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Sample records for brain edema

  1. Osmotherapy in brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grände, Per-Olof; Romner, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been used since the 1960s in diseases associated with brain edema and has been investigated in >150 publications on head injury, very little has been published on the outcome of osmotherapy. We can only speculate whether osmotherapy improves outcome, has no effect......, osmotherapy can be negative for outcome, which may explain why we lack scientific support for its use. These drawbacks, and the fact that the most recent Cochrane meta-analyses of osmotherapy in brain edema and stroke could not find any beneficial effects on outcome, make routine use of osmotherapy in brain...... edema doubtful. Nevertheless, the use of osmotherapy as a temporary measure may be justified to acutely prevent brain stem compression until other measures, such as evacuation of space-occupying lesions or decompressive craniotomy, can be performed. This article is the Con part in a Pro-Con debate...

  2. Aquaporin-4 and traumatic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; XU Qiu-ping

    2010-01-01

    Brain edema leading to an expansion of brain volume has a crucial impact on morbidity and mortal-ity following traumatic brain injury as it increases intracra-nial pressure, impairs cerebral perfusion and oxygenation,and contributes to additional ischemic injuries.Classically,two major types of traumatic brain edema exist: "vasogenic"and "cytotoxic/cellular".However, the cellular and molecu-lar mechanisms contributing to the development/resolution of traumatic brain edema are poorly understood and no ef-fective drugs can be used now.Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water-channel protein expressed strongly in the brain, pre-dominantly in astrocyte foot processes at the borders be-tween the brain parenchyma and major fluid compartments, including cerebrospinal fluid and blood.This distribution suggests that AQP4 controls water fluxes into and out of the brain parenchyma.In cytotoxic edema, AQP4 deletion slows the rate of water entry into brain, whereas in vasogenic edema, AQP4 deletion reduces the rate of water outflow from brain parenchyma.AQP4 has been proposed as a novel drug target in brain edema.These findings sug-gest that modulation of AQP4 expression or function may be beneficial in traumatic brain edema.

  3. Radiosurgery for brain metastases and cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Inbal; Har-Nof, Sagi; Cohen, Zvi R; Zibly, Zion; Nissim, Uzi; Spiegelmann, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess reduction in cerebral edema following linear accelerator radiosurgery (LINAC) as first line therapy for brain metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LINAC radiosurgery for brain metastasis at our institution during 2010-2012, and who had not previously undergone either surgery or whole brain radiotherapy. Data were analyzed for 55 brain metastases from 46 patients (24 males), mean age 59.9 years. During the 2 months following LINAC radiosurgery, the mean steroid dose decreased from 4.8 to 2.6 mg/day, the mean metastasis volume decreased from 3.79±4.12 cc to 2.8±4.48 cc (p=0.001), and the mean edema volume decreased from 16.91±30.15 cc to 12.85±24.47 cc (p=0.23). The 17 patients with reductions of more than 50% in brain edema volume had single metastases. Edema volume in the nine patients with two brain metastases remained stable in five patients (volume change 10%, 2-14 cc). In a subanalysis of eight metastases with baseline edema volume greater than 40 cc, edema volume decreased from 77.27±37.21 cc to 24.84±35.6 cc (p=0.034). Reductions in brain edema were greater in metastases for which non-small-cell lung carcinoma and breast cancers were the primary diseases. Overall, symptoms improved in most patients. No patients who were without symptoms or who had no signs of increased intracranial pressure at baseline developed signs of intracranial pressure following LINAC radiosurgery. In this series, LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic brain lesions resulted in early reduction in brain edema volume in single metastasis patients and those with large edema volumes, and reduced the need for steroids. PMID:25533053

  4. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Shotaro Michinaga; Yutaka Koyama

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vas...

  5. Aquaporin-4 and ischemic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saihong Dun; Yang Guo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and brain edema.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms of "aquaporin-4, brain edema", we searched PubMed database to identify studies published from January 1997 to April 2006 in the English languages. Meanwhile, we also searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for related studies.STUDY SELECTION: The collected data were selected firstly. Studies on AQP4 and brain edema were chosen and their full-texts were searched for, and those with repetitive or review studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 146 related studies were collected, 42 of them were involved and the other 104 studies were used for reading reference data.DATA SYNTHESIS: AQP4 is a selective water permeable integral membrane protein. It is mainly expressed in astrocytes and ependymocyte, and is the important structural basis for water regulation and transportation between glial cells and cerebrospinal fluid or vessels. Phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of AQP4.AQP4 participates in the formation of brain edema caused by various factors. Studies on the structure and pathological changes of AQP4 are still in the initial stage, and the role and mechanism of AQP4 in the formation of brain edema is very unclear.CONCLUSION: AQP4 plays a critical regulating role in the formation of ischemic brain edema, but whether it is regulated by drugs lacks reliable evidence.

  6. Peritumoral brain edema in angiomatous supratentorial meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Sørensen, Lars Peter; Dyrbye, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway and peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) through comparison of non-angiomatous and angiomatous meningiomas. Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors, which often have PTBE. VEGF-A is an integral part of PTBE...

  7. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Michinaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vasogenic or cytotoxic edema. Vasogenic edema is defined as extracellular accumulation of fluid resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and extravasations of serum proteins, while cytotoxic edema is characterized by cell swelling caused by intracellular accumulation of fluid. Various experimental animal models are often used to investigate mechanisms underlying brain edema. Many soluble factors and functional molecules have been confirmed to induce BBB disruption or cell swelling and drugs targeted to these factors are expected to have anti-edema effects. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and involvement of factors that induce brain edema formation, and the possibility of anti-edema drugs targeting them.

  8. Effects of dexamethasone on brain edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental cerebral edema was produced on the right parietal lobe of Wistar male rats with a cold metal probe cooled by liquid nitrogen. Twenty hour later, 3H-dexamethasone was either intramuscularly or intravenously injected into rats, estimated in the brain tissue by the liquid scintillation counting method. Edematous brain generally contained much higher 3H-activity than the control. Furthermore, I.V. injection showed higher 3H-activity than I.M injection in edematous and control brains at all times. For examination of the subcellular distribution of 3H-dexamethasone in edematous brain, 3H-activity was most strongly detected in the supernatant fraction (63%), followed by the heavy mitochondrial fraction (25.4%) and the nuclear fraction (8.4%). Although edematous brain tissue constantly demonstrated higher 3H-activity than the control, its supernatant fraction conversely had less activity. As a next step, distribution of 3H-dexamethasone in the supernatant fraction was studies. The result was that the high molecular weight fraction in the edematous brain showed higher radioactivity than the control. From these findings, unequivocal distribution of dexamethasone in the supernatant fraction of edematous brain tissue could be correlated with its biochemical action for preventing brain edema. (J.P.N.)

  9. Effect of AVP on brain edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; HUANG Wei-dong; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Qiu-ping; CHEN Zhao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level in patients with traumatic brain injury and investigate the role of AVP in the process of brain edema. Methods: A total of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury were involved in our study. They were divided into two groups by Glasgow Coma Scale: severe traumatic brain injury group (STBI, GCS≤ 8) and moderate traumatic brain injury group (MTBI, GCS>8).Samples of venous blood were collected in the morning at rest from 15 healthy volunteers (control group)and within 24 h after traumatic brain injury from these patients for AVP determinations by radioimmunoassay. The severity and duration of the brain edema were estimated by head CT scan.Results: plasma AVP levels (ng/L) were (mean±SD): control, 3.06±1.49; MTBI, 38.12±7.25; and STBI, 66.61±17.10.The plasma level of AVP was significantly increased within 24 h after traumatic brain injury and followed by the reduction of GCS, suggesting the deterioration of cerebral injury (P<0.01). And the AVP level was correlated with the severity (STBI r=0.919, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.724, P<0.01) and the duration of brain edema (STBI r=0.790, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.712, P<0.01). Conclusions: The plasma AVP level is closely associated with the severity of traumatic brain injury. AVP may play an important role in pathogenesis of brain edema after traumatic brain injury.

  10. Mathematical modelling of blood-brain barrier failure and edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sarah; Lang, Georgina; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Injuries such as traumatic brain injury and stroke can result in increased blood-brain barrier permeability. This increase may lead to water accumulation in the brain tissue resulting in vasogenic edema. Although the initial injury may be localised, the resulting edema causes mechanical damage and compression of the vasculature beyond the original injury site. We employ a biphasic mixture model to investigate the consequences of blood-brain barrier permeability changes within a region of brain tissue and the onset of vasogenic edema. We find that such localised changes can indeed result in brain tissue swelling and that the type of damage that results (stress damage or strain damage) depends on the ability of the brain to clear edema fluid.

  11. Effects of metformin treatment on glioma-induced brain edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hailiang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that metformin can activate 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in protection of endothelial cell permeability. Hence, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on blood brain barrier permeability and AQP4 expression in vitro, and assessed the effects of metformin treatment on tumor-induced brain edema in vivo. Hypoxia or VEGF exposure enhanced bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer permeability and attenuated the expression of tight junction proteins including Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2. However, 0.5 mM metformin treatment protected bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer from hypoxia or VEGF-induced permeability, which was correlated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. Furthermore, metformin treatment attenuated AQP4 protein expression in cultured astrocytes. Such an effect involved the activation of AMPK and inhibition of NF-κB. Finally, metformin treatment dose-dependently reduced glioma induced vascular permeability and cerebral edema in vivo in rats. Thus, our results suggested that metformin may protect endothelial cell tight junction, prevent damage to the blood brain barrier induced by brain tumor growth, and alleviate the formation of cerebral edema. Furthermore, since the formation of cytotoxic edema and AQP4 expression was positively correlated, our results indicated that metformin may reduce the formation of cytotoxic edema. However, given that AQP4 plays a key role in the elimination of cerebral edema, attenuation of AQP4 expression by metformin may reduce the elimination of cerebral edema. Hence, future studies will be necessary to dissect the specific mechanisms of metformin underlying the dynamics of tumor-induced brain edema in vivo.

  12. Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles ... it can involve your entire body. Causes of edema include Eating too much salt Sunburn Heart failure ...

  13. Effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯东福; 朱志安; 卢亦成

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema and explore its possible mechanism.Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control, Trauma and Treatment groups. In Treatment group, magnesium sulfate was intraperitoneally administered immediately after the induction of brain trauma. At 24 h after trauma, total tissue water content and Na + , K + , Ca2 + , Mg2+ contents were measured. Permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB)was assessed quantitatively by Evans Blue (EB) dye technique. The pathological changes were also studied.Results: Water, Na + , Ca2 + and EB contents in Treatment group were significantly lower than those in Trauma group ( P < 0. 05 ). Results of light microscopy and electron microscopy confirmed that magnesium sulfate can attenuate traumatic brain injury and relieve BBB injury.Conclusions: Treatment with MgSO4 in the early stage can attenuate traumatic brain edema and prevent BBB injury.

  14. Generalised brain edema and brain infarct in ergotamine abuse: Visualization by CT, MR and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuse of ergotamine can release a generalised brain edema and brain infarctions. This can be visualized by CT, MR and angiography. The reason, however, can only be found in the patients history. (orig.)

  15. Lethal brain edema, shock, and coagulopathy after scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavari, Yuval; Lazar, Isaac; Shelef, Ilan; Sofer, Shaul

    2013-03-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old Bedouin boy in whom developed severe and unusual complications after being stung, most probably, by the yellow scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. Five hours after arrival to the emergency department, the boy had multisystem organ failure involving the central nervous system (seizure activity followed by coma with dilated, nonreactive pupils, and severe brain edema), shock (noncardiogenic), disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure, hepatic failure, and watery diarrhea, causing his death. In view of the relevant literature, we discuss the pathophysiologic events ultimately leading to his death. PMID:23280335

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERITUMORAL BRAIN EDEMA AND VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH MENINGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether VEGF plays a role in the development of peritumoral brain edema. Methods 50 meningioma patients and their VEGF expression were studied. We took a mono- clonal antibody from mouse to VEGF to stain the tumor cells, the vascular endothelial cells and the interstitial cells. The severity of brain edema was evaluated according to CT or MR scans by the following equation: edema index = Vtumor+edema/Vtumor. The relationship between VEGF expression and edema index was analyzed statisti- cally. Results VEGF was expressed in meningioma tumor cells, which is usually concentrated at the pe- ripheral sites of the tumor. There was a positive linear correlation between the expression and the brain edema index. Conclusion VEGF may play a role in the development of peritumoral brain edema in meningioma patient.

  17. Subtle BBB alterations in brain edema associated with acute liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Vasogenic mechanism of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) remains poorly understood. Recent work demonstrates that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the development of brain edema in experimental ALF (J Hepatol 44:1105, 2006). Importantly, MMP-9 blockage with specific monoclonal antibodies and/or synthetic inhibitor, the edema is attenuated. Specifically, utrastructural evaluations demonstrate intact blood-brain barrier and its tight junction. These results suggest that ...

  18. Acetazolamide Mitigates Astrocyte Cellular Edema Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Nasya M.; Smith, Sean G.; Ali, Syed F.; Wolchok, Jeffrey C.; Balachandran, Kartik

    2016-09-01

    Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema. We hypothesized that mTBI-mediated astrocyte dysfunction, initiated by increased intracellular volume, could be reduced when treated with AZA. We tested our hypothesis in a three-dimensional in vitro astrocyte model of mTBI. Samples were subject to no stretch (control) or one high-speed stretch (mTBI) injury. AQP4 expression was significantly increased 24 hours after mTBI. mTBI resulted in a significant increase in the cell swelling within 30 min of mTBI, which was significantly reduced in the presence of AZA. Cell death and expression of S100B was significantly reduced when AZA was added shortly before mTBI stretch. Overall, our data point to occurrence of astrocyte swelling immediately following mTBI, and AZA as a promising treatment to mitigate downstream cellular mortality.

  19. Brain expression of the water channels Aquaporin-1 and -4 in mice with acute liver injury, hyperammonemia and brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Martin; Jelnes, Peter; Schmidt, Lars E;

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a feared complication to acute liver failure (ALF), but the pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The water channels Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) and -4 (Aqp4) has been associated with brain edema formation in several neuropathological conditions, indicating a possible role of Aqp1 and....../or Aqp4 in ALF mediated brain edema. We induced acute liver injury and hyperammonemia in mice, to evaluate brain edema formation and the parallel expression of Aqp1 and Aqp4 in ALF. Liver injury and hyperammonemia were induced by +D-galactosamine (GLN) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally......(6266) (p edema in mice with ALF....

  20. Peritumoral brain edema in intracranial meningiomas Edema peritumoral em meningiomas intracranianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson de Azambuja Pereira-Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of peritumoral brain edema (PBE in meningiomas has been associated with several factors in recent years, although its pathophysiological mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the presence / degree of PBE and factors such as gender, age, size and histological subtype of tumor. We analyzed the MRI images of 74 patients operated on Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de Porto Alegre for the presence / degree of PBE and data was statistically correlated with the parameters of the patient. PBE was present in 70.1% of patients. Tumors with higher volume had more PBE. Tumors of the olfactory groove showed more PBE than sphenoid wing and parassagittal tumors. Transitional subtype showed more PBE than fibroblastic and meningothelial subtypes.A presença de edema cerebral peritumoral (ECP em meningiomas tem sido associada a diversos fatores nos últimos anos, embora o seu mecanismo fisiopatológico ainda não tenha sido inteiramente elucidado. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a correlação entre a presença/grau de ECP e fatores como sexo, idade, volume e subtipo histológico do tumor. Foram analisadas imagens de RM de 74 pacientes operados no Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de Porto Alegre quanto à presença/grau de ECP e os dados correlacionados estatisticamente com os parâmetros do paciente. ECP estava presente em 70,1% dos pacientes. Tumores com maior volume apresentaram mais ECP. Tumores da goteira olfatória apresentaram mais ECP que os da asa do esfenóide e que os parassagitais. Meningiomas transicionais apresentaram mais ECP que os fibroblásticos e que os meningoteliais.

  1. Agmatine attenuates brain edema through reducing the expression of aquaporin-1 after cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Jong Eun LEE

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema is frequently shown after cerebral ischemia. It is an expansion of brain volume because of increasing water content in brain. It causes to increase mortality after stroke. Agmatine, formed by the decarboxylation of -arginine by arginine decarboxylase, has been shown to be neuroprotective in trauma and ischemia models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agmatine for brain edema in ischemic brain damage and to evaluate the expression of aquaporins (AQPs). Res...

  2. Cerebral Edema in Traumatic Brain Injury: Pathophysiology and Prospective Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Minter, Daniel; Yue, John K; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a heterogeneous disorder resulting from an external force applied to the head. The development of cerebral edema plays a central role in the evolution of injury following brain trauma and is closely associated with neurologic outcomes. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular pathways contributing to the posttraumatic development of cerebral edema have led to the identification of multiple prospective therapeutic targets. The authors summarize the pathogenic mechanisms underlying cerebral edema and highlight the molecular pathways that may be therapeutically targeted to mitigate cerebral edema and associated sequelae following traumatic brain injury. PMID:27637397

  3. Correlation of cell apoptosis with brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-feng; LIU Wei-guo; SHEN Hong; GONG Jiang-biao; YU Jun; HU Wei-wei; L(U) Shi-ting; ZHENG Xiu-jue; FU Wei-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between brain edema, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and cell apoptosis in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: In this study, totally 42 rabbits in 7 groups were studied. Six of the animals were identified as a control group, and the remaining 36 animals were equally divided into 6 TBI groups. TBI models were produced by the modified method of Feeney. After the impact, ICP of each subject was recorded continuously by an ICP monitor until the animal was sacrificed at scheduled time. The apoptotic brain cells were detected by an terminal deoxynucleotide-transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cerebral water content (CWC) was measured with a drying method and calculated according to the Elliott formula. Then, an analysis was conducted to determine the correlation between the count of apoptotic cells and the clinical pathological changes of the brain. Results: Apoptotic cell count began to increase 2 h after the impact, and reached its maximum about 3 days after the impact. The peak value of CWC and ICP appeared 1 day and 3 days after the impact, respectively. Apoptotic cell count had a positive correlation with CWC and ICP. Conclusions: In TBI, occurrence of brain edema and ICP increase might lead to apoptosis of brain cells. Any therapy which can relieve brain edema and/or decrease ICP would be able to reduce neuron apoptosis, thereby to attenuate the secondary brain damage.

  4. Prevention and management of brain edema in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendon, J.; Larsen, Finn Stolze

    2008-01-01

    1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema...

  5. Brain Edema after Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for a Large Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Whan; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2016-08-01

    Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS. PMID:27574486

  6. Histological examination on edema formation in the rabbit brain exposed to head-down tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, R; Kawai, Y

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that exposure to simulated microgravity, head-down tilt (HDT), caused cephalad fluid shift, increased capillary pressure in the head, and produced facial edema and nasal congestion. It is also known that exposure to HDT affects hemodynamics in the brain. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity increases for at least 6 hours after the onset of 6 degrees HDT in humans. Intracranial pressure (ICP) elevates during 6 degrees HDT in humans and monkeys. However, there is little information regarding edema formation in the brain due to HDT except a morphological study reported by Kaplansky and colleagues who showed that perivascular edema occurred in the monkey brain after 7 days of 6 degrees HDT. Thus, it is interesting to examine whether edema formation occurs in the other animal model for simulation of microgravity, since several factors such as the duration of HDT, angle of HDT, and species difference may affect the result. In the present study, formation of brain edema was investigated by histological examinations in rabbits exposed to 45 degrees HDT for 2 days or 8 days. We hypothesized that HDT causes brain edema which can be demonstrated as extravasation of plasma constituents and histological changes.

  7. Differential aquaporin 4 expression during edema build-up and resolution phases of brain inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochet Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasogenic edema dynamically accumulates in many brain disorders associated with brain inflammation, with the critical step of edema exacerbation feared in patient care. Water entrance through blood-brain barrier (BBB opening is thought to have a role in edema formation. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of edema resolution remain poorly understood. Because the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4 provides an important route for vasogenic edema resolution, we studied the time course of AQP4 expression to better understand its potential effect in countering the exacerbation of vasogenic edema. Methods Focal inflammation was induced in the rat brain by a lysolecithin injection and was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 20 days using a combination of in vivo MRI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements used as a marker of water content, and molecular and histological approaches for the quantification of AQP4 expression. Markers of active inflammation (macrophages, BBB permeability, and interleukin-1β and markers of scarring (gliosis were also quantified. Results This animal model of brain inflammation demonstrated two phases of edema development: an initial edema build-up phase during active inflammation that peaked after 3 days (ADC increase was followed by an edema resolution phase that lasted from 7 to 20 days post injection (ADC decrease and was accompanied by glial scar formation. A moderate upregulation in AQP4 was observed during the build-up phase, but a much stronger transcriptional and translational level of AQP4 expression was observed during the secondary edema resolution phase. Conclusions We conclude that a time lag in AQP4 expression occurs such that the more significant upregulation was achieved only after a delay period. This change in AQP4 expression appears to act as an important determinant in the exacerbation of edema, considering that AQP4 expression is insufficient to counter the water influx during the build

  8. Human neuronal changes in brain edema and increased intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Nóra; Kocsis, Ágnes Katalin; Braskó, Csilla; Lovas, Sándor; Rózsa, Márton; Baka, Judith; Kovács, Balázs; Mikite, Katalin; Szemenyei, Viktor; Molnár, Gábor; Ozsvár, Attila; Oláh, Gáspár; Piszár, Ildikó; Zvara, Ágnes; Patócs, Attila; Barzó, Pál; Puskás, László G; Tamás, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Functional and molecular changes associated with pathophysiological conditions are relatively easily detected based on tissue samples collected from patients. Population specific cellular responses to disease might remain undiscovered in samples taken from organs formed by a multitude of cell types. This is particularly apparent in the human cerebral cortex composed of a yet undefined number of neuron types with a potentially different involvement in disease processes. We combined cellular electrophysiology, anatomy and single cell digital PCR in human neurons identified in situ for the first time to assess mRNA expression and corresponding functional changes in response to edema and increased intracranial pressure. In single pyramidal cells, mRNA copy numbers of AQP1, AQP3, HMOX1, KCNN4, SCN3B and SOD2 increased, while CACNA1B, CRH decreased in edema. In addition, single pyramidal cells increased the copy number of AQP1, HTR5A and KCNS1 mRNAs in response to increased intracranial pressure. In contrast to pyramidal cells, AQP1, HMOX1and KCNN4 remained unchanged in single cell digital PCR performed on fast spiking cells in edema. Corroborating single cell digital PCR results, pharmacological and immunohistochemical results also suggested the presence of KCNN4 encoding the α-subunit of KCa3.1 channels in edema on pyramidal cells, but not on interneurons. We measured the frequency of spontaneous EPSPs on pyramidal cells in both pathophysiological conditions and on fast spiking interneurons in edema and found a significant decrease in each case, which was accompanied by an increase in input resistances on both cell types and by a drop in dendritic spine density on pyramidal cells consistent with a loss of excitatory synapses. Our results identify anatomical and/or physiological changes in human pyramidal and fast spiking cells in edema and increased intracranial pressure revealing cell type specific quantitative changes in gene expression. Some of the edema

  9. A new approach to ischemic brain edema and infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Yu; Jin Jia Xing; Liu De Ha

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility and efficiency of treatment in the patients with acute moderate and severe ischemic stroke with Neurotropin for its principle of inhibiting cerebral edema and repairing injured neurons. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with Neurotropin was performed in 50 patients admitted within 48h after an acute internal carotid artery infarction, Neurological deficits score ( Europe Stroke Scale-ESS ) <80 marks and the area of infarct and edema>2.25cm2. There were 31 patients in the Neurotropin group and 19 patients in the control group. Basic treatment was Troxerutin 250 mg intravenous drip per day for 21 days in two groups. Additionally, the patients in the Neurotropin group were intravenous injected 106 ampoule Neurotropin (3.6 unit per ampoule), divided into 11 days. We evaluated Neurological deficits score (ESS), ability of daily living (ADL)- Barthel Index, the size and average CT density of infarct and edema area on CT scan during different treatment stage and analyzed.them with statistics. Results: The percentage of improved patients (complete and partial recovery) reaches 64.5% in the Neurotropin group and 31.6% in the control group. The size of the infarct and edema area on CT scan is significantly reduced only in the Neurotropin group after treatment. The average range reduced is 28% on day 11 and 41.5% on day 21, and the average CT density in the Neurotropin group is more advanced than in the control group after onset. Conclusion: Neurotropin can be used as an effective therapy in acute ischemic stroke and ischemic cerebral edema.

  10. Influence of age on brain edema formation, secondary brain damage and inflammatory response after brain trauma in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Timaru-Kast

    Full Text Available After traumatic brain injury (TBI elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months and old (21 months male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2% compared to young (0%. This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral

  11. Comparative observation with MRI and pathology of brain edema at the early stage of severe burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between MRI features and pathology in brain edema at the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA Ⅲ degree) in dogs.Methods: Fifty-two dogs were randomized into control, simple burn (SB), burn plus sodium lactate (BSL), and burn plus glucose solution groups (BGS). The manifestation of the brain of control group was compared with that of burn groups at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours postburn with MRI and pathological examination (gross appearance, electron microscopy and light microscopy).Results: The earliest findings of brain edema were seen at 12 hours after burn in BGS group, in which brain swelling was the main feature of MRI. The decrease of SIR on T1WI was not observed until it was exceeded 10%.Signal of T2WI increased by 8.29% at 24 hours after burn.It was difficult to distinguish the gray matter from the white matter at the boundary line, which became blurred later. Histological changes of brain edema were observed as early as 6 hours after burn, being accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and peri-vescular astrocytes, and vacuolation took place in neurons at 12 hours after burn, with different degrees of necrosis of capillary endothelimn,neurons, and axons. These changes became more marked with elapse of time. The BGS group showed the most obvious changes mentioned above at 24 hours after burn.Conclusions: The model of the brain edema after severe burn has the feature of both vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema on the MRI and pathology. Positive MRI findings lagged behind that of the pathomorphological changes.ed

  12. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghui eJie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein in hippocampus of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  13. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zeynalov

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2 and tolvaptan (V2 are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke.Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan or orally (tolvaptan for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS, plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC and Evans Blue (EB extravasation index were evaluated at the end point.Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle. Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05.Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke.

  14. Reduction of Cerebral Edema after Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Osmotic Transport Device

    OpenAIRE

    Devin W McBride; Szu, Jenny I.; Hale, Chris; Hsu, Mike S.; Victor G J Rodgers; Binder, Devin K.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant, from a public health standpoint, because it is a major cause of the morbidity and mortality of young people. Cerebral edema after a TBI, if untreated, can lead to devastating damage of the remaining tissue. The current therapies of severe TBI (sTBI), as outlined by the Brain Trauma Foundation, are often ineffective, thus a new method for the treatment of sTBI is necessary. Herein, the reduction of cerebral edema, after TBI, using an osmotic transpo...

  15. Enhanced Expression of Aquaporin-9 in Rat Brain Edema Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaili WANG; Runming JIN; Peichao TIAN; Zhihong ZHUO

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of AQP9 in brain edema,the expression of AQP9 in an infectious rat brain edema model induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined.Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the expressions of AQP9 mRNA and protein at all observed intervals were significantly increased in LPS-treated animals in comparison with the control animals.Time-course analysis showed that the first signs of blood-brain barrier disruption and the increase of brain water content in LPS-treated animals were evident 6 h after LPS injection,with maximum value appearing at 12 h,which coincided with the expression profiles of AQP9 mRNA and protein in LPS-treated animals.The further correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlations among the brain water content,the disruption of the blood-brain barrier and the enhanced expressions of AQP9 mRNA and protein in LPS-treated animals.These results suggested that the regulation of AQP9 expression may play important roles in water movement and in brain metabolic homeostasis associated with the pathophysiology of brain edema induced by LPS injection.

  16. A STUDY ON PERITUMORAL BRAIN EDEMA AROUND MENINGIOMAS BY MRI AND CONTRAST CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; KAMMAN, RL; WILMINK, JT; MOOYAART, EL

    1994-01-01

    In the present study upon 9 meningiomas, the volume of peritumoral brain edema was calculated by integration of the cross-sectional edematous areas on serial MRI slices. It was zero in 3 cases and ranged from 11 to 176.4 ml in the other cases. There was disruption of the cortex in all cases, ranging

  17. Pathophysiology of Juvenile Traumatic Brain Injury: Role of Edema and a Potential Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force to the head, resulting in damage to the brain. TBI is especially common in children and young adults and is associated with long-term mortality and morbidity. Juveniles seem to be at increased risk of developing cerebral edema after TBI partly due to higher water content and developmental differences in the brain's response to injury. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and plays a critical role in edem...

  18. Central role of maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic brain edema formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the ensuing reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas; the two processes are interactive closely under the driving of maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphologic and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the ensuing glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K+ and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein and water channel protein aquaporin 4 to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the blood-brain barrier, but also lead to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation.

  19. Reduction of cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury using an osmotic transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Szu, Jenny I; Hale, Chris; Hsu, Mike S; Rodgers, Victor G J; Binder, Devin K

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant, from a public health standpoint, because it is a major cause of the morbidity and mortality of young people. Cerebral edema after a TBI, if untreated, can lead to devastating damage of the remaining tissue. The current therapies of severe TBI (sTBI), as outlined by the Brain Trauma Foundation, are often ineffective, thus a new method for the treatment of sTBI is necessary. Herein, the reduction of cerebral edema, after TBI, using an osmotic transport device (OTD) was evaluated. Controlled cortical impact (CCI) was performed on adult female CD-1 mice, and cerebral edema was allowed to form for 3 h, followed by 2 h of treatment. The treatment groups were craniectomy only, craniectomy with a hydrogel, OTD without bovine serum albumin (BSA), and OTD. After CCI, brain water content was significantly higher for animals treated with a craniectomy only, craniectomy with a hydrogel, and OTD without BSA, compared to that of control animals. However, when TBI animals were treated with an OTD, brain water content was not significantly higher than that of controls. Further, brain water content of TBI animals treated with an OTD was significantly reduced, compared to that of untreated TBI animals, TBI animals treated with a craniectomy and a hydrogel, and TBI animals treated with an OTD without BSA. Here, we demonstrate the successful reduction of cerebral edema, as determined by brain water content, after TBI using an OTD. These results demonstrate proof of principle for direct water extraction from edematous brain tissue by direct osmotherapy using an OTD.

  20. A fatal adverse effect of cefazolin administration: severe brain edema in a patient with multiple meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribuddharat S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirirat Tribuddharat,1 Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee,1 Amnat Kitkhuandee,2 Sunchai Theerapongpakdee,1 Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup,1 Sarinya Chanthawong,11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Abstract: Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment. This was followed by unexplained metabolic acidosis. The patient then developed severe brain edema 100 minutes later. The patient had facial edema when her face was exposed for the next 30 minutes. A computed tomography scan revealed global brain edema with herniation. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for symptomatic treatment and died 10 days after surgery from multiorgan failure. The serum IgE level was very high (734 IU/mL. Single-dose administration of cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis may lead to rare, fatal adverse reaction. The warning signs are sudden, unexplained metabolic acidosis, hypertensive crisis, tachycardia, and facial angioedema predominating with or without cutaneous symptoms like urticaria. Keywords: cefazolin, adverse effect, drug hypersensitivity, brain edema, hypertension

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein level and gene expression in intracranial meningiomas with brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Dyrbye, Henrik; Andresen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common primary intracranial tumors in adults. Although meningiomas are mostly benign, more than 50% of patients with meningioma develop peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), which may be fatal because of increased intracranial pressure. Vascular endothelial growth factor....... Forty-three patients had primary, solitary, supratentorial meningiomas with PTBE. In these, correlations in PTBE, edema index, VEGF-A protein, VEGF gene expression, capillary length, and tumor water content were investigated. DNA-branched hybridization was used for measuring VEGF gene expression...... in tissue homogenates prepared from frozen tissue samples. The method for VEGF-A analysis resembled an ELISA assay, but was based on chemiluminescence. The edema index was positively correlated to VEGF-A protein (p = 0.014) and VEGF gene expression (p

  2. Alleviation of ischemia-induced brain edema by activation of the central histaminergic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Yumi; Adachi, Naoto; Liu, Keyue; Arai, Tatsuru; Nagaro, Takumi

    2008-09-01

    We have reported that facilitation of central histaminergic activity prevents the development of ischemia-induced brain injury. Since cerebral edema is a major cause of brain damage, we studied effects on brain edema of postischemic administration of L-histidine, a precursor of histamine, and thioperamide, a histamine H(3)-receptor antagonist, both of which enhance central histaminergic activity. Focal cerebral ischemia for 2 h was provoked by transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in rats, and the water content and infarct size were determined 24 h after reperfusion. Changes in the extracellular concentration of histamine were examined in the striatum by a microdialysis procedure, and effects of these compounds were evaluated. Repeated administration of L-histidine (1000 mg/kg x 2, i.p.), immediately and 6 h after reperfusion, reduced the increase in the water contents in ischemic regions. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide (5 mg/kg, s.c.) with L-histidine (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevented edema formation and alleviated brain infarction, although a single dose of L-histidine, immediately after reperfusion, showed no benefits. The striatal histamine level was gradually increased after reperfusion as well as during ischemia. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide with L-histidine markedly increased the brain histamine concentration, and the value increased up to 230% of that in the saline group 5 - 6 h after reperfusion. L-Histidine alone did not affect the increase in the histamine output after ischemia. These findings suggest that further activation of the central histaminergic system after initiation of cerebral ischemia prevents development of ischemia-induced brain edema.

