the Aberdeen 1921 birth cohort underwent brain MRI, evaluation of balance, and measurement of gait speed. White matter hyperintensities detected on T2 weighted MRI scans were rated by three independent raters on three variables: white matter lesions; periventricular lesions; and brain stem lesions. Decreased gait speed was correlated with impaired visual acuity (p = 0.020), shorter stature (p = 0.008), a lower childhood IQ (p = 0.030), a lower current Raven's progressive matrices score (Raven score) (p balance was correlated with Raven score (p = 0.042), brain stem lesions (p = 0.003), white matter lesions (p = 0.003), and periventricular lesions (p = 0.038). Binary logistic regression identified brain stem lesions (odds ratio (OR) 0.22; 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.54) and HADS depression score (OR 0.75; 0.58 to 0.97) as the only significant associations with balance. Structural equation modelling detected an association between two latent traits representing white matter disease and an integrating function, respectively. In this cohort, white matter lesions, periventricular lesions, and brain stem lesions were associated with impaired balance. Current mental ability was strongly related to gait speed. There appears to be a concordance between motor skills and intellect in old age, which is degraded by white matter disease.

  13. single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy in distinguishing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-03

    Mar 3, 2011 ... magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRI, MRS) in differentiating focal neoplastic lesions from focal non- neoplastic (infective or degenerative) brain lesions. Design: Descriptive, analytical - prospective study. Setting: The Aga Khan University MRI department. Subject: Seventy four consecutive patients.

  14. High Field In Vivo 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Li, Shizhe; Shen, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo 13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo 13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH=125-145 Hz). Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ); the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo 13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields (Drug Administration (FDA). Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo 13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T), where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal spectral resolution are more favorable than lower fields.

  15. Novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging of epileptic dogs - T2 relaxometry of the brain with emphasised hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Borbála A; Anson, Agustina; Csébi, Péter; Bajzik, Gábor; Biró, Gergely; Tichy, Alexander; Lorincz, Balázs B; Garamvölgyi, Rita

    2017-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common imaging finding of intractable human epilepsy, and it may play an important role in canine and feline epileptogenesis and seizure semiology, too. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of hippocampal sclerosis are T2 hyperintensity, shrinkage and loss of internal structure. The detection of these changes is often challenging by subjective visual assessment of qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images. The recognition is more reliable with quantitative MR methods, such as T2 relaxometry. In the present prospective study including 31 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and 15 control dogs showing no seizure activity, we compared the T2 relaxation times of different brain areas. Furthermore, we studied correlations between the hippocampal T2 values and age, gender and skull formation. We found higher hippocampal T2 values in the epileptic group than in the control; however, these findings were not statistically significant. No correlations were found with age, gender or skull formation. In the individual analysis six epileptic dogs presented higher hippocampal T2 relaxation times than the cut-off value. Two of these dogs were also evaluated as abnormal in the visual assessment. Individual analysis of hippocampal T2 relaxation times may be a helpful method to understand hippocampal involvement in canine epilepsy.

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio ...

  19. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, David G.; Jackson, Alan [Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Mason, Damon L.; Berry, Elizabeth [Department of Behavioural Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Hollis, Sally [Medical Statistics Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Yates, David W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were seen on MRI, of which 5 were definitely traumatic. There was weak correlation with abnormal neuropsychological tests for attention in the acute period. There was no significant correlation with a questionnaire for PCS and return to work status. Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery. (orig.)

  20. Development of fetal brain sulci and gyri: assessment through two and three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Araujo, Edward; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; de Oliveira, Patrícia Soares; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2011-02-01

    Cerebral malformations may lead to permanent postnatal sequels. The antenatal detection of anomalous or absent fetal sulci and gyri may indicate abnormal brain development and future neurological and psychomotor problems in that infant. The prenatal diagnosis of these conditions allows genetic counseling, psychological support of the parents and optimization of obstetric management. Diagnosis is usually based on two-dimensional obstetric ultrasound (2DUS) and eventually fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to confirm findings. Fetal three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) using the rendering mode has been recently introduced but has not yet been extensively tested in clinical practice. This study reviewed and compared three imaging modalities, 2DUS, 3DUS, and MRI, in the analysis of the development of the main sulci and gyri of central nervous system of normal fetuses between 20 and 32 weeks' gestation.

  1. Human brain activation in response to visual stimulation with rural and urban scenery pictures: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Baek, Han-Su; Kim, Gwang-Won; Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Kang, Heoung-Keun; Lee, Seung-Won; Kim, Hyung-Joong; Song, Jin-Kyu

    2010-05-15

    Human brain activation was assessed in terms of eco-friendliness while viewing still photographs depicting rural and urban surrounding environments with the use of a functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. A total of 30 subjects who had both rural and urban life experiences participated in this study. In order to explore the common and differential activation maps yielded by viewing two extreme types of scenery, random effect group analysis was performed with the use of one-sample and two-sample t-tests. Activation of the anterior cingulate gyrus, globus pallidus, putamen and head of the caudate nucleus was dominant during rural scenery viewing, whereas activation of the hippocampus, parahippocamus and amygdala was dominant during urban scenery viewing (pareas. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal neurochemical modifications in the aging mouse brain measured in vivo by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João M N; Do, Kim Q; Gruetter, Rolf

    2014-07-01

    Alterations to brain homeostasis during development are reflected in the neurochemical profile determined noninvasively by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined longitudinal biochemical modifications in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of C57BL/6 mice aged between 3 and 24 months . The regional neurochemical profile evolution indicated that aging induces general modifications of neurotransmission processes (reduced GABA and glutamate), primary energy metabolism (altered glucose, alanine, and lactate) and turnover of lipid membranes (modification of choline-containing compounds and phosphorylethanolamine), which are all probably involved in the frequently observed age-related cognitive decline. Interestingly, the neurochemical profile was different in male and female mice, particularly in the levels of taurine that may be under the control of estrogen receptors. These neurochemical profiles constitute the basal concentrations in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of healthy aging male and female mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ 3D magnetic resonance metabolic imaging of microwave-irradiated rodent brain: a new tool for metabolomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Robin A; Chowdhury, Golam M I; Brown, Peter B; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2009-04-01

    The rapid elevation in rat brain temperature achieveable with focused beam microwave irradiation (FBMI) leads to a permanent inactivation of enzymes, thereby minimizing enzyme-dependent post-mortem metabolic changes. An additional characteristic of FBMI is that the NMR properties of the tissue are close to those of the in vivo condition and remain so for at least 12 h. These features create an opportunity to develop magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging on microwave-irradiated samples into a technique with a resolution, coverage and sensitivity superior to any experiment performed directly in vivo. Furthermore, when combined with pre-FBMI infusion of (13)C-labeled substrates, like [1-(13)C]-glucose, the technique can generate maps of metabolic fluxes, like the tricarboxylic acid and glutamate-glutamine neurotransmitter cycle fluxes at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  4. The hidden-Markov brain: comparison and inference of white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Salvetti, Federica; Wang, Bing; Diani, Marco; Heindel, Walter; Knecht, Stefan; Wersching, Heike; Baune, Bernhard T.; Berger, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Rating and quantification of cerebral white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important tasks in various clinical and scientific settings. As manual evaluation is time consuming and imprecise, much effort has been made to automate the quantification of white matter hyperintensities. There is rarely any report that attempts to study the similarity/dissimilarity of white matter hyperintensity patterns that have different sizes, shapes and spatial localizations on the MRI. This paper proposes an original computational neuroscience framework for such a conceptual study with a standpoint that the prior knowledge about white matter hyperintensities can be accumulated and utilized to enable a reliable inference of the rating of a new white matter hyperintensity observation. This computational approach for rating inference of white matter hyperintensities, which appears to be the first study, can be utilized as a computerized rating-assisting tool and can be very economical for diagnostic evaluation of brain tissue lesions.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of ischemic brain infarction according to time passage in a canine stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Noh, Daji; Kim, Youngwhan; Jeong, Inseong; Choi, Hojung; Lee, Youngwon; Lee, Kija

    2017-07-10

    This study describes magnetic resonance imaging findings and changes in lateral ventricular size according to time passage of canine ischemic stroke model. T1- and T2-weighted (T1W, T2W) imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence were performed at 3 h and 3, 8, and 35 days after brain infarct induction. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping were obtained at 8 and 35 days. A total of 29 brain lesions were induced successfully in 12 of 14 beagle dogs. At 3 h, T2W and FLAIR detected hyperintense lesions (3/3) in three randomly selected dogs. On T1W, lesions appeared hypo- to isointense at 3 h, iso- (18/29) or hypointense (11/29) at 3 days, hypo- to isointense with peripheral hyperintensity (24/26) at 8 days, and hypointense (18/26) at 35 days. Infarcts on DWI/ADC were hypo- to isointense centrally, with the periphery hyperintense/hyperintense (11/26) at 8 days and hypointense/hyperintense (19/26) at 35 days. A markedly increased lateral ventricular size was observed in dogs with cerebral infarcts. In conclusion, T2W and FLAIR were useful for detecting early stage (3 h to 3 days) brain infarction. T1W and DWI were useful for detecting neuronal necrosis and providing supplemental information for phase evaluation.

  6. Comparison of Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in Differentiating Recurrent Brain Neoplasm From Radiation Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masch, William R; Wang, Page I; Chenevert, Thomas L; Junck, Larry; Tsien, Christina; Heth, Jason A; Sundgren, Pia C

    2016-05-01

    To compare differences in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging characteristics of recurrent neoplasm and radiation necrosis in patients with brain tumors previously treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery and chemotherapy. Patients with a history of brain neoplasm previously treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and surgery who developed a new enhancing lesion on posttreatment surveillance MRI were enrolled. DSC perfusion MRI and DTI were performed. Region of interest cursors were manually drawn in the contrast-enhancing lesions, in the perilesional white matter edema, and in the contralateral normal-appearing frontal lobe white matter. DTI and DSC perfusion MR indices were compared in recurrent tumor versus radiation necrosis. Twenty-two patients with 24 lesions were included. Sixteen (67%) lesions were placed into the recurrent neoplasm group and eight (33%) lesions were placed into the radiation necrosis group using biopsy results as the gold standard in all but three patients. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient values, mean parallel eigenvalues, and mean perpendicular eigenvalues in the contrast-enhancing lesion were significantly lower, and relative cerebral blood volume was significantly higher for the recurrent neoplasm group compared to the radiation necrosis group (P neoplasm from radiation necrosis in patients with a history of brain neoplasm previously treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Efficacy of gadobenate dimeglumine vs gadopentetate dimeglumine in contrast- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of solitary brain metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-jun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Xian; Xiao, Hui; Ma, Lin

    2011-12-01

    To compare gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) for their efficacy as contrast agents in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosis of solitary brain metastases (SBM). We conducted an intra-individual study of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (T(1)WI) data from 27 Chinese patients with suspected SBM to compare the enhancement findings of two different MRI contrast agents, Gd-BOPTA and Gd-DTPA (at equivalent doses of 0.1 mmol/kg), for the detection of SBM. All the patients underwent two identical MRI examinations on a 3.0-T MRI scanner first with Gd-DTPA and then with Gd-BOPTA. Evaluation of the contrast enhancement was performed qualitatively (border delineation, extent, internal morphology, and contrast enhancement) and quantitatively (lesion-to-brain ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and percent enhancement) by 3 independent, fully blinded, and highly experienced neuroradiologists. Qualitative assessment by readers revealed a significant overall preference (P<0.05) for Gd-BOPTA over Gd-DOTA in terms of lesion border delineation, extent, lesion internal morphology, and contrast enhancement. Quantitative assessment also revealed a significant better performance of Gd-BOPTA in light of lesion-to-brain ratio (P<0.05), contrast-to-noise ratio (P<0.05), and percent enhancement (P<0.05). At an equivalent dose, Gd-BOPTA allows better contrast enhancement of SBM than Gd-DTPA in MRI.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  9. Metabolic Alterations of the Zebrafish Brain after Acute Alcohol Treatment by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with acute alcohol treatment in zebrafish by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS. The brain metabolism of zebrafish was investigated after acute alcohol treatment (one-hour long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol with whole brain extraction. The results of this study showed that glutamate (Glu was significantly decreased, scyllo-inositol (sIns showed a small apparent increase only in the highest acute treatment dose group, and myoinositol (mIns showed a significant decrease. [Glu]/[tCr] and [mIns]/[tCr] levels were significantly reduced regardless of the alcohol dose, and [sIns]/[tCr] was increased in the highest alcohol treatment dose group. The present NMR study revealed that specific metabolites, such as Glu and mIns, were substantially decreased in case of acute alcohol exposed zebrafish brain.

  10. Central pontine myelinolysis in a chronic alcoholic: A clinical and brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujmović Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM is a noninflammatory, demyelinating lesion usually localised in the basis pontis. Chronic alcoholism is frequently associated with this condition which may have a variable clinical outcome. Until now, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI follow-up in alcoholic CPM cases after alcohol withdrawal has been rarely described. Case report. We reported a 30- year-old male with a 12-year history of alcohol abuse, who presented with inability to stand and walk, nausea, vomiting and somnolence. Neurological examination revealed: impared fixation on lateral gaze, dysarthria, mild spastic quadriparesis, truncal and extremity ataxia, sock-like hypesthesia and moderate decrease in vibration sense in legs. Brain MRI showed a trident-shaped non-enhancing pontine lesion highly suggestive of CPM. After an eight-month alcoholfree follow-up period, the patient’s clinical status significantly improved, while the extent of MRI pontine lesion was merely slightly reduced. Conclusion. The presented case demonstrates that CPM in chronic alcoholics may have a benign clinical course after alcohol withdrawal, which is not necessarily associated with the reduction of lesions on brain MRI. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175031

  11. Altered Functional Connectivity within and between Brain Modules in Absence Epilepsy: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Ping Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity has been correlated with a patient’s level of consciousness and has been found to be altered in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Absence epilepsy patients, who experience a loss of consciousness, are assumed to suffer from alterations in thalamocortical networks; however, previous studies have not explored the changes at a functional module level. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the alteration in functional connectivity that occurs in absence epilepsy patients. By parcellating the brain into 90 brain regions/nodes, we uncovered an altered functional connectivity within and between functional modules. Some brain regions had a greater number of altered connections and therefore behaved as key nodes in the changed network pattern; these regions included the superior frontal gyrus, the amygdala, and the putamen. In particular, the superior frontal gyrus demonstrated both an increased value of connections with other nodes of the frontal default mode network and a decreased value of connections with the limbic system. This divergence is positively correlated with epilepsy duration. These findings provide a new perspective and shed light on how functional connectivity and the balance of within/between module connections may contribute to both the state of consciousness and the development of absence epilepsy.

  12. Translocator positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of brain glial cell activation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Gourab; Violante, Ines R; Scott, Gregory; Zimmerman, Karl; Santos-Ribeiro, Andre; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Gunn, Roger N; Malik, Omar; Ciccarelli, Olga; Nicholas, Richard; Matthews, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by a diffuse inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes. Brain translocator protein (TSPO) positron-emission tomography (PET) and [myo-inositol] magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used together to assess this. To explore the in vivo relationships between MRS and PET [11C]PBR28 in MS over a range of brain inflammatory burden. A total of 23 patients were studied. TSPO PET imaging with [11C]PBR28, single voxel MRS and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were undertaken. Disability was assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). [11C]PBR28 uptake and [ myo-inositol] were not associated. When the whole cohort was stratified by higher [11C]PBR28 inflammatory burden, [ myo-inositol] was positively correlated to [11C]PBR28 uptake (Spearman's ρ = 0.685, p = 0.014). Moderate correlations were found between [11C]PBR28 uptake and both MRS creatine normalised N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration and grey matter volume. MSFC was correlated with grey matter volume (ρ = 0.535, p = 0.009). There were no associations between other imaging or clinical measures. MRS [ myo-inositol] and PET [11C]PBR28 measure independent inflammatory processes which may be more commonly found together with more severe inflammatory disease. Microglial activation measured by [11C]PBR28 uptake was associated with loss of neuronal integrity and grey matter atrophy.

  13. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  14. Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez Del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to determine whether (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. (1)H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = -0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = -0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = -0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = -0.4850, p = .0066). The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators.

  15. Quantification of ethanol methyl (1)H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Graham S; O'Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D

    2010-03-01

    In vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl (1)H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol's intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol (1)H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T(2) within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to non-human primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in non-human primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ferumoxytol-Labeled Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Kyung; Kim, Hyeong Seop; Yoo, Dongkyeom; Hwang, Jung Won; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2017-02-01

    The success of stem cell therapy is highly dependent on accurate delivery of stem cells to the target site of interest. Possible ways to track the distribution of MSCs in vivo include the use of reporter genes or nanoparticles. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ferumoxytol (Feraheme® [USA], Rienso® [UK]) as a treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO) that has recently been used to track the fate of transplanted cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The major objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of labeling hUCB-MSCs with ferumoxytol and to observe, through MRI, the engraftment of ferumoxytol-labeled human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) delivered via stereotactic injection into the hippocampi of a transgenic mouse model of familial Alzheimer's disease (5XFAD). Ferumoxytol had no toxic effects on the viability or stemness of hUCB-MSCs when assessed in vitro. Through MRI, hypointense signals were discernible at the site where ferumoxytol-labeled human MSCs were injected. Iron-positive areas were also observed in the engrafted hippocampi. The results from this study support the use of nanoparticle labeling to monitor transplanted MSCs in real time as a follow-up for AD stem cell therapy in the clinical field.