  3. Dexamethasone exacerbates cerebral edema and brain injury following lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, B A; Chun, K P; Ma, D; Lythgoe, M F; Scott, R C

    2014-03-01

    Anti-inflammatory therapies are the current most plausible drug candidates for anti-epileptogenesis and neuroprotection following prolonged seizures. Given that vasogenic edema is widely considered to be detrimental for outcome following status epilepticus, the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone is sometimes used in clinic for alleviating cerebral edema. In this study we perform longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging in order to assess the contribution of dexamethasone on cerebral edema and subsequent neuroprotection following status epilepticus. Lithium-pilocarpine was used to induce status epilepticus in rats. Following status epilepticus, rats were either post-treated with saline or with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (10mg/kg or 2mg/kg). Brain edema was assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging (T2 relaxometry) and hippocampal volumetry was used as a marker of neuronal injury. T2 relaxometry was performed prior to, 48 h and 96 h following status epilepticus. Volume measurements were performed between 18 and 21 days after status epilepticus. Unexpectedly, cerebral edema was worse in rats that were treated with dexamethasone compared to controls. Furthermore, dexamethasone treated rats had lower hippocampal volumes compared to controls 3 weeks after the initial insult. The T2 measurements at 2 days and 4 days in the hippocampus correlated with hippocampal volumes at 3 weeks. Finally, the mortality rate in the first week following status epilepticus increased from 14% in untreated rats to 33% and 46% in rats treated with 2mg/kg and 10mg/kg dexamethasone respectively. These findings suggest that dexamethasone can exacerbate the acute cerebral edema and brain injury associated with status epilepticus.

  4. Hyperammonemia,brain edema and blood-brain barrier alterations in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats and paravrtamol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; Maria A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema,animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication.METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ: sham operation; Ⅱ: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; Ⅲ:Acetaminophen intoxication and Ⅳ: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen. Acetaminophen was administered to produce acute hepatic injury. Portal pressure, liver serum enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were determined. Brain cortex water content was registered and trypan blue was utilized to study blood brain barrier integrity. Reflexes and behavioral tests were recorded.RESULTS: Portal hypertension was significantly elevated in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ. Liver enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were increased in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅳ. Prehepatic portal hypertension (group Ⅱ), acetaminophen intoxication (group Ⅲ) and both (group Ⅳ) had changes in the blood brain-barrier integrity (trypan blue) and hyperammonemia. Cortical edema was present in rats with acute hepatic injury in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Behavioral test (rota rod) was altered in group Ⅳ.CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of another pathway for cortical edema production because blood brain barrier was altered (vasogenic) and hyperammonemia was registered (cytotoxic). Group Ⅳ, with behavioral altered test, can be considered as a model for study at an early stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

  5. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  6. Racking the brain: Detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ross, Steffen G.; Gascho, Dominic [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas D. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: patricia.flach@irm.uzh.ch [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to

  7. Racking the brain: Detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to

  8. The apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured side after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hong; Lei, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury, vasogenic and cytotoxic edema appear sequentially on the involved side. Neuroimaging investigations of edema on the injured side have employed apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion tensor imaging. We investigated the changes occurring on the injured and uninjured sides using diffusion tensor imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient and histological samples in rats. We found that, on the injured side, that vasogenic edema appeared at 1 hour and in...

  9. Central Role of Maladapted Astrocytic Plasticity in Ischemic Brain Edema Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the resulting reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas, associated with maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphological and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the subsequent glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K(+) and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the BBB. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the BBB, but also leads to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation. PMID:27242440

  10. Brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: The role of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiangjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH results in secondary brain edema and injury that may lead to death and disability. ICH also causes inflammation. It is unclear whether inflammation contributes to brain edema and neuron injury or functions in repairing the brain tissue. Aims: To understand the effect of inflammation in ICH, we have carried out an investigation on the various aspects and the dynamic changes of inflammation. Settings and Design: An ICH model was generated by injecting 50 ml autologous tail artery blood stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of 30 rats, which were randomly divided into five ICH groups. Similarly, five Sham control groups were generated by inserting the needle to the right caudate nucleus of rats. Materials and Methods: Rat behavior was evaluated over the time course (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d in each group. The rats were then killed by administering an overdose of pentobarbital. Following the euthanasia, the brain water content, neuronal loss, glia proliferation, inflammatory infiltration and brain morphology of the rats were measured. Additionally, the expression of TNF-a,IL-6, ICAM-1, VEGF, NF-kB, C3 and CR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by student′s t test. Results: Rat brain water content increased progressively over the time course and reached its peak at 48h followed ICH. The maximum of inflammatory infiltrate (especially neutrophils and immunopositive cells of TNF-a, IL-6 and NF-kB, were at 48h. The expression of C3 and CR2 reached their peaks at 48-72h, while the expression ICAM-1 and VEGF were at maximum at 72h followed ICH. Conclusions: The results suggested that the inflammatory cytokines, complement system and VEGF may have a function in the development of the brain edema and neuron injury followed ICH.

  11. Feasibility of using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the quantification of brain edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan G.; Sisson, Cynthia; Hendricks, Chad; Pattillo, Chris; McWaters, Megan; Hardjasudarma, Mardjohan; Quarles, Chad; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Battarbee, Harold

    2001-05-01

    Many diseased states of the brain can result in the displacement of brain tissues and restrict cerebral blood flow, disrupting function in a life-threatening manner. Clinical examples where displacements are observed include venous thromboses, hematomas, strokes, tumors, abscesses, and, particularly, brain edema. For the latter, the brain tissue swells, displacing the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) layer that surrounds it, eventually pressing itself against the skull. Under such conditions, catheters are often inserted into the brain's ventricles or the subarachnoid space to monitor increased pressure. These are invasive procedures that incur increased risk of infection and consequently are used reluctantly by clinicians. Recent studies in the field of biomedical optics have suggested that the presence or absence of the CSF layer can lead to dramatic changes in NIR signals obtained from diffuse reflectance measurements around the head. In this study, we consider how this sensitivity of NIR signals to CSF might be exploited to non-invasively monitor the onset and resolution of brain edema.

  12. The apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured side after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lu; Xiaoyan Lei

    2014-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury, vasogenic and cytotoxic edema appear sequentially on the in-volved side. Neuroimaging investigations of edema on the injured side have employed apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion tensor imaging. We investigated the changes occurring on the injured and uninjured sides using diffusion tensor imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient and histological samples in rats. We found that, on the injured side, that vasogen-ic edema appeared at 1 hour and intracellular edema appeared at 3 hours. Mixed edema was observed at 6 hours, worsening until 12-24 hours post-injury. Simultaneously, microglial cells proliferated at the trauma site. Apparent diffusion coefficient values increased at 1 hour, decreased at 6 hours, and increased at 12 hours. The uninjured side showed no significant pathological change at 1 hour after injury. Cytotoxic edema appeared at 3 hours, and vasogen-ic edema was visible at 6 hours. Cytotoxic edema persisted, but vasogenic edema tended to decrease after 12-24 hours. Despite this complex edema pattern on the uninjured side with associated pathologic changes, no significant change in apparent diffusion coefficient values was detected over the first 24 hours. Apparent diffusion coefficient values accurately detected the changes on the injured side, but did not detect the changes on the uninjured side, giving a false-negative result.

  13. MRI findings of acute cerebral swelling and brain edema in the acute stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases, one of acute cerebral swelling and the other with a major stroke, whose MRI has shown very interesting findings. Case 1, a 32-year-old male, was admitted to our service because of a lowering of his consciousness immediately after a head injury. On admission, the patient was semicomatous (E1M2V1, with anisocoria (R > L). His plain skull X-ray was normal. A CT scan, however, demonstrated right isodensity hemispheric swelling associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. A right carotid angiogram showed no vascular disorders. MR imaging of the spin density demonstrated a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in the whole right hemisphere. Case 2, a 58-year-old female, was admitted because of a sudden onset of loss of consciousness, with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. On admission, her consciousness was semicomatous (E1M3V1), and it deteriorated to a deep coma 1 hour later. A CT scan demonstrated a diffuse left hemispheric low density, with a finding of hemorrhagic infarction in the basal ganglia. MR imaging of the spin density showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter resembling that of Case 1. The findings of the spin-echo images of our two cases showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in both. The hyperintensity and thickening of the gray matter apparently indicated a sort of hyperemia and brain edema. These findings led us to suspect that the hyperemia associated with acute cerebral swelling and ischemic brain edema of our two cases originated in the gray matter, although it has been considered that the pathogenesis of acute cerebral swelling is not known and that brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, will mostly develop in the white matter rather than in the gray matter. (author)

  14. Multi-fractal texture features for brain tumor and edema segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, S.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we propose a fully automatic brain tumor and edema segmentation technique in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Different brain tissues are characterized using the novel texture features such as piece-wise triangular prism surface area (PTPSA), multi-fractional Brownian motion (mBm) and Gabor-like textons, along with regular intensity and intensity difference features. Classical Random Forest (RF) classifier is used to formulate the segmentation task as classification of these features in multi-modal MRIs. The segmentation performance is compared with other state-of-art works using a publicly available dataset known as Brain Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2012 [1]. Quantitative evaluation is done using the online evaluation tool from Kitware/MIDAS website [2]. The results show that our segmentation performance is more consistent and, on the average, outperforms other state-of-the art works in both training and challenge cases in the BRATS competition.

  15. Clinical and neuroradiological studies of eclampsia. Cerebral vasospasm and relation to the brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Hisayoshi; Ando, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Takeshi; Yanagi, Tsutomu [Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Clinical and neuroradiological studies involving cerebral angiography were conducted in four patients with eclampsia. In three cases (case 1, 2 and 4), neurological focal signs, abnormal low density areas on cranial CT and T{sub 2} high intensity areas on cranial MRI disappeared within a month. But in one case (case 3), cerebral infarction occurred and right hemiparesis and aphasia persisted. Cerebral angiography in the acute phase demonstrated vasospasm in all cases and arterial occlusion in the middle cerebral artery due to vasospasm in case 3. Angiography demonstrated several types of spasms, including diffuse, peripheral and multi local. Furthermore, in some cases, diffuse vasospasms were recognized at the siphon and extracranial portions of the internal carotid artery. In one case (Case 4), segmental vasospasms were detected in the bilateral vertebral arteries. Three to four weeks later, follow-up cerebral angiography was performed in three cases. Cerebral vasospasms had partially or completely recovered. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was excluded by lumbar puncture and neuroradiological findings in all cases. We concluded that eclampsia itself causes cerebral vasospasm and that the mechanism of vasospasm is different from that of SAH, since cerebral vasospasm occurred in the extracranial cerebral arteries. We suspected that cerebral vasospasm in eclampsia causes cerebral ischemia, which leads to cytotoxic edema and dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral autoregulation. With this background, brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, may easily occur and clinical symptoms of eclampsia may appear when the blood pressure rapidly increases. (author).

  16. Rifaximin, but not growth factor 1, reduces brain edema in cirrhotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gemma (ò)dena; Mireia Miquel; Anna Serafín; Amparo Galan; Rosa Morillas; Ramon Planas; Ramon Bartolí

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare rifaximin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 treatment of hyperammonemia and brain edema in cirrhotic rats with portal occlusion.METHODS:Rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis with ascites plus portal vein occlusion and controls were randomized into six groups:Cirrhosis; Cirrhosis + IGF-1;Cirrhosis + rifaximin; Controls; Controls + IGF-1; and Controls + rifaximin.An oral glutamine-challenge test was performed,and plasma and cerebral ammonia,glucose,bilirubin,transaminases,endotoxemia,brain water content and ileocecal cultures were measured and liver histology was assessed.RESULTS:Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced bacterial overgrowth and endotoxemia compared with cirrhosis groups,and improved some liver function parameters (bilirubin,alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase).These effects were associated with a significant reduction in cerebral water content.Blood and cerebral ammonia levels,and area-underthe-curve values for oral glutamine-challenge tests were similar in rifaximin-treated cirrhotic rats and control group animals.By contrast,IGF-1 administration failed to improve most alterations observed in cirrhosis.CONCLUSION:By reducing gut bacterial overgrowth,only rifaximin was capable of normalizing plasma and brain ammonia and thereby abolishing low-grade brain edema,alterations associated with hepatic encephalopathy.

  17. Minocycline-induced hypersensitivity syndrome presenting with meningitis and brain edema: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefebvre Nicolas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypersentivity Syndrome (HS may be a life-threatening condition. It frequently presents with fever, rash, eosinophilia and systemic manifestations. Mortality can be as high as 10% and is primarily due to hepatic failure. We describe what we believe to be the first case of minocycline-induced HS with accompanying lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema reported in the literature. Case presentation A 31-year-old HIV-positive female of African origin presented with acute fever, lymphocytic meningitis, brain edema, rash, eosinophilia, and cytolytic hepatitis. She had been started on minocycline for inflammatory acne 21 days prior to the onset of symptoms. HS was diagnosed clinically and after exclusion of infectious causes. Minocycline was withdrawn and steroids were administered from the second day after presentation because of the severity of the symptoms. All signs resolved by the seventh day and steroids were tailed off over a period of 8 months. Conclusion Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for serious adverse reactions to minocycline including lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema among HIV-positive patients, especially if they are of African origin. Safer alternatives should be considered for treatment of acne vulgaris. Early recognition of the symptoms and prompt withdrawal of the drug are important to improve the outcome.

  18. Occludin and connexin 43 expression contribute to the pathogenesis of traumatic brain edema*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanyin Ren; Guojie Jing; Qin Shen; Xiaoteng Yao; Yingchao Jing; Feng Lin; Weidong Pan

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of traumatic brain injury was established in Sprague-Dawley rats according to Feeney’s free fal ing method. The brains were harvested at 2, 6 and 24 hours, and at 3 and 5 days after injury. Changes in brain water content were determined using the wet and dry weights. Our results showed that water content of tissue significantly increased after traumatic brain injury, and reached minimum at 24 hours. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed pathological impairment of brain tissue at each time point after injury, particularly at 3 days, with nerve celledema, degenera-tion, and necrosis observed, and the apoptotic rate significantly increased. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of occludin at the injured site gradual y de-creased as injury time advanced and reached a minimum at 3 days after injury; the expression of connexin 43 gradual y increased as injury time advanced and reached a peak at 24 hours after in-jury. The experimental findings indicate that changes in occludin and connexin 43 expression were consistent with the development of brain edema, and may reflect the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J; Qian, Z; Li, W; Hu, G [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, T, E-mail: zhiyu@nuaa.edu.cn [School of Clinical Medicine, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient ({mu}{sub s}') and BWC. By recording {mu}{sub s}' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Qian, Z.; Yang, T.; Li, W.; Hu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μs') and BWC. By recording μs' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  1. Purinergic receptor stimulation reduces cytotoxic edema and brain infarcts in mouse induced by photothrombosis by energizing glial mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available Treatments to improve the neurological outcome of edema and cerebral ischemic stroke are severely limited. Here, we present the first in vivo single cell images of cortical mouse astrocytes documenting the impact of single vessel photothrombosis on cytotoxic edema and cerebral infarcts. The volume of astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP increased by over 600% within 3 hours of ischemia. The subsequent growth of cerebral infarcts was easily followed as the loss of GFP fluorescence as astrocytes lysed. Cytotoxic edema and the magnitude of ischemic lesions were significantly reduced by treatment with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5' diphosphate (2-MeSADP, an agonist with high specificity for the purinergic receptor type 1 isoform (P2Y(1R. At 24 hours, cytotoxic edema in astrocytes was still apparent at the penumbra and preceded the cell lysis that defined the infarct. Delayed 2MeSADP treatment, 24 hours after the initial thrombosis, also significantly reduced cytotoxic edema and the continued growth of the brain infarction. Pharmacological and genetic evidence are presented indicating that 2MeSADP protection is mediated by enhanced astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism via increased inositol trisphosphate (IP(3-dependent Ca(2+ release. We suggest that mitochondria play a critical role in astrocyte energy metabolism in the penumbra of ischemic lesions, where low ATP levels are widely accepted to be responsible for cytotoxic edema. Enhancement of this energy source could have similar protective benefits for a wide range of brain injuries.

  2. Effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 张光霁; 丁学华; 江基尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: An acute experimental closed TBI model in rats was induced by a fluid-percussion brain injury model. At five and sixty minutes after TBI, the animals were intraperitoneally injected by ganglioside GM1 (30 mg/kg) or the same volume of saline. At the 6th hour after TBI, effects of ganglioside GM1 or saline on changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), contents of water, lactic acid (LA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the injured cerebral tissues were observed.Results: After TBI, MAP decreased and contents of water, LA and LPO increased in brain injury group; however, MAP was back to normal levels and contents of water, LA and LPO decreased in ganglioside GM1 treated group, compared with those in brain injury group (P0.05) was observed.Conclusions: Ganglioside GM1 does have obvious neuroprotective effect on early TBI.

  3. Effect of Xingnaojing injection on cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier in rats following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; XU Qiu-ping; HUANG Wei-dong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of Xingnaojing injection on cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats following traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: A total of 108 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as subjects and randomly assigned to three groups:sham-operation,TBI and Xingnaojing injection was set up by the improved device of Feeney's weightcontent and BBB permeability expressed as Evans blue content were measured at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after surgery.Results: In sham-operation group, brain water content and Evans blue content in brain tissue were 78.97%±1.22%and 5.13μg±0.71μg. Following TBI, water content in brain tissue was increased significantly at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days (83.49%±0.54%, 82.74%±0.72%, 80.22%±0.68%, 79.21%±0.60%), being significantly higher than that in sham operation group (P<0.05). Evans blue content was increased in TBI group (16.54 μg±0.60 μg, 14.92μg±0.71μg, 12.44 μg ±0.92μg, 10.14μg±0.52 μg) as compared with sham-operation group(P<0.05). After treatment with Xingnaojing injection, brain water content decreased as compared with TBI group (81.91%±1.04%, 80.38%±0.72%, 79.54%±0.58%,78.60%±0.77%, P<0.05). Xingnaojing injection also reduced the leakage of BBB as compared with TBI group (15.11 μg± 0.63 μg, 13.62 μg±0.85μg, 10.06 μg±0.67 μg, 9.54 μg±0.41 μg,P<0.05).Conclusion: Xingnaojing injection could alleviate cerebral edema following TBI via reducing permeability ofBBB.

  4. Protection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor to Brain Edema Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Involved Mechanisms: Effect of Aquaporin-4.

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    Heling Chu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has protective effects on many neurological diseases. However, whether VEGF acts on brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is largely unknown. Our previous study has shown aquaporin-4 (AQP4 plays an important role in brain edema elimination following ICH. Meanwhile, there is close relationship between VEGF and AQP4. In this study, we aimed to test effects of VEGF on brain edema following ICH and examine whether they were AQP4 dependent. Recombinant human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165 was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 d after ICH induced by microinjecting autologous whole blood into striatum. We detected perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression, then examined the effects of rhVEGF165 on perihemotomal brain edema at 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after injection in wild type (AQP4(+/+ and AQP4 knock-out (AQP4(-/- mice. Furthermore, we assessed the possible signal transduction pathways activated by VEGF to regulate AQP4 expression via astrocyte cultures. We found perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression was highly increased by rhVEGF165. RhVEGF165 alleviated perihemotomal brain edema in AQP4(+/+ mice at each time point, but had no effect on AQP4(-/- mice. Perihemotomal EB extravasation was increased by rhVEGF165 in AQP4(-/- mice, but not AQP4(+/+ mice. RhVEGF165 reduced neurological deficits and increased Nissl's staining cells surrounding hemotoma in both types of mice and these effects were related to AQP4. RhVEGF165 up-regulated phospharylation of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK and AQP4 protein in cultured astrocytes. The latter was inhibited by JNK and ERK inhibitors. In conclusion, VEGF reduces neurological deficits, brain edema, and neuronal death surrounding hemotoma but has no influence on BBB permeability. These effects are closely related to AQP4 up-regulation, possibly through activating JNK and ERK pathways. The current study may present new insights to

  5. Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke.

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    Di Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP, a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. METHODS: C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption after MCAO. RESULTS: LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.

  6. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

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    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  7. Relationship between specific gravity, water content, and serum protein extravasation in various types of vasogenic brain edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, H W; Bodsch, W; Hossmann, K A

    1984-01-01

    Vasogenic brain edema was induced in cats by cold injury (six animals), brain tumors (five animals), and brain abscesses (six animals). Water and electrolyte content, specific gravity, blood volume, and the amount of extravasated serum proteins were determined in small tissue samples taken from gray and white matter at various distances from the lesion. Edema was strictly confined to the white matter of the affected hemisphere and declined from the lesion to the more peripheral regions. It was characterized by the extravasation of serum proteins and an increase of water and sodium content with little or unpredictable changes of potassium and blood volume. The calculated sodium content of edema fluid varied between 129 and 135 mueq/ml, and serum protein content between 8.1 and 11.9 mg/ml. In all three types of edema, specific gravity and water content correlated closely with the same slope and intercept of the calculated regression (y = 1.119-0.0011 x, r = -0.91). The results obtained indicate that the main denominator of specific gravity of edematous white matter is water content and that this relationship is not significantly altered by variations of blood volume or serum protein content. PMID:6475495

  8. Estrogen provides neuroprotection against brain edema and blood brain barrier disruption through both estrogen receptors α and β following traumatic brain injury

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    Vida Naderi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Estrogen (E2 has neuroprotective effects on blood-brain-barrier (BBB after traumatic brain injury (TBI. In order to investigate the roles of estrogen receptors (ERs in these effects, ER-α antagonist (MPP and, ER-β antagonist (PHTPP, or non-selective estrogen receptors antagonist (ICI 182780 were administered. Materials and Methods: Ovariectomized rats were divided into 10 groups, as follows: Sham, TBI, E2, oil, MPP+E2, PHTPP+E2, MPP+PHTPP+E2, ICI+E2, MPP, and DMSO. E2 (33.3 µg/Kg or oil were administered 30 min after TBI. 1 dose (150 µg/Kg of each of MPP, PHTPP, and (4 mg/kg ICI182780 was injected two times, 24 hr apart, before TBI and estrogen treatment. BBB disruption (Evans blue content and brain edema (brain water content evaluated 5 hr and 24 hr after the TBI were evaluated, respectively. Results: The results showed that E2 reduced brain edema after TBI compared to vehicle (P

  9. Neuroprotective effects of nimodipine and MK-801 on acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli to neocortex of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立华; 刘丽旭; 杨于嘉; 刘运生; 曹美鸿

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism and type of acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli (PB) in rat neocortex, to study the neuroprotective effect of non-competitive antagonist of N-methl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor ( MK-801 ) and antagonist of Ca2+ channels ( nimodipine )on brain edema, and to investigate the relationship between percentage of water content and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in synaptosomes or content of Evans Blue (EB).Methods: 95 SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, ie, normal control group, sham-operated control group, PB group, nimodipine treatment group and MK-801 pretreatment group. The acute infectious brain edema was induced by injection of PB into the rats. Quantitative measurements of water content and the concentration of EB were performed. [Ca2+]i was determined in calcium fluorescent indication Fura-2/AM loaded neuronal synaptosome with a spectrofluorophotometer. To observe the effect of MK-801 and nimodipine, we administered MK-801 48 hours and 24 hours before the injection of PB in MK-801 pretreatment group, and nimodipine after the injection of PB in nimodipine treatment group. The specific binding of NMDA receptor was measured with [3H]-MK-801 in the neuronal membrane of cerebral cortex. Results: The levels of water content and EB content of brain tissues, and [Ca2+]i in the neuronal synaptosomes increased more significantly in the PB-injected cerebral hemisphere in the PB group than those of normal control group and sham-operated control group (P0.05). Conclusions: The changes in the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and Ca2+-overload may participate in the pathogenesis of infectious brain edema. Treatment with nimodipine can dramatically reduce the damage of brain edema and demonstrate neuroprotective effect on brain edema by inhibiting the excess of Ca2+ influx and reducing the permeability of BBB. MK-801 pretreatment may inhibit the delayed Ca2+ influx into

  10. Brain edema formation correlates with perfusion deficit during the first six hours after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

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    Westermaier Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe brain edema is observed in a number of patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Little is known about its pathogenesis and time-course in the first hours after SAH. This study was performed to investigate the development of brain edema and its correlation with brain perfusion after experimental SAH. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats, randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 8, were subjected to SAH using the endovascular filament model or underwent a sham operation. Animals were sacrificed 15, 30, 60, 180 or 360 minutes after SAH. Intracranial pressure (ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP and bilateral local cerebral blood flow (LCBF were continuously measured. Brain water content (BWC was determined by the wet/dry-weight method. Results After SAH, CPP and LCBF rapidly decreased. The decline of LCBF markedly exceeded the decline of CPP and persisted until the end of the observation period. BWC continuously increased. A significant correlation was observed between the BWC and the extent of the perfusion deficit in animals sacrificed after 180 and 360 minutes. Conclusions The significant correlation with the perfusion deficit after SAH suggests that the development of brain edema is related to the extent of ischemia and acute vasoconstriction in the first hours after SAH.

  11. Treadmill exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced brain edema while suppressing Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ryutaro; Sugimoto, Kana; Aono, Hitomi; Mise, Ayano; Choudhury, Mohammed E; Miyanishi, Kazuya; Islam, Afsana; Fujita, Takahiro; Takeda, Haruna; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Yano, Hajime; Tanaka, Junya

    2016-03-01

    Exercise may be one of the most effective and sound therapies for stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying the curative effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of forced treadmill exercise with electric shock on ischemic brain edema were investigated. Wistar rats were subjected to transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Eighty nine rats with substantially large ischemic lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were randomly assigned to exercise and non-exercise groups. The rats were forced to run at 4-6m/s for 10 min/day on days 2, 3 and 4. Brain edema was measured on day 5 by MRI, histochemical staining of brain sections and tissue water content determination (n=7, each experiment). Motor function in some rats was examined on day 30 (n=6). Exercise reduced brain edema (Pexercise. Exercise prevented the ischemia-induced expression of mRNA encoding aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) (n=5 or 7, Prat brains and also in mixed glial cultures. Corticosterone at ~10nM reduced NHE1 and AQP4 expression in mixed glial and pure microglial cultures. Dexamethasone and aldosterone at 10nM did not significantly alter NHE1 and AQP4 expression. Exposure to a NHE inhibitor caused shrinkage of microglial cells. These results suggest that the stressful short-period and slow-paced treadmill exercise suppressed NHE1 and AQP4 expression resulting in the amelioration of brain edema at least partly via the moderate increase in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:26724742

  12. Brain edema and intracranial hypertension in fulminant hepatic failure: Pathophysiology and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Detry; Arnaud De Roover; Pierre Honoré; Michel Meurisse

    2006-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from fulminant hepatic failure. The etiology of this intracranial hypertension is not fully determined, and is probably multifactorial, combining a cytotoxic brain edema due to the astrocytic accumulation of glutamine, and an increase in cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow, in part due to inflammation, to glutamine and to toxic products of the diseased liver. Validated methods to control intracranial hypertension in fulminant hepatic failure patients mainly include mannitol, hypertonic saline, indomethacin, thiopental, and hyperventilation.However all these measures are often not sufficient in absence of liver transplantation, the only curative treatment of intracranial hypertension in fulminant hepatic failure to date. Induced moderate hypothermia seems very promising in this setting, but has to be validated by a controlled, randomized study. Artificial liver support systems have been under investigation for many decades. The bioartificial liver, based on both detoxification and swine liver cells, has shown some efficacy on reduction of intracranial pressure but did not show survival benefit in a controlled, randomized study.The Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System has shown some efficacy in decreasing intracranial pressure in an animal model of liver failure, but has still to be evaluated in a phase Ⅲ trial.

  13. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:26498936

  14. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  15. Inhibition of HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases by FG-4497 reduces brain tissue injury and edema formation during ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Stefan; Li, Lexiao; Walkinshaw, Gail; Flippin, Lee A; Marti, Hugo H; Kunze, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke results in disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), edema formation and neuronal cell loss. Some neuroprotective factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) favor edema formation, while others such as erythropoietin (Epo) can mitigate it. Both factors are controlled by hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) and the activity of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD). We hypothesize that activation of the adaptive hypoxic response by inhibition of PHD results in neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage. Mice, subjected to cerebral ischemia, were pre- or post-treated with the novel PHD inhibitor FG-4497. Inhibition of PHD activity resulted in HIF-1α stabilization, increased expression of VEGF and Epo, improved outcome from ischemic stroke and reduced edema formation by maintaining BBB integrity. Additional in vitro studies using brain endothelial cells and primary astrocytes confirmed that FG-4497 induces the HIF signaling pathway, leading to increased VEGF and Epo expression. In an in vitro ischemia model, using combined oxygen and glucose deprivation, FG-4497 promoted the survival of neurons. Furthermore, FG-4497 prevented the ischemia-induced rearrangement and gap formation of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens 1 and occludin, both in cultured endothelial cells and in infarcted brain tissue in vivo. These results indicate that FG-4497 has the potential to prevent cerebral ischemic damage by neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage. PMID:24409307

  16. Inhibition of HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases by FG-4497 reduces brain tissue injury and edema formation during ischemic stroke.

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    Stefan Reischl

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB, edema formation and neuronal cell loss. Some neuroprotective factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF favor edema formation, while others such as erythropoietin (Epo can mitigate it. Both factors are controlled by hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF and the activity of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD. We hypothesize that activation of the adaptive hypoxic response by inhibition of PHD results in neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage. Mice, subjected to cerebral ischemia, were pre- or post-treated with the novel PHD inhibitor FG-4497. Inhibition of PHD activity resulted in HIF-1α stabilization, increased expression of VEGF and Epo, improved outcome from ischemic stroke and reduced edema formation by maintaining BBB integrity. Additional in vitro studies using brain endothelial cells and primary astrocytes confirmed that FG-4497 induces the HIF signaling pathway, leading to increased VEGF and Epo expression. In an in vitro ischemia model, using combined oxygen and glucose deprivation, FG-4497 promoted the survival of neurons. Furthermore, FG-4497 prevented the ischemia-induced rearrangement and gap formation of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens 1 and occludin, both in cultured endothelial cells and in infarcted brain tissue in vivo. These results indicate that FG-4497 has the potential to prevent cerebral ischemic damage by neuroprotection and prevention of vascular leakage.

  17. A correlative study between AQP4 expression and the manifestation of DWI after the acute ischemic brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏; 孙善全

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rule of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression in acute ischemic brain edema, and to study the correlation between AQP4 expression and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups randomly, control group (n=12) and operation group (n=24) in which right middle cerebral artery of each animal had been occluded unilaterally (MCAO) at interval times of: 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours, respectively. The operation process of the control group was the same as the operation group except for the MCAO. All groups were examined using DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relative density (rd) and relative area (rs) of the biggest hyperintensity signal layer on DWI were measured. After that the animals were sacrificed and perfused with the mixture solution consisting of TTC. The biggest layers of the ischemic cerebral tissues in each rat corresponding to the DWI were stained with TTC and examined with immunochemistry (△S) , in situ hybridization (α) and histology.Results There was no significant change in the control group. In the operation group, a hyperintensity signal was found in the DWI of the right MAC territory at 15 minutes after MCAO. The ADC value decreased quickly within one hour after MCAO, while the AQP4 expression, rd-DWI and rs-DWI increased rapidly during this stage. As time progressed, the ADC value decreased further to (2.1±0.6)×10-4 mm2/s at 3 hours, and then began to increase slowly till 24 hours. But the AQP4 expression (△S and α) and rd as well as the rs continuously increased slowly between 1 hour and 6 hours after MCAO, followed a peak after 6 hours. The AQP4 expression (α) showed a positive relationship with the rs-DWI, they all presented two peaks and a plateau. The corresponding sequential pathologic changes were a gradual increase of intracellular edema (within one hour), then an emergence of vasogenic edema (1-6 hours), and final

  18. Brain edema and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renlan Zhou; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in brain edema. However, it is unclear whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with TWEAK during the process of brain edema OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TWEAK on BBB permeability in brain edema.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An immunohistochemical observation, randomized, controlled animal experiment was pertbrmed at the Laboratory of Neurosurgical Anatomy, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University & Central Laboratory, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University between January 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 48 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (n =8), sham-operated (n = 8), and ischemia/reperfusion (n = 32). Rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group were randomly assigned to four subgroups according to different time points, i.e., 2 hours of ischemia followed by 6 hours (n = 8), 12 hours {n = 8), 1 day (n = 8), or 12 days (n = 8) of reperfusion.METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the suture method in rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group. Thread was introduced at a depth of 17-19 mm. Rats in the sham-operated group were subjected to experimental procedures similar to the ischemia/reperfusion group; however, the introducing depth of thread was 10 mm. The normal control group was not given any intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TWEAK expression was examined by immunohistochemistry; brain water content on the ischemic side was calculated as the ratio of dry to wet tissue weight; BBB permeability was measured by Evans blue extravasation.RESULTS: A total of eight rats died prior to and after surgery and an additional eight rats were randomly entered into the study. Thus 48 rats were included in the final analysis. In the ischemia/reperfusion group,TWEAK-positive cells were

  19. MRI findings of acute cerebral swelling and brain edema in the acute stage. A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Hideo; Ueda, Shin; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kashihara, Michiharu; Furuichi, Masashi.