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition in Pol III-related leukodystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Piana, Roberta; Tonduti, Davide; Gordish Dressman, Heather; Schmidt, Johanna L; Murnick, Jonathan; Brais, Bernard; Bernard, Genevieve; Vanderver, Adeline

    2014-02-01

    Pol III-related leukodystrophies are caused by mutations in POLR3A and POLR3B genes and all share peculiar imaging and clinical features. The objectives of this study are (1) to define the neuroradiologic pattern in a cohort of POLR3A and POLR3B subjects and (2) to compare the neuroradiologic pattern of Pol III-related leukodystrophies with other hypomyelinating disorders. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of 13 patients with POLR3A and POLR3B mutations and of 14 patients with other hypomyelinating disorders were analyzed. All the subjects with Pol III-related leukodystrophies presented hypomyelination associated with T2 hypointensity of the thalami and/or the pallida. Twelve subjects (92%) presented T2 hypointensity of the optic radiations. Cerebellar atrophy was observed in most patients (92%). The combination of the analyzed criteria identified patients with Pol III-related leukodystrophies with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 92.9%.

  18. Brain magnetic resonance imaging anomalies in U-2 pilots with neurological decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersey, Sean L; Jesinger, Robert A; Palka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This was a retrospective observational study of imaging used to evaluate and treat 13 U-2 pilots with neurological decompression sickness (DCS). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) provided data for screening, diagnosis, and determinations of fitness to fly after recovery. While small series and case reports described the role of imaging in diving DCS, none addressed radiology's role in aviation DCS. We performed a literature review of altitude DCS radiology studies. We then reviewed radiology images at our institution on U-2 pilots with neurological DCS between January 2002 and August 2010. We retrospectively analyzed MRI data for white matter hyper-intensities (WMHs), defined as hyperintense lesions > or = 3 mm on T2 and FLAIR. All studies occurred after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment. There were 17 pilots who reported 20 neurological DCS incidents. Of these 17 pilots, 13 underwent imaging. Two (15%) demonstrated acute subcortical lesions on MRI, seven (54%) had asymptomatic WMHs, and six (46%) were normal. The clinical significance of the lesions is unknown. Consistent with diving DCS, imaging played no role in acute diagnosis. However, imaging was vital for determining fitness for return to flying. Additionally, CT identified a potentially predisposing sinus condition in one pilot which may enable return to flying after treatment. Modern imaging has unique findings for altitude DCS patients. The high incidence of WMHs in this series is a matter of ongoing research to determine potential clinical consequences. Emerging techniques such as functional MRI may play important roles in future aeromedical decisions.

  19. A Hybrid DE-RGSO-ELM for Brain Tumor Tissue Categorization in 3D Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kothavari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnostics, a technique used for visualizing the internal structures and functions of human body, serves as a scientific tool to assist physicians and involves direct use of digital imaging system analysis. In this scenario, identification of brain tumors is complex in the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique is noted to best assist tissue contrast for anatomical details and also carries out mechanisms for investigating the brain by functional imaging in tumor predictions. Considering 3D MRI model, analyzing the anatomy features and tissue characteristics of brain tumor is complex in nature. Henceforth, in this work, feature extraction is carried out by computing 3D gray-level cooccurence matrix (3D GLCM and run-length matrix (RLM and feature subselection for dimensionality reduction is performed with basic differential evolution (DE algorithm. Classification is performed using proposed extreme learning machine (ELM, with refined group search optimizer (RGSO technique, to select the best parameters for better simplification and training of the classifier for brain tissue and tumor characterization as white matter (WM, gray matter (GM, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and tumor. Extreme learning machine outperforms the standard binary linear SVM and BPN for medical image classifier and proves better in classifying healthy and tumor tissues. The comparison between the algorithms proves that the mean and standard deviation produced by volumetric feature extraction analysis are higher than the other approaches. The proposed work is designed for pathological brain tumor classification and for 3D MRI tumor image segmentation. The proposed approaches are applied for real time datasets and benchmark datasets taken from dataset repositories.

  20. Quantitative T2* magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of iron deposition in the brain of β-thalassemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghpoor, S; Ghahari, A; Morteza, A; Khalilzadeh, O; Shakourirad, A; Alinaghizadeh, M R

    2012-09-01

    Iron overload is a common clinical problem in patients with β-thalassemia major. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of excess iron in certain areas of the brain (thalamus, midbrain, adenohypophysis and basal ganglia) in patients with β-thalassemia major and evaluate the association with serum ferritin and liver iron content. A cross-sectional study on 53 patients with β-thalassemia major and 40 healthy controls was carried out. All patients and healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain and liver. Multiecho fast gradient echo sequence was used and T2* values were calculated based on the Brompton protocol. Correlations between T2* values in the brain with T2* values in the liver as well as serum ferritin levels were investigated. There were no significant differences between patients and healthy controls with respect to age and sex. Patients had significantly lower T2* values in basal ganglia (striatum), thalamus and adenohypophysis compared to controls while there were no differences in the midbrain (red nucleus). There were no significant correlations between liver T2* values or serum ferritin with T2* values of basal ganglia (striatum), thalamus and adenohypophysis in patients or healthy controls. There were no significant correlations between T2* values of adenohypophysis and thalamus or basal ganglia (striatum) while these variables were significantly correlated in healthy controls. Serum ferritin and liver iron content may not be good indicators of brain iron deposition in patients with β thalassemia major. Nevertheless, the quantitative T2* MRI technique is useful for evaluation of brain iron overload in β thalassemia major patients.

  1. Detecting brain structural changes as biomarker from magnetic resonance images using a local feature based SVM approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Storrs, Judd; Tan, Lirong; Mazlack, Lawrence J; Lee, Jing-Huei; Lu, Long J

    2014-01-15

    Detecting brain structural changes from magnetic resonance (MR) images can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Many existing methods require an accurate deformation registration, which is difficult to achieve and therefore prevents them from obtaining high accuracy. We develop a novel local feature based support vector machine (SVM) approach to detect brain structural changes as potential biomarkers. This approach does not require deformation registration and thus is less influenced by artifacts such as image distortion. We represent the anatomical structures based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT). Likelihood scores calculated using feature-based morphometry is used as the criterion to categorize image features into three classes (healthy, patient and noise). Regional SVMs are trained to classify the three types of image features in different brain regions. Only healthy and patient features are used to predict the disease status of new brain images. An ensemble classifier is built from the regional SVMs to obtain better prediction accuracy. We apply this approach to 3D MR images of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and bipolar disorder. The classification accuracy ranges between 70% and 87%. The highly predictive disease-related regions, which represent significant anatomical differences between the healthy and diseased, are shown in heat maps. The common and disease-specific brain regions are identified by comparing the highly predictive regions in each disease. All of the top-ranked regions are supported by literature. Thus, this approach will be a promising tool for assisting automatic diagnosis and advancing mechanism studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam as premedication for brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: A prospective randomized double blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ayushi Gupta,; Naina Parag Dalvi; Bharati Anil Tendolkar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Preprocedural preparation of children scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is challenging. This prospective, randomized trial compared intranasal midazolam with intranasal dexmedetomidine as premedication for children scheduled for brain MRI. Material and Methods: In total, 60 children, aged 1?8 years, scheduled for elective brain MRI, were randomly assigned to the intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 ?g/kg; Group D) or intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg; Group M) group. ...

  3. Assessing Metabolism and Injury in Acute Human Traumatic Brain Injury with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Current and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Stovell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes. These include abnormalities in brain energy metabolism; consequent to reduced tissue pO2 arising from ischemia or abnormal tissue oxygen diffusion, or due to a failure of mitochondrial function. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS allows non-invasive interrogation of brain tissue metabolism in patients with acute brain injury. Nuclei with “spin,” e.g., 1H, 31P, and 13C, are detectable using MRS and are found in metabolites at various stages of energy metabolism, possessing unique signatures due to their chemical shift or spin–spin interactions (J-coupling. The most commonly used clinical MRS technique, 1H MRS, uses the great abundance of hydrogen atoms within molecules in brain tissue. Spectra acquired with longer echo-times include N-acetylaspartate (NAA, creatine, and choline. NAA, a marker of neuronal mitochondrial activity related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, is reported to be lower in patients with TBI than healthy controls, and the ratio of NAA/creatine at early time points may correlate with clinical outcome. 1H MRS acquired with shorter echo times produces a more complex spectrum, allowing detection of a wider range of metabolites.31 P MRS detects high-energy phosphate species, which are the end products of cellular respiration: ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr. ATP is the principal form of chemical energy in living organisms, and PCr is regarded as a readily mobilized reserve for its replenishment during periods of high utilization. The ratios of high-energy phosphates are thought to represent a balance between energy generation, reserve and use in the brain. In addition, the chemical shift difference between inorganic phosphate and PCr enables calculation of intracellular pH.13 C MRS detects the 13C isotope of carbon in brain metabolites. As the natural abundance of 13C is low (1.1%, 13C MRS is typically performed following

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Malaria Patients Reveals Distinct Pathogenetic Processes in Different Parts of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjib; Benjamin, Laura A; Majhi, Megharay; Panda, Premanand; Kampondeni, Sam; Sahu, Praveen K; Mohanty, Akshaya; Mahanta, Kishore C; Pattnaik, Rajyabardhan; Mohanty, Rashmi R; Joshi, Sonia; Mohanty, Anita; Turnbull, Ian W; Dondorp, Arjen M; Taylor, Terrie E; Wassmer, Samuel C

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the rapidly reversible brain swelling described in patients with cerebral malaria (CM) are unknown. Using a 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we undertook an observational study in Rourkela, India, of 11 Indian patients hospitalized with CM and increased brain volume. Among the 11 cases, there were 5 adults and 6 children. All patients had reduced consciousness and various degrees of cortical swelling at baseline. The latter was predominately posterior in distribution. The findings on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were consistent with vasogenic edema in all cases. Reversibility after 48 to 72 h was observed in >90% of cases. DWI/ADC mismatch suggested the additional presence of cytotoxic edema in the basal nuclei of 5 patients; all of these had perfusion parameters consistent with vascular engorgement and not with ischemic infarcts. Our results suggest that an impairment of the blood-brain barrier is responsible for the brain swelling in CM. In 5 cases, vasogenic edema occurred in conjunction with changes in the basal nuclei consistent with venous congestion, likely to be caused by the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. While both mechanisms have been individually postulated to play an important role in the development of CM, this is the first demonstration of their concurrent involvement in different parts of the brain. The clinical and radiological characteristics observed in the majority of our patients are consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and we show for the first time a high frequency of PRES in the context of CM. IMPORTANCE The pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral malaria (CM) are still poorly understood. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrated that brain swelling is a common feature in CM and a major contributor to death in pediatric patients. Consequently, determining the

  5. Functional dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in an animal model of brain metastases: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Zheng

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis is a common disease with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to test feasibility and safety of the animal models for brain metastases and to use dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI to enhance detection of brain metastases.With approval from the institutional animal ethics committee, 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A received an intra-carotid infusion (ICI of mannitol followed by VX2 cells; group B received successive ICI of mannitol and heparin followed by VX2 cells; and group C received an ICI of normal saline. The survival rate and clinical symptoms were recorded after inoculation. After two weeks, conventional MRI and DCE-MRI were performed using 3.0 Tesla scanner. The number of tumors and detection rate were analyzed. After MRI measurements, the tumors were stained with hematoxylin-eosin.No rabbits died during the procedure. The rabbits had common symptoms, including loss of appetite, lassitude and lethargy, etc. at 10.8±1.8 days and 8.4±1.5 days post-inoculation in group A and B, respectively. Each animal in groups A and B re-gained the lost weight within 14 days. Brain metastases could be detected by MRI at 14 days post-inoculation in both groups A and B, with metastases manifesting as nodules in the brain parenchyma and thickening in the meninges. DCE-MRI increased the total detection of tumors compared to non-contrast MRI (P<0.05. The detection rates of T1-weighted image, T2-weighted image and DCE-MRI were 12%, 32% and 100%, respectively (P<0.05. Necropsy revealed nodules or thickening meninges in the gross samples and VX2 tumor cytomorphologic features in the slides, which were consistent with the MRI results.The VX2 rabbit model of brain metastases is feasible, as verified by MRI and pathologic findings, and may be a suitable platform for future studies of brain metastases. Functional DCE-MRI can be used to evaluate brain metastases in a

  6. Brain metabolites in definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A longitudinal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrath, Alexander; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2007-08-01

    Biomarkers beyond clinical assessment are needed in patients who suffer from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) of the gray matter of the motor cortex and the white matter including the pyramidal tracts was used to investigate concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol, glutamate, and glutamine in patients with definite ALS in a longitudinal design (three measurements at study inclusion, after 3 and 6 months). A volume-corrected analysis of gray and white matter fractions within the volumes of interest (VOI) was performed for the identification of the absolute metabolite concentrations. The patient group showed a significant decline of the compound NAA over time in the motor cortex areas both of the clinically more and less affected hemisphere between first measurement and month 6 and for the less affected side additionally between first measurement and month 3. For the NAA/(Cr + Cho) ratio, significant decline in the less affected hemisphere was observed from the first measurement to month 3 and to month 6 as well as from month 3 to month 6. In contrast, neither NAA nor the NAA/(Cr + Cho) ratios in the white matter areas showed any significant alterations. All other compounds showed no significant changes over time. In summary, the longitudinal changes of cortical metabolite concentrations in the course of ALS could be assessed by optimized (1)H MRS techniques at group level, so that (1)H MRS parameters, in particular volume-corrected values of NAA in the clinically less affected hemisphere, seem to have the potential to serve as a surrogate marker for monitoring ALS disease progression.

  7. Localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain after perinatal hypoxia: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)]|[Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Quesson, B.; Thiaudiere, E.; Delalande, C.; Canioni, P. [Resonance Magnetique des Systemes Biologiques, CNRS, Bordeaux (France); Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Sarlangue, J.; Billeaud, C. [Service de Neonatalogie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-03-01

    Objectives. Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic injury is a significant cause of neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) after birth asphyxia. Materials and methods. Thirty newborn infants suspected of having perinatal asphyxia (Apgar score < 3) were studied. The mean gestational age was 37 weeks, mean age at the MR examination was 18 days and mean weight was 2.9 kg. A 1.5-T unit was used for imaging and spectroscopy. None of the babies had mechanically assisted ventilation. No sedation was used. Axial T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. {sup 1}H-MRS was recorded in a single voxel, localised in white matter, using a STEAM sequence. Results. Image quality was good in 25 of 30 babies. {sup 1}H-MRS was performed in 19 of 30 subjects, with adequate quality in 16. Choline, creatine/phosphocreatine and N-acetylaspartate peaks and peak-area ratios were analysed. Lactate was detected in four infants. The N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was lower in infants with an impaired neurological outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. This study suggests that {sup 1}H-MRS may be useful for assessing cerebral metabolism in the neonate. A raised lactate level and decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio may be predictive of a poor outcome. However, in our experience this method is limited by the difficulty in performing the examination during the first hours after birth in critically ill babies, the problems related to use of a monovoxel sequence, the dispersion of the ratios and the lack of determination of the absolute concentration of the metabolites. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  8. In Vivo Detection of Brain Krebs Cycle Intermediate by Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishkovsky, Mor; Comment, Arnaud; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo...