    1988-08-01

    We report two cases, one of acute cerebral swelling and the other with a major stroke, whose MRI has shown very interesting findings. Case 1, a 32-year-old male, was admitted to our service because of a lowering of his consciousness immediately after a head injury. On admission, the patient was semicomatous (E/sub 1/M/sub 2/V/sub 1/, with anisocoria (R > L). His plain skull X-ray was normal. A CT scan, however, demonstrated right isodensity hemispheric swelling associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. A right carotid angiogram showed no vascular disorders. MR imaging of the spin density demonstrated a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in the whole right hemisphere. Case 2, a 58-year-old female, was admitted because of a sudden onset of loss of consciousness, with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. On admission, her consciousness was semicomatous (E/sub 1/M/sub 3/V/sub 1/), and it deteriorated to a deep coma 1 hour later. A CT scan demonstrated a diffuse left hemispheric low density, with a finding of hemorrhagic infarction in the basal ganglia. MR imaging of the spin density showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter resembling that of Case 1. The findings of the spin-echo images of our two cases showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in both. The hyperintensity and thickening of the gray matter apparently indicated a sort of hyperemia and brain edema. These findings led us to suspect that the hyperemia associated with acute cerebral swelling and ischemic brain edema of our two cases originated in the gray matter, although it has been considered that the pathogenesis of acute cerebral swelling is not known and that brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, will mostly develop in the white matter rather than in the gray matter.

  20. Treatment with the NK1 antagonist emend reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction and edema formation in an experimental model of brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harford-Wright

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide substance P (SP has been implicated in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and development of cerebral edema in acute brain injury. Cerebral edema accumulates rapidly around brain tumors and has been linked to several tumor-associated deficits. Currently, the standard treatment for peritumoral edema is the corticosteroid dexamethasone, prolonged use of which is associated with a number of deleterious side effects. As SP is reported to increase in many cancer types, this study examined whether SP plays a role in the genesis of brain peritumoral edema. A-375 human melanoma cells were injected into the right striatum of male Balb/c nude mice to induce brain tumor growth, with culture medium injected in animals serving as controls. At 2, 3 or 4 weeks following tumor cell inoculation, non-treated animals were perfusion fixed for immunohistochemical detection of Albumin, SP and NK1 receptor. A further subgroup of animals was treated with a daily injection of the NK1 antagonist Emend (3 mg/kg, dexamethasone (8 mg/kg or saline vehicle at 3 weeks post-inoculation. Animals were sacrificed a week later to determine BBB permeability using Evan's Blue and brain water content. Non-treated animals demonstrated a significant increase in albumin, SP and NK1 receptor immunoreactivity in the peritumoral area as well as increased perivascular staining in the surrounding brain tissue. Brain water content and BBB permeability was significantly increased in tumor-inoculated animals when compared to controls (p<0.05. Treatment with Emend and dexamethasone reduced BBB permeability and brain water content when compared to vehicle-treated tumor-inoculated mice. The increase in peritumoral staining for both SP and the NK1 receptor, coupled with the reduction in brain water content and BBB permeability seen following treatment with the NK1 antagonist Emend, suggests that SP plays a role in the genesis of peritumoral edema, and thus warrants

  1. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia

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    Richard A. Anderson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed.

  2. Dietary Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Blood Brain Barrier Permeability, Brain Edema, and Brain Injury in Rats Subjected to Ischemia-Reperfusion

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    Fatemeh Mohagheghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that dietary virgin olive oil (VOO reduces hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in rat brain slices. We sought to extend these observations in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Four groups, each consisting of 18 Wistar rats, were studied. One group (control received saline, while three treatment groups received oral VOO (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60-min period of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. After 24-h reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups of six animals drawn from each main group. VOO reduced the LDL/HDL ratio in doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05, and offered cerebroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 0.25 vs. 0.5 vs. 0.75 mL/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were 207.82 ± 34.29 vs. 206.41 ± 26.23 vs. 124.21 ± 14.73 vs. 108.46 ± 31.63 mm3; brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere was 82 ±± 0.25 vs. 81.5 ± 0.56 vs. 80.5 ± 0.22 vs. 80.5 ± 0.34%; and blood brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere was 11.31 ± 2.67 vs. 9.21 ± 2.28 vs. 5.83 ± 1.6 vs. 4.43 ± 0.93 µg/g tissue (p < 0.05 for measures in doses 0.5 and 0.75 mL/kg/day vs. controls. Oral administration of VOO reduces infarct volume, brain edema, blood brain barrier permeability, and improves neurologic deficit scores after transient MCAO in rats.

  3. Neurological deficits and brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, T; Okauchi, M; Hua, Y; Schallert, T; Keep, R F; Xi, G

    2008-01-01

    We examined the time course of neurological deficits in gerbils after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced by autologous blood infusion and examined its correlation with the severity of perihematomal edema. Mongolian gerbils (n = 15) were subjected to stereotaxic autologous blood infusion (30 or 60 microL) into the left caudate nucleus. Corner-turn and forelimb-placing tests were performed before, and 1 and 3 days after ICH. Perihematomal water content was measured by tissue gravimetry. Gerbils developed neurological deficits and perihematomal edema at day 1 after ICH. Both neurological deficits and perihematomal edema were significantly greater in animals with 60 microL blood infusion compared to the 30 microL infusion group, and both neurological deficits and edema were also greater at 3 days compared to 1 day after ICH. The severity of neurological deficits paralleled the degree of perihematomal edema. We conclude that the Mongolian gerbil is a suitable model for studies on the behavioral effects of ICH. PMID:19066097

  4. Suppressive effect of dexamethasone on the neutrophil expression of CD18 in rats with radiation induced brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laixing Wang; Yibin Fang; Xiaoping Zhou; Xiaowu Hu; Jianmin Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stereo-tactic radiation therapy (SRT) is widely used to treat intracranial diseases, but some patients suffered from radiation induced brain edema after SRT. Once radiation induced brain edema occurs,the treatment is quite difficult, and it always leads to a poor outcome. Dexamethasone has certain therapeutic effect on traumatic brain edema, but the biological mechanism is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of dexamethasone on the neutrophil expression of CD18.DESIGN: A randomized control observation.SETTING: Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS : The experiment was carried out in Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from January 1999 to December 1999. Twenty SD rats (male and female each in half) weighing (250±50) g were used.METHODS: Twenty SD rats were divided into four groups at random. ① Blank control group (n=5): The rats were not treated without dexamethasone or irradiation; ② Irradiation group (n=5): The rats were given irradiation but no dexamethasone treatment; ③ Irradiation+1 mg/kg dexamethasone group (n=5):The rats were treated with irradiation and dexamethasone of 1 mg/kg; ④ Irradiation+5 mg/kg dexamethasone group (n=5): The rats were treated with irradiation and dexamethasone of 5 mg/kg. The heads of the rats were irradiated with 10 MeV X-ray (30 Gy), and brain tissue was removed after 2weeks to observe the pathological changes. Blood samples were taken from the carotid artery, gradient centrifugation was used, and neutrophile layer was obtained, the level of neutrophile expression of CD18 mRNA and quantity of membrane proteins in blood were detected with Northern blot and flow cytometry respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Blood cell count; ② Pathological results; ③ level of neutrophile expression of CD18 mRNA and quantity of membrane proteins.RESULTS: All the 20 SD rats were involved in the analysis of results without

  5. The brain in acute liver failure. A tortuous path from hyperammonemia to cerebral edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Eefsen, Martin; Hansen, Bent Adel;

    2008-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition with an unfavourable prognosis. Multiorgan failure and circulatory collapse are frequent causes of death, but cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension (ICH) are also common complications with a high risk of fatal outcome. The underlying pathogenesis has...... been extensively studied and although the development of cerebral edema and ICH is of a complex and multifactorial nature, it is well established that ammonia plays a pivotal role. This review will focus on the effects of hyperammonemia on neurotransmission, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress...

  6. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, an acute neurological syndrome due to reversible multifactorial brain edema: a case report

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    Camilla Cicognani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The essential features of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES are headache, mental changes, seizures, visual symptoms and often arterial hypertension. Brain RMN typically shows cortico-sottocortical parieto-occipital edema, with a bilateral and symmetric distribution. PRES develops in clinical conditions as hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia/ eclampsia, autoimmune diseases, after transplantation, infections and as an adverse effect of immunosuppressive drugs or chemotherapy. It usually completely reverses with treatment, although permanent sequelae are possible in case of delayed or missed diagnosis. Case report: We describe the case of a transsexual (M!F and tetraplegic patient, admitted for neck and low back pain. She suddenly developed headache, confusion, seizures and severe hypertension with normal blood tests. RMN showed multiple cortico-sottocortical areas of vasogenic and citotoxic edema in temporo-occipital, parietal, frontal, and cerebellar regions. Soon after the beginning of the antihypertensive therapy, clinical recovery was observed, as well as the disappearance of edema at RMN. Discussion and conclusions: Although PRES is usually associated with definite pathological conditions, it is not always the case, as was for the patient here described, who had no predisposing factors in her past clinical history, and presented hypertension only in the acute phase of the syndrome. Since, moreover, PRES usually presents with acute non specific features and it can be misdiagnosed with other serious diseases, the clinician will be helped by the knowledge of this syndrome to promptly start diagnostic workup and treatments, and avoid permanent neurological deficits.

  7. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  8. The influence of carmustine wafer implantation on tumor bed cysts and peritumoral brain edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuzo; Iuchi, Toshihiko; Sakaida, Tsukasa; Yokoi, Sana; Kawasaki, Koichiro

    2016-09-01

    The development of perifocal edema and tumor bed cyst has been reported after implantation of biodegradable carmustine wafers for the treatment of malignant gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated these changes in a series of patients; 19 consecutive patients with malignant glioma who received carmustine wafer implantation at our hospital from January 2013 through July 2013, and 28 patients who underwent surgery prior to our institution's initiation of carmustine wafer implantation, as historical controls. The volume of the tumor bed cyst and perifocal edema was calculated on MRI acquired at four time points: ⩽72hours after surgery for baseline, and at 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12weeks after surgery. The volume of the tumor bed cyst in the wafer group increased significantly relative to the control group at all time points (p=0.04). Opening of the ventricle was inversely correlated with enlargement of the tumor bed cyst in the wafer group (p=0.04). The change in the volume of perifocal edema in the wafer group was not significantly different (p=0.48), but exhibited a considerable increase in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma relative to glioblastoma patients in the wafer group (p=0.01). We demonstrated significant enlargement of the tumor bed cyst volume after carmustine wafer implantation, as well as the development of marked perifocal edema in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:27430412

  9. The effect of pre-nutrition of hydroalcoholic extractof Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficits in a rat stroke model

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    Meysam Foroozandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stroke is one of the most important factors of mortality and disability in the world. Free radicals are produced following ischemic stroke and they play a central role in breaking the blood-brain barrier and  causing brain edema formation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficit in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: In thisexperimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups.  The first  two groups (control and Sham received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract for 30days (50,75and 100 mg/kgdaily, respectively.  Two hours after the last dose of Origanum vulgare extract,each main group underwent  a 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion.  Then, the assessment of blood brain edema, and neurologic deficits analysis were done . Brain edema (brain water content was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA using LSD method and neurologic deficits analysis by means of Mann-Whitney U, and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Origanum vulgare extract reduced brain edema in the experimental groups of 50 (82.49±0.47, 75 (80.89±0.63 and 100 mg/kg/day (80.80±0.66 compared to the control group (84.46±0.67. The neurologic deficit scores in the experimental groups of 75and 100mg/kg/day, compared with control group, but neurologic deficit scores did not affect the group receiving the dose 50 mg/kg. Conclusion:  The obtained data indicate that Origanum vulgar extract via reduction of brain edema and neurologic deficits scorescan have a protective effect on the stroke model.

  10. Influence of isoflurane, fentanyl, thiopental, and alpha-chloralose on formation of brain edema resulting from a focal cryogenic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, R; Berger, S; Schürer, L; Peter, K; Baethmann, A

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of various anesthetics on the formation of brain edema resulting from a focal cryogenic lesion. Thirty rabbits (six per group) were anesthetized with isoflurane (1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC] 2.1 vol%), fentanyl (bolus 5 micrograms/kg; infusion rate 1.0-0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1), thiopental (32.5 mg.kg-1.h-1), or alpha-chloralose (50 mg/kg). Control animals (sham operation, no lesion) received alpha-chloralose (50 mg/kg). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in perifocal brain tissue was measured by H2-clearance. Animals anesthetized with isoflurane required support of arterial pressure by angiotensin II (0.15 micrograms.kg-1.min-1). Six hours after trauma the animals were killed. Formation of brain edema was studied by specific gravity of cortical gray matter, white matter, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus. Brain tissue samples were collected at multiple sites close to and distant from the lesion. Mean arterial pressure, arterial PCO2 and PO2, hematocrit, body temperature, and blood glucose were not different between groups during the posttraumatic course (except for an increased arterial pressure with alpha-chloralose compared to thiopental 4-6 h after trauma). The specific gravity of cortical gray matter was significantly reduced up to a distance of 6 mm from the center of the lesion in animals anesthetized with isoflurane, thiopental, or alpha-chloralose and up to 9 mm in animals given fentanyl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Study on the relationship of cytochrome C expression and cerebral edema in perihematomal brain tissue in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Heng; LIU Guixiang; XU Chunsheng; LIU Qingxin; XU Xiaobo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue and its relationship with the histopathological change and formation of cerebral edema in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. Methods Thirty four patients (23 male, 11 female) of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in hospital from Sep. 2001 to Sep. 2002 were selected with a mean age 55.6± 10.2 years (from 35 to 75 years). The mean volume of hemorrhagic blood was 50.4±11.6 ml (from 25 to 85 ml). The perihematomal brain tissue was obtained from the minimally invasive surgery. Histopathological change and expressions of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue was detected by histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. The volume of perihematomal cerebral edema was determined by computed tomographic scan before operation. The results of staining and the volume of perihematomal cerebral edema were analyzed with double blind fashion. Results Perihematomal cerebral edema were found 12-72h after cerebral hemorrhage. Myelin sheath degeneration, condensation of nucleus and typical apopototic body were observed in perihematomal brain tissue. Expression of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue was observed at 4 h and reached peak around 48-72 h after cerebral hemorrhage. Cytochrome C expressed higher positively in 16 patients and lower positively in 13 patients. Cytochrome C expression was not detected only in 5 patints. There were significant differences in volume of perihematomal cerebral edema with different expression of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue (P<0.01). Conclusions Cytochrome C expression was upregulated in perihematomal brain tissue in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. Cytochrome C might involve in the histopathological change and the formation of perihematomal cerebral edema.

  12. Changes in cannabinoid receptors, aquaporin 4 and vimentin expression after traumatic brain injury in adolescent male mice. Association with edema and neurological deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Lopez-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI incidence rises during adolescence because during this critical neurodevelopmental period some risky behaviors increase. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, blood brain barrier proteins (AQP4 and astrogliosis markers (vimentin to neurological deficit and brain edema formation in a TBI weight drop model in adolescent male mice. These molecules were selected since they are known to change shortly after lesion. Here we extended their study in three different timepoints after TBI, including short (24h, early mid-term (72h and late mid-term (two weeks. Our results showed that TBI induced an increase in brain edema up to 72 h after lesion that was directly associated with neurological deficit. Neurological deficit appeared 24 h after TBI and was completely recovered two weeks after trauma. CB1 receptor expression decreased after TBI and was negatively correlated with edema formation and behavioral impairments. CB2 receptor increased after injury and was associated with high neurological deficit whereas no correlation with edema was found. AQP4 increased after TBI and was positively correlated with edema and neurological impairments as occurred with vimentin expression in the same manner. The results suggest that CB1 and CB2 differ in the mechanisms to resolve TBI and also that some of their neuroprotective effects related to the control of reactive astrogliosis may be due to the regulation of AQP4 expression on the end-feet of astrocytes.

  13. Changes in cannabinoid receptors, aquaporin 4 and vimentin expression after traumatic brain injury in adolescent male mice. Association with edema and neurological deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence rises during adolescence because during this critical neurodevelopmental period some risky behaviors increase. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), blood brain barrier proteins (AQP4) and astrogliosis markers (vimentin) to neurological deficit and brain edema formation in a TBI weight drop model in adolescent male mice. These molecules were selected since they are known to change shortly after lesion. Here we extended their study in three different timepoints after TBI, including short (24h), early mid-term (72h) and late mid-term (two weeks). Our results showed that TBI induced an increase in brain edema up to 72 h after lesion that was directly associated with neurological deficit. Neurological deficit appeared 24 h after TBI and was completely recovered two weeks after trauma. CB1 receptor expression decreased after TBI and was negatively correlated with edema formation and behavioral impairments. CB2 receptor increased after injury and was associated with high neurological deficit whereas no correlation with edema was found. AQP4 increased after TBI and was positively correlated with edema and neurological impairments as occurred with vimentin expression in the same manner. The results suggest that CB1 and CB2 differ in the mechanisms to resolve TBI and also that some of their neuroprotective effects related to the control of reactive astrogliosis may be due to the regulation of AQP4 expression on the end-feet of astrocytes.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein level and gene expression in intracranial meningiomas with brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Dyrbye, Henrik; Andresen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and angiogen. VEGF-A protein, which is identical to vascular permeability factor, is a regulator of angiogenesis. In this study, 101 patients with meningiomas, and possible co-factors to PTBE, such as meningioma subtypes and tumor location, were examined...... positively correlated to the PTBE (p = 0.038). If VEGF is responsible for the formation of PTBE, the edema may be treated with the anti-VEGF drug Bevacizumab (Avastin), which has been shown to reduce PTBE in patients with glioblastoma multiforme....

  15. ASPHYXIA, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES AND BRAIN EDEMA OF RISK CHILDREN IN THE ADVISORY INSTITUTE IN BITOLA FROM 1989-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ILIEVSKA,

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available 3986 files have been examined in the Advisory Institute for a five year period in relation to the present risk factors in the pre, peri and postnatal period, the occurrence of asphyxia, I.H. (intracranial hemorrhages and brain edema and their outcome for the children. There were 958 or 32% risk children, out of them 206 or 22% were with asphyxia, 25 or 3% were with brain edema and 14 or 1,5% were with intracranial hemorrhages.The analysis for the risk factors shows that 119 of them were abortive , and from them 15% were born with asphyxia; 124 were SFD and 21% of them with asphyxia; 272 children weighed over 4500 gr., 7% of them with asphyxia and 0.4% with I.H., there were 68 twins, 12% of them with asphyxia. Out of the children with no risk registered, 6 were born with I.H., or 0,2%.Mothers under the age of 18 gave birth to 13% children with asphyxia; treated for sterility and anemia during pregnancy 15%; with increased blood pressure 14%; and 5% with maintained pregnancy.The highest delivery risk is present with children born with vacuum extraction (30% or every third child is with asphyxia and 3% with I.H. and with children delivered by caesarean section (14% with asphyxia.As for the position of the fetus-Citus pedalicus gave 55% children with asphyxia, and Situs pelvicus 12%.The worst damage is suffered by infants with premature amnion disruption (62% are with asphyxia; with the umbilical cord round the neck-56% with asphyxia and 6% with I.H.; and with muddled amniotic fluid and placenta pelvia-50%.The order of risk factors related to asphyxia, I.H. and brain edema is as follows: the first is premature amnion disruption, then follows the umbilical cord round the neck, the muddled amniotic fluid, and placenta previa and Citus pedalicus-which are obstetric problems. The next are the vacuum extraction and S.C. As for the gestatory period the order is as follows: first the abortive, then the twins and hypertrofic infants. The outcome of the

  16. Minocycline Attenuates Neonatal Germinal-Matrix-Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation and Brain Edema by Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Guo, Jing; Yang, Liming; Tao, Yihao; Li, Lin; Miao, Hongping; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns leading to detrimental neurological sequelae. Minocycline has been reported to play a key role in neurological inflammatory diseases by controlling some mechanisms that involve cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). The current study investigated whether minocycline reduces neuroinflammation and protects the brain from injury in a rat model of collagenase-induced GMH by regulating CB2R activity. To test this hypothesis, the effects of minocycline and a CB2R antagonist (AM630) were evaluated in male rat pups that were post-natal day 7 (P7) after GMH. We found that minocycline can lead to increased CB2R mRNA expression and protein expression in microglia. Minocycline significantly reduced GMH-induced brain edema, microglial activation, and lateral ventricular volume. Additionally, minocycline enhanced cortical thickness after injury. All of these neuroprotective effects of minocycline were prevented by AM630. A cannabinoid CB2 agonist (JWH133) was used to strengthen the hypothesis, which showed the identical neuroprotective effects of minocycline. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that minocycline attenuates neuroinflammation and brain injury in a rat model of GMH, and activation of CBR2 was partially involved in these processes. PMID:25833102

  17. EFFECT OF GINKGO BILOBA EXTRACT ON BRAIN EDEMA AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙保亮; 夏作理; 杨明峰; 邱平明

    2001-01-01

    @@ The aim of this study was to investigate the protectiveeffect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) on brain edemaafter subarachnoid hemorrhage . Eighty male and femaleWistar rats, weighing 300~ 350g, were used in the ex-periment. Animals were divided into pure SAH group andEGb-treated group. Dynamic changes of regional cerebralblood flow (rCBF) were detected in eight rats from eachgroup. Brain water and electrolytes contents at differenttime points were detected in thirty-two rats from eachgroup (eight rats at each time point from each group) .EGb. provided by Pizhou Pharmaceutical Factory(Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China), was injected intraperi-toneally 30 minutes before operation and repeated withsingle dose of 15mg/kg .every 6 hours.

  18. 采用CT技术研究颅脑损伤患者的早期神经功能恢复:脑水肿和脑肿胀的比较%CT study of patients neurological function recovery in the acute stage of brain injury:compared brain swelling and brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 池晓宇; 黄新才; 刘卫国; 蒋德清

    2002-01-01

    @@ ckground: Secondary clinical manifestations following brain injury may be due to either intracranial hemorrhage or brain edema and brain swelling.But brain swelling hasn't been understand adequately in clinical practice.Objective: 71 patients with brain edema or brain swelling following brain injury admitted to our hospital during Jan 1998 to Dec 1999 were selected for this study.Their CT findings were compared,and CT characters of traumatic brain swelling and neurological function recovery were analyzed emphatically.Unit: Department of Radiology,Guangdong Provincial Corps Hospital,Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibition of Edema Formation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Bing; Cao, Shuhua; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability, which can decrease quality of life. In spite of numerous studies suggesting that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been used as a therapeutic agent for a broad range of disorders, the effect of EGCG on TBI remains unknown. In this study, a weight drop model was established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EGCG on TBI. Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg EGCG or PBS intraperitoneally. At different times following trauma, rats were sacrificed for analysis. It was found that EGCG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reduced brain water content and vascular permeability at 12, 24, 48, 72 hour after TBI. Real-time PCR results revealed that EGCG inhibited TBI-induced IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression. Importantly, CD68 mRNA expression decreasing in the brain suggested that EGCG inhibited microglia activation. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that administering of EGCG significantly inhibited the levels of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. TBI-induced oxidative stress was remarkably impaired by EGCG treatment, which elevated the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. Conversely, EGCG significantly reduced the contents of MDA after TBI. In addition, EGCG decreased TBI-induced NADPH oxidase activation through inhibition of p47(phox) translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that EGCG treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI and the underlying mechanism involves inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:26557015

  20. What Is Macular Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What Causes Macular ... Edema Diagnosis Macular Edema Treatment What Is Macular Edema? Dec. 01, 2010 Macular edema is swelling or ...

  1. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64% of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more frequently in patients later found to have cerebral edema. Moreover, the length of time from deep coma to death was much shorter in the brain edema cases with cerebral herniation than without herniation.

  2. The effect of saponification on the mucopolysaccharides of the ground substance of the human brain: the relation to focal edema and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, I

    1981-03-01

    The acid mucopolysaccharides of brain tissues are disclosed by their metachromatic staining with toluidine blue following saponification with potassium hydroxide, presumably as a result of the liberation of acid groups previously esterified. Earlier histochemical studies had disclosed the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides by staining with the periodic acid-Schiff technique, and such staining is intensified by prior saponification. Many biochemical studies have reported the presence of both acid and neutral mucopolysaccharides in brain tissues. Within the white matter following brain edema, the quantity of stained mucopolysaccharides is decreased in the plaques of multiple sclerosis and pontine myelinolysis, and in the lesions of diffuse sclerosis. All of these are characterized by myelin loss with relative preservation of axons. The known physiological effects of the mucopolysaccharides on the water content of normal tissues, and on the properties and diffusability of the increments of fluid that constitute edema, lead to the suggestion that edema may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis.

  3. Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Anna S; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Ricken, Gerda; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Spanberger, Thomas; Hackl, Monika; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Prayer, Daniela; Bilocq, Amelie; Heinzl, Harald; Zielinski, Christoph; Bartsch, Rupert; Birner, Peter; Galon, Jerome; Preusser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8+ TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8+ (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings. PMID:26942067

  4. Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients.

  5. Role of PiCCO monitoring for the integrated management of neurogenic pulmonary edema following traumatic brain injury: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Xu, Zhijun; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Gensheng

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is occasionally observed in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, this condition is often underappreciated. NPE is frequently misdiagnosed due to its atypical clinical performance, thus delaying appropriate treatment. A comprehensive management protocol of NPE in patients with TBI has yet to be established. The current study reported the case of a 67-year-old man with severe TBI who was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU). On day 7 after hospitalization, the patient suddenly suffered tachypnea, tachycardia, systemic hypertension and hypoxemia during lumbar cistern drainage. Intravenous diuretics, tranquilizer and glucocorticoid were administered due to suspected left heart failure attack. Chest radiography examination supported the diagnosis of pulmonary edema; however, hypotension and hypovolemia were subsequently observed. Pulse index continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) hemodynamic monitoring and bedside echocardiography were performed, which excluded the diagnosis of cardiac pulmonary edema, and thus the diagnosis of NPE was confirmed. Goal-directed therapy by dynamic PiCCO monitoring was then implemented. In addition, levosimendan, an inotropic agent, was introduced to improve cardiac output. The patient had complete recovered from pulmonary edema and regained consciousness on day 11 of hospitalization. The current case demonstrated that PiCCO monitoring may serve a central role in the integrated management of NPE in patients with TBI. Levosimendan may be a potential medicine in treating cardiac dysfunction, along with its benefit from improving neurological function in NPE patients. PMID:27698733

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Wulingsan Subtraction Decoction Treatment of Postoperative Brain Edema and Fever as a Complication of Glioma Neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-rong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Wulingsan subtraction (五苓散加减 WLSS decoction in the treatment of postoperative brain edema and fever as a complication of glioma neurosurgery. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery of Liaocheng People’s Hospital. Patients hospitalized between March 2011 and December 2014 were divided into three groups: Group A received WLSS oral liquid (50 mL, twice a day; Group B received an intravenous infusion of mannitol; and Group C received WLSS combined with mannitol (n=30 patients per group. All patients were treated for 10 days continuously. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by measuring body temperature and indicators of renal function before and 3, 5, and 10 days after treatment. Results. Compared to the other two groups, significantly greater clinical efficacy was observed in the patients treated with mannitol (Group B; P<0.05, although marked clinical efficacy was also observed over time in patients treated with WLSS (Group A. After 5 days, the quantifiable effects of the WLSS and mannitol combination group (Group C were substantial (P<0.05. The renal damage in Group B was more obvious after 5 days and 10 days. Conclusion. Compared with mannitol treatment alone, WLSS combined with mannitol induced a more rapid reduction in body temperature. Our findings suggest that patients should be started on mannitol for 3 days and then switched to WLSS to achieve obvious antipyretic effects and protect renal function. This method of treatment should be considered for clinical applications.

  7. Present Condition and Progress in Treatment of Traumatic Brain Edema%创伤性脑水肿的治疗现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 黄文彬

    2015-01-01

    Annually hundreds of thousands of people die of trauma every year in our country,about 50% of them die of fatal craniocerebral trauma.The mortality of craniocerebral trauma is high and postoperative quality of life is not ideal even the lives of patients are saved by treatment,which posing a severe burden to families and society.Craniocerebral trauma has been a serious public health problem.The patients with cerebral trauma show different degree of cerebral edema.Traumatic brain edema is secondary pathological physiological reaction when the cerebra suffers from serious brain damage.Excessive moisture assembles in the gap inside and outside of cerebral cells,which enlarging the brain volume, aggravating the intracranial pressure and even causing cerebral hernia or brain shift.Cerebral edema is a main death cause of the injured with craniocerebral trauma.Therefore,the efficacy on brain edema directly determines the prognosis of patients with craniocerebral trauma.The treatment and the present conditions of traumatic brain edema are summed in this paper from the pathogenesis,classification,treatment and other aspects,which aiming at providing the reference basis for improving the treatment efficacy of traumatic brain edema and the prognosis of patients with craniocerebral trauma.%我国每年死于创伤者可达数十万,其中约50%是死于致命性颅脑创伤。颅脑创伤具有高死亡率,即使通过治疗挽留患者生命,其术后生存质量并不理想,给家庭以及社会造成巨大负担,已经成为一个严重的公共卫生问题。颅脑创伤者均有不同程度脑水肿出现。创伤性脑水肿是颅脑遭受重创后的严重继发性的病理生理反应,过多水分在脑细胞内外间隙聚集,使脑体积增大,致使颅内高压加重,严重时患者出现脑疝或脑移位。颅脑创伤患者多死于脑水肿。因此,脑水肿疗效直接决定颅脑创伤患者的预后。本文从创伤性脑水肿的发病

  8. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe,Akiharu; Yamauchi,Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Makoto; Nakatsukasa, Harushige; Kobayashi, Michio; Higashi,Toshihiro; Nagashima,Hideo

    1985-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64%) of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more fre...

  9. Quantitative evaluation of benign meningioma and hemangiopericytoma with peritumoral brain edema by 64-slice CT perfusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guang; CHEN Shuang; WANG Yin; ZHU Rui-jiang; GENG Dao-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have a relentless tendency for local recurrence and metastases,differentiating between benign meningiomas and HPCs before surgery is important for both treatment planning and the prognosis appraisal.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density (MVD) in extra-axial tumors and the possible role of CT perfusion imaging in preoperatively differentiating benign meningiomas and HPCs.Methods Seventeen patients with benign meningiomas and peritumoral edema, 12 patients with HPCs and peritumoral edema underwent 64-slice CT perfusion imaging pre-operation.Perfusion was calculated using the Patlak method.The quantitative parameters, include cerebral blood volume (CBV), permeability surface (PS) of parenchyma, peritumoral edema among benign meningiomas and HPCs were compared respectively.CBV and PS in parenchyma, peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were also compared to that of the contrallateral normal white matter respectively.The correlations between CBV, PS of tumoral parenchyma and MVD were examined.Results The value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05), while the values of CBV and PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not significantly different (P >0.05).MVD in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05).There were positive correlations between CBV and MVD (r=0.648, P<0.05), PS and MVD (r=0.541, P<0.05) respectively.Furthermore, the value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly higher than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), the value of CBV in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly lower than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), while the value of PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not

  10. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What Causes Macular ... Edema Diagnosis Macular Edema Treatment What Is Macular Edema? Dec. 01, 2010 Macular edema is swelling or ...

  11. 镁在脑损伤脑水肿中的作用%The effects of magnesium on brain edema induced by head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕刚; 石祥恩

    2001-01-01

    Mg++,the important intracellular catholyt e in human body,taking a part in the metabolism of sugar,fat,and protein,plays an important role in metabolism and regulation of the brain.Abnormal free Mg ++may lead to pathological change of energy metabolism,permeability of the mem branion and lipid metabolism.Brain injury may be accompanied with the loss of M g++,and deficiency of Mg++ may induce brain edema or worse one.Re asonable raising Mg++in vivo may reduce secondary brain injury to some ext ent.%镁(Mg++)是人体内重要的细胞 内 阳离子,作为多种酶的辅助因子参与糖、脂肪及蛋白质的代谢,在脑组织中具有重要的代谢 和调节功能。游离Mg++的异常可导致能量代谢、膜离子通透性、脂质代谢等方面的病 理生理变化。大多数脑损伤常伴有Mg++的丢失,摄取Mg++不足可导致或加重脑 水肿,补充或适当提高体内Mg++的含量对脑损伤具有一定的保护作用。

  12. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Abdullah, Osama M; Casper, T Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R

    2016-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI. PMID:26247583

  13. Pedal edema with olanzepine

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak Veena; Chogtu Bharti; Devaramane Virupaksha; Bhandary P

    2009-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic is considered superior to its conventional congeners. Here we report two cases of pedal edema secondary to olanzapine. In both cases the systemic causes of pedal edema were ruled out. On reducing the dose of olanzapine, pedal edema regressed and completely resolved after stopping the drug. So we attribute the edema to olanzapine therapy. As the definitive cause and further consequences of pedal edema are not known , hence stringent monitoring of adverse e...

  14. Continuous Hyperosmolar Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury-Associated Cerebral Edema: As Good as It Gets, or an Iatrogenic Secondary Insult?

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.; Simard, J. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a heterogeneous condition that is present in almost every type of neurological disease process – ranging from tumor, to cerebrovascular disease, to infection, to trauma, among others. It is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of edema formation are distinct for the different conditions, thereby defining the various classifications. A relatively new treatment practice for cerebral edema is known as induced, sustained hyperna...

  15. Unilateral pulmonary edema following acute subglottic edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, H; Ochiai, R; Takeda, J; Nagano, M

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a case of unilateral pulmonary edema following acute subglottic edema after removal of an endotracheal tube. A 3-year-old boy, diagnosed as having nondiphtheric croup and pectus excavatum deformity, was scheduled for repair of a cleft lip. No complication occurred during the operation. After removal of the endotracheal tube, he showed dyspnea and cyanosis and was later found to have acute subglottic edema. After reintubation of the trachea, frothy pink fluid was discharged from the tube, and chest roentgenogram showed a right-sided alveolar infiltrate. Many factors may cause unilateral pulmonary edema, but it is suggested that acute subglottic edema and unilateral bronchial fragility strongly affected this episode.

  16. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... remains. Macular edema is often a complication of diabetic retinopathy , and is the most common form of ... 2016 Study Compares Eylea, Lucentis and Avastin for Diabetic Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk ...

  17. Expression of aquaporin-9 in the brain tissue of rats with infectious brain edema%AQP-9在大鼠感染性脑水肿脑组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田培超; 王怀立; 罗强; 禚志红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporin-9(AQP-9)in the brain tissue of rats with infectious brain edema and explore the role of AQP-9 in the oecurrgnce and progression of the brain edema. Methods A total of 128 normal 1-month-old SD rats weighing 70-100 g of either sex were randomly divided into two equal groups, namely the normal saline(NS) group and lipopolysaecharide(LPS)group.Acute infectious brain edema was induced in rats in the LPS group by injecting LPS via the left internal carotid artery,and the rats in the NS groups received NS injection.At 6,12,24 and 48 h after the injection,the brain tissue was taken from the rats to observe the histopathology by Hernatoxylin-Eosin Stain and lneasure the brain water content(BWC).The permeability of the blood-brain barrier of the rats was tested using Evans blue(EB)method.The expressions of AQP-9 protein and mRNA in the brain tissue Were detected using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR,respectively. Results InLPS group,the space around the blood vessels was obviously broadened in the brain tissue,where inflammatory cell infiltration,glioeyte swelling,vacuolar degeneration of the neurons and neuronal nuclear shrinkage were seen.At 6,12,24,and 48 h following LPS or NS injection,the BWC,EB content,and expressions of AQP-9 protein and mRNA in the LPS group were all significantly higher than those in the NS group(P<0.05),In the LPS group,positive correlations were found between BWC and EB content,AQP-9 protein expression and BWC,AQP一9 mRNA and BWC,AQP-9mR.NA and EBcontent,and between AQP-9 protein andmRNA.Conclusion AQP-9 might participate in occurrcnce and development of infectious brain edema in rats,it might be positive correlation.%目的 探讨水通道蛋白-9(AQP-9)在内毒素脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠感染性脑水肿脑组织中的表达及意义. 方法 1月龄普通级SD大鼠128只采用随机数字表法分为生理盐水(NS)组(64只)和LPS组(64只),采用颈内动脉注射LPS制作大鼠感染

  18. Progress on the New Mechanism of Venom Defibrase in Brain Edema after Stroke%蛇毒降纤酶治疗脑卒中后脑水肿的机制研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜宪聪

    2012-01-01

    脑卒中在我国是一种严重的疾病.脑水肿在脑出血后的继发性脑损伤中起着重要的作用,是严重的并发症,其机制不清.蛇毒降纤酶可有效抑制血栓的形成且溶解血栓,目前已被广泛用于急性缺血性脑卒中的治疗.动物研究表明,蛇毒素能清除氧自由基、下调c-fos基因的表达,以及减少补体浸润等作用,能减轻脑缺血后脑水肿和脑损伤.现将蛇毒降纤酶对脑卒中后脑水肿的机制研究现状予以综述.%Stroke is a serious disease in China. Brain edema plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage secondary brain injury,which is a serious complication,whereas the mechanism is unclear. Snake venom defibrase can effectively inhibit thrombus formation and dissolution of blood clots, which has been widely used in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Animal studies have shown that snake toxins can remove oxygen free radicals,reduced the expression of c-fos gene,reduce the role of complement infiltration,ischemic brain edema and brain damage. The mechanisms of venom defibrase function on brain edema after stroke is to be reviewed here.

  19. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  20. 早期创伤性脑水肿水通道蛋白4的表达及组织病理改变%Expression of aquaporins 4 and pathological changes in early phase of traumatic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏; 雷小燕; 胡惠; 何占平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporins 4 (AQP4) and histopathological changes in early phase of traumatic brain edema and the correlation between AQP4 expression and structural damage to blood-brain barrier (BBB).Methods A total of 120 healthy adult Wistar rats were divided into sham operation group and brain trauma group (which was subgrouped at hours 1,3,6,12 and 24 postinjury) according to random number table,with 20 rats per group.At each time point,brain water content was measured; brain edema and BBB structural changes were observed pathologically;IgG and AQP4 expressions in traumatic brain tissues were detected with immunohistochemical method and Western-blotting.Results In sham operation group,negatively stained IgG was observed and there were no abnormalities in brain tissue structure,brain water content as well as AQP4 expression.In brain trauma group,cerebral water content presented notable increase at 6 hours postinjury and peaked at 24hours; IgG expression showed significant increase at 1 hour postinjury,peaked at 6 hours postinjury and remained a high level at 24 hours.Pathologic observation revealed damage to BBB,blood red cells leaking out of the blood vessels,and tissue gap widening at 1 hour postinjury,which manifested as vasogenic brain edema.Further,those phenomena were gradually aggravated over time and became obvious at 6 hours postinjury.Intracellular edema occurred at 3 hours postinjury,with the presence of increased glial cell body,cytoplasm light staining or vacuolar degeneration,as well as mitochondria swelling and was also aggravated with time,particularly at 6 hours postinjury.Except that the previously mentioned two forms of edema coexisted at 12 hours postinjury,tissue necrosis,inflammatory cell infiltration and microglia proliferation were emerged and aggravated at 24 hours postinjury.AQP4 level decreased at 1 hour,minimized at 6 hours and regained at 12 hours,showing a V-shape curve.Conclusions Vasogenic edema

  1. EFFECT OF NAOCHUANGNING ON CEREBRAL EDEMA AND PERMEABILITY OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER%脑创宁对脑组织含水量和血脑屏障通透性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙子江; 王桐生; 王祥国; 夏坤; 王正

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To research the effect of Naochuangning on cerebral edema and the permeability of blood-brain barrier in closed cerebral trauma mice.Method:The freely falling object was used to simulate the animal models of closed cerebral trauma.The content of water and Evans blue of brain tissue were determined.Result:Naochuangning could obviously lessen the level of cerebral edema and cut down the content of Evans blue and protect the blood-brain barrier.Conclusion:Naochuangning have protective effects on the brain tissue in closed cerebral trauma mice.%目的:考察脑创宁对闭合性脑外伤小鼠脑水肿、血脑屏障通透性的作用。方法:采用自由落体法复制闭合性脑外伤小鼠模型,测定脑组织含水量和伊文思蓝含量。结果:脑创宁可明显减轻模型小鼠脑水肿程度,降低伊文思蓝含量,保护血脑屏障。结论:脑创宁对闭合性脑外伤小鼠脑组织有一定的保护作用。

  2. Micromechanics of Alveolar Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Perlman, Carrie E.; Lederer, David J.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of lung compliance in pulmonary edema underlies ventilator-induced lung injury. However, the cause of the decrease in compliance is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that in pulmonary edema, the mechanical effects of liquid-filled alveoli increase tissue stress in adjacent air-filled alveoli. By micropuncture of isolated, perfused rat lungs, we established a single-alveolus model of pulmonary edema that we imaged using confocal microscopy. In this model, we viewed a liquid-filled...

  3. Diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Vaz, JG

    2009-01-01

    Retinal edema is defined as any increase of water in retinal tissue resulting in an increase in its volume. This increase may be initially intracellular or extracellular. In the first case, there is cytotoxic edema. In the second, vasogenic edema, directly associated with an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Retinal thickness can now be measured, using the retinal thickness analyser (RTA). Similarly, local breakdown of the BRB can now be mapped using the retinal leakage analyser ...

  4. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    OpenAIRE

    Varner P

    2011-01-01

    Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papi...

  5. Edema control by cediranib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-targeted kinase inhibitor, prolongs survival despite persistent brain tumor growth in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamoun, Walid S; Ley, Carsten D; Farrar, Christian T;

    2009-01-01

    anti-VEGF agents may decrease tumor contrast-enhancement, vascularity, and edema, the mechanisms leading to improved survival in patients remain incompletely understood. Our goal was to determine whether alleviation of edema by anti-VEGF agents alone could increase survival in mice. METHODS: We treated......PURPOSE: Recent clinical trials of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for glioblastoma showed promising progression-free and overall survival rates. However, available clinical imaging does not separate antitumor effects from antipermeability effects of these agents. Thus although...... mice bearing three different orthotopic models of glioblastoma with a VEGF-targeted kinase inhibitor, cediranib. Using intravital microscopy, molecular techniques, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we measured survival, tumor growth, edema, vascular morphology and function, cancer cell apoptosis...

  6. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema ... for Thinning Retina Mar 10, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es un Edema Macular? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  7. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What ...

  8. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... remains. Macular edema is often a complication of diabetic retinopathy , and is the most common form of vision ... 28, 2014 Restoring Vision Lost to Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) Jun 03, 2014 Prognosis for Thinning Retina Mar 10, ... 31, 2016 Study Compares Eylea, Lucentis and Avastin for Diabetic Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk ...

  9. Relationship and action mechanism between oxygen free radicals and aquaporin 4 in brain edema%氧自由基与水通道蛋白4在脑水肿中作用机制及联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊; 徐国海

    2011-01-01

    Background Aquaporin-4(AQP4) may be one of the candidates for inducing brain edema,however,it has not been reported whether AQP4 and oxidative free radical is involved in the formation of brain edema.Objective To study the effect as well as the mechanism of oxidative free radical and AQP4 on cerebral edema.Content Aquaporin (AQP) is a membrane water channel protein family.And AQP4 is abundant within the nervous system and is closely related to the physiological and pathological process particularly in the metabolism of water.Perihematoma antioxidant imbalance and oxidative free radical reactions further increase the cerebral edema in acute cerebral hemorrhage.Trend It will provide basis for further exploring of the pathogenesis of cerebral edema by studying the relationship between oxidative free radical and AQP.%背景 水通道蛋白4(aquaporin-4,AQP4)可能是导致脑水肿形成的调节因素之一,但AQP4与氧自由基作用与脑水肿形成尚未见报道.目的 将AQP4与氧自由基在脑水肿的作用及其机制作简要的概述.内容 水通道蛋白(aquaporin,AQP)是膜水通道蛋白家族,其中AQP4在神经系统内含量最丰富,与神经系统生理和病理过程尤其水的代谢密切相关,同时急性脑出血时血肿周围脑组织氧化抗氧化平衡紊乱及自由基反应病理性加剧进一步加重脑水肿.趋向 通过研究氧自由基与APQ关系,进一步为脑水肿的发病机制奠定基础.

  10. Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemia, trauma, tumors, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. The formation of cerebral edema results in an increase in tissue water content and brain swelling which, if unchecked, can lead to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), reduced cerebral blood flow, and ultimately cerebral herniation and death. Despite the clinical significance of cerebral edema, the mechan...

  11. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) Jun 03, 2014 Prognosis for Thinning Retina Mar 10, 2014 Leer en ... Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk Factors for AMD Jan 29, 2014 Is Your Laser ...

  12. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... retina are leaking fluids. The macula does not function properly when it is swollen. Vision loss may ... Qué Es un Edema Macular? Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter ...

  13. Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Işık; İsmail Katı; Onur Palabıyık; Uğur Göktaş

    2011-01-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare but life threating complication which is occurring during the treatment of lung collapse secondary to pleural effusion, pneumothorax or atelectasis. We presented a 68 year-old case with hypertension, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus who had developed reexpansion pulmonary edema three hours after the application of unilateral thoracentesis (Journal of the Turkish Society of Intensive Care 2011; 9: 26-9)

  14. Differentiating cardiac from noncardiac edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors review and explain the radiologic appearances of acute versus chronic left heart failure and of biventricular failure. They compare these observations with the mechanisms and appearances of hydrostatic noncardiac edema, (for example, renal failure, high-altitude edema, neurogenic edema), and show how the various types of cardiogenic and noncardiogenic edema, including the ''injury lung'' edema common to all cases of adult respiratory distress syndrome, can be differentiated from their appearance on the plain chest film

  15. RNAi沉默AQP-4技术治疗胶质瘤性脑水肿的实验研究%An experimental study of the treatment of glioma brain edema by RNAi silencing AQP-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 刘晓智; 张赛; 苏治国; 陈镭; 姜忠敏; 于士柱; 刘振林

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用RNA干扰(RNAi)技术靶向沉默胶质瘤内水通道蛋白4(AQP -4)的表达,观察其对胶质瘤源性脑水肿的治疗效果.方法 构建靶向AQP-4的siRNA质粒,免疫荧光化学方法检测其对C6细胞AQP-4的沉默效果;建立SD大鼠颅内C6胶质瘤模型,分对照组、空载组、无义序列组和siRNA组;聚合酶链式反应和蛋白印迹方法分别检测第3、6、9、12天AQP-4的mRNA和蛋白水平;干/湿比重法和Evans蓝测定法检测不同时相脑组织含水量和血脑屏障通透性改变;比较动物生存期.结果 siRNA可沉默AQP-4表达;siRNA组脑组织水含量和血脑屏障通透性均明显低于对照组、空载组和无义序列组,动物生存期最长.结论 靶向AQP-4的RNAi技术可在一定程度上减轻胶质瘤性脑水肿的发生和发展,为胶质瘤脑水肿提供了一种新的治疗策略选择.%Objective To observe the treatment effect on glioma cerebral edema by RNA interference ( RNAi ) technology silencing aquaporin 4 ( AQP-4 ) expression.Methods The siRNA plasmid targeting AQP-4 was constructed,and transfected into C6 glioma cells by liposome.Immunofluorescence assay was used to verify the silencing effect of AQP-4.The intracal C6 glioma model was established in SD rats,and four sub-groups,control group,empty vector transfected group,nonsense group and AQP-4 siRNA treated group,were divided.The AQP-4 mRNA and protein levels,in rats model brain tissue on 3,6,9,and 12 day,were detected by RT-PCR and Western Blot.Moreover,dry/wet weight method and evans blue assay were used to detect the brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability changes.Then the animal survival was compared.Results siRNA can effectively reduce AQP -4 expression in C6 glioma cells.Compared with the control and empty vector transfected group in vivo,AQP-4 siRNA treatment group can effectively reduce AQP-4 mRNA and protein level,decrease brain water content,and reduce blood-brain barrier

  16. Discrimination between different types of white matter edema with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, T; Naruse, S; Horikawa, Y; Ueda, S; Tanaka, C; Uto, M; Umeda, M; Higuchi, T

    1993-01-01

    Brain edema can be classified into three categories: vasogenic, cytotoxic, and interstitial. The mechanism of edema is thought to be different in each type. The authors studied the movement of water molecules in each type of white matter edema in a rat model by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Conventional T2-weighted imaging did not allow distinction between the three types of white matter edema; the three types of edema were, however, distinguished by using diffusion-weighted imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water was different in each type of edema. Water molecules in cytotoxic edema induced by triethyl-tin intoxication showed a smaller and less anisotropic ADC than in normal white matter. In contrast, water in vasogenic edema induced by cold injury had a larger and more anisotropic ADC than in normal white matter. Water in interstitial edema due to kaolin-induced hydrocephalus had an anisotropic and very large ADC. PMID:8280975

  17. Latest advances in edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, J. L.; Hargens, A. R.; Pikoulicz, E.

    1996-01-01

    Basic concepts in the physiopathology of edema are reviewed. The mechanisms of fluid exchange across the capillary endothelium are explained. Interstitial flow and lymph formation are examined. Clinical disorders of tissue and lymphatic transport, microcirculatory derangements in venous disorders, protein disorders, and lymphatic system disorders are explored. Techniques for investigational imaging of the lymphatic system are explained.

  18. Protective effects of different dose of ulinastatin pretreatment on traumatic brain edema in mice%不同剂量乌司他丁预处理对小鼠创伤性脑水肿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶维; 张磊; 曹宝萍; 马选鹏; 苏宁; 王凯; 张强; 费舟; 李兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential therapeutic effect and the related mechanism of ulinaslatin (UTI) on traumatic brain edema in mice. Methods Thirty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups: isotonic Na chloride control group (control group) and UTI pretreatment group (UTI group). The wet-dry weighing method was performed to measure the brain water content of mice. The expression of aquaporin4 (AQP4) was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with control group, UTI significantly inhibited (he neurological dysfunction of mice in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced brain water content. It is suggested that UTI could down-regulate the expression of AQP4 (P<0. 05). Conclusion Pretreatment of UTI can effectively protect traumatic brain edema, which may be associated with the regulation of AQP4 expression.%目的 探讨乌司他丁(UTI)预处理对小鼠创伤性脑水肿潜在的治疗作用及其机制.方法 BALB/c小鼠38只,随机分为生理盐水对照组(control组)和乌司他丁预处理组(UTI组).采用测干湿重法检测不同剂量UTI预处理对小鼠脑组织含水量的影响和Western -blot检测脑组织中水通道蛋白4(AQP4)蛋白表达情况.结果 与生理盐水对照组比较,UTI能明显减轻神经功能障碍,干湿重法检测结果显示,随着UTI剂量的增大小鼠脑组织含水量明显降低,Western-blot结果提示UTI下调AQP4蛋白的表达,不同组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 乌司他丁预处理能减轻创伤性脑水肿,具有显著的神经保护作用,可能是通过调控AQP4而减轻脑组织水肿.

  19. Edema (Swelling) (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and are not adequate treatment for edema. Body positioning — Leg, ankle, and foot edema can be improved ... medications, the user is advised to check the product information sheet accompanying each drug to verify conditions ...

  20. Pulmonary edema in renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-nine cases of pulmonary edema in nephropatic patients were studied. The most frequent radiologic findings are discussed. The unreliability of a precise differentiation between ''cardiac'' and ''renal'' patterns of pulmonary edema in nephropatic patients is emphasized

  1. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B4 and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability

  2. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  3. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  4. [The role of circulating immune complexes and the status of argyrophilic membranes of the vascular walls in the development of brain edema in patients with meningococcal meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebesh, V V; Iarosh, O A

    1991-01-01

    Based on clinical and immunological examinations of 60 patients with MME and 30 normal persons, the dynamics of the blood CIC content was studied depending on the time and gravity of the disease. The discovered changes in argyrophilic membranes of the vascular walls are determined to a considerable measure by the pathogenic action of CIC on microvessels, which entails the derangement of blood-brain barrier function and contributes to the development of acute purulent meningitis. PMID:1647627

  5. Edema pulmonar neurogênico: relato de dois casos Neurogenic pulmonary edema: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desanka Dragosavac

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O edema pulmonar neurogênico é rara e grave complicação de pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE. Pode ocorrer também em outras patologias do sistema nervoso central, tais como acidentes vasculares cerebrais (AVC, tumores ou após crises epilépticas, entre outras. Foram avaliados 36 casos com TCE grave e quatro pacientes com AVC, internados na UTI geral, no período de janeiro a setembro 1995. Nesse intervalo de tempo foram diagnosticados dois casos de edema pulmonar neurogênico, um ocorrendo em paciente com TCE grave e outro em paciente com AVC hemorrágico. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido pelo rápido desenvolvimento de edema pulmonar, com hipoxemia grave, queda da complacência pulmonar e infiltrados difusos bilaterais sem história prévia de aspiração traqueal ou outro fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de síndrome de angústia respiratória aguda. No primeiro paciente com trauma craniencefálico, o edema neurogênico foi diagnosticado na internação, uma hora após o trauma, com concomitante reação inflamatória grave e boa evolução em três dias. O outro caso, com AVC hemorrágico, desenvolveu edema neurogênico no quarto dia após drenagem de hematoma intraparenquimatoso, evoluindo para o óbito.Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare and serious complication in patients with head injury. It also may develop after a variety of cerebral insults such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumors and after epileptic seizures. Thirty six patients with severe head injury and four patients with cerebrovascular insults treated in Intensive Care Unit of HC-UNICAMP from January to September 1995 were evaluated. In this period there were two patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema, one with head injury and other with intracerebral hemorrhage. Diagnosis was made by rapid onset of pulmonary edema, severe hypoxemia, decrease of pulmonary complacence and diffuse pulmonary infiltrations, without previous history of tracheal

  6. Reexpansion pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genofre Eduardo Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE is a rare, but frequently lethal, clinical condition. The precise pathophysiologic abnormalities associated with this disorder are still unknown, though decreased pulmonary surfactant levels and a pro-inflammatory status are putative mechanisms. Early diagnosis is crucial, since prognosis depends on early recognition and prompt treatment. Considering the high mortality rates related to RPE, preventive measures are still the best available strategy for patient handling. This review provides a brief overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of RPE, with practical recommendations for adequate intervention.

  7. Diabetic Macular Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

  8. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, I. Chang [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taipei Cathay General Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Willinsky, Robert A.; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fanning, Noel F. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

  9. [Pathopshysiological mechanisms in macular edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlea, Cristian; Zolog, Ileana; Blăjan, Codruta; Roşca, C; Turlea, Magdalena; Munteanu, Mihnea; Boruga, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic macular edema has known a fast development in the last 5 years where the transition from laser monotherapy to intravitreal pharmacotherapy is becoming standard practice. Intravitreal injections therapy is in a continuous development with promising positive results. The use of intratvitreal devices in the treatment of macular edema of vascular cause has become a viable alternative also in treating diabetic macular edema. Several clinical studies have revealed the superiority of intravitreal treatment versus laser monotherapy. This article is evaluating and reviewing present and future treatments used to combat diabetic macular edema. [corrected].

  10. Variations of brain edema and neurological function of rat models of cerebral infarction after hyperbaric oxygen therapy%高压氧干预脑梗死模型大鼠脑水肿及神经功能变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田烜

    2015-01-01

    背景:研究认为,高压氧有较好保护脑神经和脑细胞的作用,应用高压氧可使氧分压快速弥撒到相对缺氧的脑组织中,增加脑组织的血氧含量,促进脑水肿及脑神经功能的恢复。目的:观察大脑中动脉阻塞造模后高压氧干预对大鼠脑梗死组织水肿的影响,并探讨其对脑梗死大鼠神经功能保护的可能作用机制。方法:成年雌性SD大鼠65只,造模成功60只,随机区组法分为假手术组、脑梗死组、高压氧组,每组20只,按照线栓线法建立大鼠大脑中动脉阻塞脑梗死模型。造模后3 d,通过TUNEL法检测各实验组大鼠脑梗死区神经细胞的凋亡情况。伤后72 h通过RT-PCR、Western blot检测脑梗死区周围AQP4/9、基质金属蛋白酶9/2基因转录和蛋白的表达,通过苏木精-伊红染色观察脑梗死区病理组织形态学变化,通过免疫组织化学法检测胶质纤维酸性蛋白的表达量,高压氧干预后24 h,3 d及伤后1、2周行Longa行为学评分,检测神经功能的损伤情况。结果与结论:①高压氧组Longa行为学评分在治疗后1,2 d均较脑梗死组显著降低(P <0.05)。②造模后3 d高压氧组细胞凋亡指数均明显低于脑梗死组(P<0.05)。③造模后72 h,与脑梗死组相比高压氧组AQP4/9、基质金属蛋白酶9/2基因和蛋白表达均较显著降低(P<0.05)。结果提示高压氧治疗通过减少大鼠脑梗死区神经细胞的凋亡和降低脑组织水肿,对脑梗死起到保护作用。%BACKGROUND:Several studies have suggested that hyperbaric oxygen could better protect cranial nerve and brain cels. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can make oxygen partial pressure rapidly diffusing toward relatively hypoxic brain tissue, so as to increase blood oxygen content in the brain tissue, reduce brain edema and promote the recovery of brain function. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on brain tissue

  11. Association of degree and type of edema in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with serum lactate dehydrogenase level: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bo, E-mail: gygb2004@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Medical School of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China); Division of MRI, Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, 264000 Shandong (China); Liu, Feng-li [Division of MRI, Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, 264000 Shandong (China); Zhao, Bin, E-mail: cjr.zhaobin@vip.163.com [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Medical School of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headache, blurred vision and seizures with typical parieto-occipital predominantly vasogenic edema, occasionally with cytotoxic edema. The association between the degree and type of edema in PRES with biochemical parameter, especially serum lactate dehydrogenase, has not been determined. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients with typical clinical symptoms and characteristic MR imaging findings of PRES were included in this study. The extent of brain edema was graded on the anatomical distribution by 2 observers blinded to patients’ clinical record, as well as the type of brain edema determined on DWI and ADC map. The levels of biochemical parameters were correlated with the degree of edema and compared between different types of edema. Results: Serum LDH concentrations between patients with cytotoxic edema and with vasogenic components were not statistically different (NWU test, U = 93.0, Z = 1.818, P = 0.069). Only serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration was significantly correlated with the score of brain edema distribution (Spearman's rho correlation, r = 0.721, P = 0.00). No relationship was found between other biochemical parameters and the degree and type of brain edema. Conclusion: Increased serum LDH level, which plays an essential role in endothelial injury, may be a potential risk factor for the development of edema in PRES.

  12. Progesterone is neuroprotective by inhibiting cerebral edema after ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zheng Zhao; Min Zhang; Heng-fang Liu; Jian-ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic edema can alter the structure and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Recent stud-ies have reported that progesterone reduces cerebral edema after cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, pro-gesterone effectively reduced Evans blue extravasation in the ischemic penumbra, but not in the ischemic core, 48 hours after cerebral ischemia in rats. Progesterone also inhibited the down-reg-ulation of gene and protein levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the penumbra. These results indicate that progesterone may effectively inhibit the down-regulation of tight junctions, thereby maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reducing cerebral edema.

  13. Therapeutic effect of ulinastatin on traumatic brain edema accompanied by seawater drowning in rats%乌司他丁对创伤性脑水肿合并海水淹溺性肺水肿大鼠的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐向前; 于明琨; 董艳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of ulinastatin on traumatic brain edema (TBE) accompanied by pulmonary edema due to seawater drowning in rats. Methods Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (nffi8) and ulinastatin treatment group (n=24). A rat model of moderate brain trauma was established by lateral head impact, and pulmonary edema was induced in these rats by pulmonary lavage with seawater to mimic seawater drowning. Twenty-four hours after intmperitoneal injection of ulinastatin, the changes in the cerebral and pulmonary water contents and concentrations of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the brain, lungs and serum were measured, and the histopathological changes of the brain and lung tissues were observed. Results The cerebral and pulmonary water contents and the IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations in the serum, brain and lungs of the rats with brain trauma and pulmonary edema were markedly decreased after ulinastatin injection, which also resulted in obvious improvement of the brain and lung pathologies induced by the injuries. Conclusion Ulinastatin can alleviate traumatic brain edema in rats with pulmonary edema due to seawater drowning by inhibiting the proinflammatory cytokines.%目的 探讨乌司他丁对创伤性脑水肿(TBE)合并海水淹溺性肺水肿(PE-SWD)大鼠的治疗作用. 方法 32只SD大鼠按照随机数字表法分为对照组(8只)和治疗组(24只).脑侧方液压打击伤+气管内灌注海水建立大鼠TBE合并PE-SWD动物模型.伤后治疗组腹腔注射不同剂量(2500、50 000、100 000 U/kg)乌司他丁溶液1 mL,对照组腹腔注射1 mL生理盐水,伤后24 h观察脑、肺组织含水量变化,血清、脑组织、肺组织白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量的变化以及脑、肺组织病理学变化. 结果 乌司他丁治疗后.TBE合并PE-SWD大鼠脑、肺组织含水量及血清、脑组织、肺组织IL-1β

  14. 脑出血患者血肿周围组织水通道蛋白-4表达与脑水肿及病理超微结构变化的关系%The relationship between the aquaporin-4 and brain edema, pathologic change, ultrastructure in perihematoma tissue in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭富强; 吴文斌; 曾宪容; 唐建; 赵冬冬; YANG Zheng-lin; 杨果; 徐玉川; 陈隆益; 杨友松; 董凌琳; 代红源; 黄雨兰; 韦永胜; 李晓佳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) mRNA and study the relationship between AQP-4,brain edema,pathological changes and uhrastructure of perihematoma tissue in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients.Methods Intracranial operation was performed via nonfunctional area with a funnel-like approach on 30 ICH patients.The brain tissue which must be removed 1 cm away the hematoma was removed within 12 hours for observation as normal brain tissue and taken as the control group (7 patients),and which of the brain tissue within 1 cm around hematoma was taken as the study specimens.The experimental group was subdivided into five groups according to the time interval after ICH;<6 hours (6 cases),6-12 hours (7 cases),12-24 hours (5 cases),24-72 hours (6 cases),and>72 hours (6 cases).Expression of the AQP-4 mRNA,brain edema,pathological and ultrastructural changes were observed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),light microscope and electron microscope. Results The expression of the AQP-4 mRNA was not remarkable,the morphology and construction were basically normal in control group.The expression of AQP-4 mRNA was mild (1.17±0.41 ) and there was edema of neuroglia in the <6 hours group.After 6 hours,besides neuroglial edema,the expression of the AQP-4 mRNA was gradually obvious,capillary endothelial cells began to swell too,and tight junctions gradually began to loosen.In the 12 - 72 hours group the expression of the AQP-4 mRNA reached its peak (3.50 ± 0.55,3.60±0.55,both P< 0.01 ),and brain edema was most prominent,and electron microscopy showed that neurons,neuroglia,and capillary endothelial cells were markedly deformed.After 72 hours,the expression of AQP-4 mRNA gradually recovered,and brain cells showed less damage.On the 5th day the damage began to repair,and on the 8th day,the damage was basically repaired.The correlation analysis showed that there was a remarkable positive correlation between the expression of

  15. 抗脑抗体对创伤性脑损伤后血脑屏障和脑水肿的影响%Effect of antibrain-antibody on blood-brain barrier and cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海; 张毅; 苏祖禄; 陈皓

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of antibrain-antibody (AB-Ab) in blood serum and the effect of AB-Ab on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral edema after the traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rabbits.Methods Forty-five New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into control group (n =5),sham operation group (fenestration only without injury,n =15) and TBI group (severe lateral fluid percussion brain injury,n =15) according to the random number table.Sham and TBI animals were subdivided at postoperative 1,3,7 and 14 days.Level of AB-Ab,BBB permeability and brain water content were determined after operation.Results At each time point,serum AB-Ab level,BBB permeability and brain water content were higher in sham operation group and TBI group than in control group (P <0.05).At postoperative 3,7 and 14 days,serum AB-Ab level,BBB permeability and brain water content were higher in TBI group than in sham operation group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Serum level of AB-Ab is significantly increased after TBI along with synchronous changes in BBB permeability and brain water content,indicating that AB-Ab may be associated with the increase of BBB permeability and brain edema.%目的 探讨兔创伤性脑损伤(TBI)后血清抗脑抗体(AB-Ab)水平的变化及其对血脑屏障(BBB)和脑水肿的影响. 方法 将45只新西兰兔按随机数字表法分为对照组(5只)、假手术组(20只)和TBI组(20只),TBI组又分为1,3,7,14 d亚组.假手术组只开骨窗不打击;TBI组建立脑单侧重型液压冲击TBI模型.分别于术后1,3,7,14d检测各组血清AB-Ab浓度、BBB通透性和脑含水量. 结果 假手术组、TBI组血清AB-Ab含量、BBB通透性和脑含水量在各时相点均高于对照组(P<0.05),TBI组血清AB-Ab含量、BBB通透性和脑含水量在3,7,14 d均高于假手术组(P<0.05). 结论 TBI后血清中AB-Ab与BBB通透性升高和脑水肿程度呈同步性改变,提示AB-Ab可能是BBB通透性升高和脑水肿的原因之一.

  16. The Effects of Various Concentrations of Hypertonic Saline on Brain Edema after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury%各种浓度高渗盐水对重型颅脑外伤后脑水肿的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁碧先

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨各种浓度高渗盐水对重型颅脑外伤后脑水肿患者,降低颅内压,提高脑灌注压的效果.方法:选择我院160例患者,按照应用高渗盐水的浓度不同,分为四组,每组各40例,持续监测患者平均动脉压、颅内压,比较各组之间对于降低颅内压,提高脑灌注压的效果.结果:7.5%HS组颅内压降低幅度高于另外三组(P<0.05),7.5%HS组平均动脉压明显高于其他三组(P<0.05),7.5%HS组颅内压明显低于其他三组(P<0.05),7.5%HS组患者脑灌注压明显高于其他三组(P<0.05).结论:四种不同浓度的高渗盐水,在降低脑外伤后脑水肿患者颅内压、提高脑灌注压方面均有一定效果,其中以7.5%HS效果最佳.%Objective: To explore the various concentrations of hypertonic saline on brain edema in patients with severe head trauma, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure. Method: 160 patients, according to the different concentrations of hypertonic saline, were divided into 4 groups, each with 40 cases, continuous monitoring of patients with mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, comparing each group to reduce intracranial pressure enhance the effect of cerebral perfusion pressure. Result: 7.5%HS group rate of intracranial pressure was lower than the other three groups ( P<0.05 ) , 7.5% HS group rate of the average arterial pressure was significantly higher than the other three groups ( P<0.05 ) , 7.5% HS group rate of intracranial pressure was significantly lower than the other three groups ( P<0.05 ), 7.5% HS group rate of cerebral perfusion pressure was significantly higher than the other three groups ( P<0. 05 ). Conclusion: Four different concentrations of hypertonic saline can reduce brain edema after traumatic brain injury patients with intracranial pressure, increase cerebral perfusion pressure, but 7.5% HS is the best of all.