  9. Radial contrast enhancement on brain magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic of primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Kartheek; Malik, Aisha Mohsin; Wood, James B; Levin, Michael C

    2014-01-27

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare disease of unclear etiology. There is no single test diagnostic of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. We report an unusual pattern on brain magnetic resonance imaging that might be specific for primary angiitis of the central nervous system. A 47-year-old Caucasian man developed progressive bilateral hand tremor, difficulty walking, cognitive slowing and headache. A physical examination showed bilateral hand tremor with dysmetria, hyperreflexia and abnormal gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed bilateral, symmetrical, increased intensity on T2-weighted images concurrent with linear contrast enhancement in a radial distribution throughout his white matter, sparing subcortical regions in his centrum semiovale, corona radiata, basal ganglia and brainstem. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated elevated choline and decreased N-acetyl aspartate. Except for elevated protein and lymphocytic pleocytosis, examination of his cerebrospinal fluid showed no abnormalities. Serological tests for rheumatologic, vasculitic, paraneoplastic, infectious and peroxisomal disorders were negative. A brain biopsy revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Our patient was treated with steroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide, with improvement in signs and symptoms as well as changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral, symmetrical, increased intensity on T2-weighted images concurrent with linear contrast enhancement in a radial distribution throughout the white matter on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be recognized as a feature of primary angiitis of the central nervous system, and might avoid the need for a brain biopsy to diagnose primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

  10. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Changlian [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Department of Physiology, Henan Traditional Medical University (China); Li, Qian; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongfu [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Kuhn, Hans-Georg [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Blomgren, Klas, E-mail: klas.blomgren@neuro.gu.se [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. {yields} Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. {yields} Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. {yields} Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. {yields} Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 {sup o}C. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  11. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging brain activation in bipolar mania: evidence for disruption of the ventrolateral prefrontal-amygdala emotional pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Eliassen, James C; Lamy, Martine; Cerullo, Michael A; Allendorfer, Jane B; Madore, Michelle; Lee, Jing-Huei; Welge, Jeffrey A; DelBello, Melissa P; Fleck, David E; Adler, Caleb M

    2011-02-15

    Bipolar I disorder is defined by the occurrence of mania. The presence of mania, coupled with a course of illness characterized by waxing and waning of affective symptoms, suggests that bipolar disorder arises from dysfunction of neural systems that maintain emotional arousal and homeostasis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study manic bipolar subjects as they performed a cognitive task designed to examine the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. We used fMRI to study regional brain activation in 40 DSM-IV manic bipolar I patients and 36 healthy subjects while they performed a continuous performance task with emotional and neutral distracters. Event-related region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the primary hypothesis. Voxelwise analyses were also completed. Compared with healthy subjects, the manic subjects exhibited blunted activation to emotional and neutral images, but not targets, across most of the predefined regions of interest. Several additional brain regions identified in the voxelwise analysis also exhibited similar differences between groups, including right parahippocampus, right lingual gyrus, and medial thalamus. In addition to these primary findings, the manic subjects also exhibited increased activation in response to targets in a number of brain regions that were primarily associated with managing affective stimuli. Group differences did not appear to be secondary to medication exposure or other confounds. Bipolar manic subjects exhibit blunted brain fMRI response to emotional cues throughout the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. Disruption of this emotional network may contribute to the mood dysregulation of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropri...

  14. Acute effects of alcohol on brain perfusion monitored with arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Michael; Gan, Gabriela; Schwarz, Daniel; Mennigen, Eva; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Guenther, Matthias; Smolka, Michael N

    2014-03-01

    While a number of studies have established that moderate doses of alcohol increase brain perfusion, the time course of such an increase as a function of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) has not yet been investigated, and studies differ about regional effects. Using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated (1) the time course of the perfusion increase during a 15-minute linear increase of BrAC up to 0.6 g/kg followed by a steady exposure of 100 minutes, (2) the regional distribution, (3) a potential gender effect, and (4) the temporal stability of perfusion effects. In 48 young adults who participated in the Dresden longitudinal study on alcohol effects in young adults, we observed (1) a 7% increase of global perfusion as compared with placebo and that perfusion and BrAC are tightly coupled in time, (2) that the increase reaches significance in most regions of the brain, (3) that the effect is stronger in women than in men, and (4) that an acute tolerance effect is not observable on the time scale of 2 hours. Larger studies are needed to investigate the origin and the consequences of the effect, as well as the correlates of inter-subject variations.

  15. Reading in the brain of children and adults: a meta-analysis of 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anna; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Richlan, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    We used quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis to objectively synthesize age-related commonalities and differences in brain activation patterns reported in 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reading in children and adults. Twenty fMRI studies with adults (age means: 23-34 years) were matched to 20 studies with children (age means: 7-12 years). The separate meta-analyses of these two sets showed a pattern of reading-related brain activation common to children and adults in left ventral occipito-temporal (OT), inferior frontal, and posterior parietal regions. The direct statistical comparison between the two meta-analytic maps of children and adults revealed higher convergence in studies with children in left superior temporal and bilateral supplementary motor regions. In contrast, higher convergence in studies with adults was identified in bilateral posterior OT/cerebellar and left dorsal precentral regions. The results are discussed in relation to current neuroanatomical models of reading and tentative functional interpretations of reading-related activation clusters in children and adults are provided. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Higher burnout scores in paediatric residents are associated with increased brain activity during attentional functional magnetic resonance imaging task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Anarella Penha Meirelles; Amaro, Edson; Farhat, Sylvia Costa Lima; Schvartsman, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Burnout syndrome is common in healthcare workers. We evaluated its prevalence in paediatric residents and investigated its influence on cerebral function correlations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when they carried out an attentional paradigm. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 28 residents from the Department of Paediatrics at the University of São Paulo. The functional MRI was carried out while the residents completed the Stroop colour word task paradigm to investigate their attentional task performance. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was applied, and stress was assessed using the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and by a visual analogue mood scale. The MBI subscales of depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion indicated that 53.1% of the residents had moderate or high burnout syndrome. The whole-brain multivariate analysis showed positive correlations between the blood oxygenation level dependent effect and the MBI depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion indices in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which controls for anxiety. Increased brain activation during an attention task, measured using functional MRI, was associated with higher burnout scores in paediatric residents. This study provides a biological basis for the implementation of measures to reduce burnout syndrome at the start of residency training programmes. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain Activity Associated With Pitch Adaptation During Phonation in Healthy Women Without Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtopava, Maryna; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Meerschman, Iris; D'Haeseleer, Evelien; De Moor, Michiel; Vandemaele, Pieter; Vingerhoets, Guy; Claeys, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain activity associated with pitch adaptation during phonation in healthy women without voice disorders. This is an interventional prospective study. Sixteen healthy women (mean age: 24.3 years) participated in a blocked design fMRI experiment involving two phonation (comfortable phonation and high-pitched phonation) and exhalation (prolonged exhalation) tasks. BrainVoyager QX Version 2.4 software was used for group-level general linear model analysis (q[FDR] pitch adaptation compared with rest period in the bilateral precentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus, insula and cerebellum, left middle and inferior frontal gyrus, right lingual gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and thalamus. Statistical results also identified a significant main effect of exhalation compared with rest period in the bilateral precentral gyrus, cerebellum, right lingual gyrus, thalamus, and left supramarginal gyrus. In addition, a significant main effect of phonation was found in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and right insula, as well as in the left midbrain periaqueductal gray for high-pitched phonation only. We demonstrated that a blocked design fMRI is sensitive enough to define a widespread network of activation associated with phonation involving pitch variation. The results of this study will be implemented in our future research on phonation and its disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic segmentation of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance images of the brain by using an outlier detection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Chao; Wang, Jie; Wei, Xiaoer; Li, Yuehua; Hui, Chun; Zhu, Yuemin; Zhang, Su

    2014-12-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are commonly observed on the magnetic resonance (MR) images of normal elderly in association with vascular risk factors, such as hypertension or stroke. An accurate WML detection provides significant information for disease tracking, therapy evaluation, and normal aging research. In this article, we present an unsupervised WML segmentation method that uses Gaussian mixture model to describe the intensity distribution of the normal brain tissues and detects the WMLs as outliers to the normal brain tissue model based on extreme value theory. The detection of WMLs is performed by comparing the probability distribution function of a one-sided normal distribution and a Gumbel distribution, which is a specific extreme value distribution. The performance of the automatic segmentation is validated on synthetic and clinical MR images with regard to different imaging sequences and lesion loads. Results indicate that the segmentation method has a favorable accuracy competitive with other state-of-the-art WML segmentation methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo characterization of brain morphometric and metabolic endophenotypes in three inbred strains of mice using magnetic resonance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Laigle, Christophe; Fur, Yann Le; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Heurteaux, Catherine; Cozzone, Patrick J; Viola, Angèle

    2006-09-01

    C57BL6J, FVB/N and 129/SvJ mice are commonly used as background strains to engineer genetic models of brain pathologies and psychiatric disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy provide alternative approaches to neuroanatomy, histology and neurohistochemistry for investigating the correlation between genes and brain neuroanatomy and neurometabolism in vivo. We used these techniques to non-invasively characterize the cerebral morphologic and metabolic endophenotypes of inbred mouse strains commonly used in neurological and behavioral research. We observed a great variability in the volume of ventricles and of structures involved in cognitive function (cerebellum and hippocampus) among these strains. In addition, distinct metabolic profiles were evidenced with variable levels of N-acetylaspartate, a neuronal marker, and of choline, a compound found in membranes and myelin. Besides, significant differences in high-energy phosphates and phospholipids were detected. Our findings demonstrate the great morphologic and metabolic heterogeneity among C57BL/ 6J, FVB/N and 129/SvJ mice. They emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate genetic background for over-expressing or silencing a gene and provide some directions for modeling symptoms that characterize psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and depression.

  20. Feasibility, safety, and potential demand of emergent brain magnetic resonance imaging of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Maki; Suzuki, Makoto; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2017-10-01

    The feasibility, safety, and potential demand of emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) in emergency situations are unknown. We retrospectively compared emergent and scheduled MRI orders for patients with CIEDs at Kameda General Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Japan, from October 2012 to September 2016. We identified 11 emergent MRI orders via the emergency room and 38 scheduled MRI orders. Although the baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, brain scanning was predominant in emergent scanning (p=0.002). The reasons for MRI and physicians who ordered it were also significantly different between the two groups (pMRI. The time from arrival at the emergency room to MRI was 144±29 min, and the time from the MRI order made by the cardiologist to its actual performance was 60±10 min. Four out of 9 patients had a diagnosis of acute stroke confirmed by emergent MRI, and two had emergent thrombolysis with a complete neurological recovery. All emergent scanning was conducted safely with no complications. Our study found the potential demand of brain MRI of patients with CIEDs in emergency situations compared with scheduled scanning, which was shown to be feasible and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of an acute stroke.

  1. In vivo detection of brain Krebs cycle intermediate by hyperpolarized magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkovsky, Mor; Comment, Arnaud; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo. This study reports the first direct in vivo observation of a TCA cycle intermediate in intact brain, namely, 2-oxoglutarate, a key biomolecule connecting metabolism to neuronal activity. Our observation reveals important information about in vivo biochemical processes hitherto considered undet...

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article summarizes the early history of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) during the first 25–30 years. The method- ology went through vigorous growth and development during this time, laying the theoretical basis for understanding a wide array of applications. The stage was set for the breath- taking advances the ...

  3. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management.......There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  4. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-03-01

    To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867).

  5. The clinical outcomes of deep gray matter injury in children with cerebral palsy in relation with brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Choi, Yoon Seong; Rha, Dong-Wook; Park, Eun Sook

    2016-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the nature and extent of clinical outcomes using various classifications and analyzed the relationship between brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the extent of clinical outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with deep gray matter injury. The deep gray matter injuries of 69 children were classified into hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and kernicterus patterns. HIE patterns were divided into four groups (I-IV) based on severity. Functional classification was investigated using the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised, manual ability classification system, communication function classification system, and tests of cognitive function, and other associated problems. The severity of HIE pattern on brain MRI was strongly correlated with the severity of clinical outcomes in these various domains. Children with a kernicterus pattern showed a wide range of clinical outcomes in these areas. Children with severe HIE are at high risk of intellectual disability (ID) or epilepsy and children with a kernicterus pattern are at risk of hearing impairment and/or ID. Grading severity of HIE pattern on brain MRI is useful for predicting overall outcomes. The clinical outcomes of children with a kernicterus pattern range widely from mild to severe. Delineation of the clinical outcomes of children with deep gray matter injury, which are a common abnormal brain MRI finding in children with CP, is necessary. The present study provides clinical outcomes for various domains in children with deep gray matter injury on brain MRI. The deep gray matter injuries were divided into two major groups; HIE and kernicterus patterns. Our study showed that severity of HIE pattern on brain MRI was strongly associated with the severity of impairments in gross motor function, manual ability, communication function, and cognition. These findings suggest that severity of HIE pattern can be useful for predicting the

  6. High Field In vivo13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Undersampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningzhi Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10–65 ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH = 125–145 Hz. Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ; the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields [<=4 Tesla (T] to keep the local and averaged specific absorption rate (SAR under the safety guidelines established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T, where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal

  7. On longevity and the aging process : a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the radiological phenotype of the human brain in familial longevity with regard to brain structure. This study was performed as part of the Leiden Longevity Study – a study population consisting of offspring of long-lived Dutch people who are genetically

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does it ... and MRI Breast-feeding and MRI What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, ...

  9. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  10. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, W Alan C; Mandell, Daniel M; Fisher, Joseph A; Mikulis, David J; Crawley, Adrian P; Pucci, Olivia; Duffin, James

    2012-01-01

    An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF) by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2) challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i) a square wave change in CO(2) and, ii) a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2) over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion) and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2). Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2), voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2) range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2) (coded blue) were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue) indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as well as global brain stress test.

  11. Survival prediction using temporal muscle thickness measurements on cranial magnetic resonance images in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Julia; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumor Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Berghoff, Anna S.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Preusser, Matthias [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumor Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Albtoush, Omar M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); University of Jordan, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amman (Jordan); Woitek, Ramona; Asenbaum, Ulrika [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, Georg; Gatterbauer, Brigitte [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumor Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, Karin [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumor Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiotherapy, Vienna (Austria); Birner, Peter [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumor Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Aretin, Bernadette [General Hospital Vienna, Pharmacy Department, Vienna (Austria); Bartsch, Rupert [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumor Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Graz, Institute of Psychology, Graz (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz (Austria)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the prognostic relevance of temporal muscle thickness (TMT) in brain metastasis patients. We retrospectively analysed TMT on magnetic resonance (MR) images at diagnosis of brain metastasis in two independent cohorts of 188 breast cancer (BC) and 247 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (overall: 435 patients). Survival analysis using a Cox regression model showed a reduced risk of death by 19% with every additional millimetre of baseline TMT in the BC cohort and by 24% in the NSCLC cohort. Multivariate analysis included TMT and diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA) as covariates in the BC cohort (TMT: HR 0.791/CI [0.703-0.889]/p < 0.001; DS-GPA: HR 1.433/CI [1.160-1.771]/p = 0.001), and TMT, gender and DS-GPA in the NSCLC cohort (TMT: HR 0.710/CI [0.646-0.780]/p < 0.001; gender: HR 0.516/CI [0.387-0.687]/p < 0.001; DS-GPA: HR 1.205/CI [1.018-1.426]/p = 0.030). TMT is easily and reproducibly assessable on routine MR images and is an independent predictor of survival in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastasis from BC and NSCLC. TMT may help to better define frail patient populations and thus facilitate patient selection for therapeutic measures or clinical trials. Further prospective studies are needed to correlate TMT with other clinical frailty parameters of patients. (orig.)

  12. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  13. The role of nonlinearity in computing graph-theoretical properties of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D.; Hlinka, J.; Paluš, M.; Mantini, D.; Corbetta, M.

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the study of large-scale brain activity interaction structure from the perspective of complex networks, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements. To assess the strength of interaction (functional connectivity, FC) between two brain regions, the linear (Pearson) correlation coefficient of the respective time series is most commonly used. Since a potential use of nonlinear FC measures has recently been discussed in this and other fields, the question arises whether particular nonlinear FC measures would be more informative for the graph analysis than linear ones. We present a comparison of network analysis results obtained from the brain connectivity graphs capturing either full (both linear and nonlinear) or only linear connectivity using 24 sessions of human resting-state fMRI. For each session, a matrix of full connectivity between 90 anatomical parcel time series is computed using mutual information. For comparison, connectivity matrices obtained for multivariate linear Gaussian surrogate data that preserve the correlations, but remove any nonlinearity are generated. Binarizing these matrices using multiple thresholds, we generate graphs corresponding to linear and full nonlinear interaction structures. The effect of neglecting nonlinearity is then assessed by comparing the values of a range of graph-theoretical measures evaluated for both types of graphs. Statistical comparisons suggest a potential effect of nonlinearity on the local measures—clustering coefficient and betweenness centrality. Nevertheless, subsequent quantitative comparison shows that the nonlinearity effect is practically negligible when compared to the intersubject variability of the graph measures. Further, on the group-average graph level, the nonlinearity effect is unnoticeable.

  14. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. Methodology/Principal Findings First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction) also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent) response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. Conclusions/Significance Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal cortex is likely to

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful ... of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Differentially Alters Gray and White Matter Ethanol 1H Methyl Magnetic Resonance Intensity in the Primate Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Christopher D.; Flory, Graham S.; Park, Byung; Shaw, Jessica; Rau, Andrew R.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has previously been used to directly monitor brain ethanol. It has been proposed that the ethanol methyl 1H resonance intensity is larger in ethanol-tolerant individuals than in sensitive individuals. To characterize the relationship between long-term ethanol exposure and the brain ethanol MRS intensity, we present data from a longitudinal experiment conducted using nonhuman primate subjects. Methods In vivo MRS was used to measure the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) ethanol methyl 1H MRS intensity in 18 adult male rhesus macaques at four time points throughout the course of a chronic drinking experiment. Time points were prior to ethanol drinking, following a 3-month ethanol induction procedure, and following six, and twelve subsequent months of 22-hours/day of “open access” to ethanol (4% w/v) and water. Results The ethanol methyl 1H MRS intensity, which we observed to be independent of age over the range examined, increased with chronic ethanol exposure in GM and WM. In GM, MRS intensity increased from naive-level following the ethanol induction period (90 g/kg cumulative ethanol intake). In WM, MRS intensity was not significantly different from the ethanol-naïve state until after 6 months of 22-hours free access (110–850 g/kg cumulative intake range). The WM MRS intensity in the ethanol-naive state was positively correlated with future drinking, and the increase in WM MRS intensity was negatively correlated with the amount of ethanol consumed throughout the experiment. Conclusions Chronic exposure to ethanol is associated with brain changes that result in differential increases in ethanol MRS intensity in GM and WM. The ethanol-naïve WM MRS intensity pattern is consistent with its previously proposed relationship to innate tolerance to the intoxicating effects of ethanol. Ethanol-dependent MRS intensity changes in GM required less ethanol exposure than was necessary to produce changes in WM

  1. Molecular Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Yvonne Y; Pfeifer, Andreas; Ebersberger, Hans U

    2016-01-01

    In the Western world and developing countries, the number one causes of mortality and morbidity result from cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases represent a wide range of pathologies, including myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease, which...... impact on society, there are still limitations in the early diagnosis and the prevention of the disease. Current imaging methods mainly focus on morphological changes that occur at an advanced disease stage, e.g., degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and specifically molecular...... cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging are capable to reveal pathophysiological changes already occurring during early atherosclerotic plaque formation. This allows for the assessment of cardiovascular disease on a level, which goes beyond morphological or anatomical criteria. In this review, we...