  17. Primary report of noninvasive impedance monitoring of cerebral hematoma and edema in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yi Lu; Dong Wei-Wei; Yang Hao; Long Men; Yang Hua

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objective Brain edema is one of the most important clinical process in many diseases. Tissue impedance monitoring offers a non-invasive, bedside, rapid, and reliable technique for the monitoring of the brain edema. Methods We use a bioelectrical impedance(BEI) monitoring unit to record the brain impedance in the healthy volunteer and the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Percent of BEI variations were calculation. Results and Conclusions Brain BEI haven f any difference between both hemispheres in normal ones. In 48hrs, BEI value at hematoma-side was obviously decreased; after 48hrs, BEI value was obviously increased and continue to tenth day. Brain bioelectrical impedance monitoring, particularly noninvasively, is a first time in this field. The primary results show brain BEI could reflect the evolution of cerebral hematoma and edema.

  18. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ecer Menteş; Mustafa Taşkesen; Selahattin Katar; M.Emin Günel; Sedat Akdeniz

    2009-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is a rare form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Mostly it appears under three years of age and is characterized by purpuric skin lesions, fever and edema. A three years-old boy, who has cough and coryzea was admitted to our clinic for fever and red spots on legs and arms. In physical examination; ecimotic skin lesions on right ear, face, arms, dorsal of the hands, buttocks, legs and dorsal of the feet were found. In the laboratory tests acute phase reactants ...

  19. Reexpansion pulmonary edema following thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuman Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reexpansion pulmonary edema is an uncommon complication of the treatment of lung atelectasis, pleural effusion or pneumothorax and pathogenesis is unknown. An elderly male patient presented to us with right-sided pleural effusion. 2 h after thoracentesis, he felt chest discomfort and increased breathlessness. His chest examination showed right-sided crackles. Chest radiograph showed right-sided heterogeneous opacity in right lower zone consistent with unilateral pulmonary edema. He was managed conservatively along with bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator support. His condition improved gradually and was discharged successfully after 2 days.

  20. Does age matter? - A MRI study on peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platten Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritumoral edema is a characteristic feature of malignant glioma related to the extent of neovascularisation and to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. The extent of peritumoral edema and VEGF expression may be prognostic for patients with glioblastoma. As older age is a negative prognostic marker and as VEGF expression is reported to be increased in primary glioblastoma of older patients, age-related differences in the extent of peritumoral edema have been assessed. Methods In a retrospective, single-center study, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of steroid-naïve patients (n = 122 of all age groups were analysed. Patients with clinically suspected, radiologically likely or known evidence of secondary glioblastoma were not included. Extent of brain edema was determined in a metric quantitative fashion and in a categorical fashion in relation to tumor size. Analysis was done group-wise related to age. Additionally, tumor size, degree of necrosis, superficial or deep location of tumor and anatomic localization in the brain were recorded. Results The extent of peritumoral edema in patients >65 years (ys was not different from the edema extent in patients ≤ 65 ys (p = 0.261. The same was true if age groups ≤ 55 ys and ≥ 70 ys were compared (p = 0.308. However, extent of necrosis (p = 0.023, deep tumor localization (p = 0.02 and frontal localisation (p = 0.016 of the tumor were associated with the extent of edema. Tumor size was not linearly correlated to edema extent (Pearson F = 0.094, p = 0.303 but correlated to degree of necrosis (F = 0.355, p Conclusion Age at diagnosis does not determine degree of peritumoral edema, and tumor localization in the white matter is associated with greater extent of edema. The area of necrosis is reflective of volume of edema. In summary, the radiographic appearance of a glioblastoma at diagnosis does not reflect biology in the elderly patient.

  1. Change of apuaporin4 in rats during brain edema induced by lipid polysaccharide%水通道蛋白4在脂多糖致大鼠感染性脑水肿模型中的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳; 高进; 陈萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the expression of aquaporin - 4 (AQP4) in rats with brain edema induced by lipid polysaccharide (LPS) as well as to expl6re the role of AQP4 in the formation and development of brain edema. Methods Eighty four SD male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group( group C,n = 12), saline group (group S, n = 12), LPS group (group L, n = 60). Group L was devided into 5 subgroups according to different time points after injecting LPS: 6h, 12h, 24h,48h,72h ( each subgroup, n = 12). Cerebral edema was induced by carotid injection with LPS ( 150μg/150μL). Dry - wet weight, evan blue,RT- PCR and immunohistochemistry methods were used respectively to measure the brain tissue water content, the integrity of BBB , the expression of AQP4 mRNA and AQP4 protein. Results: Compared with group C and group S, the brain tissue water content, EB content, AQP4 mRNA andprotein were significantly increased (P<0.05) in group L,except subgroup 72h. They were increased at 6h after LPS injection, with a peak at 24h. No significant difference was found between group C and group S(P> 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that the expression of AQP4 is up regulated in brain edema induced by LPS, and it has positive relationship with the integrity of BBB and the brain tissue water content. It shows AQP4 may participat in the formation and development of infections cerebral edema.%目的:观察脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠感染性脑水肿后水通道蛋白4的表达情况.探讨其在脑水肿形成发展中的作用.方法:84只雄性SD大鼠,随机分为3组:空白对照组(C组,n=12):生理盐水对照组(S组,n=12):水肿组(L组,n=60).水肿组又按注射脂多精后6h、12h、24h、48h、72h分为5个亚组(n=12).向颈内动脉注射脂多糖LPSl50μg(0.15mL)建立大鼠感染性脑水肿模型.采用干湿重法、甲酰胺法、PT-PCR和免疫组化法分别测定脑组织含水量、血脑屏障通透性、AQP4mRNA和AQP4蛋白表达.结果:

  2. Limb edemas in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic radiology in cancer patients suffering from limb edemas serves two main purposes: to detect or to rule out lymph node metastases, recurrent cancer, or secondary malignancies, and to differentiate venous edema from lymphedema. The authors suggest an algorithmic pathway where the non-invasive imaging modalities, real-time ultrasonography and computed tomography are recommended as the initial diagnostic step. Both techniques are equally well suited to detect enlarged lymph nodes with high accuracy. In addition, computed tomography allows to a certain degree to separate venous from lymphedema. Phlebography is rarely needed in these patients. Lymphography should only be considered in patients undergoing microsurgical reconstructive operations of the lymphatics (e.g. lymphovenous anastomoses) because this invasive study carries the risk of deteriorating the edematous limb. (orig.)

  3. Naloxone-induced pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J A; Koenigsberg, M D

    1987-11-01

    We present the case of a 68-year-old woman with acute pulmonary edema secondary to the administration of naloxone to reverse an inadvertent narcotic overdose. The patient presented following a 12-hour history of increasingly bizarre behavior and confusion. A total IV dose of 1.6 mg naloxone was administered in an attempt to reverse the suspected overconsumption of a codeine-containing cough suppressant. She immediately became agitated, tachycardic, and diaphoretic; a clinical diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema was made. Following treatment with furosemide, nitroglycerin, and morphine sulfate, the patient recovered completely without further incident. Although naloxone is thought to be a safe drug with few complications, it should not be used indiscriminantly, and the smallest doses necessary to elicit the desired response should be used. PMID:3662194

  4. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  5. Contributions of Histamine, Prostanoids, and Neurokinins to Edema Elicited by Edema Toxin from Bacillus anthracis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, Jeffrey; Green, Candace; Padgett, Diana; Zhao, Wei; Schwartz, Lawrence; Hughes, Molly; Hewlett, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), composed of protective antigen and an adenylate cyclase edema factor (EF), elicits edema in host tissues, but the target cells and events leading from EF-mediated cyclic-AMP production to edema are unknown. We evaluated the direct effect of ET on several cell types in vitro and tested the possibility that mediators of vascular leakage, such as histamine, contribute to edema in rabbits given intradermal ET. ET increased the transendothelial electrical resis...

  6. Glioma-related edema: new insight into molecular mechanisms and their clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Xiong Lin

    2013-01-01

    Glioma-related edema (GRE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality from glioma.GRE is a complicated process involving not only peritumoral edema but also the water content of the tumor body.In terms of etiology,this condition derives from both GRE in the untreated state and GRE secondary to clinical intervention,and different cell types contribute to distinct components of GRE.Peritumoral edema was previously believed to loosen glioma tissue,facilitating tumor-cell invasion;however,the nutrition hypothesis of the tumor microecosystem suggests that tumor cells invade for the sake of nutrition.Edema is the pathologic consequence of the reconstructed trophic linkage within the tumor microecosystem.Glioma cells induce peritumoral brain edema via an active process that supplies a suitable niche for peritumoral invasive cells,suggesting that glioma-related peritumoral brain edema is determined by the invasive property of tumor cells.There are differences between pivotal molecular events and reactive molecular events in the development of GRE.Molecular therapy should target the former,as targeting reactive molecular events will produce undesired or even adverse results.At present,brain glioma angiogenesis models have not been translated into a new understanding of the features of brain images.The effect of these models on peritumoral brain edema is unclear.Clinical approaches should be transformed on the basis of new knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying GRE.Exploring clinical assessment methods,optimizing the existing control strategy of GRE,and simultaneously developing new treatments are essential.

  7. [Therapeutic approach in persistent diabetic macular edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, Daniel; Moraru, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Terminology of persistent diabetic macular edema has been initially reserved to cases unresponsive to conventional laser photocoagulation according to ETDRS criteria. While knowledge about pathophysiology of macular edema evolved and new drugs became available, the terminology of persistent diabetic macular edema expanded to include resistance to most current therapies. The purpose of this paper is to review medical and surgical options in the treatment of such difficult cases according to literature data and personal experience.

  8. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  9. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  10. Acute cerebral and pulmonary edema induced by hemodialysis in a dog model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zhen-wei; WANG Zhi-gang

    2008-01-01

    Background The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is characterized by neurologic deterioration and cerebral edema which occurs after hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of acute cerebral and pulmonary edema induced by hemodialysis.Methods We evaluated the effects of hemodialysis on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, including the intracranial pressure, dry/wet ratio, and pulmonary edema index, and we also examined the pathological changes of the brain and lung tissue in dogs suffering from uremia.Results Seventy-two hours after bilateral ureteral ligation, 10 uremic dogs were hemodialyzed for 2 hours, yielding a 73.6% and 60.1% decrease in the plasma urea and creatinine, respectively, a decrease in the plasma osmolality from (359±18) mOsm/kgH2O to (304±6) mOsm/kgH2O (P <0.01 ), a decrease in the dry/wet ratio of the lung and brain tissue,and an increase in the hemodynamic parameters (right atrial pressure, right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and central venous pressure), intracranial pressure, total pulmonary resistance index, and pulmonary edema index. Moreover, the pathological examination revealed lung and brain edema in the dialyzed dogs. This group was compared to 3 control groups: 6 uremic dogs which were sham dialyzed without dialysate so that no fall in the plasma urea occurred, and 12 uremic and 12 nonuremic animals that were not dialyzed.However, the parameters mentioned above were not significantly changed among these 3 control groups.Conclusions The acute brain and lung edema in our model appeared to be primarily due to a large osmotic gradient between the plasma and the brain and lung. This is the "urea reverse effect" which promoted the osmotically-induced lung and brain swelling.

  11. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy s

  12. Immersion Pulmonary Edema in Female Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema has been reported in SCUBA divers, apnea divers, and long-distance swimmers however, no instances of pulmonary edema in triathletes exist in the scientific literature. Pulmonary edema may cause seizures and loss of consciousness which in a water environment may become life threatening. This paper describes pulmonary edema in three female triathletes. Signs and symptoms including cough, fatigue, dyspnea, haemoptysis, and rales may occur within minutes of immersion. Contributing factors include hemodynamic changes due to water immersion, cold exposure, and exertion which elevate cardiac output, causing pulmonary capillary stress failure, resulting in extravasation of fluid into the airspace of the lung. Previous history is a major risk factor. Treatment involves immediate removal from immersion and in more serious cases, hospitalization, and oxygen administration. Immersion pulmonary edema is a critical environmental illness of which triathletes, race organizers, and medical staff, should be made aware.

  13. 醒脑静对脑出血患者 S100B、神经肽 Y和脑水肿的影响%Impact of Xingnaojing on the S100B,neuropeptide Y and brain edema of patients with cerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of Xingnaojing on the S100B,neuropeptide Y and brain edema of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods A total of 72 patients with cerebral hemorrhage were selected in the People's Hos-pital of Yichun in 2014,they were randomly divided into control group and observation group,36 cases in each group. Control group were given edaravone treatment,observation group were given Xingnaojing on the basis of control group. Before treatment and after treatment of 1,2 weeks S100B,neuropeptide Y levels,brain edema volume and incidence of adverse reactions be-tween the two groups were compared. Results There was interaction between time and method(P 0. 05),after treatment of 1 week,S100B levels,brain edema volume showed no significant differences between the two groups(P > 0. 05),after treatment of 1 week,neuropeptide Y levels of ob-servation group was lower than that of control group(P < 0. 05),after treatment of 2 week,S100B,neuropeptide Y levels of observation group were lower than those of control group,brain edema volume of observation group was less than that of control group(P < 0. 05);no one of the two groups occurred serious adverse reactions. Conclusion Xingnaojing can decrease S100B,neuropeptide Y levels of patients with cerebral hemorrhage,improve patients' brain edema.%目的:探讨醒脑静对脑出血患者 S100B、神经肽 Y 和脑水肿的影响。方法选取2014年宜春市人民医院收治的脑出血患者72例,随机分为对照组与观察组,各36例。对照组患者予以依达拉奉治疗,观察组患者在对照组基础上加用醒脑静治疗。观察两组患者治疗前及治疗1、2周 S100B、神经肽 Y 水平、脑水肿体积及不良反应发生情况。结果时间与方法有交互作用(P <0.05),组间比较,差异均有统计学意义( P <0.05),时间间比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),治疗前两组患者 S100B、神经肽 Y 水平、脑水肿体

  14. Soft Tissue Edema Around Musculoskeletal Sarcomas at Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Panicek, David M.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of soft tissue edema around a malignant musculoskeletal neoplasm can interfere with accurate local tumor staging at magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses and illustrates such edema, emphasizing means for avoiding misinterpretation of edema and subsequent overstaging.

  15. Update on treatments of diabetic macular edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-lu; LIU Kun; XU Xun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the update research progress about the treatment of diabetic macular edema and to give helpful guidelines in the treatment of diabetic macular edema based on available evidence to date.Data sources A literature search of all English articles was performed on the online electronic PubMed database dated 1984 to 2009. The keywords searched included: macular edema, therapy, laser coagulation, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, protein kinase C inhibitor and Pars plana vitrectomy. After finding relevant articles within these search limits, a manual search was conducted through the references from these articles.Study selection Original articles and critical reviews were reviewed and selected to address the stated purpose.Results To date, demonstrated means to reduce the risk of vision loss from diabetic macular edema include focal/grid laser photocoagulation and improved metabolic control. Emerging pharmacologic therapies (intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and protein kinase C beta-isoform inhibitors) and Pars plana vitrectomy have shown early promise in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.Conclusions As there has been extensive development in multiple treatments of diabetic macular edema, choice of the most suitable treatment for specific patients becomes important. Combination therapy of laser, pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities may offer an alternative to treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  16. 水通道蛋白4小RNA干扰技术优化亚低温治疗脑水肿%Optimized application of siRNA targeting aquaporin 4 with hypothermia treatment on cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 刘晓智; 刘振林; 张文彬; 曲阳; 何敬; 孙世中

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用针对靶向水通道蛋白4(aquapofin 4,AQP-4)的小RNA(siRNA)干扰技术优化亚低温减轻颅脑创伤(traumatic brain injury,TBI)后脑水肿程度的治疗效果.方法 构建沉默AQP-4 mRNA表达的siRNA质粒;液压打击法建立大鼠TBI模型,分TBI对照组、AQP-4 siRNA治疗组、亚低温治疗组、AQP-4 siRNA及亚低温联合治疗组;提取第1、3、5、7天脑组织总RNA和总蛋白,RT-PCR和Western blot方法 检测AQP-4的mRNA和蛋白表达水平;干/湿比重法和Evans蓝测定法观察大鼠TBI后不同时相脑组织含水量和血脑屏障通透性改变;实验动物予以神经功能缺陷综合评分.结果 亚低温在减轻TBI后脑水肿程度方面优于AQP-4 siRNA,但siRNA技术在沉默AQP-4表达方面强于亚低温,联合应用AQP-4 siRNA和亚低温在TBI后降低脑水肿程度方面获得最佳治疗效果.结论 靶向AQP-4的Si RNA干扰技术可优化亚低温在TBI后降低脑水肿方面的治疗效果.%Objective To optimize the treatment effect of siRNA targeting aquaporin 4 with hypothermia on cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury. Methods To construct siRNA targeting aquaporin 4, and establish the TBI models in rats. The animals were divided into four groups: TBI group, AQP-4 siRNA group, hypothermia group, and combined group. To extract the total mRNA and proteins on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th day for RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The changes of brain water content and permeability of blood-brain barrier were measured by the methods of wet and dry weight and Evans blue fluorometry. All the rats were given a mark for their nerve function on the 7th day. Results Hypothermia treatment can obtain better effect than AQP-4 siRNA in lessening brain edema level. Meanwhile, siRNA treatment can obtain better effect than hypothermia group in silencing AQP-4 mRNA and protein expression. When combining hypothermia treatment with AQP-4 siRNA, we can obtain an optimized result than the single

  17. 亚低温对大鼠缺血性脑水肿及水通道蛋白AQP4表达的影响%Effect of mild hypothermia on ischemic brain edema and expression of aquaporin-4 in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎蕾; 董瑞国; 曾因明; 耿德勤

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild hypothermia (28-35 ℃) is becoming one of the promising methods in treating acute ischemic stroke. Hypothermia can effectively lessen brain edema, which is one of its neuroprotective roles.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on brain water content and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression level following global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, so as to study the neuroprotective mechanisms of mild hypothermia.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTING: Neurobiological Laboratory of Xuzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: 110 healthy male SD rats with body mass 250-300 g, provided by the Animal Center of Xuzhou Medical College, No. SYNK (Jiangsu) 2002-0079, were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups by SPSS 11.0software: ①sham-operated group (n=10);②normothermiagroup (n=50); ③mild hypothermia group (33 ℃, n=50). Normothermia group and mild hypothermia group were subdivided into five reperfusion subgroups for 6 hours, 1, 2, 3 and 7 days, respectively with 10 rats in each subgroup,in which 5 rats were used for measurement of brain water content, and others for HE staining and immunohistochemistry staining.METHODS: The models of global cerebral ischemia were established in the normothermia group and mild hypothermia group by four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method with ischemia for 15 minutes as Pulsinelli described.The rats in the sham-operated group were only underwent the electrocauterization of bilateral vertebral arteries and the isolation of common carotid arteries except for occlusion of common carotid arteries. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were decapitated to take out the brains. The brains of rats in the normothermia group and mild hypothermia group were taken out to make sections for HE staining and immunohistochemistry staining, and the dynamic change of pathology of the brain tissue and AQP4 expression level were observed after reperfusion for 6 hours, 1, 2, 3 and 7 days, respectively. The brain wet

  18. Examination of dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation in experimentally produced cerebral edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation were used for experimentally produced cerebral edema for the examination of the water content of the brain and cerebrovascular permeability using 203Hg as the tracer. Although dexamethasone starts lowering vascular permeability of the edematous brain at one hour after the intravenous injection, a lapse of 24 hours is required until the water content returns to normal. Although hyperbaric oxygenation dose not reduce cerebrovascular permeability, it brings back the water content of the brain to normal immediately after pressurization. Since the combination of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygenation maintains the water content of the brain almost normal throughout the entire process, it is ideal for the treatment of cerebral edema. (Chiba, N.)

  19. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Developing After Cesarean Section

    OpenAIRE

    Güleç, Handan; Babayigit, Münire; Kurtay, Aysun; Tutal, Zehra; Dereli, Necla; Sahin, Saziye; Horasanli, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a pathogenesis of pulmonary edema which occurs often in the early period following the acute neurologic changes affecting the central nervous system and proceeds with respiratory failure. It causes respiratory problems requiring intubation in the patient. When evaluated in general terms, the pathophysiology of NPE includes cardiopulmonary dysfunction caused by catecholamines that are secreted rapidly and abundantly. This case study will examine the respirat...

  20. Periorbital edema secondary to imatinib mesylate

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Collin M; Harocopos, George J; Custer, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    Collin M McClelland, George J Harocopos, Philip L CusterSchool of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec®) is a well-established pharmacologic treatment for all phases of chronic myeloid leukemia and for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Edema-related side effects are relatively common in imatinib therapy with the periocular skin representing one of the most common sites for localized edema. While the adverse effect of p...

  1. Mitral Valve Regurgitation Causing Right Upper Lobe Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Andrew L.; Langston, Charles S.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Shortsleeve, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    When radiography is performed in patients with mitral regurgitation, cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a typical finding; however, asymmetric pulmonary edema has also been reported. We describe the case of a patient in whom mitral valve regurgitation caused isolated pulmonary edema in the right upper lung. We include a discussion of pulmonary edema in conjunction with mitral regurgitation.

  2. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliaperumal Mathan; Venkatesan Muthukrishnan; Vikas Menon

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  3. Study of the relevance and relationship between the various MR findings of peritumoral brain edema caused by WHO Ⅰ meningioma and the different pathological types of meningiomas%WHO Ⅰ型脑膜瘤瘤旁脑水肿的MR表现与脑膜瘤病理类型的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦成伟; 谭晓天; 赵俊军; 张泳华

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探讨由WHO Ⅰ型脑膜瘤引起的不同类型瘤旁脑水肿(peritumoral brain edema,PBE)的MR表现与脑膜瘤病理类型的关系.[方法] 脑凸面及镰旁WHO Ⅰ型脑膜瘤83例,均行MR和MR增强扫描,分析脑膜瘤病理类型与PBE的MR表现的关系. [结果] 脑膜瘤的不同亚型PBE 有不同的MR表现;脑膜瘤增强表现与PBE关系密切,无脑水肿与广泛脑水肿肿瘤亚型的极显著强化比例分别为66.35%与100.00% .本组不同亚型脑膜瘤的PBE易发次序为:分泌型、血管瘤型、微囊型、过渡型(混合型)、上皮型、砂粒体型和纤维型;易发广泛PBE的亚型依次为:分泌型、微囊型、血管瘤型、过渡型、上皮型.[结论] PBE的MR表现与脑膜瘤病理亚型关系密切.

  4. 大鼠原发性脑损伤伴低血压对脑子肿形成时相的影响%Effects of primary cerebral injury with hypotension on the development and severity of brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘励军; Payen JF; Farion R; LeBas JF; 包仕尧

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨脑外伤和伴发低血压的脑外伤对于大鼠脑水肿形成时间和程度的影响.方法 利用组织比重法测定创伤后大鼠顶叶皮层和纹状体含水量的变化.通过联合使用氯醛糖和潘龙诱发脑外伤后低血压.结果 改良的加速性脑创伤模型大鼠病死率为48.6%,而颅骨骨折的发生率为6.4%.创伤后8 h和24 h存活大鼠,其脑组织含水量与对照组比较无明显差别;但创伤后24 h较8 h大鼠,其顶叶皮层含水量[(79.1±0.5)%vs.(78.6±0.5)%,P<0.05]增加0.5%.然而,创伤后合并低血压大鼠,创伤后8 h就已出现明显的脑水肿.与创伤后8 h存活大鼠相比,其顶叶皮层含水量[(81.5±0.9)%vs.(78.6±0.5)%,P<0.01]和纹状体含水量[(78.5±0.9)%vs.(75.5±0.9)%,P<0.01]均明显增加,即,创伤后合并低血压使大鼠脑组织含水量增加了2.9%.结论 无低血压的颅脑外伤大鼠,其脑水肿形成晚且程度轻;而合并有低血压的脑外伤大鼠,其脑水肿出现早且严重.%Objective To study the effects of traumatic brain injury with or without hypotension on the development and severity of brain edema using the impact- acceleration model.Methods Brain tissue water content (BWC) was measured by the gravimetric technique in the cortex and striatum following traumatic brain injury (TBI) . The hypotension was induced by the combination of α - chloralose and pavulon after TBI.Results The mortality of this improved model of TBI was 48.6 %, but the rate of skull fracture was 6.4 %. Within the first 24 hours after TBI, the BWC of cortex and striatum in the survival rats showed a slight decrease at first, and then an increase. There appeared no difference in BWC between the two groups of TBI and the control. Nevertheless, the BWC in the area of parietal cortex at 24 hours after impact injury slightly increased by 0.5 % in comparison with that at 8 hours after impact [ (79.1 ± 0.5) % vs. (78.6 ± 0.5) %, P < 0.05]. Meanwhile,the BWC of

  5. 胰岛素对大鼠局灶性脑缺血后脑水肿及水通道蛋白9的影响%Effects of Insulin on Expression of Aquaporin -9 and Brain Edema after Focal Cerebral Is-chemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊; 陈忠云; 李婧; 徐志伟; 杨旭

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of insulin on expression of Aquaporin-9 (AQP-9) and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Methods: One hundred and eighty SD rats were randomly divided into groups of sham, MCAO and insulin treatment, with 30 rats in each group. Six rats in each group were observed at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after MCAO. The MCAO models were estabilish by suture method, and the sham group without suture. The insulin treatment group was given insulin by intraperitoneal injection. The nerve function, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and AQP-9 mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: The brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and AQP-9 mRNA expression of groups MCAO and insulin began to increase at 6 h and reached peak at 48 h and gradually decreased at 72 h, which were signifi-cantly higher than those in sham group (P<0.05). Compared with the MCAO group, the brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and AQP-9 mRNA expression in insulin treatment group were obviously decreased (P<0.05). There were a significantly passive correlation between AQP-9 mRNA expression and brain water contents, blood-brain barrier permeability(r=0.905, P<0.01; r=0.923, P<0.01). Conclusion: Insulin can reduce brain edema through suppressing expression of AQP-9 in cerebral ischemia in rats.%目的:观察胰岛素对大脑中动脉栓塞(MCAO)大鼠模型脑水肿形成及水通道蛋白-9(AQP-9)表达的影响。方法:SD 大鼠180只,随机分为假手术组、模型组、胰岛素组各30只,分别在栓塞后6、12、24、48、72 h 观察6只。线栓法制备 MCAO 模型,假手术组不插入线栓,胰岛素组 MCAO 后立即给予腹腔注射胰岛素干预。各组进行神经功能评分,检测血脑屏障通透性、脑含水量和脑组织 AQP-9 mRNA 表达。结果:模型组和胰岛素组于缺血6 h 后,脑含水量、血脑屏障通透性及 AQP-9 mRNA

  6. Expression of AQP4 and susceptivity to high-altitude cerebral edema in bovine brain%黄牛脑水通道蛋白4的表达及其对高原脑水肿的易感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国强; 王建林; 徐元青; 伍国芬; 邵宝平

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨黄牛对高原脑水肿的易感性,并为青藏高原养牛业提供参考,运用免疫组织化学SABC染色法并采用Image-Pro Plus 6.0软件,对成年黄牛大脑不同功能区水通道蛋白4(AQP4)的表达及分布特征进行了研究.结果显示,黄牛不同功能区脑组织中AQP4表达面积(S)和积分光密度(IOD)值的大小顺序为S扣带回>S中央前回>S丘脑>S尾状核,IOD扣带回>IOD中央前回>IOD丘脑>IOD尾状核,且扣带回和中央前回的S和IOD值均显著高于丘脑和尾状核(P<0.01).结果证实,成年黄牛脑不同功能区、同功能区不同层及同功能区同层不同类型细胞对水的通透性及代谢功能存在较大差异,对脑水肿的易感性是不同的.%To investigate the susceptivity of cattle to the high altitude cerebral edema as well as provide reference and theory evidence to the cattle-raising industry in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the expression and distributional characteristics of adult cattle cerebral aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in different functional area were studied by using immunohistochemical SABC and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Statistical analysis showed that both the immunostaining area(S) and the integral optical density(IOD) value of the cingulated gyrus and precentral gyrus were significantly larger than thalamus and caudate nucleus(P<0. 01, Scingulated gyrus>Sprecentral gyrus > Sthalamus > Scaudate uncleus and IODcingulated gyrus > IODprecentral gyrus > IODthalamus > IODcaudate nucleus ). The results showed that there was comparatively large discrepancy of cell water permeability and metabolism function among different functional area in cattle brain, distinct peers of a functional area and distinguished type cells in the same functional area and peer which might have different susceptivity to cerebral edema.

  7. Effects on Mongolian Warm Acupuncture on VEGF Levels and Cerebral Edema of Brain Tissue in Early Focal Cerebral Ischemia%蒙医温针对局灶性脑缺血早期脑组织 VEGF含量和脑水肿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉棠; 萨仁图雅; 乌云格日勒; 王月红; 阿日嘎太; 水灵; 乌力吉木仁; 斯楞格; 萨其拉

    2014-01-01

    different from those of the sham operation group,and Mongolian warm acupuncture group had significant differences in terms of infarct volume and brain water content compared with the model group. Conclusion:Mongolian warm acupuncture can improve rat neurological function after focal cerebral infarction and ease cerebral edema and reduce infarct volume effect.Mongolian warm acupuncture has very important clinical significance to treat ischemic stroke early in-tervention.

  8. Combined therapy for diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Al Rashaed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is the main cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients. Macular edema within 1 disk diameter of the fovea is present in 9% of the diabetic population. The management of DME is complex and often multiple treatment approaches are needed. This review demonstrates the benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone, bevacizumab and ranibizumab as adjunctive therapy to macular laser treatment in DME. The published results indicate that intravitreal injections of these agents may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity, independent of the type of macular edema that is present. Therefore, pharmacotherapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in the management of DME. For this review, we performed a literature search and summarized recent findings regarding combined therapy for DME.

  9. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan Vikas; Chaudhary S; Gopal Lingam

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid...

  10. MR imaging response of cerebral metastases and peritumoral edema after Gamma Knife surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluation the treatment response of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the control of cerebral metastases and peritumoral edema using standard MRI. Method: 42 consecutive patients with 75 metastatic lesions were recruited in this study (28 men, 14 women; mean age 60±12 years). Gadolinium enhancement T1WI scans were performed on one day before and three months after GKS. Treatment response was evaluated by calculating the changes of tumor volume and edema index before and after GKS. Results: Mean tumor volumes on the baseline and post treatment were 7.0 cm3 and 3.3 cm3 respectively. Mean peritumoral edema indexes were 9.9 and 4.3 respectively. Tumor growth control rate and peritumoral edema control rate were 91% and 85% respectively. Conclusion: GKS is effective for both brain metastasis and peritumoral edema, and the tumor volume influences GKS efficacy. Conventional MRI provides useful information to predict treatment response of GKS for cerebral metastasis. (authors)

  11. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  12. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Villafuerte-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration, temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat. Data analysis and processing are performed using MATLAB. Facial inflammation is measured by comparing three-dimensional reconstructions of inflammatory variations using the fringe projection technique. Trismus is measured by converting pixels to centimeters in a digitally obtained image of an open mouth. Blushing changes are measured by obtaining and comparing the RGB histograms from facial edema images at different times. Finally, temperature changes are measured using a thermographic camera. Some tests using controlled measurements of every variable are presented in this paper. The results allow evaluating the measurement system before its use in a real test, using the pain model approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, which consists in extracting the third molar to generate the facial edema.

  13. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  14. High altitude pulmonary edema: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute pulmonary edema is characterized by the accumulation of liquid in the pulmonary interstice, the alveoli, the bronchi and bronchioles; it is from the excessive circulation from the pulmonary vascular system towards extra vascular and the respiratory spaces. The Liquid filters first at the interstitial space to soon perivascular and peri bronchial and, gradually, towards the alveoli and bronchi

  15. Hereditary angioneurotic edema and HLA types in two Danish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, J; Zachariae, H; Svejgaard, E; Svejgaard, A; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F

    1982-01-01

    HLA types were determined in 19 patients and 9 healthy members of 2 Danish families with hereditary angioneurotic edema. The study revealed no connections between hereditary angioneurotic edema and the HLA system. PMID:7165360

  16. Periorbital edema as initial manifestation of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Erras, Samar; Benjilali, Laila; Essaadouni, Lamiaa

    2012-01-01

    Periorbital edema occurs frequently in dermatomyositis, but it has rarely been noted in systemic systemic lupus erythematosus. We describe a patient who developed bilateral periorbital edema and erythema as the sole manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  17. 清热解毒中药有效组分配伍对内毒素致大鼠感染性脑水肿的保护作用%Protective Effect of Heat-Clearing Antitoxicant Herb Components Compatibility on Infectious Brain Edema in Rats induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚明江; 刘建勋; 张鹏; 杨斌; 徐立; 王光蕊

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨清热解毒中药黄芩、栀子等有效组分配伍而成的注射液(TLQN注射液)对内毒素(LPS)所致大鼠感染性脑水肿的脑保护作用及其可能机制。方法:70只SD大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、清开灵组(3 mL/kg )、地塞米松组(10 mg/kg )、TLQN注射液低、中、高剂量组(24、47.5、95 mg/kg)。经颈内动脉注射LPS(1 mg/kg)建立感染性脑损伤模型,各给药组在注入LPS后立即尾静脉注射相应药物。造模前以及造模6h后各测量一次体温。取各组脑组织标本,干湿法测定脑组织含水量,甲酰胺法检测脑组织伊文思蓝(EB)水平,HE染色后观察各组脑组织病理形态变化,酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测各组血清TNF-α、IL-6含量。结果:模型组体温、脑组织含水量和EB含量明显高于正常组(P<0.01),皮质及海马区存在广泛的神经元、胶质细胞损伤,血清TNF-α及IL-6水平显著升高(P<0.01);TLQN注射液可明显降低模型大鼠体温(P<0.05),减少脑组织含水量及EB含量(P<0.05,0.01),改善脑组织神经元、胶质细胞损伤,显著降低血清TNF-α和IL-6水平(P<0.05)。结论:清热解毒中药有效组分配伍对LPS致大鼠感染性脑损伤有保护作用,其机制可能与抑制TNF-α和IL-6等细胞因子过度产生有关。%Objective:To explore the protective effect of Heat-Clearing antitoxicant herb ( Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi , Gardenia jas-minoides Ellis , et al ) component compatibility ( TLQN Injection ) on infectious brain edema in rats induced by lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) and its possible therapeutic mechanism .Methods:A total of 70 SD rats were divided randomly into model group , control group , Qingkailing group(3 mL/kg), Dexamethasone group(10 mg/kg), TLQN low-dose(24 mg/kg), middle-dose(47.5 mg/kg) and high-dose(95 mg/kg) group.Models of acute infectious brain edema of rats were

  18. Generalized edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Vlaar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.