  2. Investigation of Resonance Effect Caused by Local Exposure of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Brain Signals: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul Zadeh Tabataba’ei K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Some studies have investigated the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs on brain signals, but only few of them have reported that humans exposed to magnetic fields exhibit changes in brain signals at the frequency of stimulation, i.e. resonance effect. In most investigations, researchers usually take advantage of a uniform field which encompasses the head. The aim of present study was to expose different parts of the brain to ELF-MFs locally and to investigate variation of brain signal and resonance effect.Methods: The subjects consisting of 19 male-students with the mean age of 25.6±1.6 years participated in this study. Local ELF-MFs with 3, 5, 10, 17 and 45Hz frequencies and 240 μT intensity was applied on five points (T3, T4, Cz, F3 and F4 of participants scalp Separately in 10-20 system. In the end, relative power over this points in common frequency bands and at the frequency of magnetic fields was evaluated by paired t-test.Results: Exposure of Central area by local magnetic field caused significant change (p<0.05 in the forehead alpha band. Reduction in the alpha band over central area was observed when temporal area was exposed to ELF MF.Conclusion: The results showed that resonance effect in the brain signals caused by local magnetic field exposure was not observed and change in every part of the relative power spectrum might occur. The changes in the EEG bands were not limited necessarily to the exposure point.

  3. Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain in Fabry Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Granqvist, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    risk of cerebrovascular disease at a young age in addition to heart and kidney failure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess brain function and structure in the Danish cohort of patients with Fabry disease in a prospective way using 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission...

  4. Evaluation of biexponential relaxation behaviour in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    brain at 1.5 tesla. Optimal experimental conditions were carefully observed, including the use of long TR values and a very small voxel size. T1 determination was based on a 12-points partial saturation inversion recovery pulse sequence. T2 determination involved a multiple spin echo sequence with 32...

  5. Brain Magnetic Resonance Immediately Prior To Surgery In Single Ventricles and Surgical Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S.; Harris, Matthew A.; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Single ventricle patients undergoing surgical reconstruction experience a high rate of brain injury; incidental findings on pre-operative brain scans may result in safety considerations involving hemorrhage extension during cardiopulmonary bypass that result in surgical postponement. Methods Single ventricle patients were studied with brain scans immediately preoperatively as part of a National Institute of Health study and were reviewed by neuroradiology immediately prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. Results One hundred and thirty four consecutive subjects recruited into the project were studied: 33 prior to stage I (3.7±1.8 days), 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (5.8±3.5 months) and 67 prior to Fontan (3.3±1.1 years). Six (4.5%) surgeries were postponed because of concerning imaging findings on brain MRI; 2 prior to stage I, 3 prior to bidirectional Glenn and 1 prior to Fontan. Five were due to unexpected incidental findings of acute intracranial hemorrhage and one due to diffuse cerebellar cytotoxic edema; none who proceeded to surgery had these lesions. Prematurity as well as genetic syndromes were not present in any with postponed surgery. Four of 4 prior to bidirectional Glenn/Fontan with surgical delays had hypoplastic left heart syndrome compared with 44/97 who did not (P=0.048). After observation and follow up, all eventually had successful surgeries with bypass. Conclusion Preoperative brain MRI performed in children with single ventricles disclosed injuries in 4.5% leading to surgical delay; hemorrhagic lesions were most common and raised concerns for extension during surgery. The true risk of progression and need for delay of surgery due to heparinization associated with these lesions remains uncertain. PMID:25149046

  6. Acupuncture using laser needles modulates brain function: first evidence from functional transcranial Doppler sonography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litscher, G; Rachbauer, D; Ropele, S; Wang, L; Schikora, D; Fazekas, F; Ebner, F

    2004-01-01

    Acupuncture using laser needles is a new totally painless stimulation method which has been described for the first time. This paper presents an experimental double-blind study in acupuncture research in healthy volunteers using a new optical stimulation method. We investigated 18 healthy volunteers (mean age +/- SD: 25.4 +/- 4.3 years; range: 21-30 years; 11 female, 7 male) in a randomized controlled cross-over trial using functional multidirectional transcranial ultrasound Doppler sonography (fTCD; n = 17) and performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in one volunteer. Stimulation of vision-related acupoints resulted in an increase of mean blood flow velocity in the posterior cerebral artery measured by fTCD [before stimulation (mean +/- SE): 42.2 +/- 2.5; during stimulation: 44.2 +/- 2.6; after stimulation: 42.3 +/- 2.4 cm/s, n.s.]. Mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery decreased insignificantly. Significant changes (p < 0.05) of brain activity were demonstrated in the occipital and frontal gyrus by fMRI. Optical stimulation using properly adjusted laser needles has the advantage that the stimulation cannot be felt by the patient (painless and no tactile stimulation) and the operator may also be unaware of whether the stimulation system is active. Therefore true double-blind studies in acupuncture research can be performed.

  7. Intraindividual comparison between gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol for magnetic resonance perfusion in normal brain and intracranial tumors at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, Frederik L; Mehndiratta, Amit; Risse, Frank; Rius, Maria; Zechmann, Christian M; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Gerigk, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Politi, Maria; Essig, Marco; Griffiths, Paul D; Wilkinson, Iain D

    2009-06-01

    In vitro studies have shown that the 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of high- and standard-molar gadolinium-based contrast agents differ. Such differences may indicate that high-molar (1.0 M) agents offer advantages for perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) at 3T, as has been previously reported at 1.5 T. To investigate possible intraindividual differences of high- versus low-molar contrast agents on PWI at 3T in patients with intracranial space-occupying lesions. Six patients with intraaxial and five patients with extraaxial tumors underwent two MR examinations at 3T, separated by at least 48 hours. On each occasion, an exogenous contrast-based, T2*-weighted, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique was used to determine the intracranial perfusion characteristics using one of two intravenous contrast agents: either 5 ml of 1.0 M gadobutrol or 10 ml of 0.5 M gadopentetate dimeglumine. The primary PWI outcome measure was region-of-interest maximal signal change (C(max)). The difference in C(max) for gray and white matter (Delta C(max)) was significantly higher for gadobutrol compared to gadopentetate dimeglumine (Pgadopentetate dimeglumine, particularly with respect to delineation between gray and white matter and for the demarcation of highly vascularized tumor tissue on brain PWI performed at 3T.

  8. "Comet tail sign": A pitfall of post-gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging findings for metastatic brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuya, Koichi; Nakasu, Yoko; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nakasu, Satoshi; Ohno, Makoto; Miyakita, Yasuji; Abe, Masato; Ito, Ichiro; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    A highly enhanced cap attached to the surface of metastatic tumors in the brain parenchyma is occasionally encountered on magnetic resonance (MR) images. This atypical enhanced cap tends to occur in severe peritumoral edema and may produce the characteristic bulge of a metastatic mass lesion termed the "comet tail sign" (CTS). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the features of the CTS using MR imaging and pathological findings, and to clarify its clinical relevance. We selected 21 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed metastases from MR imaging studies that demonstrated the CTS; all had diffuse peritumoral edema. The MR T2-weighted images showed similarly homogenous and high intensity signals in both the tail and peritumoral edema. Fourteen of the 21 patients underwent surgical resection of their tumors, and 12 tails were separately removed for pathological examination, no tumor cells which revealed. We speculate that the CTS does not contain neoplastic tissues but is observed as a result of the leakage of contrast medium from the tumor body into the interstitial space of the white matter. Although CTS is a peculiar and uncommon enhancement pattern, it has clinical significance in determining the extent of the margin for invasive local treatments, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiotherapy; this is particularly true in and near the eloquent areas.

  9. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and motor and intellectual functioning in 86 patients born at term with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yurika; Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Sato-Shirai, Ikuko; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Inui, Takehiko; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns and motor function, epileptic episodes, and IQ or developmental quotient in patients born at term with spastic diplegia. Eighty-six patients born at term with cerebral palsy (CP) and spastic diplegia (54 males, 32 females; median age 20 y, range 7-42 y) among 829 patients with CP underwent brain MRI between 1990 and 2008. The MRI and clinical findings were analysed retrospectively. Intellectual disability was classified according to the Enjoji developmental test or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edition). The median ages at diagnosis of CP, assignment of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, cognitive assessment, and MRI were 2 years (range 5 mo-8 y), 6 years (2 y 8 mo-19 y), 6 years (1 y 4 mo-19 y), and 7 years (10 mo-30 y) respectively. MRI included normal findings (41.9%), periventricular leukomalacia, hypomyelination, and porencephaly/periventricular venous infarction. The frequency of patients in GMFCS levels III to V and intellectual disability did not differ between those with normal and abnormal MRI findings. Patients with normal MRI findings had significantly fewer epileptic episodes than those with abnormal ones (p=0.001). Varied MRI findings, as well as the presence of severe motor dysfunction and intellectual disability (despite normal MRI), suggest that patients born at term with spastic diplegia had heterogeneous and unidentified pathophysiology. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Use of virtual reality distraction to reduce claustrophobia symptoms during a mock magnetic resonance imaging brain scan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter G; Richards, Todd R; Seibel, Eric J; Sharar, Sam R

    2007-06-01

    The present case series with two patients explored whether virtual reality (VR) distraction could reduce claustrophobia symptoms during a mock magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. Two patients who met DSM-IV criteria for specific phobia, situational type (i.e., claustrophobia) reported high levels of anxiety during a mock 10-min MRI procedure with no VR, and asked to terminate the scan early. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either VR or music distraction for their second scan attempt. When immersed in an illusory three-dimensional (3D) virtual world named SnowWorld, patient 1 was able to complete a 10-min mock scan with low anxiety and reported an increase in self-efficacy afterwards. Patient 2 received "music only" distraction during her second scan but was still not able to complete a 10-min scan and asked to terminate her second scan early. These results suggest that immersive VR may prove effective at temporarily reducing claustrophobia symptoms during MRI scans and music may prove less effective.

  11. Surgical Accuracy of 3-Tesla Versus 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Peter Jan; Oterdoom, D L Marinus; Ter Horst, Gert J; van Hulzen, Arjen L J; de Graaf, Eva K L; Hoogduin, Hans; Meiners, Linda C; van Dijk, J Marc C

    2016-09-01

    In deep brain stimulation (DBS), accurate placement of the lead is critical. Target definition is highly dependent on visual recognition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We prospectively investigated whether the 7-T MRI enabled better visualization of targets and led to better placement of leads compared with the 1.5-T and the 3-T MRI. Three patients with PD (mean, 55 years) were scanned on 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T MRI before surgery. Tissue contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were measured. Target coordinates were noted on MRI and during surgery. Differences were analyzed with post-hoc analysis of variance. The 7-T MRI demonstrated a significant improvement in tissue visualization (P < 0.005) and signal-to-noise ratio (P < 0.005). However, no difference in the target coordinates was found between the 7-T and the 3-T MRI. Although the 7-T MRI enables a significant better visualization of the DBS target in patients with PD, we found no clinical benefit for the placement of the DBS leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring the effect of deep brain stimulation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, Sonja; Hesselmann, Volker; Hunsche, Stefan; Kugel, Harald; Sturm, Volker; Maintz, David; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Liebig, Thomas; Maarouf, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low- and high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the nucleus accumbens (ACC) and the adjacent internal capsule in 3 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) under intraoperative conditions. After placement of the electrode in the right ACC, the patients underwent an MR scan inside the operating room. BOLD imaging was performed and interpreted using a boxcar paradigm with alternating high-frequency stimulation of the ACC and the internal capsule versus rest. Correlation maps were calculated employing SPM99. During high-frequency stimulation of the right ACC, focal activation could be found in the right striatum, the right frontal lobe and the right hippocampus, whereas low-frequency stimulation was correlated to right insular activation. Intraoperative BOLD-fMRI is feasible during DBS surgery of OCD patients. Our results support the existence of an ipsilateral hemispheric circuit involving the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and striatum. Intraoperative fMRI may be used to acquire additional information regarding the pathophysiology of OCD that can be used to improve the results of DBS in OCD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparison between 2D ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing brain and spine parameters in fetuses with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nakano, Mayra Lemos; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Haratz, Karina Krajden; Oliveira, Patrícia Soares; Martins, Wellington P; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    To compare two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing brain and spine parameters in fetuses with spina bifida. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 15 fetuses with spina bifida (one with encephalocele, four with rachischisis and 10 with myelomeningocele). The size of the atrium of the lateral ventricle, percentage shortening of the cerebellum, degree of compromising of the first vertebra and total number of vertebras affected by herniation were assessed. The MRI examination was performed not more than 7 days after the 2DUS. To compare and correlate the parameters from the two techniques, the paired Student's t test and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used. To assess the correlations of atrium measurements from 2DUS and MRI with other parameters, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used. No significant difference was observed in any of the means of the parameters assessed using the two techniques (p > 0.05). Both 2DUS and MRI seemed to present satisfactory reliability in measurements on the size of the atrium of the lateral ventricle and the first vertebra affected (ICC = 0.88 and 0.75, respectively). Measurements on the atrium of the lateral ventricle from 2DUS correlated better with the other parameters than did measurements from MRI. In fetuses with spina bifida, 2DUS and MRI present similar results, but measurements on the atrium of the lateral ventricle from 2DUS correlated better with the other parameters.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and vocal tract: Applications to the study of speech production and language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2017-04-01

    The human vocal system is highly plastic, allowing for the flexible expression of language, mood and intentions. However, this plasticity is not stable throughout the life span, and it is well documented that adult learners encounter greater difficulty than children in acquiring the sounds of foreign languages. Researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to interrogate the neural substrates of vocal imitation and learning, and the correlates of individual differences in phonetic "talent". In parallel, a growing body of work using MR technology to directly image the vocal tract in real time during speech has offered primarily descriptive accounts of phonetic variation within and across languages. In this paper, we review the contribution of neural MRI to our understanding of vocal learning, and give an overview of vocal tract imaging and its potential to inform the field. We propose methods by which our understanding of speech production and learning could be advanced through the combined measurement of articulation and brain activity using MRI - specifically, we describe a novel paradigm, developed in our laboratory, that uses both MRI techniques to for the first time map directly between neural, articulatory and acoustic data in the investigation of vocalisation. This non-invasive, multimodal imaging method could be used to track central and peripheral correlates of spoken language learning, and speech recovery in clinical settings, as well as provide insights into potential sites for targeted neural interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... problems, medications, recent surgeries and allergies. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  16. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  17. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained

  18. Effects of patellar taping on brain activity during knee joint proprioception tests using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Michael J; McKie, Shane; Richardson, Paul; Oldham, Jacqueline A

    2012-06-01

    Patellar taping is a common treatment modality for physical therapists managing patellofemoral pain. However, the mechanisms of action remain unclear, with much debate as to whether its efficacy is due to a change in patellar alignment or an alteration in sensory input. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensory input hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging when taping was applied to the knee joint during a proprioception task. This was an observational study with patellar taping intervention. Eight male volunteers who were healthy and right-leg dominant participated in a motor block design study. Each participant performed 2 right knee extension repetitive movement tasks: one simple and one proprioceptive. These tasks were performed with and without patellar taping and were auditorally paced for 400 seconds at 72 beats/min (1.2 Hz). The proprioception task without patellar taping caused a positive blood oxygenation level-dependant (BOLD) response bilaterally in the medial supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor area, the basal ganglion, and the thalamus and medial primary sensory motor cortex. For the proprioception task with patellar taping, there was a decreased BOLD response in these regions. In the lateral primary sensory cortex, there was a negative BOLD response with less activity for the proprioception task with taping. Limitations This study may have been limited by the small sample size, a possible learning effect due to a nonrandom order of tasks, and use of a single-joint knee extension task. This study demonstrated that patellar taping modulates brain activity in several areas of the brain during a proprioception knee movement task.

  19. A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study probing the interface of cognitive and emotional brain systems in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Parnes, Stephanie A; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Sweeney, John A

    2010-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of pharmacotherapy on brain function underlying affect dysregulation and cognitive function in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Healthy controls (HC) (n=14; mean age =14.1 ± 2.4 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic or hypomanic episodes (n=17; mean age =14.3 ± 1.1 years) were matched on intelligence quotient (IQ) and demographic factors. The fMRI studies were performed at baseline and after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated initially with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) followed by lamotrigine monotherapy. The pediatric affective color-matching task was used where subjects matched the color of a positive, negative, or neutral word with one of the two colored circles below in each of the trials. There were five blocks of each emotional word type, with 10 trials per block. Behavioral data showed that the PBD group was modestly slower and less accurate than the HC, regardless of condition or treatment status. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activity was reduced with treatment in the PBD group relative to the HC group during the negative versus neutral condition in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule, but increased in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Similarly, during the positive versus neutral condition, the PBD group, relative to HC, showed reduced activity in right DLPFC, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule and increased activity in the right VMPFC. However, within the PBD group, there was treatment related decrease in VMPFC and DLPFC. Improvement on Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score significantly correlated with the decreased activity in VMPFC within the patient group. Pharmacotherapy in PBD patients led to differential effort with persistently increased activity in the affective regions and decreased activity in the

  20. Effects of Patellar Taping on Brain Activity During Knee Joint Proprioception Tests Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Shane; Richardson, Paul; Oldham, Jacqueline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patellar taping is a common treatment modality for physical therapists managing patellofemoral pain. However, the mechanisms of action remain unclear, with much debate as to whether its efficacy is due to a change in patellar alignment or an alteration in sensory input. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensory input hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging when taping was applied to the knee joint during a proprioception task. Design This was an observational study with patellar taping intervention. Methods Eight male volunteers who were healthy and right-leg dominant participated in a motor block design study. Each participant performed 2 right knee extension repetitive movement tasks: one simple and one proprioceptive. These tasks were performed with and without patellar taping and were auditorally paced for 400 seconds at 72 beats/min (1.2 Hz). Results The proprioception task without patellar taping caused a positive blood oxygenation level–dependant (BOLD) response bilaterally in the medial supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor area, the basal ganglion, and the thalamus and medial primary sensory motor cortex. For the proprioception task with patellar taping, there was a decreased BOLD response in these regions. In the lateral primary sensory cortex, there was a negative BOLD response with less activity for the proprioception task with taping. Limitations This study may have been limited by the small sample size, a possible learning effect due to a nonrandom order of tasks, and use of a single-joint knee extension task. Conclusions This study demonstrated that patellar taping modulates brain activity in several areas of the brain during a proprioception knee movement task. PMID:22282771

  1. Brain metabolite changes on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarac, K.; Alkan, A.; Baysal, T. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, A.; Aslan, M. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Malatya (Turkey); Oezcan, C. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Malatya (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    The metabolite changes in the brains of children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A total of 30 subjects and 14 age-matched healthy volunteers underwent single-voxel MRS (TE: 136). The duration of disease, medication, presence of hypoglycaemia episodes and the level of haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) in the patients were noted. Voxels were placed in the pons, left basal ganglion (LBG) and left posterior parietal white matter (PPWM). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatinine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. The average HbA1c level was 11.9{+-}3.4 (8.2-19.4). The average number of keto-acidosis episodes was 1.9{+-}2.2 (0-9) and the average number of daily insulin injections was 2.8{+-}0.97 (2-4). MRS revealed lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in the pons and lower NAA/Cr ratio in the PPWM of patients with DM than in control subjects. No significant correlation was observed between the number of hypoglycaemia episodes and metabolite ratios. Metabolic abnormalities have been observed by MRS in the brain of poorly controlled type 1 DM children. These metabolic changes, in particular in the pons region, include a decrease in NAA, indicating neuronal loss or functional impairment, and likely explanations for a decrease in Cho may be dynamic changes in membrane lipids and/or decreased membrane turnover. (orig.)

  2. [Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganssen, A; Loeffler, W; Oppelt, A; Schmidt, F

    1981-04-01

    Imaging methods based on nuclear magnetic resonance allow the production of sectional images of the human body without ionizing radiation. It is possible to measure the density and relaxation times of the water protons in body fluids or tissue. This allows not only to obtain morphological information but also to get some insight into the spatial distribution of physiological data. Starting with a review of the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance it is explained how the measured signal can be associated with an image point; it is also explained what type of apparatus is necessary and what the physical limitations are. Possible risks the patient may be exposed to in an examination using nuclear magnetic resonance are discussed. The present state of the technical development enables the production of whole-body sectional images of a living person within about one minute. By means of some typical examples the nature and properties of these images are explained. Although extensive clinical studies will be necessary before a more general assessment can be made of this method, an outlook is provided on expected further developments and possible future fields of application.

  3. Delayed blood-brain barrier disruption after shallow-water diving demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadanny, Amir; Tal, Sigal; Fishlev, Gregori; Bechor, Yair; Efrati, Shai

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old diver presented to our emergency room complaining of headaches and left side numbness three days after diving to a depth of 6 metres for 25 minutes. On examination, he had left-sided hypaesthesia, and a post-contrast FLAIR brain MRI sequence revealed significant diffuse meningeal enhancement, indicating blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen; the initial four sessions resulted in only partial symptom improvement correlating with partial improvement in the MRI findings. Ten additional hyperbaric treatments resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms and normalization of MRI findings. The main aim of this case report is to present a probable, atypical, delayed-onset case of shallow-water decompression sickness culminating in significant BBB damage, which was demonstrated by special MRI techniques.

  4. Brain magnetic resonance metabolic and microstructural changes in adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanigni, Stefano; Terlizzi, Rossana; Tonon, Caterina; Testa, Claudia; Manners, David Neil; Capellari, Sabina; Gallassi, Roberto; Poda, Roberto; Gramegna, Laura Ludovica; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Sambati, Luisa; Cortelli, Pietro; Lodi, Raffaele

    2015-08-01

    adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a rare inherited disorder due to a duplication of lamin-B1 (LMNB1) gene. The aim of this study was to investigate brain metabolic and microstructural alterations by using advanced MR techniques. we performed brain MR scans including single-voxel proton-MR Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the lateral ventricles and parietal white matter and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 4 subjects with LMNB1 gene duplication, 6 non-mutated relatives and 7 unrelated healthy controls. Cervical and thoracic spinal cord MR was performed in three symptomatic subjects with LMNB1 mutation. All participants underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. all subjects with LMNB1 gene duplication presented pathological accumulation of lactate in lateral ventricles CSF and no alterations of brain white matter absolute metabolites concentrations or metabolites/Cr ratios. We found increased white matter intra- and extracellular water transverse relaxation times. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis detected a significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the genu of the corpus callosum in mutated cases compared to unrelated healthy controls and non-mutated relatives. Moreover, we detected different degrees of the typical white matter signal intensity alterations and brain and spinal atrophy at conventional MRI in symptomatic subjects with LMNB1 mutation. A mild impairment of executive functions was found in subjects with LMNB1 gene mutation. in subjects with LMNB1 gene duplication, we found a pathological increase in CSF lactate, likely due to active demyelination along with glial activation, and microstructural changes in the genu of the corpus callosum possibly underpinning the mild neuropsychological deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy & diffusion weighted imaging in differentiation of supratentorial brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Monem Nooman Darwiesh

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Intra-lesional ADC values are not useful in the differentiation between primary and metastatic tumors. Perilesional ADC values can differentiate between primary & metastatic brain tumors. Intralesional MRS values (CHO/Cr ratio were able to grade the tumor and differentiate between high and low grade tumors, while Perilesional MRS values (CHO/Cr ratio could be able to differentiate primary tumors from metastasis.

  6. Atlas-based segmentation and classification of magnetic resonance brain images

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of different image modalities can be found today in medical imaging. These modalities allow the physician to obtain a non-invasive view of the internal organs of the human body, such as the brain. All these three dimensional images are of extreme importance in several domains of medicine, for example, to detect pathologies, follow the evolution of these pathologies, prepare and realize surgical planning with, or without, the help of robot systems or for statistical studies. Among...

  7. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging-guided frameless stereotactic brain biopsy: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Lonser, Russell R; Elder, J Bradley

    2016-04-01

    The object of this study was to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of real-time MRI-compatible frameless stereotactic brain biopsy. Clinical, imaging, and histological data in consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic brain biopsy using a frameless real-time MRI system were analyzed. Five consecutive patients (4 males, 1 female) were included in this study. The mean age at biopsy was 45.8 years (range 29-60 years). Real-time MRI permitted concurrent display of the biopsy cannula trajectory and tip during placement at the target. The mean target depth of biopsied lesions was 71.3 mm (range 60.4-80.4 mm). Targeting accuracy analysis revealed a mean radial error of 1.3 ± 1.1 mm (mean ± standard deviation), mean depth error of 0.7 ± 0.3 mm, and a mean absolute tip error of 1.5 ± 1.1 mm. There was no correlation between target depth and absolute tip error (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, r = 0.22). All biopsy cannulae were placed at the target with a single penetration and resulted in a diagnostic specimen in all cases. Histopathological evaluation of biopsy samples revealed dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (1 case), breast carcinoma (1 case), and glioblastoma multiforme (3 cases). The ability to place a biopsy cannula under real-time imaging guidance permits on-the-fly alterations in the cannula trajectory and/or tip placement. Real-time imaging during MRI-guided brain biopsy provides precise safe targeting of brain lesions.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Brain Stem Atrophy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Adult Patients with Alexander Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Yasuda, Rei; Mizuta, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    Brain MRI in adult patients with Alexander disease (AxD) mainly shows atrophy in the medulla oblongata. However, currently there is no quantitative standard for assessing this atrophy. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the brain stem of AxD patients with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutation using conventional MRI to evaluate its usefulness as an aid to diagnosing AxD in daily clinical practice. Nineteen AxD patients with GFAP mutation were compared with 14 patients negative for GFAP mutation in whom AxD was suspected due to "atrophy of the medulla oblongata." In the GFAP mutation-positive group, the sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata, the ratio of the diameter of the medulla oblongata to that of the midbrain (MO/MB), and the ratio of the sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata to that of the pons (MO/Po) were significantly smaller compared to those of the GFAP mutation-negative group (p < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were 87.5 and 92.3%, 91.7 and 81.3%, and 88.2 and 100% with a sagittal diameter of the medulla oblongata <9.0 mm, MO/MB <0.60, and sagittal MO/Po <0.46, respectively. These parameters can provide very useful information to differentially diagnose AxD from other disorders associated with brain stem atrophy in adult patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging for white matter degradation in fornix following mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wang; Boreta, Lauren; Gauger, Grant

    2010-03-01

    The alterations of the fornix in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T1-weighetd anatomical imaging. The primary goal of this study was to test that hypothesis that the fornix might play a major role in the memory and learning dysfunctions in the post-concussion syndrome, which may related to the white matter (WM) degradations following mild traumatic brain injury. N=24 mTBI patients were longitudinally studied in two time points with 6-month intervals using a 4-Tesla MRI scanner to measure the WM integrity of fornix and the fornix-to-brain ratio (FBR), and compared with matched healthy controls. Our data show that the WM degradation in fornix onset in the acute stage after mild TBI when the post-injury time was less than 6 weeks, and that this WM degradation continued during the following 6-month period of recovery. In summary, using DTI and structural MRI together can effectively detect the fornix changes in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. Further studies are warranted to exam the association between the fornix alterations and neurocognitive performance of TBI patients.

  10. Improved labeling of subcortical brain structures in atlas-based segmentation of magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Siamak; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Gholipour, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Precise labeling of subcortical structures plays a key role in functional neurosurgical applications. Labels from an atlas image are propagated to a patient image using atlas-based segmentation. Atlas-based segmentation is highly dependent on the registration framework used to guide the atlas label propagation. This paper focuses on atlas-based segmentation of subcortical brain structures and the effect of different registration methods on the generated subcortical labels. A single-step and three two-step registration methods appearing in the literature based on affine and deformable registration algorithms in the ANTS and FSL algorithms are considered. Experiments are carried out with two atlas databases of IBSR and LPBA40. Six segmentation metrics consisting of Dice overlap, relative volume error, false positive, false negative, surface distance, and spatial extent are used for evaluation. Segmentation results are reported individually and as averages for nine subcortical brain structures. Based on two statistical tests, the results are ranked. In general, among four different registration strategies investigated in this paper, a two-step registration consisting of an initial affine registration followed by a deformable registration applied to subcortical structures provides superior segmentation outcomes. This method can be used to provide an improved labeling of the subcortical brain structures in MRIs for different applications.

  11. Does pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder alter the brain? Systematic review and meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Ana Carolina C; Hoffmann, Elis V; Fossaluza, Victor; Jackowski, Andrea P; Mello, Marcelo F

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that the volumes of specific brain regions are reduced in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those of healthy controls. Our study investigated the potential association between early traumatic experiences and altered brain regions and functions. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature regarding functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies that investigated cerebral region volumes in pediatric patients with PTSD. We searched for articles from 2000 to 2014 in the PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and ISI (Web of Knowledge) databases. All data regarding the amygdala, hippocampus, corpus callosum, brain, and intracranial volumes that fit the inclusion criteria were extracted and combined in a meta-analysis that assessed differences between groups. The meta-analysis found reduced total corpus callosum areas and reduced total cerebral and intracranial volumes in the patients with PTSD. The total hippocampus (left and right hippocampus) and gray matter volumes of the amygdala and frontal lobe were also reduced, but these differences were not significant. The functional studies revealed differences in brain region activation in response to stimuli in the post-traumatic stress symptoms/PTSD group. Our results confirmed that the pediatric patients with PTSD exhibited structural and functional brain abnormalities and that some of the abnormalities occurred in different brain regions than those observed in adults. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revea...

  13. THE ROLE OF HIGH FIELD MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE BRAIN IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY-STAGE PARKINSON’S DISEASE: A CLINICAL CASE

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Shnayder; M. R. Sapronova; Petrova, M. M.; I.P. Artyukhov

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to demonstrate the role of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of early-stage Parkinson’s disease on a clinical case.Materials and methods. Patient S., 1962 (53 years), referred to the Neurological Center of Epileptology, Neurogenetic and Brain Research of University Clinic of the Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after prof. V.F. Voyno-Yasenetskiy with of the early stages of Parkinson’s disease. The patient received the recommendation of a neurolo...

  14. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging increases the overall diagnostic accuracy in brain tumours: Correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Abul-Kasim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of multimodal MRI techniques, specifically perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI, and/or MR spectroscopy (MRS, in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in brain tumours.Methods: Forty-four patients with suspected brain tumours (27 (61% patients male, mean age 58±17 (mean±SD years were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were examined with conventional MR sequences, DWI, and with PWI and/or MRS. The concordance between the diagnoses obtained with multimodal MRI and with the conventional MR sequences, and the final diagnosis obtained by biopsy, was estimated. Fisher’s exact test and/or chi-square test was performed to estimate the added utility of multimodal MRI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.Results: With multimodal MRI, the diagnosis in 41 (93% patients was the same as that obtained by biopsy, compared with 39% (17/44 patients when the readers were allowed to give one diagnostic possibility during the evaluation of the conventional MR sequences alone (p<0.001. The concordance between the diagnoses provided by evaluating the multimodal MRIs and the final diagnoses was almost perfect (κ value 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 - 1. PWI primarily helped to differentiate lymphomas from other solid tumours, whereas MRS helped to differentiate malignant glioma from metastasis. Both PWI and MRS helped in grading astrocytomas.Conclusion: Multimodal MRI increases diagnostic accuracy and should, wherever available, be performed in the work-up of brain tumours, although this entails increased examination cost and time.

  15. Quantification of brain metabolites in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, O; Rosenbaum, S; Topp, S

    1997-01-01

    20-mm3 voxel placed in the motor cortex and in the cerebellum from seven patients with clinically probable or definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) according to the El Escorial criteria, from three patients with suspected ALS (progressive muscular atrophy), and from eight normal control...... subjects. We estimated the concentrations of the metabolites using the water signal as an internal standard. The concentrations of Cho and Cr/PCr in both brain regions, as well as the concentration of NAA in the cerebellum, were unaltered in the MND patients compared with the controls. Only MND patients...

  16. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    algorithm (RGSA. Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002. The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods.