  19. Generalized edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter J. Vlaar; Glen Mithoe; Janssen, Wilbert M

    2014-01-01

    Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.

  20. An Adult Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting with Cerebral Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Barış Akıncı; Abdurrahman Çömlekçi; Serkan Yener; Süleyman Men

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) which may predominantly develop in pediatric cases during the management of DKA.. Symptomatic cerebral edema in children is rarely detected at admission, before initiation of the treatment. Cerebral edema associated with DKA is extremely rare in adults. Here, we report an adult patient with DKA who presented with symptomatic cerebral edema. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 16-8

  1. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Kumar Reddy Lakkireddigari; Padmaja Durga; Madhukar Nayak; Gopinath Ramchandran

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the iss...

  2. Macular edema in uveitis with emphasis on ocular sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norel, J. van

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the accumulation of fluid in the yellow spot (macular edema) in ocular inflammation (uveitis). Macular edema may result in definitive loss of vision.Two methods of imaging of macular edema are fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The first met

  3. Collaboration in the presence of cerebral edema: The complications of steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Schwarzrock

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: More high-quality, well-controlled studies are needed around dexamethasone dosing for the management of cerebral edema. Clinical practice guidelines need to encompass both the prescriber and nursing-based interventions. Collaboration between disciplines is a necessity when monitoring and managing steroid-induced toxicities in brain tumor patients. Future evidence-based guidelines need recommendations for appropriate interval screening tests and quantifiable tools needed to aid in monitoring steroid-induced complications.

  4. Management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suqin; Patel, Shriji; Baumrind, Ben; Johnson, Keegan; Levinsohn, Daniel; Marcus, Edward; Tannen, Brad; Roy, Monique; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Zarbin, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Acute PCME may resolve spontaneously, but some patients will develop chronic macular edema that affects vision and is difficult to treat. This disease was described more than 50 years ago, and there are multiple options for clinical management. We discuss mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of these treatment modalities. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids are widely used and, when combined, may have a synergistic effect. Intravitreal corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have shown promise when topical medications either fail or have had limited effects. Randomized clinical studies evaluating anti-VEGF agents are needed to fully evaluate benefits and risks. When PCME is either refractory to medical therapy or is associated with significant vitreous involvement, pars plana vitrectomy has been shown to improve outcomes, though it is associated with additional risks.

  5. Influenza leaves a TRAIL to pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Influenza infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to poor disease outcome with high mortality. One of the driving features in the pathogenesis of ARDS is the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, which causes severe pulmonary edema and impaired oxygen uptake. In this issue of the JCI, Peteranderl and colleagues define a paracrine communication between macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells during influenza infection where IFNα induces macrophage secretion of TRAIL that causes endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase by the alveolar epithelium. This reduction of Na,K-ATPase expression decreases alveolar fluid clearance, which in turn leads to pulmonary edema. Inhibition of the TRAIL signaling pathway has been shown to improve lung injury after influenza infection, and future studies will be needed to determine if blocking this pathway is a viable option in the treatment of ARDS. PMID:26999598

  6. Cystoid Macular Edema in Bietti's Crystalline Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Osman Saatci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old man with progressive bilateral visual decline was diagnosed to have Bietti's crystalline dystrophy (BCD. Fluorescein angiography revealed bilateral petaloid type late hyperfluorescence implicating concurrent cystoid macular edema (CME. Optical coherence tomography exhibited cystoid foveal lacunas OU. During the follow-up of six years, intraretinal crystals reduced in amount but CME persisted angiographically and tomographically. CME is among the rare macular features of BCD including subfoveal sensorial detachment, subretinal neovascular membrane, and macular hole.

  7. Edema pulmonar postobstructivo: reporte de 3 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Padilla

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El edema pulmonar postobstructivo (EPPO es una complicación postoperatoria cuyo manejo adecuado depende de un diagnóstico etiológico correcto. El EPPO se clasifica en dos tipos. El tipo I es secundario a la obstrucción aguda de la vía aérea superior. Por su parte, el tipo II ocurre luego de corregir quirúrgicamente una obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea. Fisiopatológicamente, el mecanismo que explica el cuadro es una disminución marcada de la presión intersticial en el nivel pericapilar pulmonar resultante de la inspiración forzada. Lo anterior produce fuga capilar y el consecuente edema de pulmón. El manejo de este cuadro requiere de soporte respiratorio que incluye ventilación mecánica e incluso presión positiva al final de la espiración (PEEP. El pronóstico es muy bueno si el diagnóstico es correcto y oportuno. Se reportan 3 casos que ilustran la entidad, su diagnóstico y manejo.Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPPE is a postoperative complication and its approach depends on an appropriate diagnosis. POPPE can be classified in two types. POPPE type I is caused by acute upper airway obstruction , and type II is due to chronic obstruction. The mechanism of this entity is a marked decrease in pericapilar interstitical pressure in the lung that results in capillary leakage and edema. Its treatment requires mechanical ventilatory support including positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP. Its prognosis is very good if the diagnosis is done appropriately. We report three cases that illustrate its diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Perfusion and diffusion MRI study detecting CBF disturbance and edema formation in the acute phase of cerebral contusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamata, Tatsuro; Aoyama, Naoki; Mori, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoichi [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    In order to clarify the mechanisms underlying cerebral contusion-induced CBF disturbance and edema formation, echoplanar diffusion and perfusion images were obtained in the patients with cerebral contusion. In the acute phase within 48 hours post-trauma, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) showed various levels with a tendency to increase in the central area of contusion (ADC ratio=1.06{+-}0.21). In contrast, the ADC was significantly reduced in the peripheral area of contusion (ADC ratio=0.87{+-}0.16). The ADC at 2 weeks post-trauma increased both in the central (ADC ratio=1.16{+-}0.26) and the peripheral area of contusion (ADC ratio=1.10{+-}0.26, p<0.05), as compared to those within 48 hours post-trauma. The perfusion images showed a wide spread CBF depression extending beyond the area of contusion observed on the T1 and T2 weighted images. These results indicate that; in the early phase of contusion-induced edema formation, cytotoxic edema is predominant, especially in the peripheral area of contusion, and vasogenic edema appears thereafter. The CBF depression may contribute such cytotoxic edema formation in the surrounding area of cerebral contusion. It is concluded that echo-planar diffusion and perfusion images are excellent technique to investigate the evolution of CBF disturbance and edema formation following traumatic brain injury. (author)

  9. Ataxia, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Ma Siqing; Bian Huiping; Zhang Minming

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that ataxia is common and often one of the most reliable warning signs of high altitude cerebral edema(HACE).The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of ataxia in acute mountain sickness (AMS) and HACE among mountain rescuers on the quake areas,and in approaching the relation between AMS and HACE.After the earthquake on April 14,2010,approximately 24080 lowland rescuers were rapidly transported from sea level or lowlands to the mountainous rescue sites at 3750 ~ 4568 m,and extremely hardly worked for an emergency treatment after arrival.Assessments of acute altitude illness on the quake areas were using the Lake Louise Scoring System.73 % of the rescuers were found to be developed AMS.The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) and HACE was 0.73 % and 0.26 %,respectively,on the second to third day at altitude.Ataxia sign was measured by simple tests of coordination including a modified Romberg test.The clinical features of 62 patients with HACE were analyzed.It was found that the most frequent,serious neurological symptoms and signs were altered mental status(50/62,80.6 %)and truncal ataxia (47/62,75.8 %).Mental status change was rated slightly higher than ataxia,but ataxia occurred earlier than mental status change and other symptoms.The earliest sign of ataxia was a vague unsteadiness of gait,which may be present alone in association with or without AMS.Advanced ataxia was correlated with the AMS scores,but mild ataxia did not correlate with AMS scores at altitudes of 3750~4568 m.Of them,14 patients were further examined by computerized tomographic scanning of the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imagines were examined in another 15 cases.These imaging studies indicated that the presence of the cerebral edema was in 97 % of cases who were clinically diagnosed as HACE (28/29).Ataxia seems to be a reliable sign of advanced AMS or HACE,so does altered mental status.

  10. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Lauderdale, Kelli; Murphy, Thomas; Tung, Tina; Davila, David; Binder, Devin K.; Fiacco, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular edema (cell swelling) is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techn...

  11. Cerebral edema induced in mice by a convulsive dose of soman. Evaluation through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the present study, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and histology were used to assess cerebral edema and lesions in mice intoxicated by a convulsive dose of soman, an organophosphate compound acting as an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor. Methods: Three hours and 24 h after the intoxication with soman (172 μg/kg), the mice were anesthetized with an isoflurane/N2O mixture and their brain examined with DW-MRI. After the imaging sessions, the mice were sacrificed for histological analysis of their brain. Results: A decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was detected as soon as 3 h after the intoxication and was found strongly enhanced at 24 h. A correlation was obtained between the ADC change and the severity of the overall brain damage (edema and cellular degeneration): the more severe the damage, the stronger the ADC drop. Anesthesia was shown to interrupt soman-induced seizures and to attenuate edema and cell change in certain sensitive brain areas. Finally, brain water content was assessed using the traditional dry/wet weight method. A significant increase of brain water was observed following the intoxication. Conclusions: The ADC decrease observed in the present study suggests that brain edema in soman poisoning is mainly intracellular and cytotoxic. Since entry of water into Brain was also evidenced, this type of edema is certainly mixed with others (vasogenic, hydrostatic, osmotic). The present study confirms the potential of DW-MRI as a non-invasive tool for monitoring the acute neuropathological consequences (edema and neurodegeneration) of soman-induced seizures

  12. Visual Impairment Caused by Periorbital Edema in an Infant with Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Priscila; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) is a cutaneous vasculitis seen in children. Many consider it to be a clinical variant of Schönlein-Henoch purpura, but others regard it as a separate entity because of its benign nature, age of onset, lack of visceral involvement, and frequent absence...... of vascular immunoglobulin A deposition. It is clinically characterized by large "cockade" or rosette-shaped, annular, purpuric lesions involving the face and extremities; erythematous edema; and mild fever. It seems to appear secondary to a history of viral or bacterial infection, course of antibiotics...

  13. Edema pulmonar neurogênico: relato de dois casos Neurogenic pulmonary edema: report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Desanka Dragosavac; Antônio L. E. Falcão; Sebastião Araújo; Renato G. G. Terzi

    1997-01-01

    O edema pulmonar neurogênico é rara e grave complicação de pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE). Pode ocorrer também em outras patologias do sistema nervoso central, tais como acidentes vasculares cerebrais (AVC), tumores ou após crises epilépticas, entre outras. Foram avaliados 36 casos com TCE grave e quatro pacientes com AVC, internados na UTI geral, no período de janeiro a setembro 1995. Nesse intervalo de tempo foram diagnosticados dois casos de edema pulmonar neurogênico, um ...

  14. 脑水肿分子机制的研究进展%Progression on Molecular Mechanisms of Cerebral Edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武柠子; 马慧萍; 王宁; 贾正平

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a pathological sign of increased brain volume induced by accumulation of fluid in the brain,and it is the response of brain tissues to a variety of pathogenic factors. Intracranial injury,ischemia,hypoxia, inflammation,cerebral dysmetabolism,brain tumor and poisoning can all cause brain edema. Brain edema can induce el-evation of intracranial pressure,and functional and structural injuries can be found when level of intracranial pressure in-creases to a certain degree,and it also can lead to brain death. The previous study for the mechanism of cerebral edema includes blood-brain barrier theory,calcium ion theory,cerebral microcirculation disturbance theory and so on. The study of recent years has shown that incidence of cerebral edema closely relates to aquaporin-4(AQP4),matrix metalloprotein-ases(MMPs),tight junction(TJ)protein and inflammatory cytokines. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms of cerebral edema.%脑水肿是指脑内水分增加导致脑容积增大的一种病理现象,是脑组织对各种致病因素的反应。颅内损伤、缺血、缺氧、炎症、脑代谢障碍、肿瘤以及中毒都会引起脑水肿。脑水肿可导致颅内压的升高,当颅内压升高到一定程度时,脑组织就会发生功能和结构的损害,严重者导致脑死亡。先前对脑水肿发病机制的研究包括血脑屏障学说、钙离子学说、脑微循环障碍学说、脑细胞代谢障碍等。但是近年的研究表明脑水肿的发生与水通道蛋白4、基质金属蛋白酶、紧密连接蛋白、炎性细胞因子等密切相关。本文就脑水肿发生的分子机制进行综述。

  15. Macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion: types and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkh, A E; Trempe, C L

    1989-01-01

    In this study of branch retinal vein occlusion, we distinguished between cystoid macular edema caused by increased capillary pressure and noncystoid edema due to hard exudates in the macula caused by chronic leakage from vascular abnormalities in the posterior pole or midperiphery. We performed laser photocoagulation in 51 eyes with cystoid macular edema to achieve focal narrowing of the retinal arterioles perfusing the macular area affected by the cystoid edema; good anatomic and functional results were achieved in 40 of these eyes (78%). In 25 of the five eyes, the treated segment of the retinal arteriole was outside the area of macular edema; results were successful in 19 of these eyes (76%). In 14 eyes with noncystoid exudative macular edema, we performed laser photocoagulation to the vascular abnormalities; good anatomic and functional results were obtained in 12 of these (86%). PMID:2927879

  16. Edema pulmonar postobstructivo: reporte de 3 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Padilla

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El edema pulmonar postobstructivo (EPPO es una complicación postoperatoria cuyo manejo adecuado depende de un diagnóstico etiológico correcto. El EPPO se clasifica en dos tipos. El tipo I es secundario a la obstrucción aguda de la vía aérea superior. Por su parte, el tipo II ocurre luego de corregir quirúrgicamente una obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea. Fisiopatológicamente, el mecanismo que explica el cuadro es una disminución marcada de la presión intersticial en el nivel pericapilar pulmonar resultante de la inspiración forzada. Lo anterior produce fuga capilar y el consecuente edema de pulmón. El manejo de este cuadro requiere de soporte respiratorio que incluye ventilación mecánica e incluso presión positiva al final de la espiración (PEEP. El pronóstico es muy bueno si el diagnóstico es correcto y oportuno. Se reportan 3 casos que ilustran la entidad, su diagnóstico y manejo.

  17. [Effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors of diabetic cystoid macular edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieselbach, G; Juen, S

    1990-01-01

    In most cases, diabetic macular edema is treated successfully with central laser photocoagulation. However, only few studies report such favorable results in cystoid macular edema, which has a poor visual prognosis. In the present prospective study on diabetics with cystoid macular edema, aged less than 40 years, a better visual outcome was obtained in patients treated with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors than in an untreated group. PMID:2345629

  18. Unicompartmental muscle edema: an early sign of deep venous thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Patrick T. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Ilaslan, Hakan [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The finding of muscle edema restricted to a single muscle compartment on MRI usually indicates a diagnosis of traumatic injury, myositis, denervation or neoplasm. This case demonstrates that deep venous thrombosis can also be the cause of isolated deep posterior compartment muscle edema in the calf and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of diffuse soft tissue or subcutaneous edema. (orig.)

  19. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This sug...

  20. Loss of vascular early response gene reduces edema formation after experimental stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fudong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular Early Response Gene (Verge is an immediate early gene (IEG that is up-regulated in endothelial cells in response to a number of stressors, including ischemic stroke. Endothelial cell lines that stably express Verge show enhanced permeability. Increased Verge expression has also been associated with blood brain barrier breakdown. In this study we investigated the role of Verge in ischemic injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in both Verge knockout (KO and wild type (WT mice. Verge KO mice had significantly less cerebral edema formation after MCAO compared to WT mice. However, stroke outcome (infarct size and neurological deficit scores evaluated at either 24 or 72 hours after stroke showed no differences between the two genotypes. Verge deletion leads to decreased edema formation after ischemia; however acute stroke outcomes were unchanged.

  1. Edema pulmonar postobstructivo: reporte de 3 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio Padilla; Donato Salas-Segura; Suen Kwoh-Sánchez

    2002-01-01

    El edema pulmonar postobstructivo (EPPO) es una complicación postoperatoria cuyo manejo adecuado depende de un diagnóstico etiológico correcto. El EPPO se clasifica en dos tipos. El tipo I es secundario a la obstrucción aguda de la vía aérea superior. Por su parte, el tipo II ocurre luego de corregir quirúrgicamente una obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea. Fisiopatológicamente, el mecanismo que explica el cuadro es una disminución marcada de la presión intersticial en el nivel pericapilar pul...

  2. Serotonin syndrome presenting as pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Deepak Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin syndrome (SS is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive central and peripheral serotonergic activity. Clinically, it is a triad of mental-status changes, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. It can be caused by intentional self-poisoning, overdose, or inadvertent drug interactions. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obsessive compulsive disorder who developed pulmonary edema as a possible complication of SS. SS was caused by a combination of three specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline, linezolid, and fentanyl. The hospital course was further complicated by difficult weaning from the ventilator. SS was identified and successfully treated with cyproheptadine and lorazepam. The case highlights the importance of effective consultation-liaison and prompt recognition of SS as the presentation may be complex in the presence of co-morbid medical illness.

  3. Smegenų edema ir jos gydymas

    OpenAIRE

    Bivainytė, Asta; Adukauskienė, Dalia; Radavičiūtė, Edita

    2007-01-01

    Smegenų edema – tai gyvybei grėsminga būklė, išsivystanti dėl uždegiminės reakcijos. Dažniausiai tai smegenų traumos, masyvaus smegenų infarkto, hemoragijų, absceso, naviko, alergijos, sepsio, hipoksijos bei kitų toksinių ir metabolinių veiksnių pasekmė. Smegenų edemos tipai. Vazogeninė – padidėjus smegenų kapiliarų endotelio pralaidumui albuminui ir kitiems plazmos baltymams; citotoksinė – išsekus ląstelių membranų energiniam potencialui, nepažeidus užtvaros; hidrostatinė – sutrikus smeg...

  4. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, B K; Bonanno, J A; Radke, C J

    2011-11-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem-Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. PMID:21820076

  5. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  6. Pathophysiology and treatment of edema following femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Slaa, A.; Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.; Ho, G. H.; Moll, F. L.; van der Laan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial lower-limb edema affects the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery. Edema has impairing effects on the microvascular and the macrovascular circulation, causes discomfort and might delay the rehabilitation process of the patient. However, the pathophysiology of this e

  7. Methylprednisolone therapy in acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risikesan, Jeyanthini; Koppelhus, Uffe; Steiniche, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who showed severe clinical signs indicative of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) with painful purpuric skin affection primarily of the face and marked edema of the ears. The histological findings were diagnostic for leukocytoclastic vasculitis...

  8. LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION IN DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AND MACULAR EDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Dehghan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of clinically significant macular edema in diabetic patients, this study is aimed to determine if laser photocoagulation is effective in the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema. In addition, the effects of risk factors arc surveyed* This is an existing data study considering patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema, treated with argon-green laser photocoagulation in Labbafinejad hospital, department of lasertherapy, from 1995 to 1997. in 60 (42.6% eyes the treatment method was focal, in 22 (15.6% eyes grid, and in 59 (41.84 modified grid laser photocoagulation was performed. The results are based upon deterioration of visual acuity, occurance of moderate visual loss and improvement or persistence of CSME. We studied 114 eyes from 87 patients. Two years after initial treatment, visual acuity improved in 19.1% of eyes, unchanged in 9.5% and worsened in 71.4% of eyes. After this period the rate of moderate visual loss was 28.6% and CSME was improved in 23.8% of eyes. According to our study, baseline visual acuity and retinopathy severity were two important intervening factors in response to lasertherapy. Comparing our results with natural course of diabetic macular edema, indicates that in assessing visual outcome laser photocoagulation is an effective modality in treatment of CSME, but it is not effective in maintaining or improving visual acuity, which is due to patients delay in visiting ophthalmologists and paying not enough attention to follow-up visits.

  9. Transcriptional Stimulation of Anthrax Toxin Receptors by Anthrax Edema Toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spore

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qingfu; Hesek, Eric D.; Zeng, Mingtao

    2007-01-01

    We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to not only investigate the mRNA levels of anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) and 2 (ANTXR2) in the murine J774A.1 macrophage cells and different tissues of mice, but also evaluate the effect of anthrax edema toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores on the expression of mRNA of these receptors. The mRNA transcripts of both receptors was detected in J774A.1 cells and mouse tissues such as the lung, heart, kidney, spleen, stomach, jejunum, brain, skeleton ...

  10. Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome-Induced Cerebral Edema in a Patient with Uremia Following Hemodialysis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Heung Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a metabolic complication that can be caused by rapid removal of plasma urea during hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome can lead to osmotic demyelinating syndrome. This case report describes one case of encephalopathy accompanied by dialysis disequilibrium syndrome with imaging findings acquired immediately after hemodialysis in a 55-year-old woman with chronic renal failure. The patient was observed to present repetitive seizures and sudden deterioration of consciousness immediately after hemodialysis. Shortly after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent a CT scan. The imaging findings of the CT scan reveal symmetrical diffuse white matter edema of bilateral cerebral hemispheres that extends to the pons along the internal capsule. A follow-up MRI taken two years later shows that reversible changes without damage have occurred in the lesions. The patient can thus be seen to present symptoms characteristically associated with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, while brain imaging reveals dif-fuse reversible brain edema.

  11. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  12. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  13. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  14. Diabetic Macular Edema Pathophysiology: Vasogenic versus Inflammatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baget-Bernaldiz, Marc; Pareja-Rios, Alicia; Lopez-Galvez, Maribel; Navarro-Gil, Raul; Verges, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) can cause blindness in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR). DM parameters controls (glycemia, arterial tension, and lipids) are the gold standard for preventing DR and DME. Although the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a role in the development of DME, the pathological processes leading to the onset of this disease are highly complex and the exact sequence in which they occur is still not completely understood. Angiogenesis and inflammation have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, it still remains to be clarified whether angiogenesis following VEGF overexpression is a cause or a consequence of inflammation. This paper provides a review of the data currently available, focusing on VEGF, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Our analysis suggests that angiogenesis and inflammation act interdependently during the development of DME. Knowledge of DME etiology seems to be important in treatments with anti-VEGF or anti-inflammatory drugs. Current diagnostic techniques do not permit us to differentiate between both etiologies. In the future, diagnosing the physiopathology of each patient with DME will help us to select the most effective drug.

  15. Diabetic Macular Edema Pathophysiology: Vasogenic versus Inflammatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Romero-Aroca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME can cause blindness in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR. DM parameters controls (glycemia, arterial tension, and lipids are the gold standard for preventing DR and DME. Although the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to play a role in the development of DME, the pathological processes leading to the onset of this disease are highly complex and the exact sequence in which they occur is still not completely understood. Angiogenesis and inflammation have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, it still remains to be clarified whether angiogenesis following VEGF overexpression is a cause or a consequence of inflammation. This paper provides a review of the data currently available, focusing on VEGF, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Our analysis suggests that angiogenesis and inflammation act interdependently during the development of DME. Knowledge of DME etiology seems to be important in treatments with anti-VEGF or anti-inflammatory drugs. Current diagnostic techniques do not permit us to differentiate between both etiologies. In the future, diagnosing the physiopathology of each patient with DME will help us to select the most effective drug.

  16. [Pulmonary circulation in embolic pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanotskaia, N V; Polikarpov, V V; Matsievskiĭ, D D

    1989-02-01

    The ultrasonic method was used in acute experiments on cats with open chest under artificial lung ventilation to obtain blood flow in low-lobar pulmonary artery and vein, the blood pressure in pulmonary artery, as well as the left atrial pressure in fat (olive oil) and mechanical (Lycopodium spores) pulmonary embolism. It is shown that pulmonary embolism produces the decrease in the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein, the increase of the pressure in pulmonary artery and left atria, the increase of lung vessels resistance. The decrease is observed of systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia, and extrasystole. After 5-10 min the restoration of arterial pressure and heart rhythm occur and partial restoration of blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. In many experiments the blood flow in vein outdoes that in the artery--it allows to suppose the increase of the blood flow in bronchial artery. After 60-90 min there occur sudden decrease of systemic arterial pressure, the decrease of the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. The pressure in pulmonary artery and resistance of pulmonary vessels remain high. Pulmonary edema developed in all animals. The death occurs in 60-100 min after the beginning of embolism. PMID:2923969

  17. Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Xiao Chen; Suchi Qiao; Xinwei Liu; Chang Liu; Degang Zhu; Jiacan Su; Zhiwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein.

  18. A female survivor of childhood medulloblastoma presenting with growth-hormone-induced edema and inflammatory lesions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biassoni Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The improved survival of children with brain tumors has increased concerns about treatment-related sequelae. Growth hormone deficiency is frequently observed after craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. It has been widely reported that growth hormone replacement therapy does not increase the risk of second tumors, but there are reports in the literature of growth hormone, and its downstream mediator insulin-like Growth Factor 1, having an important proinflammatory action. There are few reports, however, on the "in-vivo" induction of edema and symptomatic inflammatory lesions during replacement therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 7-year-old girl treated for metastatic medulloblastoma who developed growth hormone deficiency 2 years after oncological treatment. Three months after replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed exacerbation of her brain edema, which was already present after oncological treatment. We consequently suspended the growth hormone until a new magnetic resonance image obtained 3 months later documented a reduction of the inflammatory areas. We then re-introduced somatotropin at lower doses with no further increase in brain edema in subsequent radiological controls. Conclusion This case and its iconography suggest a strong association between growth hormone administration and the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions within the tumor bed. Replacement therapy should be carefully monitored in this particular subset of patients.

  19. Aspectos atuais na fisiopatologia do edema macular diabético Recent aspects on physiopathology of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Martins dos Santos Motta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O edema macular é a principal causa de baixa visual em pacientes diabéticos. Seu mecanismo de formação é complexo e envolve alterações bioquímicas e estruturais. Os autores fazem uma revisão e atualização dos conceitos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na maculopatia diabética.Macular edema is the leading cause of poor vision in diabetic patients.The mechanism of edema formation is complex and involves biochemical and structural changes. The authors review and update the physiopathologic concepts related to diabetic maculopathy.

  20. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  1. Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant for Diabetic Macular Edema During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concillado, Michael; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the management of diabetic macular edema during pregnancy with the use of a dexamethasone slow-release intravitreal implant. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, consecutive case series. METHODS: The study included 5 pregnant women who presented with diabetic macular edema...... injection. RESULTS: Diabetic macular edema involving the foveal center was observed between gestational weeks 9 and 23 in 10 eyes of 5 patients. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant injection was given 10 times in 9 eyes with a mean preinjection center field retinal thickness of 535 μm (range, 239-727 μm...... center field thickness and in 6 of 8 eyes by an increase in BCVA of 5 or more approxETDRS letters. A mild transient rise in intraocular pressure occurred in 3 out of 8 eyes. CONCLUSION: Diabetic macular edema involving the foveal center that presented during pregnancy responded promptly to intravitreal...

  2. Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C;

    2014-01-01

    Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We...

  3. A Case of Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema by Ethanolamine Oleate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jee Yun; Moon, Seung Hyug; Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Uh, Sootaek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    1994-01-01

    Endoscopic injection of sclerosing agents is a strategy for control of esophageal varix bleeding. Five percent solution of ethanolamine oleate(EO) has been used as sclerosing agent. It is well known that intravascular injection of oleic acid induces acute respiratory failure in animal models. However, EO-induced noncardiogenic pulmonary edema has not been reported in human. We report a case of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema developed after therapeutic trial of EO as sclerosing agent for esoph...

  4. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to delayed radiation necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is oftten missed in the ICU setting as it is mistaken for pneumonia or ARDS. The case presented here illustrates how a high index of suspicion in the appropriate setting can lead to the diagnosis. The patient in this report developed acute-on-chronic cerebral edema due to radiation necrosis following gamma-knife radiation therapy for cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

  5. Neurogenic pulmonary edema in a child with status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu T Nair; Sajith Surendran; Dinesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is defined as acute pulmonary edema after a sudden neurologic insult. It develops after a significant central nervous system insult such as trauma, hemorrhage or seizures and can occur both in adults and children. A 6-year-old male child, known case of cerebral palsy was brought to the emergency department in status epilepticus. He had severe respiratory distress with pink frothy secretions pouring from the mouth. Clinical and radiological examination was sugg...

  6. Periorbital Edema Secondary to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dandekar, F.; Camacho, M; J. Valerio; Ruoff, C.

    2015-01-01

    Two patients developed bilateral, periorbital edema after initiating positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy with a full face mask. The periorbital edema was more pronounced in the morning and would dissipate throughout the day. This phenomenon seemed to be correlated with the direct pressure of the full face mask, which may have impaired lymphatic and venous drainage. To test this hypothesis, each patient was changed to a nasal pillow interface with subsequent improvement in the periorbital e...

  7. Angioneurotic edema: a rare case of hypersensitivity to metoclopramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Aleksander; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman who had already experienced two incidents of angioneurotic edema and urticaria caused by drugs during the acute gastroenteritis. The allergological workup revealed hypersensitivity to metoclopramide. This case documents that metoclopramide, a drug commonly used to inhibit the vomiting, may cause not only bronchospastic reaction in an asthmatic patient but also angioneurotic edema of the tongue and larynx as well as urticaria. No similar cases in the literature were found. PMID:24278059

  8. Blood pressure, edema and proteinuria in pregnancy. 7. Edema-plus-proteinuria relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, A H

    1976-01-01

    1. A total of 488 pregnancies had the combination of two-plus or more proteinuria and edema of the hands and face. Of these, 208 were white and 280 were black gravidas. In the white gravidas, 8 fetal and neonatal deaths occurred with a perinatal mortality of 38.5 per 1,000. There were 13 perinatal deaths in the black subgroup with a perinatal mortality rate of 46.4 per 1,000. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 43.0 per 1,000, which could be compared to the overall perinatal mortality rate of 32.8 per 1,000 for the segment of the study population without edema or proteinuria. This underscored the implication of increased hazard to fetal outcome of these clinical signs in combination. 2. The analysis of the matrix data showed scattered rates throughout gestation in white median-age nulliparas. Their black counterparts had comparable increased mortality rates. In the white multiparas of ages 20 to 34 years, the highest rates were found at relatively low blood pressure levels. The black median-age multiparas had rates associated with higher pressure readings, especially at or above 125/75. In teenage mulliparas with edema and proteinuria, perinatal mortality rates were similar for both subgroups and were found in somewhat lower blood pressures. 3. The incremental analysis was remarkable in that rates were scattered widely in the white subgroups, but tightly clustered in the black subgroups. The black median-age nulliparas had perinatal mortality concentrated about 115 to 134 mm. Hg systolic and 65 to 84 mm. Hg diastolic. The overall mortality rates of this subgroup were the highest of the subgroups studied. The black 20 to 34 year old multiparas had highest coassociated deaths in the 134-154 mm. Hg systolic levels throughout pregnancy. The clustering effect was most pronounced in black teenage nulliparas in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure groups at much lower levels. 4. The use of a critical cut-off blood pressure level of 125 mm. Hg systolic and 75 mm

  9. Effect of neutrophil depletion on gelatinase expression, edema formation and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Livia S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity is increased after focal ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain, the relative contribution of neutrophils to the MMP activity and to the development of hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. Results Anti-PMN treatment caused successful depletion of neutrophils in treated animals. There was no difference in either infarct volume or hemorrhage between control and PMN depleted animals. While there were significant increases in gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity and edema formation associated with ischemia, neutrophil depletion failed to cause any change. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that, in the absence of circulating neutrophils, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity are still up-regulated following focal cerebral ischemia. Additionally, neutrophil depletion had no influence on indicators of ischemic brain damage including edema, hemorrhage, and infarct size. These findings indicate that, at least acutely, neutrophils are not a significant contributor of gelatinase activity associated with acute neurovascular damage after stroke.