  17. New Methods of Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Application to Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-15

    activator) in an am- bulance prior to transportation to the hospital, perhaps advancing this time-sensitive treatment The 6.5 mT electromagnet LFI 7...in meningeal layer) and is likely to be visualized on course resolution (e.g. 5 mm) T1 images. In Y1 we designed and built the very portable 45 kg...revolutionize the use of MRI for the assessment and treatment of secondary brain injury follow- ing TBI: direct tomographic detection of endogenous free

  18. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Deshpande, Smita N. [Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, {sup 1}H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  19. [Utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in severe focal traumatic brain injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Valderrey, F; Muñiz-Montes, J R; López-García, J A; Villegas-Del Ojo, J; Málaga-Gil, J; Galván-García, R

    2013-01-01

    To describe the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in a series of severe traumatic brain injuries, their clinical and outcome features, and possible implications. A descriptive, observational case-series study was carried out. Patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) admitted to the ICU were subjected to MRI study using a 1.5 T scanner. Diffusion-weighted images (DWMR) were obtained using the following echo-planar pulse sequence: TR 10000 ms, TE 126.9 ms, with b values 1000 s/mm2 in the three spatial dimensions. Combining the three sets of images, an isotropic image conforming a map of the mean ADCs was obtained. DWMR was performed in 23 patients with severe TBI admitted to the ICU between 2001 and 2004. In the MR images we selected 26 regions of interest (ROIs) where ADC was recorded. We observed a clear increase in diffusion in non-treated space-occupying lesions versus other types of injuries and the normal values. A poorer outcome was recorded in patients with lower ADC values. Mean ADC in the lesions was greater than the normal values and greater in contusions than in other types of injuries, as an expression of extracellular edema. ADCs were decreased in patients with a poor outcome, suggesting an association between ischemia and the patient prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Carles; Aguilera, Carles [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Cos, Monica; Camins, Angels; Samitier, Alex; Castaner, Sara; Sanchez, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Candiota, Ana P.; Delgado-Goni, Teresa [Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Mato, David [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Acebes, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Arus, Carles [Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of intraventricular tumours. Fifty-two intraventricular tumours pertaining to 16 different tumour types were derived from our database. All cases had single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy performed at TE at both 30 and 136 ms at 1.5 T. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to search for the most discriminative datapoints each tumour type. Characteristic trends were found for some groups: high Glx and Ala in meningiomas (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively), high mobile lipids in metastasis (p<0.001), high Cho in PNET (p<0.001), high mI+Gly in ependymoma (p<0.001), high NAC (p<0.01) in the absence of the normal brain parenchyma pattern in colloid cysts, and high mI/Gly and Ala in central neurocytoma. Proton MR spectroscopy provides additional metabolic information that could be useful in the diagnosis of intraventricular brain tumors. (orig.)

  1. Alterations in brain metabolism and function following administration of low-dose codeine phosphate: 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Lin, Pei-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ren-Hua; Xiao, Ye-Yu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify alterations in brain function following administration of a single, low-dose of codeine phosphate in healthy volunteers using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In addition, the metabolic changes in the two sides of the frontal lobe were identified using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). A total of 20 right-handed healthy participants (10 males, 10 females) were evaluated, and a Signa HDx 1.5T MRI scanner was used for data acquisition. An echo planar imaging sequence was used for resting-state fMRI, whereas a point resolved spectroscopy sequence was used for 1H-MRS. Regional Saturation Technique, Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI, and Statistical Parameter Mapping 8 were used to analyze the fMRI data. The 1H-MRS data were analyzed using LCModel software. At 1 h after oral administration of codeine phosphate (1.0 mg/kg), the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity were altered in different brain areas. The choline content was significantly increased in the right and left frontal lobes following codeine phosphate administration (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively), whereas the inositol content was significantly decreased in the left frontal lobe (P=0.02). There was no change in the glutamic acid content in the frontal lobes. In conclusion, the functions of different brain regions can be affected by a single, low-dose administration of codeine phosphate. The alterations in metabolite content in the two frontal lobes may be associated with changes in brain function, whereas the ALFF in the globus pallidus may have an effect on codeine phosphate addiction. Finally, glutamic acid may be useful in the estimation of codeine dependence.

  2. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON and its relationship with behavioral performance.Materials and methods: In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females and twelve (four males and eight females age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP in patients with ON.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011, the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007, and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024. We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0

  3. Reversible brain damage following acute organic solvents' poisoning determined by magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujmović Irena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute exposure to the effects of volatile solvents is characterized by the abrupt onset of symptoms and signs of poisoning, and relatively fast recovery in the majority of cases. Case report. We report a 24-year-old patient with an acute, accidental poisoning with a mixture of volatile organic solvents (most probably toluene, styrene and xylene, which led to the development of upward gaze paresis, diplopia, hemiparesis, ataxic gate, and the late onset truncal ataxia episodes. After 6 weeks, he recovered completely, while his extensive brain MRI lesions in the caudate nuclei, laterobasal putaminal regions, bilateral anterior insular cortex, central midbrain tegmental area withdrew completely after 4 months. Conclusion. Acute toxic encephalopathy should be a part of the differential diagnosis in any patient with acute neurobehavioral and neurological deficit.

  4. Fast and robust multi-atlas segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lötjönen, Jyrki Mp; Wolz, Robin; Koikkalainen, Juha R

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an optimised pipeline for multi-atlas brain MRI segmentation. Both accuracy and speed of segmentation are considered. We study different similarity measures used in non-rigid registration. We show that intensity differences for intensity normalised images can be used instead...... modelling based on segmentation using expectation maximisation (EM) and optimisation via graph cuts. The segmentation pipeline is evaluated with two data cohorts: IBSR data (N=18, six subcortial structures: thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala) and ADNI data (N=60, hippocampus......). The average similarity index between automatically and manually generated volumes was 0.849 (IBSR, six subcortical structures) and 0.880 (ADNI, hippocampus). The correlation coefficient for hippocampal volumes was 0.95 with the ADNI data. The computation time using a standard multicore PC computer was about 3...

  5. Fast and robust multi-atlas segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lötjönen, Jyrki Mp; Wolz, Robin; Koikkalainen, Juha R

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an optimised pipeline for multi-atlas brain MRI segmentation. Both accuracy and speed of segmentation are considered. We study different similarity measures used in non-rigid registration. We show that intensity differences for intensity normalised images can be used instead...... of standard normalised mutual information in registration without compromising the accuracy but leading to threefold decrease in the computation time. We study and validate also different methods for atlas selection. Finally, we propose two new approaches for combining multi-atlas segmentation and intensity...... modelling based on segmentation using expectation maximisation (EM) and optimisation via graph cuts. The segmentation pipeline is evaluated with two data cohorts: IBSR data (N=18, six subcortial structures: thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala) and ADNI data (N=60, hippocampus...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of metastatic disease to the brain with gadobenate dimeglumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleriaux, D. [Clinique de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Colosimo, C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, University G. d' Annunzio, Chieti (Italy); Ruscalleda, J. [Radiology Department, Hospital de San Pablo de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Korves, M. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Schneider, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Bohndorf, K. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Zentralklinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Bongartz, G. [Departement Medizinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum, Kantonsspital Basel, Basle (Switzerland); Buchem, M.A. van [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands); Reiser, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Radiologische Diagnostik-Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Sartor, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Bourne, M.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Parizel, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem (Belgium); Cherryman, G.R. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leicester School of Medicine, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Salerio, I.; Noce, La A.; Pirovano, G.; Kirchin, M.A.; Spinazzi, A. [Medical Affairs Europe, Milan (Italy)

    2002-03-01

    Seventy-four patients with one to eight proven intraaxial brain metastases received a total cumulative dose of 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight gadobenate dimeglumine, administered as sequential injections of 0.05, 0.05 and 0.1 mmol/kg over a 20-min period. MR imaging was performed before the first administration (T2- and T1-weighted sequences) and after each injection of contrast agent (T1-weighted sequences only). Quantitative assessment of images revealed significant (P<0.01) dose-related increases in lesion-to-brain (L/B) ratio and percent enhancement of lesion signal intensity. Qualitative assessment by two independent, blinded assessors revealed additional lesions in 22%, 25% and 38% (assessor 1) and 29%, 32% and 34% (assessor 2) of patients after each cumulative dose when compared with combined T1- and T2-weighted pre-contrast images. Significantly more lesions (P{<=}0.01) were noted by both assessors after the first injection and by one assessor after each subsequent injection. For patients with just one lesion observed on unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted images, additional lesions were noted in 12%, 16% and 28% of patients by assessor 1 following each dose and in 24%, 27% and 30% of patients by assessor 2. Contemporaneously, diagnostic confidence was increased and lesion conspicuity improved over unenhanced MRI. For patients with one lesion observed after an initial dose of 0.05 mmol/kg, additional lesions were noted by assessors 1 and 2 in 9.1% and 11.8% of patients, respectively, after a cumulative dose of 0.1 mmol/kg and in a further 9.1% and 5.9% of patients, respectively, after a cumulative dose of 0.2 mmol/kg. No safety concerns were apparent. (orig.)

  7. [Possibilities in the differential diagnosis of brain neoplasms using the long and short time sequences of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewicz, W.; Goraj, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently to perform proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique long and/or short echo time sequences are used in order to provide complementary information. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of STEAM (time echo, TE, 20

  8. Intensity inhomogeneity correction for magnetic resonance imaging of human brain at 7T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Higuchi, Satomi; Ito, Kenji; Sasaki, Makoto [Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke, E-mail: kkudo@huhp.hokudai.ac.jp; Goodwin, Jonathan; Harada, Taisuke [Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694, Japan and Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8648 (Japan); Ogawa, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8505 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance and efficacy for intensity inhomogeneity correction of various sequences of the human brain in 7T MRI using the extended version of the unified segmentation algorithm. Materials: Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with four different sequences (2D spin echo [SE], 3D fast SE, 2D fast spoiled gradient echo, and 3D time-of-flight) by using a 7T MRI system. Intensity inhomogeneity correction was performed using the “New Segment” module in SPM8 with four different values (120, 90, 60, and 30 mm) of full width at half maximum (FWHM) in Gaussian smoothness. The uniformity in signals in the entire white matter was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV); mean signal intensities between the subcortical and deep white matter were compared, and contrast between subcortical white matter and gray matter was measured. The length of the lenticulostriate (LSA) was measured on maximum intensity projection (MIP) images in the original and corrected images. Results: In all sequences, the CV decreased as the FWHM value decreased. The differences of mean signal intensities between subcortical and deep white matter also decreased with smaller FWHM values. The contrast between white and gray matter was maintained at all FWHM values. LSA length was significantly greater in corrected MIP than in the original MIP images. Conclusions: Intensity inhomogeneity in 7T MRI can be successfully corrected using SPM8 for various scan sequences.

  9. An availability of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the early diagnosis of latent hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Noaki; Tanabe, Masako; Fujiwara, Akiko; Minato, Takeshi; Sasaki, Hiromasa [Hiroshima Posts and Telecommunications Hospital (Japan); Higashi, Toshihiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1996-03-01

    Brain MRI was carried out in patients with chronic liver diseases. No abnormal findings were recognized in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, while 59.2% of cirrhotics showed a symmetrically strong signal in basal ganglia on T1 weighted image in MRI. This finding significantly related with lowered Fischer`s ratio of serum amino acid, increased levels of serum phenylalanine, tyrosine and hyaluronic acid, prolonged prothrombin time and decreased platelet counts in the peripheral blood. Overt hepatic encephalopathy was observed in 6 of 34 patients with the strong signal in MRI during follow-up period, while none of patients without that finding developed hepatic encephalopathy. These results have indicated that the strong signal in basal ganglia on MRI appears in cirrhotic patients with severe liver dysfunction, and it is an useful index in the early diagnosis of latent hepatic encephalopathy. An improvement of this MRI finding was not observed by long-term oral administration of branched-chain amino acid. (author).

  10. Magnetic-resonance imaging for kinetic analysis of permeability changes during focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and brain drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen-Yen; Chu, Po-Chun; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wai, Yau-Yau; Liu, Hao-Li

    2014-10-28

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with the presence of microbubbles has been shown to induce transient and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for the delivery of therapeutic molecules which normally cannot penetrate into the brain. The success of FUS brain-drug delivery relies on its integration with in-vivo imaging to monitor kinetic change of therapeutic molecules into the brain. In this study, we developed a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) technique for kinetic analysis of delivered molecules during FUS-BBB opening. Three kinetic parameters (Ktrans, Ve, Kep) were characterized dynamically to describe BBB-permeability at two FUS exposure conditions (0.4 or 0.8MPa) over 24h. Ktrans, defined as the influx volume transfer constant from plasma to EES, and Ve, the EES volume fraction, were both found to be pressure-dependent. Ktrans and Ve showed a peak increase of 0.0086-0.0131min(-1) (for 0.4-0.8MPa pressure), and 0.0431-0.0692, respectively, immediately after FUS exposure. Both parameters subsequently decreased exponentially as a function of time, with estimated half-lives of decay of 2.89-5.3 and 2.2-4.93h, respectively. The kinetics of Kep, defined as the efflux rate constant from the extracellular extravascular space (EES) to the plasma, were complementary to Ktrans, with an initial decrease from 0.2010 to 0.1901min(-1) followed by a significantly longer recovery time (half-life of 17.39-99.92h). Our observations strongly supported the existence of imbalanced and mismatched kinetics of influx (Ktrans) and efflux (Kep) between the plasma and EES, indicating the existence of directional permeability during FUS-BBB opening. We further showed that kinetic change determined by DCE-MRI correlated well with the concentration of Evans Blue (EB)-albumin (coefficient of 0.74-0.89). These findings suggest that MRI kinetic monitoring may serve as an alternative method for in-vivo monitoring of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK

  11. Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials and functional brain magnetic resonance in the evaluation of neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest: a case study of three patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanatta Paolo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case series investigates whether painful electrical stimulation increases the early prognostic value of both somatosensory-evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Three single cases with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were considered. A neurophysiological evaluation with an electroencephalogram and somatosensory-evoked potentials during increased electrical stimulation in both median nerves was performed within five days of cardiac arrest. Each patient also underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with the same neurophysiological protocol one month after cardiac arrest. One patient, who completely recovered, showed a middle latency component at a high intensity of stimulation and the activation of all brain areas involved in cerebral pain processing. One patient in a minimally conscious state only showed the cortical somatosensory response and the activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. The last patient, who was in a vegetative state, did not show primary somatosensory evoked potentials; only the activation of subcortical brain areas occurred. These preliminary findings suggest that the pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials performed to increase the prognosis of comatose patients after cardiac arrest are associated with regional brain activity showed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during median nerves electrical stimulation. More importantly, this cases report also suggests that somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging during painful electrical stimulation may be sensitive and complementary methods to predict the neurological outcome in the acute phase of coma. Thus, pain-related somatosensory-evoked potentials may be a reliable and a cost-effective tool for planning the early diagnostic evaluation of comatose patients.

  12. Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials and functional brain magnetic resonance in the evaluation of neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest: a case study of three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Paolo; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Baldanzi, Fabrizio; Bendini, Matteo; Saccavini, Marsilio; Tamari, Wadih; Palomba, Daniela; Bosco, Enrico

    2012-03-31

    This case series investigates whether painful electrical stimulation increases the early prognostic value of both somatosensory-evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Three single cases with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were considered. A neurophysiological evaluation with an electroencephalogram and somatosensory-evoked potentials during increased electrical stimulation in both median nerves was performed within five days of cardiac arrest. Each patient also underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with the same neurophysiological protocol one month after cardiac arrest. One patient, who completely recovered, showed a middle latency component at a high intensity of stimulation and the activation of all brain areas involved in cerebral pain processing. One patient in a minimally conscious state only showed the cortical somatosensory response and the activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. The last patient, who was in a vegetative state, did not show primary somatosensory evoked potentials; only the activation of subcortical brain areas occurred. These preliminary findings suggest that the pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials performed to increase the prognosis of comatose patients after cardiac arrest are associated with regional brain activity showed by functional magnetic resonance imaging during median nerves electrical stimulation. More importantly, this cases report also suggests that somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging during painful electrical stimulation may be sensitive and complementary methods to predict the neurological outcome in the acute phase of coma. Thus, pain-related somatosensory-evoked potentials may be a reliable and a cost-effective tool for planning the early diagnostic evaluation of comatose patients.

  13. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O' Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tosi, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P. (Imaging Sciences Dept. and Clinical Research Facility, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (GB))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0+-1.1 vs. 5.1+-0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1+-0.9 vs. 3.1+-0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  14. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  15. Robust Estimation of Electron Density From Anatomic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Using a Unifying Multi-Atlas Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shangjie [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Hara, Wendy; Wang, Lei; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a reliable method to estimate electron density based on anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Methods and Materials: We proposed a unifying multi-atlas approach for electron density estimation based on standard T1- and T2-weighted MRI. First, a composite atlas was constructed through a voxelwise matching process using multiple atlases, with the goal of mitigating effects of inherent anatomic variations between patients. Next we computed for each voxel 2 kinds of conditional probabilities: (1) electron density given its image intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images; and (2) electron density given its spatial location in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration. These were combined into a unifying posterior probability density function using the Bayesian formalism, which provided the optimal estimates for electron density. We evaluated the method on 10 patients using leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic analyses for detecting different tissue types were performed. Results: The proposed method significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute Hounsfield unit error of 119, compared with 140 and 144 (P<.0001) using conventional T1-weighted intensity and geometry-based approaches, respectively. For detection of bony anatomy, the proposed method achieved an 89% area under the curve, 86% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 90% accuracy, which improved upon intensity and geometry-based approaches (area under the curve: 79% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion: The proposed multi-atlas approach provides robust electron density estimation and bone detection based on anatomic MRI. If validated on a larger population, our work could enable the use of MRI as a primary modality for radiation treatment planning.