  10. [Migraine with prolonged eyelid edema: a series of 10 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio-Díaz, M E; Cuadrado-Pérez, M L; Peláez, A; Aledo-Serrano, Angel; Pedraza, M Isabel; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Guerrero-Peral, Angel L

    2014-05-01

    Introduccion. La migraña puede cursar con sintomas autonomicos craneales propios de las cefaleas trigeminoautonomicas, lo que plantea dificultades en el diagnostico. Objetivo. Describir una serie de diez pacientes con edema palpebral asociado a la migraña. Pacientes y metodos. Diez pacientes atendidos en la consulta de cefaleas de tres hospitales (nueve mujeres, un varon; edad: 26-53 años), con edema palpebral recurrente asociado a la migraña. Resultados. Segun los criterios diagnosticos de la Clasificacion Internacional de las Cefaleas (ICHD-III, version beta), ocho pacientes presentaban migraña sin aura, una tenia migraña con aura y otra, migraña cronica. El edema palpebral aparecia durante las crisis de migraña mas intensas, y tenia mayor duracion que la cefalea. Se descartaron causas farmacologicas o sistemicas del edema en todos los casos. Otros sintomas autonomicos asociados fueron la inyeccion conjuntival (n = 3), el lagrimeo (n = 2) y la rinorrea (n = 1). Tanto el dolor como el edema asociado respondieron a los tratamientos sintomaticos y preventivos de la migraña. Conclusiones. El edema palpebral es un posible acompañante de la migraña. Aparece en algunos pacientes con los episodios de mayor intensidad, y responde al tratamiento sintomatico y preventivo de la migraña.

  11. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Associated with Underlying Lung Disease after a Breakthrough Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE can result from various central nervous system disorders such as brain malignancies, traumatic brain injuries, infections, and seizures. Although the pathogenesis is not completely understood, NPE creates an increase in pulmonary interstitial and alveolar fluid. It has been reported with prolonged seizure activity. Treatment for NPE is largely supportive. If unrecognized, it can lead to hypoxia and respiratory arrest. We report a case of NPE in a middle-aged female patient following a breakthrough seizure in whom an immunological cause for respiratory findings was high on the differential list, based on her past medical history and chronicity of symptoms. Rapid symptomatic and radiological improvement following hospitalization led to the correct diagnosis.

  12. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  13. Connectivity of default-mode network is associated with cerebral edema in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lin

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema, a well-known feature of acute liver disease, can occur in cirrhotic patients regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE and adversely affect prognosis. This study characterized and correlated functional HE abnormalities in the brain to cerebral edema using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Forty-one cirrhotic patients (16 without HE, 14 minimal HE, 11 overt HE and 32 healthy controls were assessed. The HE grade in cirrhotic patients was evaluated by the West Haven criteria and neuro-psychological examinations. Functional connectivity correlation coefficient (fc-CC of the default mode network (DMN was determined by rs-fMRI, while the corresponding mean diffusivity (MD was obtained from DTI. Correlations among inter-cortical fc-CC, DTI indices, Cognitive Ability Screening Instrument scores, and laboratory tests were also analyzed. Results showed that gradual reductions of HE-related consciousness levels, from "without HE" or "minimal HE" to "overt HE", correlated with decreased anterior-posterior fc-CC in DMN [F(4.415, p = 0.000]. The MD values from regions with anterior-posterior fc-CC differences in DMN revealed significant differences between the overt HE group and other groups. Increased MD in this network was inversely associated with decreased fc-CC in DMN and linearly correlated with poor cognitive performance. In conclusion, cerebral edema can be linked to altered cerebral temporal architecture that modifies both within- and between-network connectivity in HE. Reduced fc-CC in DMN is associated with behavior and consciousness deterioration. Through appropriate targets, rs-fMRI technology may provide relevant supplemental information for monitoring HE and serve as a new biomarker for clinical diagnosis.

  14. MASSIVE OVARIAN EDEMA – CASE REPORT OF A RARE PSEUDOTUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive ovarian edema is a very rare disease characterized by a tumor like enlargement of the ovary. The presenting symptoms are non - specific and often the condition is mistaken for an ovarian neoplasm. A 28 year old nulligravid a lady , presented with chronic pain abdomen and irregular menses to our gynecological outpatient department. Ultrasound was suspicious of an ovarian neoplasm , but all biochemical parameters , including ovarian tumor markers were within normal limits. Considering the young age of the patient , laparotomy was done , and the mass excised. On histopathologi cal examination the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema was made. We present this case , not only because if its rarity , but also to stress on the fact that massive ovarian edema should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral ovarian masses especially in young patients to avoid aggressive treatment as compromising fertility and hormonal function is always an issue

  15. Kawasaki Disease with Retropharyngeal Edema following a Blackfly Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Kawasaki disease (KD and retropharyngeal edema following a blackfly bite. An 8-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 3-day-history of fever and left neck swelling and redness after a blackfly bite. Computed tomography of the neck revealed left cervical lymph nodes swelling with edema, increased density of the adjacent subcutaneous tissue layer, and low density of the retropharyngeum. The patient was initially presumed to have cervical cellulitis, lymphadenitis, and retropharyngeal abscess. He was administered antibiotics intravenously, which did not improve his condition. The patient subsequently exhibited other signs of KD and was diagnosed with KD and retropharyngeal edema. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and oral flurbiprofen completely resolved the symptoms and signs. A blackfly bite sometimes incites a systemic reaction in humans due to a hypersensitive reaction to salivary secretions, which may have contributed to the development of KD in our patient.

  16. Bone marrow edema syndrome in postpartal women: treatment with iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Nicholas; Meizer, Roland; Meraner, Dominik; Becker, Stephan; Meizer, Elizabeth; Landsiedl, Franz

    2009-04-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome of the femoral head in pregnant women is a rare disease resulting in disabling coxalgia, beginning in the last 3 months of pregnancy and persisting for several months after parturition. The parenteral administration of the vasoactive drug iloprost constitutes a new approach to the treatment of painful bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip of pregnant women. Six postpartal women (8 hips) with bone marrow edema syndrome of the femoral head were treated with iloprost followed by 3 weeks of partial weight-bearing. Relief from pain, restoration of functional capacity, and normalization of the MRI signal pattern were rapidly achieved, thus avoiding the need for surgical intervention. As the substance is contraindicated in pregnancy, therapy may begin only some days after parturition, with a short discontinuation in breastfeeding.

  17. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (shock associated with ischaemic heart disease.

  18. Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema: A Rare But Life Threating Clinical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasih Yazkan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare but life threating complication which is occurring while treatment of the lung had collapsed a long time. It generally occurs after rapid evacuation or removal, air, liquid or atelectasis caused by endobronchial lesion. Pulmonary collapse lasting for over 72 hours is most important risk factor. Rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In conclusion, the history, risk factors, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention methods of reexpansion pulmonary edema reported in the light of literatures with a review article in this study.

  19. Neurogenic pulmonary edema in a child with status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu T Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE is defined as acute pulmonary edema after a sudden neurologic insult. It develops after a significant central nervous system insult such as trauma, hemorrhage or seizures and can occur both in adults and children. A 6-year-old male child, known case of cerebral palsy was brought to the emergency department in status epilepticus. He had severe respiratory distress with pink frothy secretions pouring from the mouth. Clinical and radiological examination was suggestive of NPE. Child was immediately ventilated and all supportive measures were started. Child showed marked improvement within 48 h of admission with diuresis and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP assisted ventilation.

  20. Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahimikian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common and annoying problems during pregnancy is physiological foot edema that may cause activity restrictions during pregnancy for pregnant women. Present study aimed to determine the effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy. Methods: This study was non-randomized clinical trial and performed in 2012. 120 pregnant women aged 20 to 35 years were non randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group, received 20 minutes daily foot massage during 5 days. Data were analyzes using SPSS statistical software, independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Foot edema measured by using a measuring non- elastic tape on the leg. Results: The results indicates a statistically significant difference between the average of the feet environments (around the ankle, heel and metatarsal joints between the finger bones in both treatment and control groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that massage therapy is effective in reducing physiological edema during pregnancy. Therefor the lower limb massage can be performed by trained midwives and as a useful, low risk and low cost method in prenatal clinics or pregnant women homes.

  1. Computerized tomography in the differential diagnosis of extremity edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography provides valuable information for differentiating some cases of extremity edemas of acute and chronic venostatic origin and lymphedema - primary and secondary, in malignant processes. Graphic representation of individual kinds of changes and observed densities in 33 patients are presented. (author). 9 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  2. POST OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY EDEMA AFTER ATTEMPTED NYLON ROPE SUICIDAL HANGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival after nylon rope suicidal hanging is a rare occurance . We describe here a patient who attempted suicide by nylon rope hanging and developed post obstructive pulmonary edema was managed successfully . Patient recovered completely with ventilatory support in next 60 hours without any neurological deficit.This case highlights an unusual complication of hanging and its recovery.

  3. Dichotomal role of TNF in experimental pulmonary edema reabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, C; Hamacher, J; Morel, DR; Wendel, A; Lucas, R

    2005-01-01

    Distinct from its receptor binding sites, TNF carries a lectin-like domain, situated at the tip of the molecule, which specifically binds oligosaccharides, such as NN'-diacetylchitobiose. In view of the apparently conflicting data concerning TNF actions in pulmonary edema, we investigated the contri

  4. Effects of endostatin on C6 glioma-induced edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-juan; LIN Zhi-xiong; KANG De-zhi; WENG Shen-mei; LIN Jian-hua; HUANG Qiang; ZHANG Peng-fei

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma-induced edema is considered as one of the most pathological characteristics of glioma and a significant source of morbidity and mortality.New strategies are needed for the treatment of peritumoral edema in glioma.Endostatin has been proven to be beneficial as an anti-angiogenic agent in experimental gliomas,but the effects are unclear.This study aimed to investigate the effects of endostatin on C6 glioma-induced edema.Methods Tumorigenic mice were established by subcutaneous injection of three glioma cell lines,C6-null cells and stable transfected-C6 cells overexpressing mock vector (C6-mock cells) and endostatin (C6-endo cells).Endostatin expression in xenograft C6 glioma was determined by immunostaining and Western blotting.Glioma-induced edema and tumor vessel permeability were assayed.The effect of endostatin on vascular enodothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vivo was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The number of vesiculo-vascuolar organelles (VVOs) formed in tumor endothelia was calculated using electron microscopy.Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's post hoc test for multiple comparisons to the control groups.Results Overexpression of endostatin (C6-endo cells) significantly suppressed tumor growth and reduced tumor edema and vessel permeability.ELISA analysis showed that the level of VEGF protein was markedly decreased in tumor from C6-endo cells compared with tumor from C6-null cells and C6-mock cells.Similar results were obtained by Q-PCR.Furthermore,the number of VVOs observed in tumor from C6-endo mice was significantly reduced compared with tumor from C6-null cells or C6-mock cells.Conclusions Our data provide primary evidence that endostatin reduces glioma-induced edema and vascular permeability.Using endostatin may be an effective strategy for treating glioma edema.

  5. MRI of brain disease in veterinary patients part 1: Basic principles and congenital brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in veterinary patients and is quickly becoming the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of brain and intracranial disease. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of MRI, a description of sequences and their applications in brain imaging, and an approach to interpretation of brain MRI. A detailed discussion of imaging findings in general intracranial disorders including hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema, brain herniation, and seizure-associated changes, and the MR diagnosis of congenital brain disorders is provided. MRI evaluation of acquired brain disorders is described in a second companion article.

  6. Accuracy of Non-Enhanced CT in Detecting Early Ischemic Edema Using Frequency Selective Non-Linear Blending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bier

    Full Text Available Ischemic brain edema is subtle and hard to detect by computed tomography within the first hours of stroke onset. We hypothesize that non-enhanced CT (NECT post-processing with frequency-selective non-linear blending ("best contrast"/BC increases its accuracy in detecting edema and irreversible tissue damage (infarction.We retrospectively analyzed the NECT scans of 76 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke (exclusively middle cerebral artery territory-MCA before and after post-processing with BC both at baseline before reperfusion therapy and at follow-up (5.73±12.74 days after stroke onset using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS. We assessed the differences in ASPECTS between unprocessed and post-processed images and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of baseline NECT using follow-up CT serving as reference standard for brain infarction.NECT detected brain tissue hypoattenuation in 35 of 76 patients (46.1%. This number increased to 71 patients (93.4% after post-processing with BC. Follow-up NECT confirmed brain infarctions in 65 patients (85.5%; p = 0.012. Post-processing increased the sensitivity of NECT for brain infarction from 35/65 (54% to 65/65 (100%, decreased its specificity from 11/11 (100% to 7/11 (64%, its positive predictive value (PPV from 35/35 (100% to 65/69 (94% and increased its accuracy 46/76 (61% to 72/76 (95%.This post-hoc analysis suggests that post-processing of NECT with BC may increase its sensitivity for ischemic brain damage significantly.

  7. Effects of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter on cerebral edema in a rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin Li; Shilei Wang; Haihong Luan

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red and the agonist spermine on cerebral edema in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.Left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats using the suture method.Following 24 hours of ischemic reperfusion, neurological function scores of rats with MCAO, and rats pretreated with ruthenium red and spermine were significantly lower, however, water content of brain tissue, aquaporin 4 expression and immunoglobulin G (IgG) exudation were significantly higher than those of sham-operated rats.Compared with MCAO rats and spermine-treated rats, neurological function scores were considerably higher, and brain tissue water content, aquaporin 4 expression and IgG exudation decreased in ruthenium red-treated rats.These findings suggest that preventive application of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red can significantly decrease aquaporin 4 and IgG expression, influence the permeability of the blood brain barrier, and thereby decrease the extent of cerebral edema.

  8. Multifocal electroretinogram in evaluating retinal function of diabetic macular edema after pars plana vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马进; 吴德正; 高汝龙; 吕林; 张少冲; 文峰; 黄时洲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beneficial effects of vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) have been demonstrated in a series of clinical trials. Vitreous surgery is useful in reducing the edema and improving visual acuity.

  9. Edema in the retropharyngeal space associated with head and neck tumors: CT imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Noriko; Nakamura, Mamoru; Tsuda, Masashi; Saito, Haruo [National Hospital Organization Sendai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi [Tohoku University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    To determine computed tomographic (CT) imaging characteristics of retropharygeal edema, we reviewed CT images in 18 patients with head and neck tumors. Retropharyngeal edema spread craniocaudally between soft palate and upper half of thyroid cartilage in all patients. No edema fluid extended above soft palate and below thyroid cartilage. Horizontally, it spread symmetrically in ten and asymmetrically in eight patients. Predominance in asymmetrical retropharyngeal edema was found on the same side as that of unilateral predominance both in lymph nodes enlargement and jugular vein stenosis/occlusion. All patients had edema also in other cervical spaces. Edema of retropharyngeal and other spaces fluctuated synchronously. In 14 patients, as primary lesion and/or cervical lymph nodes regressed, retropharyngeal edema disappeared or decreased. Retropharyngeal edema had some imaging characteristics. With knowledge of that, we could avoid diagnostic confusion when evaluating head and neck CT images. (orig.)

  10. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  11. Brain-lung crosstalk: Implications for neurocritical care patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Major pulmonary disorders may occur after brain injuries as ventilator-associated pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or neurogenic pulmonary edema. They are key points for the management of brain-injured patients because respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation seem to be a risk factor for increased mortality, poor neurological outcome and longer intensive care unit or hospital length of stay. Brain and lung strongly interact via complex pathways from the brain to the lung b...

  12. The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Elske; Reinout A. Bem; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B M

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in differ...

  13. Acute infantile hemorrhagic edema mimicking henoch-schonlein purpura: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kars, Veysel; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Celepkolu, Tahsin; Aslanhan, Hamza; ASLAN, Necmi; Demir, Vasfiye

    2015-01-01

    Acute infantile hemorrhagic edema is an acute cutaneous leucocytoclastic vasculitis that can be seen in infancy and characterized by fever, palpable purpura, and edema. Although it presents with severe symptoms, the clinical course is benign and the disease resolves in a short time. In this report, we present a 17-month-old infant who was admitted with cutaneous purpuric rash and edema of the extremities and subsequently diagnosed as acute infantile hemorrhagic edema

  14. Glyburide in Treating Malignant Cerebral Edema. Blocking Sulfonyl Urea One (SUR1) Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Pallan, Tony V; Ahmed, Iftekhar

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a serious side effect of malignant stroke. On average 70,000 patients are diagnosed with malignant cerebral edema every year, of those patients, approximately 60-80% results in fatalities. The treatment of cerebral edema includes multimodality approaches.

  15. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  16. 脑创伤后脑水肿52例临床分析%Progress procedure of cerebral edema and clinical analysis of 52 cerebral trauma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解脑创伤后不同时间窗内脑水肿和肿胀的发展过程及与预后的关系.方法 结合52例经CT和手术证实有脑水肿的脑外伤患者影像资料和术中所见,对其预后情况进行分析.结果 脑水肿较轻者,预后相对较好,11例恶性脑膨胀者,10例死亡,1例植物生存.结论 脑创伤后出现水肿-脑压高-脑缺血、缺氧-脑水肿的恶性循环而使脑水肿-脑肿胀-恶性脑膨胀,病情进行性恶化,应采取有效手段阻止颅内压进行性增高.%Objective To understand cerebral edema and development procedure of different time windows.Methods To analyze their prognosis through image document and operation findings of 52 cerebral trauma patients which were confirmed cerebral edema by CT and operation.Results he light cerebral oedema patients have a better prognosis,10 patients died and 1 patient became a plant man in 11 malignant brain dilatation patients.Conclusion The infernal circle of high brain pressure-cerebral ischemia,cerebral anoxia-cerebral edema result in cerebral edema-brain dilatation-malignant brain dilatation after cerebral trauma which leads to unremitting aggravated pathogenefic condition.So effective means should be used to interrupt the unremitting heightening ICP.

  17. Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings in Berlin′s Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila El Matri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in a patient with Berlin′s edema following blunt ocular trauma. Case Report: A 26-year-old man presented with acute loss of vision in his left eye following blunt trauma. He underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination and OCT. Fundus examination revealed abnormal yellow discoloration in the macula. OCT disclosed thickening of outer retinal structures and increased reflectivity in the area of photoreceptor outer segments with preservation of inner retinal architecture. Re-examination was conducted one month later at the time which OCT changes resolved leading to a surprisingly normal appearance. Conclusion: OCT can be a useful tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of eyes with Berlin′s edema and may reveal ultrastructural macular changes.

  18. Emma Kohman and the early history of nutritional edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, F C

    1983-06-01

    Nutritional edema is a generalized edematous condition that afflicted whole populations of central European countries during World War 1--and other areas since that time--with a mortality rate of about 50%. An analogous condition in white rats was produced by Emma Kohman as a graduate student in Chicago (1916 to 1919). She fed the rats a diet similar to that consumed by human subjects but prevented or cured nutritional edema in the animals by feeding them good quality protein in suitable amounts. Her work, verified by others, was of immense practical significance and helped establish the value of animal experiments in the study of human diseases. Ms. Kohman gave up a scientific career to be a homemaker when she married in 1919.

  19. Methylprednisolone Therapy in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthini Risikesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who showed severe clinical signs indicative of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI with painful purpuric skin affection primarily of the face and marked edema of the ears. The histological findings were diagnostic for leukocytoclastic vasculitis and thus met the histological criteria for AHEI. Indicative of infection as causative agent for the condition were symptoms of gastroenteritis. High-dose intravenous corticosteroids led to a fast resolution of symptoms and normalization of laboratory parameters. AHEI is usually not described as being very responsive to corticosteroids. The case presented here indicates that severe cases of AHEI can be treated with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids resulting in significant relief and shortening of the symptoms. Clinical followup showed no underlying malignancy or other severe chronic systemic diseases thus confirming earlier reports that AHEI is not associated with such conditions. The differential diagnoses with AHEI are discussed.

  20. A case of subretinal tubercular abscess presenting as disc edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Bermu Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ocular tuberculosis (TB which initially presented with disc edema and was mistaken for optic neuritis. With no definite pathology being identified, the patient was treated on the lines of optic neuritis with intravenous (IV steroid with beneficial effect. Ocular TB was suspected when he presented later with a subretinal abscess. Based on positive Mantoux, QuantiFERON TB gold results and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of subretinal abscess of presumed tubercular etiology was made. The patient was successfully treated with anti-tubercular therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ocular TB presenting as disc edema followed by subretinal abscess.

  1. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of peripheral edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    It has been difficulty to visualize lymphatics in living patients. Conventional or direct lymphography has been the gold standard for delineation of the lymphatic system, but this procedure is invasive, difficulty to perform, and harmful to the lymphatic vascular endothelium. The aim of our study was to determine its severity, and to understand the drainage patterns on patients with peripheral edema by functional lymphatic studies. Tc-99m antimony sulfide colloid 25 MBq with 0.4 ml volume was injected intradermally in the first, second and third web space of the foot or hand in 40 patients with peripheral edema (5 in upper extremity and 35 in lower extremity). Initial flow after injection and whole body images at approximately 30 minutes. 1-4 hours were obtained. In 9/40 cases with peripheral edema normal lymphoscintigram were revealed, primary lymphedema was observed in 5/31 cases. The imaging patterns in primary lymphedema were absent (3 cases) or delayed (2 cases) transport, lymphatic duct dilatation (1), cutoff (1), decrease in size and number of lymph nodes (2). The Common caused of edema in secondry lymphedema (26/31) were carcinoma (13), inflammation (5), post-operation (5), and unknown origin (3). The common imaging findings in carcinoma showed non-visualization of lymph nodes (13), dermal backflow (8), collateral circulation (5), and in inflammation lymphatic obstruction (2), increase in size and number of lymph nodes (2), delayed transport (1), and in post-operation dermal backflow (3), delayed transport (2), decrease in number and size of lymph node (2) Clear images patterns were observed difference between primary lymphedema an secondary lymphedema. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is essentially non-invasive, easy to perform repeatedly, and harmless to the lymphatic vascular endothelium for evaluation of a patient with lymphedema.

  2. Intraoperative intravitreal triamcinolone decreases macular edema after vitrectomy with phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    D Wilkin Parke III, Robert A Sisk, Timothy G MurrayDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and amount of macular edema by optical coherence tomography (OCT) after combined small gauge sutureless vitrectomy with phacoemulsification and intravitreal triamcinolone.Methods: This retrospective case series included 194 consecutive eyes undergoing noneme...

  3. Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

  4. Fatal cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage associated with hypernatremic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocharla, R. [Department of Radiology, Slot 105, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, 800 Marshall Street, Litte Rock, AR 72202-3591 (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)]|[Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Glasier, C.M. [Department of Radiology, Slot 105, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, 800 Marshall Street, Litte Rock, AR 72202-3591 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    We report neuroimaging findings of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral edema in an infant with obtundation and seizures, initially suspected to be secondary to non-accidental trauma but finally attributed to hypernatremic dehydration. Neuroimaging findings due to hypernatremic dehydration have not been previously described in the radiologic literature. Hypernatremia should be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in the infant without evidence of nonaccidental trauma. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  5. Fatal cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage associated with hypernatremic dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report neuroimaging findings of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral edema in an infant with obtundation and seizures, initially suspected to be secondary to non-accidental trauma but finally attributed to hypernatremic dehydration. Neuroimaging findings due to hypernatremic dehydration have not been previously described in the radiologic literature. Hypernatremia should be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in the infant without evidence of nonaccidental trauma. (orig.). With 1 fig

  6. Pulmonary Edema in Healthy Subjects in Extreme Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Garbella; Alessandro Pingitore; Lorenza Pratali; Giosuè Catapano

    2011-01-01

    There are several pieces of evidence showing occurrence of pulmonary edema (PE) in healthy subjects in extreme conditions consisting of extreme psychophysical demand in normal environment and psychophysical performances in extreme environment. A combination of different mechanisms, such as mechanical, hemodynamic, biochemical, and hypoxemic ones, may underlie PE leading to an increase in lung vascular hydrostatic pressure and lung vascular permeability and/or a downregulation of the alveolar ...

  7. Intravitreal Diclofenac for Refractory Uveitic Cystoid Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ramezani; Nassim Fard Esmaeilpour; Armen Eskandari; Zahra Rabbanikhah; Roham Soheilian; Masoud Soheilian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of intravitreal diclofenac on bestcorrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with refractory uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME). Methods: In this prospective non-comparative case series, 8 eyes of 8 patients with refractory CME secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis received a single intravitreal injection of diclofenac (500 μg/0.1ml) in addition to other systemic (oral prednisolone and methotraxate) ...

  8. Updates in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has multiple effects on different end-organs, including the retina. In this paper, we discuss updates on diabetic macular edema (DME) and the management options. The underlying pathology of DME is the leakage of exudates from retinal microaneurysms, which trigger subsequent inflammatory reactions. Both clinical and imaging techniques are useful in diagnosing, classifying, and gauging the severity of DME. We performed a comprehensive literature sear...

  9. Hospitalized cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Khoa Bao-Anh; Goehring Earl L; Werther Winifred; Fung Anne E; Do Diana V; Apte Rajendra S; Jones Judith K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes stem from chronic hyperglycemia and are thought to have overlapping pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of hospitalized myocardial infarctions (MI) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) compared with diabetic patients without retinal diseases. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of a commercially insured population in an a...

  10. Management of upper airway edema caused by hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder with a genetic background involving mutations in the genes encoding C1-INH and of factor XII. Its etiology is unknown in a proportion of cases. Recurrent edema formation may involve the subcutis and the submucosa - the latter can produce obstruction in the upper airways and thereby lead to life-threatening asphyxia. This is the reason for the high, 30-to 50-per-cent mortality of undiagnosed or improperly managed cases. Airway obstruction can be prevented through early diagnosis, meaningful patient information, timely recognition of initial symptoms, state-of-the-art emergency therapy, and close monitoring of the patient. Prophylaxis can substantially mitigate the risk of upper airway edema and also improve the patients' quality of life. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any form of upper airway edema should be regarded as a potentially life-threatening condition. None of the currently available prophylactic modalities is capable of preventing UAE with absolute certainty.

  11. Pulmonary tissue volume in dogs during pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B T; Petrini, M F; Hyde, R W; Schreiner, B F

    1978-05-01

    Pulmonary tissue volume (Vt) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) were measured in anesthetized dogs by analyzing end-expiratory concentrations of dimethyl ether (DME), acetylene (C2H2), and sulfur hexafluoride during a 30-s rebreathing maneuver. Vt was compared to the postmortem lung weight of control dogs and dogs with hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic (alloxan) pulmonary edema. Qc was compared to the cardiac output measured by dye dilution. A 100-ml increase in alveolar volume (VA) in the range of 1-2 liters resulted in a 9 +/- 3 ml increase in Vt. Vt measured at a VA of 1.9 liters measures 114 +/- 18% of the postmortem lung weight in 20 control dogs and in 6 dogs with moderate edema (lung weight smae mean values of Vt, but the reproducibility of a series of 3-7 measurements was greater with DME (coefficient of variation was 5% with DME and 8% C2H2). Qc measured 96 +/ 15% of the cardiac output during the rebreathing maneuver, but the maneuver caused a 4-40% fall in the cardiac output. These data show that Vt determined by rebreathing DME is between 86% and 135% of the lung weight in dogs with pulmonary edema until the lung weight is greater than 250% of the predicted value.

  12. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Kamlesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  13. Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushmia Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rushmia Karim, Benjamin TangUniversity of Sydney School of Public Health, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Diabetic macular edema (DME is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity.Objective: For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME.Data sources: We identified five trials (n = 525 using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®] in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts.Methods: We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate.Results: We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our metaanalysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of -0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.23, -0.10 and central macular thickness -84.69 (95% CI: -117

  14. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G.; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case ...

  15. Pharmacological characterization of the rat paw edema induced by Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria L; Antunes, E; Bon, C; de Araújo, A L

    2001-06-01

    The inflammatory response induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom (BLV) in the rat hind-paw was studied measuring paw edema. Non-heated BLV (75microg/paw) caused a marked paw edema accompanied by intense haemorrhage whereas heated venom (97 degrees C, 30s; 12.5-100microg/paw) produced a dose- and time-dependent non-haemorrhagic edema. The response with heated BLV was maximal within 15min disappearing over 24h. Heated venom was then routinely used at the dose of 75microg/paw. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost (0.1microg/paw) potentiated by 125% the venom-induced edema. The histamine H(1) receptor antagonist mepyramine (6mg/kg) or the serotonin/histamine receptor antagonist cyproheptadine (6mg/kg) partially inhibited BLV-induced edema whereas the combination of both compounds virtually abolished the edema. The lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4C (10mg/kg), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg), significantly inhibited the edema (35% reduction; P<0.05). Dexamethasone (1mg/kg) also markedly (P<0.001) reduced venom-induced edema. The bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.6mg/kg) reduced by 30% (P<0.05) the venom induced edema, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (300microg/paw) potentiated by 42% (P<0.05) the edema. Bothrops lanceolatus antivenon (anti-BLV) reduced by 28% (P<0.05) the venom-induced edema while intravenous administration of antivenom failed to affect the edema. In conclusion, BLV-induced rat paw edema involves mast cell degranulation causing local release of histamine and serotonin, a phenomenon mediated mainly by kinins and lipoxygenase metabolites. Additionally, the use of a specific Bothrops lanceolatus antivenom, given subplantarily or intravenously, revealed to be little effective to prevent BLV-induced edema. PMID:11137542

  16. Edema cerebral crônico na neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGAPEJEV SVETLANA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo retrospectivo, relatam-se as características clínicas do edema cerebral crônico (ECCr em 34 pacientes com neurocisticercose (NCC, que apresentavam edema cerebral difuso, à tomografia computadorizada (TC, como característica comum. Todos foram tratados com dextroclorofeniramina e, 32 deles, com albendazol. O ECCr predominou no sexo feminino (73,5% na faixa etária dos 11 - 40 anos (92,3%. A cefaléia ocorreu em 94,1% dos pacientes, náuseas/vômitos em 47,1%, crises epilépticas em 41,1% e distúrbios psíquicos em 38,2%. A hiperreflexia ocorreu em 82,3% e o papiledema em 58,8% e o exame neurológico normal em 11,8%. Na TC, o edema esteve associado a calcificações em 61,8% dos casos. As pressões liquóricas foram mais elevadas (p< 0,05 antes do tratamento. Atualmente, estão assintomáticos, ou com melhora clínica, 79,4% dos pacientes (57,1% deles sem medicação. Discute-se a possibilidade do ECCr, na NCC, ser uma manifestação antigênica, sem a presença concomitante de cistos parasitários, e poder representar mais uma condição clínica associada à hipertensão intracraniana benigna.

  17. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. A small-scale pilot study of the pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME) was made by assessing concomitant changes in macular volume (MV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal artery diameter (RAD), and retinal vein diameter (RVD) in response t...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  18. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugel PU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pravin U Dugel,1,2 Francesco Bandello,3 Anat Loewenstein4 1Retinal Consultants of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: Diabetic macular edema (DME resembles a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction, and is characterized by blood–retinal barrier (BRB breakdown and retinal capillary leakage. Corticosteroids are of therapeutic benefit because of their anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and BRB-stabilizing properties. Delivery modes include periocular and intravitreal (via pars plana injection. To offset the short intravitreal half-life of corticosteroid solutions (~3 hours and the need for frequent intravitreal injections, sustained-release intravitreal corticosteroid implants have been developed. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant provides retinal drug delivery for ≤6 months and recently has been approved for use in the treatment of DME. Pooled findings (n=1,048 from two large-scale, randomized Phase III trials indicated that dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.35 mg and 0.7 mg administered at ≥6-month intervals produced sustained improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and macular edema. Significantly more patients showed a ≥15-letter gain in BCVA at 3 years with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.35 mg and 0.7 mg than with sham injection (18.4% and 22.2% vs 12.0%. Anatomical assessments showed rapid and sustained reductions in macular edema and slowing of retinopathy progression. Phase II study findings suggest that dexamethasone intravitreal implant is effective in focal, cystoid, and diffuse DME, in vitrectomized eyes, and in combination with laser therapy. Ocular complications of

  19. Echocardiographic changes during acute pulmonary edema subsequent to scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema (APE occurring after scorpion sting is the leading cause of death of the victims of scorpion envenomation. The APE origin is still questioned by physicians treating these patients. Based on echocardiographic study of 20 patients with severe envenomation treated in Ouargla Hospital resuscitation ward during the last four years, the APE etiology seems more likely cardiogenic, referring to cardiac symptoms confirmed by echocardiography although other mechanisms may also be involved. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the positive response of patients to the administration of dobutamine.

  20. Pulmonary edema following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an incident of development of acute pulmonary edema after the device closure of a secundum atrial septal defect in a 52-year-old lady, which was treated with inotropes, diuretics and artificial ventilation. Possibility of acute left ventricular dysfunction should be considered after the defect closure in the middle-aged patients as the left ventricular compliance may be reduced due to increased elastic stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. Baseline left atrial pressure may be > 10 mmHg in these patients. Associated risk factors for the left ventricular dysfunction are a large Qp:Qs ratio, systemic hypertension, severe pulmonary hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

  1. 幼年鼠内毒素性脑水肿模型及脑组织钙离子和钙调素表达的研究%Intracellular free calcium and calmodulin expression in a brain edema model induced by endotoxin in infant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 蔡方成

    2003-01-01

    目的:建立简单、易复制的幼年鼠内毒素性脑水肿模型,并从Ca2+、钙调素(CaM)水平探讨脑水肿的发生发展.方法:45只幼鼠,随机分内毒素组(36只)和对照组(9只),分别于腹腔内注射内毒素(LPS)10mg/kg和等容量生理盐水,并用电镜观察其病理、用常规生化法测定脑含水量和伊文氏蓝(EB)含量、用荧光标记术和免疫印迹法分别测定脑组织细胞内[Ca2+]和CaM表达.结果:脑组织含水量和EB含量显著高于对照组;细胞内[Ca2+]明显增高,脑组织CaM表达增强;电镜显示血脑屏障(Blood-brain barrier,BBB)受损、神经元变性、胶质细胞肿胀、坏死等特征.结论:LPS导致了BBB通透性改变,并引起了混合性脑水肿.LPS引起了细胞内[Ca2+]增高,并激活了CaM,从而启动了Ca2+-CaM信号通路,这可能与其增加BBB通透性并导致脑水肿形成有密切关系.