  16. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters as predictors for small-vessel disease revealed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Tanaka, Eiji; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shigenobu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-05-01

    We correlated coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters with small-vessel disease revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. One hundred and eleven patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic cerebral infarction were randomly selected for the study; 57 males and 54 females with an average age of 66.6{+-}9.6, age range 40 to 85, years old. Among them, 76 patients had a history of symptomatic cerebral infarction; 38 patients hypertension; and 24 patients diabetes mellitus. Patients with large cortical infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, demyelinating disease or mass lesions were excluded from the present study. The MRI scans were reviewed for areas with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The small infarction was defined as a lesion less than 10 mm in diameter. The activity of von Willebrand factor (vWF) correlated significantly with the grade of caps at the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle, and the number of small infarctions in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia, suggesting vWF could be a predictor for these small-vessel disease. The grade of caps at posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the number of small infarctions in the subcortical white matter were associated significantly with the concentration of plasma fibrinogen and reversely with the activity of antithrombin III, an inhibitory factor in coagulation system. These results indicate that hypercoagulable state may causatively relate with small-vessel disease in the territory of medullary artery branching from cortical artery. On the contrary, these coagulation parameters did not correlate significantly with small ischemic lesions in the territory of perforating artery. No correlation was observed between the level of marker proteins for platelet activation and the degree of small-vessel disease, indicating the activation of platelet could not associate with the etiology of small-vessel disease. (author)

  17. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  18. Assessment of irradiated brain metastases using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Freitas, Daniela B. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pinho, Marco C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Otaduy, Maria C.G.; Costa Leite, Claudia da [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Braga, Henrique F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiotherapy, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Meira-Freitas, Daniel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on cerebral metastases using the transfer constant (K{sub trans}) assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the ability of K{sub trans} measurements to predict midterm tumor outcomes after SRS. The study received institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Twenty-six adult patients with a total of 34 cerebral metastases underwent T1-weighted DCE MRI in a 1.5-T magnet at baseline (prior to SRS) and 4-8 weeks after treatment. Quantitative analysis of DCE MRI was performed by generating K{sub trans} parametric maps, and region-of-interest-based measurements were acquired for each metastasis. Conventional MRI was performed at least 16 weeks after SRS to assess midterm tumor outcome using volume variation. The mean (±SD) K{sub trans} value was 0.13 ± 0.11 min{sup -1} at baseline and 0.08 ± 0.07 min{sup -1} after 4-8 weeks post-treatment (p < 0.001). The mean (±SD) total follow-up time was 7.9 ± 4.7 months. Seventeen patients (22 lesions) underwent midterm MRI. Of those, nine (41 %) lesions had progressed at the midterm follow-up. An increase in K{sub trans} after SRS was predictive of tumor progression (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95 % CI = 1.16-1.70, p < 0.001). An increase of 15 % in K{sub trans} showed a sensitivity of 78 % and a specificity of 85 % for the prediction of progression at midterm follow-up. SRS was associated with a reduction of K{sub trans} values of the cerebral metastases in the early post-treatment period. Furthermore, K{sub trans} variation as assessed using DCE MRI may be helpful to predict midterm outcomes after SRS. (orig.)

  19. Advances in magnetic resonance 11

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 11, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the principles and applications of dynamic nuclear polarization, with emphasis on molecular motions and collisions, intermolecular couplings, and chemical interactions. Subsequent chapters focus on the assessment of a proposed broadband decoupling method and studies of time-domain (or Fourier transform) multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance.

  20. Comparing new templates and atlas-based segmentations in the volumetric analysis of brain magnetic resonance images for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhao, Weizhao; Loewenstein, David A; Potter, Elizabeth; Greig, Maria T; Raj, Ashok; Barker, Warren; Potter, Huntington; Duara, Ranjan

    2012-09-01

    The segmentation of brain structures on magnetic resonance imaging scans for calculating regional brain volumes, using automated anatomic labeling, requires the use of both brain atlases and templates (template sets). This study aims to improve the accuracy of volumetric analysis of hippocampus (HP) and amygdala (AMG) in the assessment of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) by developing template sets that correspond more closely to the brains of elderly individuals. Total intracranial volume and HP and AMG volumes were calculated for elderly subjects with no cognitive impairment (n = 103), with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 68), or with probable AD (n = 46) using the following: (1) a template set consisting of a standard atlas (atlas S), drawn on a young adult male brain, and the widely used Montreal Neurological Institute template (MNI template set); (2) a template set (template S set) in which the template is based on smoothing the image from which atlas S is derived; and (3) a new template set (template E set) in which the template is based on an atlas (atlas E) created from the brain of an elderly individual. Correspondence to HP and AMG volumes derived from manual segmentation was highest with automated segmentation by template E set, intermediate with template S set, and lowest with the MNI template set. The areas under the receiver operating curve for distinguishing elderly subjects with no cognitive impairment from elderly subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or probable AD and the correlations between HP and AMG volumes and cognitive and functional scores were highest for template E set, intermediate for template S set, and lowest for the MNI template set. The accuracy of automated anatomic labeling and the diagnostic value of the derived volumes are improved with template sets based on brain atlases closely resembling the anatomy of the to-be-segmented brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Copyright © 2012 The Alzheimer's Association

  1. Magnetic resonance microscopy defines ethanol-induced brain abnormalities in prenatal mice: effects of acute insult on gestational day 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Khan, Amber A; Parnell, Scott E; Ament, Jacob J; Dehart, Deborah B; Johnson, Brice W; Allan Johnson, G; Styner, Martin A; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2010-01-01

    This magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM)-based report is the second in a series designed to illustrate the spectrum of craniofacial and central nervous system (CNS) dysmorphia resulting from single- and multiple-day maternal ethanol treatment. The study described in this report examined the consequences of ethanol exposure on gestational day (GD) 7 in mice, a time in development when gastrulation and neural plate development begins; corresponding to the mid- to late third week postfertilization in humans. Acute GD 7 ethanol exposure in mice has previously been shown to result in CNS defects consistent with holoprosencephaly (HPE) and craniofacial anomalies typical of those in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). MRM has facilitated further definition of the range of GD 7 ethanol-induced defects. C57Bl/6J female mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered vehicle or 2 injections of 2.9 g/kg ethanol on day 7 of pregnancy. Stage-matched control and ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses selected for imaging were immersion fixed in a Bouins/Prohance solution. MRM was conducted at either 7.0 Tesla (T) or 9.4 T. Resulting 29 microm isotropic spatial resolution scans were segmented and reconstructed to provide 3D images. Linear and volumetric brain measures, as well as morphological features, were compared for control and ethanol-exposed fetuses. Following MRM, selected specimens were processed for routine histology and light microscopic examination. Gestational day 7 ethanol exposure resulted in a spectrum of median facial and forebrain deficiencies, as expected. This range of abnormalities falls within the HPE spectrum; a spectrum for which facial dysmorphology is consistent with and typically is predictive of that of the forebrain. In addition, other defects including median facial cleft, cleft palate, micrognathia, pituitary agenesis, and third ventricular dilatation were identified. MRM analyses also revealed cerebral cortical dysplasia/heterotopias resulting from this acute

  2. Advances in magnetic resonance 6

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 6 focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of applying magnetic resonance methods to various problems in physical chemistry, emphasizing the different aspects of the exegesis of these problems. This book discusses the gas phase magnetic resonance of electronically excited molecules; techniques for observing excited electronic states; NMR studies in liquids at high pressure; and effect of pressure on self-diffusion in liquids. The nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of organic free radicals; measurement of proton coupling constants by NMR; an

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  5. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadal Guillem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR Spectroscopy (MRS is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI. Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses.

  6. Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Avaliacao de foco epileptogenico do lobo temporal: correlacao entre SPECT ictal, ressonancia magnetica e ressonancia magnetica com espectroscopia de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegues, Maria Elena Martins [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: emartyns@terra.com.br; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video-EEG monitoring, using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD, administered to patients at the time of the ictus. MRI was performed in T1, T2 and FLAIR sequences and MRS was obtained using the PRESS technique, with a single voxel positioned in both hippocampi. The statistical analysis included the determination of the values of Kappa (k), standard error (se) and significance level (p) for the lateralization of the ictal focus. The analysis of all findings was based on EEG localization of the ictal discharge, seizure duration (109-280 s; 152 s average) and time of radiotracer injection (30-262 s; 96 s average). We obtained correlated data in four patients (67 per cent) and values of k = 0.67, se = 0.38, and p 0.041. We concluded that there is a concordance between ictal SPECT, MRI and MRS data and the usefulness of the radioisotopic procedure is related to a non diagnostic EEG and when there is a discordant or misleading diagnosis after a comparative analysis of EEG and MRS. (author)

  7. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions,. CC length and total brain volume ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumours and the peritumoural oedema. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging increases the overall diagnostic accuracy in brain tumours: Correlation with histopathology. K Abul-Kasim, M Thurnher, S Puchner, P Sundgren. Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Division of Neuroradiology, Diagnostic Centre for Imaging ...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions, CC length and total brain volume were compared ...

  11. Correlating brain blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fractal dimension mapping with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi, Mohammed A; Molloy, William; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    To correlate temporal fractal structure of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rsBOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy age-matched normal controls (NC). High temporal resolution (4 Hz) rsBOLD signal and single voxel (left putamen) magnetic resonance spectroscopy data was acquired in 33 AD patients and 13 NC. The rsBOLD data was analyzed using two types of fractal dimension (FD) analysis based on relative dispersion and frequency power spectrum. Comparisons in FD were performed between AD and NC, and FD measures were correlated with (1)H-MRS findings. Temporal fractal analysis of rsBOLD, was able to differentiate AD from NC subjects (P = 0.03). Low FD correlated with markers of AD severity including decreased concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (R = 0.44, P = 0.015) and increased myoinositol (mI) (R = -0.45, P = 0.012). Based on these results we suggest fractal analysis of rsBOLD could provide an early marker of AD.

  12. Migraine and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Hougaard, Anders; Vestergaard, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation in the meth......Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation...... in the methodology and quality of the MRS migraine studies over time, some results were consistent and reproducible. 31P-MRS studies suggested reduced availability of neuronal energy and implied a mitochondrial dysfunction in the migraine brain. 1H-MRS studies reported interictal abnormalities in the excitatory...... and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting persistent altered excitability in migraine patients. N-Acetylaspartate levels were decreased in migraine, probably due to a mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal energy metabolism. The reported abnormalities may increase...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  14. Advances in magnetic resonance 12

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 12, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of diffusion and self-diffusion measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance. This is followed by separate chapters on spin-lattice relaxation time in hydrogen isotope mixtures; the principles of optical detection of nuclear spin alignment and nuclear quadropole resonance; and the spin-1 behavior, including the relaxation of the quasi-invariants of the motion of a system of pairs of dipolar coupled spin-1/2 nu

  15. Different early effect of irradiation in brain and small cell lung cancer examined by in vivo 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansen, P E; Pedersen, A G; Quistorff, B

    1992-01-01

    Early effects of irradiation were evaluated by non-invasive in vivo 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of two small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumor lines CPH SCCL 54A and 54B, in nude mice. The tumors were originally derived from the same patient and have similar morphology and growth......-MRS. No effect was observed in brain at any dose level. In contrast, 40 Gy induced a statistically significant reduction in ATP/Pi ratio during the 12-h post-irradiation period. This effect was more pronounced in 54A than in 54B. Some reduction was observed following 10 Gy, whereas 2.5 Gy induced no changes...... in ATP/Pi. The differential effect on tumors and brain might be relevant for monitoring irradiation effects by in vivo 31P-MRS in patients with brain metastases....

  16. [Right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen:a resting functional magnetic resonance imaging of the marginal division of the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Ye; Ma, Lin

    2014-04-01

    To explore the role of marginal division of the human brain in the pain modulation. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied in a patient with right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen and in 8 healthy volunteers. Marginal division was defined using manual drawing on structure images, and was applied to the computation of fuctional connectivity maps. The functional connectivities in the left marginal division showed an evident decrease in the patient when compared with healthy controls. These connectivities were mainly located in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus, putamen, and left globus pallidus. The marginal division may be involved in the pain modulation.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in 122 children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Wong, Yiu C; Fong, Chek M; Wong, Sik N; So, Kwan T

    2004-09-01

    The interrelationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings, types of cerebral palsy, and gestation was studied. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging of brain in 122 children with spastic cerebral palsy. Forty-three patients had spastic hemiplegia, 61 had spastic diplegia, and 18 had spastic tetraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were observed in 75% of patients. Periventricular leukomalacia accounted for 66% of abnormalities observed in patients with spastic diplegia; other types of brain lesions were uncommon. In patients with spastic tetraplegia, two types of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities predominated: congenital brain anomalies and term-type brain injuries, 42% and 33% respectively. Types of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were more heterogeneous in patients with spastic hemiplegia. Preterm brain injuries (periventricular leukomalacia and posthemorrhagic porencephaly) were observed often in patients born at preterm but were also observed in patients born at term. Term-type brain injuries (term-type border-zone infarct, basal ganglia-thalamic lesion, subcortical leukomalacia, and multicystic encephalomalacia) were observed only in patients born at or near term. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging findings for patients with spastic cerebral palsy were closely related to types of cerebral palsy and gestation at birth. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with perinatal brain injury may reflect pathologic changes and is useful in understanding and evaluating cerebral palsy.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of exercise-induced improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain of old high-fat-fed ApoE-/-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Erica N; Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Chauveau, Fabien; Geloën, Alain; Patsouris, David; Thézé, Benoît; Martin, Cyril; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-01

    Vascular brain lesions and atherosclerosis are two similar conditions that are characterized by increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Non-invasive imaging in a murine model of atherosclerosis showed vascular brain damage and peripheral inflammation. In this study, exercise training reduced magnetic resonance imaging-detected abnormalities, insulin resistance and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in old ApoE -/- mice. Our results demonstrate the protective effect of exercise on neurovascular damage in the ageing brain of ApoE -/- mice. Vascular brain lesions, present in advanced atherosclerosis, share pathological hallmarks with peripheral vascular lesions, such as increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Physical activity reduces these peripheral risk factors, but its cerebrovascular effect is less documented, especially by non-invasive imaging. Through a combination of in vivo and post-mortem techniques, we aimed to characterize vascular brain damage in old ApoE -/- mice fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet with dietary controlled intake. We then sought to determine the beneficial effects of exercise training on oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain as a treatment option in an ageing atherosclerosis mouse model. Using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biological markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, we evaluated the occurrence of vascular abnormalities in the brain of HC-diet fed ApoE -/- mice >70 weeks old, its association with local and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, and whether both can be modulated by exercise. Exercise training significantly reduced both MRI-detected abnormalities (present in 71% of untrained vs. 14% of trained mice) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, 9.1 ± 1.4 vs. 5.2 ± 0.9 μmol mg -1 ; P brain, and the mortality rate. Exercise also decreased peripheral insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation, but significant associations were seen only within brain

  19. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, G.; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Stippich, C.

    2010-01-01

    of essential cortex, it cannot provide information preoperatively for surgical planning.Brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly being used to localize functionally critical cortical...

  20. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... health problems, medications, recent surgeries and allergies. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  2. Effective network of deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus with bimodal positron emission tomography/functional magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Sha, Zhi-Qiang; Ma, Hui-Zi; He, Yong; Feng, Tao

    2017-12-08

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has become an effective treatment strategy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the biological mechanism underlying DBS treatment remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how STN-DBS modulated the brain network using a bimodal positron emission tomography (PET)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset. We first performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 13 PET/SPECT studies concerning STN-DBS effects on resting-state brain activity in Parkinson's disease. Additionally, using a functional connectivity analysis in resting-state fMRI, we investigated whether these STN-DBS-affected regions were functionally connected to constitute an effective network. The results revealed that STN-DBS reduced brain activity in the right thalamus, bilateral caudal supplementary area, and the left primary motor cortex, and it increased brain activity in the left thalamus during rest. Second, these STN-DBS-affected areas were functionally connected within an STN-DBS effective network. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) may deactivate the motor cortex as a remote and network effect, affecting the target and the neighboring subcortical areas. These areas may constitute an effective network of STN-DBS modulation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of STN-DBS treatment from a network perspective and highlight the potential therapeutic benefits of targeted network modulation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Functional brain magnetic resonance imaging in healthy people receiving acupuncture at Waiguan versus Waiguan plus Yanglingquan points: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Li, Tian-Le; Lai, Xin-Sheng; Zou, Yan-Qi; Wu, Jun-Xian; Tang, Chun-Zhi; Yang, Jun-Jun

    2009-06-01

    To observe the cerebral activating effects of needling at Waiguan (SJ5) versus SJ5 plus Yanglingquan (GB34) points in young healthy volunteers based on the hypothesis of "needling effect of combined acupuncture points relates to the brain activation". Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly divided into SJ5 group and SJ5 plus GB34 group, and there were 8 volunteers in each group. The volunteers in the two groups received needling at corresponding points on the right hand or foot respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance (1.5T, GE Corporation) was used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain before and during the needling, and the obtained experimental data in the regional brain were processed and analyzed by the method of region of interest (ROI). The ROI activation induced by needling of SJ5 or SJ5 plus GB34 was all relatively concentrated (activation rate more than 4 or activation point more than 10) on bilateral frontal and parietal lobes. There were no significant differences in ROI activation rates of brain regions between the two groups. ROI activation points showed that needling at SJ5 could activate the right cerebellum specifically (P vs SJ5 plus GB34), while needling at SJ5 plus GB34 could activate the left parietal and occipital lobes and bilateral basal ganglion more effectively than activate the other brain regions (P vs SJ5). ROI activation strength showed that needling at SJ5 plus GB34 could more strongly activate the right cerebellum (P vs SJ5). Based on fMRI data, a kind of acupuncture point combination of SJ5 and GB34 within the hand-foot Shaoyang meridians, could improve the motor and sensory dysfunctions and equilibrium disturbance. The effect of combined acupuncture points was proved by cerebral activity initially.

  4. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the evaluation on the development of normal brain white matter in infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-li XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To calculate the radios of peak area of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in brain white matter of normal infants and young children, to observe the features of metabolite spectra, and to explore the relations between their ratio with age. Methods The peak areas of metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and their ratio of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, in paraventricular white matter of 180 normal infants and young children with different ages as evaluated by multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results In paraventricular white matter, spectrum of NAA increased, and that of Cho decreased gradually, while both of them were stabilized at 2 years old. Cr was increased obviously within 3 months, and stabilized after 4 months. Significant differences were found in ratio of different metabolites in paraventricular white matter in different ages (P<0.05. The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in paraventricular white mater were positively correlated with age (r=0.741, r=0.625, while that of Cho/Cr was negatively correlated with age (r=–0.552, P<0.05. Conclusion The ratios of different metabolites are different in brain white matter in infants of different ages. Metabolites concentrations in brain white matter are correlated to some extent with age, which may provide a diagnostic criterion for evaluation of normal brain development and abnormal brain metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.05

  5. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Z. K. Sajib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  6. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr; Woo, Eung Je, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Kyung, Eun Jung [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Bum [Department of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh In [Department of Mathematics, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  7. Advances in magnetic resonance 1

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 1, discusses developments in various areas of magnetic resonance. The subject matter ranges from original theoretical contributions through syntheses of points of view toward series of phenomena to critical and painstaking tabulations of experimental data. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of the theory of relaxation processes. This is followed by separate chapters on the development of magnetic resonance techniques for studying rate processes in chemistry and the application of these techniques to various problems; the geometri

  8. Advances in magnetic resonance 9

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 9 describes the magnetic resonance in split constants and dipolar relaxation. This book discusses the temperature-dependent splitting constants in the ESR spectra of organic free radicals; temperature-dependent splittings in ion pairs; and magnetic resonance induced by electrons. The electron impact excitation of atoms and molecules; intramolecular dipolar relaxation in multi-spin systems; and dipolar cross-correlation problem are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the NMR studies of molecules oriented in thermotropic liquid crystals and diffusion

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  10. Impact of normal sexual dimorphisms on sex differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; O'Brien, Liam M; Horton, Nicholas J; Kennedy, David N; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2002-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that the impact of early insults predisposing to schizophrenia may have differential consequences by sex. We hypothesized that brain regions found to be structurally different in normal men and women (sexual dimorphisms) and abnormal in schizophrenia would show significant sex differences in brain abnormalities, particularly in the cortex, in schizophrenia. Forty outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia by DSM-III-R were systematically sampled to be comparable within sex with 48 normal comparison subjects on the basis of age, ethnicity, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness. A comprehensive assessment of the entire brain was based on T1-weighted 3-dimensional images acquired from a 1.5-T magnet. Multivariate general linear models for correlated data were used to test for sex-specific effects regarding 22 hypothesized cortical, subcortical, and cerebrospinal fluid brain volumes, adjusted for age and total cerebrum size. Sex x group interactions were also tested on asymmetries of the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, additionally controlled for handedness. Normal patterns of sexual dimorphisms were disrupted in schizophrenia. Sex-specific effects were primarily evident in the cortex, particularly in the frontomedial cortex, basal forebrain, cingulate and paracingulate gyri, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and planum temporale. Normal asymmetry of the planum was also disrupted differentially in men and women with schizophrenia. There were no significant differential sex effects in subcortical gray matter regions or cerebrospinal fluid. Factors that produce normal sexual dimorphisms may be associated with modulating insults producing schizophrenia, particularly in the cortex.

  11. Involvement of the middle frontal gyrus in language switching as revealed by electrical stimulation mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging in bilingual brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, Joanna; Fernandez-Coello, Alejandro; Gomez-Andres, Alba; Camins, Àngels; Castañer, Sara; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gabarrós, Andreu; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2018-02-01

    Neural basis of language switching and the cognitive models of bilingualism remain controversial. We explored the functional neuroanatomy of language switching implementing a new multimodal protocol assessing neuropsychological, functional magnetic resonance and intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping results. A prospective series of 9 Spanish-Catalan bilingual candidates for awake brain surgery underwent a specific language switching paradigm implemented both before and after surgery, throughout the electrical stimulation procedure and during functional magnetic resonance both pre- and postoperatively. All patients were harboring left-hemispheric intrinsic brain lesions and were presenting functional language-related activations within the affected hemisphere. Language functional maps were reconstructed on the basis of the intraoperative electrical stimulation results and compared to the functional magnetic resonance findings. Single language-naming sites (Spanish and Catalan), as well as language switching naming sites were detected by electrical stimulation mapping in 8 patients (in one patient only Spanish related sites were detected). Single naming points outnumbered the switching points and did not overlap with each other. Within the frontal lobe, the single language naming sites were found significantly more frequently within the inferior frontal gyrus as compared to the middle frontal gyrus [X 2 (1) = 20.3, p language switching and their neuropsychological scores did not differ significantly from the pre-surgical examinations. Our results suggest a functional division of the frontal cortex between naming and language switching functions, supporting that non-language specific cognitive control prefrontal regions (middle frontal gyrus) are essential to maintain an effective communication together with the classical language-related sites (inferior frontal gyrus). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaode Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM. Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation.

  13. Fusing Markov random fields with anatomical knowledge and shape-based analysis to segment multiple sclerosis white matter lesions in magnetic resonance images of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZubi, Stephan; Toennies, Klaus D.; Bodammer, N.; Hinrichs, Herman

    2002-05-01

    This paper proposes an image analysis system to segment multiple sclerosis lesions of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumes consisting of 3 mm thick slices using three channels (images showing T1-, T2- and PD -weighted contrast). The method uses the statistical model of Markov Random Fields (MRF) both at low and high levels. The neighborhood system used in this MRF is defined in three types: (1) Voxel to voxel: a low-level heterogeneous neighborhood system is used to restore noisy images. (2) Voxel to segment: a fuzzy atlas, which indicates the probability distribution of each tissue type in the brain, is registered elastically with the MRF. It is used by the MRF as a-priori knowledge to correct miss-classified voxels. (3) Segment to segment: Remaining lesion candidates are processed by a feature based classifier that looks at unary and neighborhood information to eliminate more false positives. An expert's manual segmentation was compared with the algorithm.

  14. Accuracy and reliability of automated gray matter segmentation pathways on real and simulated structural magnetic resonance images of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas D Eggert

    Full Text Available Automated gray matter segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging data is essential for morphometric analyses of the brain, particularly when large sample sizes are investigated. However, although detection of small structural brain differences may fundamentally depend on the method used, both accuracy and reliability of different automated segmentation algorithms have rarely been compared. Here, performance of the segmentation algorithms provided by SPM8, VBM8, FSL and FreeSurfer was quantified on simulated and real magnetic resonance imaging data. First, accuracy was assessed by comparing segmentations of twenty simulated and 18 real T1 images with corresponding ground truth images. Second, reliability was determined in ten T1 images from the same subject and in ten T1 images of different subjects scanned twice. Third, the impact of preprocessing steps on segmentation accuracy was investigated. VBM8 showed a very high accuracy and a very high reliability. FSL achieved the highest accuracy but demonstrated poor reliability and FreeSurfer showed the lowest accuracy, but high reliability. An universally valid recommendation on how to implement morphometric analyses is not warranted due to the vast number of scanning and analysis parameters. However, our analysis suggests that researchers can optimize their individual processing procedures with respect to final segmentation quality and exemplifies adequate performance criteria.

  15. 5-HT(2C) antagonism blocks blood oxygen level-dependent pharmacological-challenge magnetic resonance imaging signal in rat brain areas related to feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jennifer A; McKie, Shane; Davies, Karen E; Williams, Steve R; Luckman, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    In this study, pharmacological-challenge magnetic resonance imaging was used to further characterize the central action of serotonin on feeding. In both feeding and pharmacological-challenge magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we combined 5-HT(1B/2C) agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) challenge with pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists, SB 224289 (2.5 mg/kg) and SB 242084 (2 mg/kg), respectively. Subcutaneous injection of mCPP (3 mg/kg) completely blocked fast-induced refeeding in freely behaving, non-anaesthetized male rats, an effect that was not modified by the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist but was partially reversed by the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist. mCPP alone induced both positive and negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the brains of anaesthetized rats, including in the limbic system and basal ganglia. Overall, the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB 242084 reversed the effects elicited by mCPP, whereas the 5-HT(1B) antagonist SB 224289 had virtually no impact. SB 242084 eliminated BOLD signal in nuclei associated with the limbic system and diminished activation in basal ganglia. In addition, BOLD signal was returned to baseline levels in the cortical regions and cerebellum. These results suggest that mCPP may reduce food intake by acting specifically on brain circuits that are modulated by 5-HT(2C) receptors in the rat.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... necessary in trauma situations. Although there is no reason to believe that magnetic resonance imaging harms the ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... and may cause you and/or others nearby harm. These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and ... no reason to believe that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... monitors so that your child may watch a movie or TV show during the exam. It is ... patient for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist prepping patient for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedure View full ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist prepping patient for magnetic resonance imaging ( ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  8. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Increased frequency of white matter impairment and temporal lobe structures dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is an inherited recessive disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. The enzymes most commonly affected are 21-hydroxylase. Past reports suggested brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities in CAH patients, affecting white matter signal, temporal lobe and amygdala structure and function. Aims: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of white matter changes and temporal lobes structures dysgenesis in a population of patients having CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: Neurological examination and brain MRI were performed in 26 patients. Results: Neurological examination revealed mental retardation in three patients, tremor in two patients, tendon reflexes asymmetry in one patient, and cerebellar syndrome in one patient. Eleven patients (42.3% showed MRI abnormalities: Eight of them had white matter hyperintensities, one patient had moderate atrophy in the right temporal, and hippocampal dysgenesis was found in the remaining two patients. Conclusions: Brain MRI abnormalities in CAH patients include white matter hyperintensities and temporal lobe structures dysgenesis. The mechanisms involved seem related to hormonal imbalances during brain development and exposure to excess exogenous glucocorticoids. Clinical implications of such lesions remain unclear. More extensive studies are required to define better the relationships between brain involvement and different CAH phenotypes and treatment regimens.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Eric W; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Pussini, Nicola; Battey, Thomas W K; Barakos, Jerome; Dennison, Sophie; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances

    2010-09-17

    Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions.

  10. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seok Kyun; Kim, Gwang Won; Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jong Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Kwun [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.

  11. Comparison of brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging features in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders patients with or without aquaporin-4 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Moli; Fu, Ying; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Wood, Kristofer; Yang, Li; Liu, Yaou; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2017-04-01

    The spinal cord and brain measurements are rarely investigated in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with and without antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4), directly compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of both brain and spinal cord in NMO patients with and without antibodies to AQP4, compared with MS patients and healthy controls (HC). We recruited 55 NMO including 30 AQP4 (+) and 25 AQP4 (-), 25 MS and 25 HC. Brain and spinal cord MRIs were obtained for each participant. Brain lesions (BL), whole brain and deep grey matter volumes (DGMV), white matter diffusion metrics and spinal cord lesions were measured and compared among groups. The incidence of BL was lower in the AQP4 (+) group than in the AQP4 (-) and MS groups (p<0.05). In the AQP4 (+) group, there was a lower incidence of infratentorial lesions (ITL) and higher spinal cord lesions length than in the MS group (p<0.05). The thalamic and hippocampal volumes were smaller in the AQP4 (-) group and MS group than in the HC group (p<0.05). The NMO patients with AQP4 (-) showed higher prevalence of BL, ITL, and similar spinal cord lesion length, compared to AQP4 (+), and demonstrated deep grey matter atrophy, suggesting an intermediate phenotype between that of typical MS and NMO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in magnetic resonance 4

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 4 deals with the relaxation, irradiation, and other dynamical effects that is specific to systems having resolved structure in their magnetic resonance spectra. This book discusses the anisotropic rotation of molecules in liquids by NMR quadrupolar relaxation; rotational diffusion constants; alternating linewidth effect; and theoretical formulations of the problem. The line shapes in high-resolution NMR; matrix representations of the equations of motion; matrix representations of the equations of motion; and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are also delibera

  13. Advances in magnetic resonance 2

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 2, features a mixture of experimental and theoretical contributions. The book contains four chapters and begins with an ambitious and general treatment of the problem of signal-to-noise ratio in magnetic resonance. This is followed by separate chapters on the interpretation of nuclear relaxation in fluids, with special reference to hydrogen; and various aspects of molecular theory of importance in NMR.

  14. Understanding Heterogeneity and Permeability of Brain Metastases in Murine Models of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Through Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Implications for Detection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Murrell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Brain metastases due to breast cancer are increasing, and the prognosis is poor. Lack of effective therapy is attributed to heterogeneity of breast cancers and their resulting metastases, as well as impermeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB, which hinders delivery of therapeutics to the brain. This work investigates three experimental models of HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis to better understand the inherent heterogeneity of the disease. We use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to quantify brain metastatic growth and explore its relationship with BBB permeability. DESIGN: Brain metastases due to breast cancer cells (SUM190-BR3, JIMT-1-BR3, or MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 were imaged at 3 T using balanced steady-state free precession and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin echo sequences. The histology and immunohistochemistry corresponding to MRI were also analyzed. RESULTS: There were differences in metastatic tumor appearance by MRI, histology, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, CD31, CD105 across the three models. The mean volume of an MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 tumor was significantly larger compared to other models (F2,12 = 5.845, P < .05; interestingly, this model also had a significantly higher proportion of Gd-impermeable tumors (F2,12 = 22.18, P < .0001. Ki67 staining indicated that Gd-impermeable tumors had significantly more proliferative nuclei compared to Gd-permeable tumors (t[24] = 2.389, P < .05 in the MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 model. CD31 and CD105 staining suggested no difference in new vasculature patterns between permeable and impermeable tumors in any model. CONCLUSION: Significant heterogeneity is present in these models of brain metastases from HER2+ breast cancer. Understanding this heterogeneity, especially as it relates to BBB permeability, is important for improvement in brain metastasis detection and treatment delivery.

  15. Changes in Male Rat Sexual Behavior and Brain Activity Revealed by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Response to Chronic Mild Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guotao; Yang, Baibing; Chen, Jianhuai; Zhu, Leilei; Jiang, Hesong; Yu, Wen; Zang, Fengchao; Chen, Yun; Dai, Yutian

    2017-12-21

    Non-organic erectile dysfunction (noED) at functional imaging has been related to abnormal brain activity and requires animal models for further research on the associated molecular mechanisms. To develop a noED animal model based on chronic mild stress and investigate brain activity changes. We used 6 weeks of chronic mild stress to induce depression. The sucrose consumption test was used to assess the hedonic state. The apomorphine test and sexual behavior test were used to select male rats with ED. Rats with depression and ED were considered to have noED. Blood oxygen level-dependent-based resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were conducted on these rats, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and functional connectivity were analyzed to determine brain activity changes. The sexual behavior test and resting-state fMRI were used for outcome measures. The induction of depression was confirmed by the sucrose consumption test. A low intromission ratio and increased mount and intromission latencies were observed in male rats with depression. No erection was observed in male rats with depression during the apomorphine test. Male rats with depression and ED were considered to have noED. The possible central pathologic mechanism shown by fMRI involved the amygdaloid body, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, cingulate gyrus, insular cortex, visual cortex, sensory cortex, motor cortex, and cerebellum. Similar findings have been found in humans. The present study provided a novel noED rat model for further research on the central mechanism of noED. The present study developed a novel noED rat model and analyzed brain activity changes based at fMRI. The observed brain activity alterations might not extend to humans. The present study developed a novel noED rat model with brain activity alterations related to sexual arousal and erection, which will be helpful for further research involving the central mechanism of noED. Chen

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging; Imagerie par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanel, F. [Centre Hospitalier, 40 - Mont-de -Marsan (France); Clerc, T. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 76 - Rouen (France); Theolier, S. [Hospice Civils de Lyon, 69 - Lyon (France); Verdenet, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 25 - Besancon (France)

    1997-04-01

    The last improvements in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging are detailed here, society by society with an expose of their different devices. In the future the different technological evolutions will be on a faster acquisition, allowing to reduce the examination time, on the development of a more acute cardiac imaging, of a functional neuro-imaging and an interactive imaging for intervention. With the contrast produc