  2. Relationship between AQP4 expression and DWI of the cerebral ischemic edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏; 孙善全

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between aquaporin-4(AQP4) expression and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the process of ischemic brain edema for the molecular biologic mechanism of DWI. Methods: A total of 34 Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups randomly: Non-operated group (n=4), sham-operated group (n=6), and operated group, receiving right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 15 and 30 min, and 1, 3, 6 and 24 h respectively (6 subgroups, n=4). All groups were imaged with DWI and T2WI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relevant density (rd) and relevant area (rs) of hyperintensity of the lesions on DWI and T2WI were measured. Relevant ADC (rADC), relevant area of immunohistochemical staining for AQP4 (rS), optical density of AQP4 hybridization (α) were calculated. After that the animals were sacrificed and perfused at different time intervals, correlations between DWI, ADC, and AQP4 expression (rS, α) in ischemic tissue was made. Results: There was a significant correlation between rS and α (r=0.949). The abnormal high intensity was found in DWI of the ipsilateral MAC territory at 15 min after MCAO. The ADC value decreased quickly within 1 h after MCAO, the rd and rs of DWI increased rapidly and the expression of AQP4 increased quickly, too. However, there was no change on the T2WI. In the period of time (15 min-1 h), the AQP4 expression(α) had a strong relation to the rd and rs( r=0.914, 0.895). With the progress of the time, the ADC value of MCAO decreased further to (2.1±0.6)×10-4 mm2/s at 3 h, and then followed an increased slowly till 24 h, but the rd and the rs as well as the expression of AQP4 continuously increased during the stage. The T2WI detected the lesion at the average time (1.4 h) after MCAO, and the rs of T2WI was less than that of DWI at the same time in the same layer (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results imply that high expression of AQP4 may play a key role in ischemic brain edema. It is, certainly, one of the

  3. Updates in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has multiple effects on different end-organs, including the retina. In this paper, we discuss updates on diabetic macular edema (DME and the management options. The underlying pathology of DME is the leakage of exudates from retinal microaneurysms, which trigger subsequent inflammatory reactions. Both clinical and imaging techniques are useful in diagnosing, classifying, and gauging the severity of DME. We performed a comprehensive literature search using the keywords “diabetes,” “macula edema,” “epidemiology,” “pathogenesis,” “optical coherence tomography,” “intravitreal injections,” “systemic treatment,” “hypertension,” “hyperlipidemia,” “anemia,” and “renal disease” and collated a total of 47 relevant articles published in English language. The main modalities of treatment currently in use comprise laser photocoagulation, intravitreal pharmacological and selected systemic pharmacological options. In addition, we mention some novel therapies that show promise in treating DME. We also review systemic factors associated with exacerbation or improvement in DME.

  4. Ibuprofen prevents synthetic smoke-induced pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozawa, Y.; Hales, C.; Jung, W.; Burke, J.

    1986-12-01

    Multiple potentially injurious agents are present in smoke but the importance of each of these agents in producing lung injury as well as the mechanisms by which the lung injury is produced are unknown. In order to study smoke inhalation injury, we developed a synthetic smoke composed of a carrier of hot carbon particles of known size to which a single known common toxic agent in smoke, in this case HCI, could be added. We then exposed rats to the smoke, assayed their blood for the metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, and intervened shortly after smoke with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or ibuprofen to see if the resulting lung injury could be prevented. Smoke exposure produced mild pulmonary edema after 6 h with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 5.6 +/- 0.2 SEM (n = 11) compared with the non-smoke-exposed control animals with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 4.3 +/- 0.2 (n = 12), p less than 0.001. Thromboxane B, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha rose to 1660 +/- 250 pg/ml (p less than 0.01) and to 600 +/- 100 pg/ml (p greater than 0.1), respectively, in the smoke-injured animals compared with 770 +/- 150 pg/ml and 400 +/- 100 pg/ml in the non-smoke-exposed control animals. Indomethacin (n = 11) blocked the increase in both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites but failed to prevent lung edema.

  5. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Romero; T. J. M. Hernández

    2005-01-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, wh...

  6. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Cruz; Sónia Menezes; Maria Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the in...

  7. Transoral CO2 Laser Resection for Post-Radiation Arytenoid Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyoung Shin; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Kang Dae

    2010-01-01

    Arytenoid edema following radiation therapy of laryngeal cancer may persist and make careful inspection and evaluation of the larynx difficult. Moreover, it may have serious impacts on functions such as breathing, swallowing, speech and voice. Conservative management such as antibiotics and steroid may be attempted but may be ineffective in progressive and severe cases of edema. We present four cases of persistent postradiation arytenoid edema successfully treated with partial resection of th...

  8. Resuscitation-induced intestinal edema and related dysfunction: State of the science

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Shinil K.; Uray, Karen S.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Cox, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    High volume resuscitation and damage control surgical methods, while responsible for significantly decreasing morbidity and mortality from traumatic injuries, are associated with pathophysiological derangements that lead to subsequent end organ edema and dysfunction. Alterations in hydrostatic and oncotic pressures frequently result in intestinal edema and subsequent dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to examine the principles involved in the development of intestinal edema, current a...

  9. Stasis Dermatitis as a Complication of Recurrent Levofloxacin-Associated Bilateral Leg Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Daniel A.; Cohen, Philip R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Several drugs have been associated with the development of peripheral edema. Leg edema can result in dermatitis of the lower extremities.  We describe levofloxacin-induced peripheral leg edema, which progressed to stasis dermatitis. Methods: A 76-year-old man with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma was administered intravenous vancomycin and a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam by injection for treatment of aspiration pneumonia.  Prior to discharge, the pat...

  10. Transient Pulmonary Edema Following Adrenal Infarction in a Patient with Primary Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, K; Tazawa, K.; D. Kishida; Fukushima, K.; Matsuda, M.; Ikeda, S

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) who developed pulmonary edema following sudden-onset pain in the left, lower back of the chest. Radiological examinations demonstrated fresh infarction of the left adrenal gland but no obvious thrombi in pulmonary arteries. The patient quickly recovered from pulmonary edema with anti-coagulation therapy alone. Primary APS may have caused adrenal infarction in the patient, leading to transient pulmonary edema via microthrombosis...

  11. [Distal post-traumatic edema--symptom of a sympathetic reflex dystrophy (Sudeck's disease)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, H; Griesser, H J; Hornyak, M

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes various mechanisms, possibly being involved in the development of the posttraumatic, distally generalized edema. New ideas point to a special importance of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system for this clinical phenomenon, since this system could induce an enhanced venoconstriction at the exit of the capillary bed, which would result in an edema producing diminished venous return. Since the distally generalized edema is an initially and very commonly occurring symptom of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (M. Sudeck), the observation of such an edema should lead one to look for further symptoms of this disorder, especially for the typical triad of autonomic (sympathetic), motor, and sensory disturbances. PMID:1372460

  12. Pulmonary edema: an MR study of permeability and hydrostatic types in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H C; Tsay, D G; Higgins, C B

    1986-02-01

    Permeability pulmonary edema was induced in ten rats by intravenous injection of oleic acid. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was induced in another ten rats by continuous infusion of saline. Permeability pulmonary edema was detected as increased signal intensity in all animals on images obtained with repetition times (TR) of 2.0 sec and echo times (TE) of 28 and 56 msec. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was perceivable only in seven of ten rats. It was best seen on spin-echo TR = 2.0 sec, TE = 28 msec images as increased intensity either throughout the whole lung or in a predominant central distribution. The slopes of the relationships between the mean signal intensity and water content of both lungs were lower for hydrostatic pulmonary edema than for permeability pulmonary edema. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema demonstrated similar T1 but markedly shorter T2 relaxation times than permeability edema. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to estimate severity of hydrostatic and permeability pulmonary edemas. PMID:3941856

  13. In vivo photoacoustic tomography of mouse cerebral edema induced by cold injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhun; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-06-01

    For the first time, we have implemented photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to image the water content of an edema in vivo. We produced and imaged a cold-induced cerebral edema transcranially, then obtained blood vessel and water accumulation images at 610 and 975 nm, respectively. We tracked the changes at 12, 24, and 36 h after the cold injury. The blood volume decreased after the cold injury, and the maximum area of edema was observed 24 h after the cold injury. We validated PAT of the water content of the edema through magnetic Resonance Imaging and the water spectrum from the spectrophotometric measurement.

  14. Modeling tumor-associated edema in gliomas during anti-angiogenic therapy and its impact on imageable tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eHawkins-Daarud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically-driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor-cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR for tumors with lower proliferation rates.

  15. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel, Pravin U; Bandello, Francesco; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) resembles a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction, and is characterized by blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and retinal capillary leakage. Corticosteroids are of therapeutic benefit because of their anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and BRB-stabilizing properties. Delivery modes include periocular and intravitreal (via pars plana) injection. To offset the short intravitreal half-life of corticosteroid solutions (~3 hours) and the need for frequent intravitreal injections, sustained-release intravitreal corticosteroid implants have been developed. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant provides retinal drug delivery for ≤6 months and recently has been approved for use in the treatment of DME. Pooled findings (n=1,048) from two large-scale, randomized Phase III trials indicated that dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.35 mg and 0.7 mg) administered at ≥6-month intervals produced sustained improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and macular edema. Significantly more patients showed a ≥15-letter gain in BCVA at 3 years with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.35 mg and 0.7 mg than with sham injection (18.4% and 22.2% vs 12.0%). Anatomical assessments showed rapid and sustained reductions in macular edema and slowing of retinopathy progression. Phase II study findings suggest that dexamethasone intravitreal implant is effective in focal, cystoid, and diffuse DME, in vitrectomized eyes, and in combination with laser therapy. Ocular complications of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in Phase III trials included cataract-related events (66.0% in phakic patients), intraocular pressure elevation ≥25 mmHg (29.7%), conjunctival hemorrhage (23.5%), vitreous hemorrhage (10.0%), macular fibrosis (8.3%), conjunctival hyperemia (7.2%), eye pain (6.1%), vitreous detachment (5.8%), and dry eye (5.8%); injection-related complications (eg, retinal tear/detachment, vitreous loss, endophthalmitis) were infrequent (implant offers a

  16. [Anesthetic Management of a Parturient with Eclampsia, Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Pulmonary Edema due to Pregnancy-induced Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Junko; Okutani, Hiroai; Oda, Yutaka; Okutani, Ryu

    2015-08-01

    A 27-year-old woman with mental retardation was admitted to a nearby hospital for an abrupt onset of seizure. Physical examination revealed remarkable hypertension and pregnancy with estimated gestational age of 28th week. Severe pulmonary edema and hypoxia led to a diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) accompanied by eclampsia. She was orotracheally intubated because of refractory seizure and hypoxemia, and transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Besides severe hypoxia and hypercapnea, an enhanced lesion was detected in the left posterior cerebrum by brain MRI. No abnormal findings were detected in the fetus, with heart rate of 150 beats x min. She was diagnosed with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) caused by PIH and emergency cesarean section under general anesthesia was scheduled. A male newborn was delivered with Apgar score of 1/4 (1/5 min), followed by starting continuous infusion of nicardipine for controlling hypertension. Chest X-P on completion of surgery revealed remarkably alleviated pulmonary edema. She received intensive treatment and continued positive pressure ventilation for four days after delivery. She recovered with no neurological deficits and her child was well without any complications. PMID:26442424

  17. Unilateral Optic Disc Edema in a Paediatric Patient: Diagnostic Dilemmas and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Kanonidou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a case of unilateral optic disc edema in a paediatric patient and discuss the concerns involved in diagnosis and management of similar cases. Materials and Methods. Female aged 10 years was referred to our clinic due to progressive visual loss of the LE over a few days. Her visual acuities (VA were RE 10/10, LE 3/10, and she had a relative afferent pupillary defect and decreased colour vision in her LE and normal and painless eye movements. Fundoscopy showed a remarkably swollen disc of the LE, and visual field (VF examination revealed enlargement of the blind spot and presence of horizontal inferior papillomacular scotoma. Neurological examination, CT of brain and orbits and blood tests were normal. Visual evoked potentials revealed an obstacle in the myelin substance before the optic chiasma of the LE. Results. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednoslone for 3 days and with oral methylprednizole for 15 days in progressively diminished daily doses. This led to gradual improvement of VA, colour vision, and visual field and resolution of optic disc oedema. Discussion. Concerns that have to be taken into account regarding diagnosis and management of similar cases are related to lumbar puncture indications, treatment with corticosteroids, and appropriate followup.

  18. Neural histamine in the tuberomammillary nucleus regulates the onset of neurogenic pulmonary edema in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Dong; Xiaohong Zhang; Lijuan Shi

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of neural histamine in the tuberomammillary nucleus(TM) on neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) onset in rabbits and the function of the rostral ventrolateral medulla(RVLM) in the neural histamine modulation of NPE.Methods:NPE was produced by the intracisternal injections of fibrinogen and thrombin.The contents of histamine in the TM and RVLM in rabbits were measured with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).Rabbits were placed on a stereotaxic frame and microinjection cannulae were inserted into the TM and RVLM using brain atlas coordinates.Animals were pretreated with R-α-methylhistamine(MeHA) in the TM and chlorphenamine Mmaleate/cimetidine in the RVLM prior to establishing the NPE model.Changes in the lung water ratio and mean arterial pressure(MAP) were recorded,and paraffin sections of lung tissue were observed by light microscope.Results:We found that the contents of histamine(HA) in the TM and RVLM increased significantly with the onset of NPE.Pretreatment with MeHA in the TM and chlorphenamine Mmaleate in the RVLM significantly decreased MAP,and the lung water ratio and histological characteristics of the NPE in the rabbit model.Pretreatment with cimetidine in the RVLM had no effect on NPE.Conculsion:The results suggest that neural histamine in the TM is involved in the onset of NPE,and this effect of neural histamine is mediated by H receptor in the RVLM.

  19. Recirculation usually precedes malignant edema in middle cerebral artery infarcts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Ståhl, N; Schalén, W;

    2012-01-01

    In patients with large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts, maximum brain swelling leading to cerebral herniation and death usually occurs 2-5 days after onset of stroke. The study aimed at exploring the pattern of compounds related to cerebral energy metabolism in infarcted brain tissue....

  20. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Iacopo; Tacconi, Danilo; Grotti, Simone; Brandini, Rossella; Salvadori, Claudia; Caremani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2011-05-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug. Its long-term use may, however, lead to several adverse effects, with pulmonary toxicity being the most serious. The article presents the case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgery, who after 2 years of amiodarone therapy for prophylactic treatment of atrial fibrillation developed amiodarone pneumonitis mimicking an acute pulmonary edema. The patient failed to respond to diuretic therapy and several courses of anti-infective therapy. Differential diagnosis of different causes of pulmonary infiltrates did not demonstrate any other abnormality. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of amiodarone pneumonitis. Given the widespread use of amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic agent, pneumologists and cardiologists should consider this important adverse effect as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary distress refractory to therapy in all patients treated with amiodarone who present with respiratory symptoms and pneumonia-like illness. PMID:19924000

  1. Localized bi-nasal macular edema in optic chiasmal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J Lavaque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old healthy male complaining of vision loss in his right eye was discovered to have localized bi-nasal macular edema in the presence of a pituitary adenoma. The presence of a junctional scotoma composed by a central scotoma in the right eye associated with superior temporal quadrantanopia in the fellow eye was seen. The pattern detected in the visual field suggested the presence of an expansive mass at the level of the optic chiasm. Optical coherence tomography findings also revealed subtle macular thickness beyond normal in the superior and nasal quadrants of both maculae. This report illustrates the importance of suspecting a pituitary adenoma in the light of uncharacteristic retinal alterations.

  2. Pulmonary edema and lung injury after severe laryngospasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young male with no pre-operative medical illness underwent corrective surgery for a deviated nasal septum under general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, patient was extubated but went into severe laryngospasm that did not improve with gentle Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) and small dose of Suxamethonium. As the situation worsened and patient developed severe bradycardia and de-saturation, re-intubation was done that revealed pink froth in the endotracheal tube. His portable chest X-ray was suggestive of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. With an overnight supportive treatment, using mechanical ventilation with Positive End- Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), morphine infusion and frusemide, patient improved and was subsequently weaned off from ventilator. (author)

  3. Transient Macular Edema after Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Zheng Wang; Guofu Huang; Xing Liu; Yunlan Ling; Xiaoping Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the macular changes induced by laser in situ keratomileusisc(LASIK) procedure.Methods: Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) was used to examine 27 eyes of 15LASIK patients before surgery, and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month after surgery.Results: The mean thick iness of neuroepithelial layer of macula was (195±24)microns, ( 178 ± 16) microns 1 day and 1 month after surgery, respectively, while thebaseline was (174 ± 12)microns. The increase in macular neuroepithelial thickness wascorrelated with the degree of myopia, but not with the duration of suction or thepostoperative BCVA.Conclusion: Mild macular edema is common in the first month following LASIK,especially in high myopia. However, no association with loss of BCVA has beenestablished.

  4. Neurogenic pulmonary edema in head injuries: analysis of 5 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Shi-qiang; SUN Wei; WANG Han-bin; ZHANG Qing-lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review the pathophysiology and study the diagnosis and clinical management of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). Methods: The data of 5 patients who developed NPE after head injury treated in our hospital form December 1995 to May 2003 were collected and analyzed.Results: The patients developed dyspnea and respiratory failure 2-8 hours after neurologic event. Four of the 5 patients presented with pink frothy sputum. Chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse infiltrations in all the 5 patients. After supportive measures such as oxygen support and pharmacologic therapy, 4 patients recovered in 72 hours and one patient died. Conclusions: The pathophysiologic mechanisms of NPE is unclear. In acute respiratory failure following head injury, NPE must be given much attention and timely and effective measures should be taken.

  5. Cystoid macular edema in a patient with Danon disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G Mack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a patient with Danon retinopathy with cystoid macular edema treated with topical dorzolamide 2% eye drops and oral acetazolamide. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with Danon disease treated with topical and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors participated in the study. Examinations performed before and during treatment included visual acuity (VA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Following total 48 weeks of treatment, VA decreased from 20/30 OD, 20/200 OS, to 20/40 OD, CF OS. The mean central retinal thickness was unchanged from baseline 263 μm OD , 226 μm OS, after treatment 283 μm OD and 202 μm OS. In our case, carbonic anydrase inhibitors were not effective. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on a single case.

  6. Production of Hypoxia-induced Corneal Edema in Aged Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan K. Cheung; Andrew W. Siu; Digby W. Cheung; Edwin C. Mo

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:Corneal thickness assessment is a common clinical procedure applied in corneal and contact lens care. This study aims to investigate the effect of age on hypoxiainduced corneal swelling.Methods:Eighteen male subjects were equally divided into the younger [(23.7±0.8) and older [(74.4±2.5) years old]groups.Each subject wore a thick soft contact lens (uniform thickness of 0.3 mm) on the left cornea. With the contact lens in place, the baseline central corneal thickness was measured using a specially designed photo-pachometer. The lens was then patched behind the closed eyelids, producing an extremely hypoxic stress to the cornea. The change in central corneal thickness was monitored every 20 minutes with momentary disruptions to the hypoxic stress over the next 2 hours. The increase in thickness was taken as an index of corneal edema. The rate of change in corneal thickness, as derived from a non-linear mathematical model, was compared between groups. Results:The corneal thickness of both age groups increased significantly with time (P<0.000 1 ). The mean corneal swelling constant for the older subjects was 16.5 × 10-3 (S.E.M. = 2.65 × 10-3) and the value for the younger subjects was 46.5 × 10-3 (S.E.M. = 3.25× 10-3). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.000 1 ).Conclusion:Aging cornea has a slower hypoxia-induced edema response compared with the younger group. Whether it is caused by a decreased corneal lactate production or an increased resistance to physical expansion deserves further investigation. Eye Science2004;20:1-5.

  7. Clinical Studies of Cerebral Edema Recanalization After Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction%急性脑梗死动脉溶栓血管再通后的脑水肿临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜春; 马冲; 张健莉; 于杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨急性缺血性脑卒中动脉溶栓血管再通后脑水肿的临床研究,旨在为此类疾病患者的下一步临床工作提供借鉴。方法选择通过动脉溶栓血管再通的患者40例。将患者分为1~3 h组(A组)、>3~6h组(B组)。头颅CT监测、随访脑水肿情况。记录溶栓前、术后1周及1年NIHSS评分、MRS评分及BI指数。结果动脉溶栓血管再通后脑水肿发生率为100%,随访发现脑水肿局部有明显软化灶。两组患者脑水肿及临床结局比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论动脉溶栓血管再通后脑水肿的及其脑组织缺失发生率极高,脑水肿局部有明显软化灶,良好的脑内局部循环和全身状况是改善此类脑水肿的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the acute arterial ischemic stroke thrombolytic recanalization clinical studies of cerebral edema, designed to provide a reference for the next clinical disease in these patients.Methods arterial thrombolysis recanalization by 40 patients. Patients were divided into 1 ~ 3h group (A),> 3 ~ 6h group (group B). Cranial CT monitoring, follow-up of brain edema. Recorded before thrombolysis, after 1 week and 1 year NIHSS score, MRS score and BI index.Results arterial thrombolysis recanalization rate was 97.5% of cerebral edema, cerebral edema partial follow-up found a significant malacia. Two groups of patients and clinical outcomes of cerebral edema was no significant difference (P> 0.05).Conclusion The arterial thrombolysis recanalization of cerebral edema and high incidence of brain tissue loss, good local circulation in the brain and body condition is such an important factor in improving brain edema.

  8. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability as a cause of re-expansion edema in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the mechanism(s) underlying re-expansion edema, we measured the concentration of labeled albumin (RISA) in the extravascular, extracellular water (EVECW) of the lung as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Re-expansion edema was first induced by rapid re-expansion of rabbit lungs that had been collapsed for 1 wk by pneumothorax. The RISA in EVECW was expressed as a fraction of its plasma concentration: (RISA)L/(RISA)PL. The volume of EVECW (ml/gm dry lung) was measured using a 24Na indicator. Results in re-expansion edema were compared with normal control lungs and with oleic acid edema as a model of permeability edema. In re-expanded lungs, EVECW (3.41 +/- SD 1.24 ml/g) and (RISA)L/(RISA)PL 0.84 +/- SD 0.15) were significantly increased when compared with normal control lungs (2.25 +/- 0.41 ml/g and 0.51 +/- 0.20, respectively). Results in oleic acid edema (5.66 +/- 2.23 ml/g and 0.84 +/- 0.23) were similar to re-expansion edema. This suggested that re-expansion edema is due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by mechanical stresses applied to the lung during re-expansion

  9. Mechanisms of edema formation in myxedema--increased protein extravasation and relatively slow lymphatic drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Hansen, J M; Nielsen, S L;

    1979-01-01

    of generalized edema (P less than 0.05). All variables returned to normal during l-thyroxine treatment. The extravascular accumulation of albumin, and presumably of all other plasma proteins, is important in the generalized edema typically found in myxedema. Inadequate lymphatic drainage may also explain...

  10. Necrosis de médula espinal, edema cerebral y glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1987-01-01

    Cinco imágenes de una necrosis de la médula espinal, un edema cerebral y un glioblastoma en una paciente de 76 años. Five pictures of a spinal cord necrosis, a cerebral edema and a glioblastoma in a 76-year-old female patient.

  11. Darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor, in diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staurenghi, Giovanni; Ye, Li; Magee, Mindy H;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibition as a novel mechanism to reduce edema and improve vision in center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase IIa study. PAR...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess. (author)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Akihiro; Kagawa, Mizuo; Yatoh, Seiji; Izawa, Masahiro; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Jun; Onda, Hideaki; Kitamura, Kohichi

    1988-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess.

  14. Perihematomal edema in acute intracerebral hemorrhage treated with hyperbaric oxygen%高压氧治疗对急性脑出血周围水肿影响的影像学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永; 朱向阳; 董政协; 龚沈初; 胡军; 李嘉; 黄怀宇

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on perihematomal edema in acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Sixty-three consecutive hospitalized patients with supraten-torial intracerebral hemorrhage were allocated to an HBO group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 33) at random. Routine therapies were used with both groups. The treatment group received in addition twenty consecutive daily ses-sions of HBO therapy beginning 3~5 d after onset. MRI brain scans were performed on the 5~7th and 25th day. Absolute edema volumes and relative edema volumes were measured from T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion co-efficients (ADCs) of the edematous regions were calculated on diffusion-weighted images (DWI). Results There were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, blood pressure, NIHSS, hematoma posi-tion or volume. At the 5th~7th d, both absolute and relative edema volumes in the HBO group were smaller than in the controls (P≤0.05). Brain edema was still prominent at the 25th d. Absolute edema volumes, relative edema volumes and ADC values were all smaller in the HBO group at the 25th day compared with the controls (P≤0.05). Conclusion HBO therapy soon after intracerebral hemorrhage can lessen the severity and range of brain edema. E-dema persists after the onset of the disease, and HBO can reduce such delayed brain edema. HBO may benefit func-tional recovery from intracerebral hemorrhage by reducing perihematomal edema.%目的 应用MRI检测观察高压氧(HBO)治疗对急性脑出血灶周围脑水肿的影响.方法 63例幕上脑出血住院患者,随机分为HBO治疗组(n=30,HBO组)和对照组(n=33),2组均给予常规治疗,HBO组于发病后3~5 d开始同时给予HBO治疗,每日1次,连续20 d.病程第5~7天和第25天进行头颅MRI检查,T2WI图像观测脑水肿的范围,计算脑水肿绝对体积和相对体积,弥散加权成像(DWI)测定血肿周围水肿区域表观扩

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  18. Etiology and treatment of the inflammatory causes of cystoid macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Cho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyung Cho1, Assumpta Madu11Department of Ophthalmology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USAAbstract: Cystoid macular edema in its various forms can be considered one of the leading causes of central vision loss in the developed world. It occurs in a wide variety of pathologic conditions and represents the final common pathway of several basic processes. Therapeutic approaches to cystoid macular edema depend on a clear understanding of its contributing pathophysiologic mechanisms. This review will discuss the mechanism of ocular inflammation in cystoid macular edema with a particular focus on the inflammatory causes: post-operative, uveitic, and after laser procedures. A variety of pharmacologic agents targeting inflammatory molecules have been shown to reduce macular edema and improve visual function. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of most new therapies have yet to be established in controlled clinical trials.Keywords: ocular inflammation, cystoid macular edema, uveitis

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor:an attractive target in the treatment of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Guo; Hui Zhou; Jie Lu; Yi Qu; Dan Yu; Yu Tong

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia or ischemia results in cell death and cerebral edema, as well as other cellular reactions such as angiogenesis and the reestablishment of functional microvasculature to promote recovery from brain injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in the central nervous system after hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and is involved in the process of brain repairvia the regulation of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and cerebral edema, which all require vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. In this review, we focus on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway in the response to hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and discuss potential therapeutic interventions.

  20. Posterior Lumbar Subcutaneous Edema on Spine Magnetic Resonance Images: What Is the Cause?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, In Sook; Han, In Ho; Lee, Jung Sub [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Tae Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jong Woon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Posterior lumbar subcutaneous (PLS) edema on spine magnetic resonance (MR) images is a common incidental, though neglected finding. This study was undertaken to investigate the relations between PLS edema and pathologic conditions. Between January and December 2009, 138 patients with PLS edema, but without a spinal tumor or a history of recent surgery or trauma, and 80 infectious spondylitis patients without PLS edema were enrolled in this retrospective study. Available medical records and lumbar spine MR images were evaluated. The degree of edema was quantified using an arbitrary scoring system. Further, the correlations between the degree of edema and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), degeneration of posterior spinal structures (PSS) and infectious spondylitis were analyzed. Of the 93 cases with a calculable BMI, 61 (66%) had a BMI of > 23 kg/m2. Correlations between the degree of edema and sex, age and BMI grade were all statistically non-significant. Thirty-three cases (24%) had an underlying disease, such as heart problem, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, extra-spinal tumor or connective tissue disorder. The numbers of cases with infectious spondylitis and an idiopathic condition was 61 (44%) and 44 (32%), respectively. The grade of infectious spondylitis was not found to be significantly associated with the degree of edema (p = 0.084). In cases with an idiopathic condition, the correlation between the degree of edema and PSS degeneration was statistically significant (p = 0.042). Radiologists should not disregard PLS edema, because it is related to an underlying disease and thus may be of clinical significance.

  1. Role of dietary polyphenols in attenuating brain edema and cell swelling in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are enriched in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. Recent interest...

  2. Alteration of water-soluble S-100 protein content in microembolized rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada,Yasuhiro

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of S-100 protein in rat brain embolized with carbon microspheres decreased in parallel with the development of cerebral edema as judged by water content, recovering to the normal range by 24h after embolization. These results suggest the participation of S-100 protein in the permeability characterisitics of nervous system capillaries known as the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Can bone marrow edema be seen on STIR images of the ankle and foot after 1 week of running?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappeniers, L.; Maeseneer, M. de E-mail: midema@village.uunet.be; Ridder, F. de; Machiels, F.; Shahabpour, M.; Tebache, C.; Verhellen, R.; Osteaux, M

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether initiation of running in sedentary individuals would lead to bone marrow edema on MR images, within the time span of 1 week. Materials and methods: The feet of 10 healthy volunteers were imaged by MR imaging before and after running during 30 min a day for 1 week. The images were evaluated by consensus of 2 musculoskeletal radiologists who graded the presence of bone marrow edema on a 4-point scale. Edema scores and number of bones involved before and after running were compared statistically. Results: Edema was present on the baseline images in 3 subjects. After running edema showed an increase or was present in 5 subjects. The changes after running were statistically significant. Bones involved were the talus, calcaneus, navicular bone, cuboid bone, and 5th metatarsal. Conclusion: Edema patterns can be seen in the feet of asymptomatic individuals. During initiation of running an increase of edema or development of new edema areas can be seen.

  4. Can bone marrow edema be seen on STIR images of the ankle and foot after 1 week of running?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether initiation of running in sedentary individuals would lead to bone marrow edema on MR images, within the time span of 1 week. Materials and methods: The feet of 10 healthy volunteers were imaged by MR imaging before and after running during 30 min a day for 1 week. The images were evaluated by consensus of 2 musculoskeletal radiologists who graded the presence of bone marrow edema on a 4-point scale. Edema scores and number of bones involved before and after running were compared statistically. Results: Edema was present on the baseline images in 3 subjects. After running edema showed an increase or was present in 5 subjects. The changes after running were statistically significant. Bones involved were the talus, calcaneus, navicular bone, cuboid bone, and 5th metatarsal. Conclusion: Edema patterns can be seen in the feet of asymptomatic individuals. During initiation of running an increase of edema or development of new edema areas can be seen

  5. Morphine blocks the Mesobuthus tamulus venom-induced augmentation of phenyldiguanide reflex and pulmonary edema in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Akella

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results reveal that morphine prevents the MBT venom-induced augmentation of PDG reflex response and pulmonary edema. Thus, morphine can be useful in scorpion envenomation syndrome associated with pulmonary edema.

  6. Fundus autofluorescence characteristics in patients with diabetic macular edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yinchen; Xu Xun; Liu Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the major causes of visual impairment in patients with diabetes mellitus.DME shows a variety of clinical characteristics with unpredictable results to treatment.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in DME,which is a rapid,noninvasive technique for fundus diseases.Methods A total of 18 patients (30 eyes) with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were enrolled.FAF imaging was performed with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope.Other ophthalmic examinations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),MP-1 microperimetry,and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Main outcome measurements included BCVA,macular sensitivity (MS),central retinal thickness (CRT),central retinal volume (CRV),the integrity of the inner segment-outer segment junction (IS/OS),and the integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM).Results Among the 30 eyes,four eyes (13.3%) had normal foveal FAF and 26 eyes (86.7%) had abnormal FAF.Abnormal FAF was mainly divided into three types:cystoid increased FAF (iFAF) 16 eyes (53.3%),spot iFAF six eyes (20%),irregular decreased FAF (dFAF) four eyes (13.3%).According to the FAF morphology,patients were categorized into four groups:normal,cystoid iFAF,spot iFAF,and irregular dFAF.There was a significant difference in BCVA (P <0.001) and MS (P <0.05) among the four groups.The visual function of patients with spot iFAF and irregular dFAF was relatively poor.However,there was no difference in CRT (P=-0.186) and CRV (P=0.191) among the four groups.In the normal FAF group,the photoreceptor layers were mostly intact.Regarding the cystoid iFAF group,the photoreceptor layers were relatively intact,while in the other two groups,IS/OS and ELM were disrupted in most patients.No one had intact IS/OS or ELM layer.Conclusions FAF might reflect the damage of the retina and had a relationship with visual function as

  7. Unusual Presentations of Focal Periphyseal Edema Zones: A Report of Bilateral Symmetric Presentation and Partial Physeal Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Beckmann; Susanna Spence

    2015-01-01

    Focal periphyseal edema (FOPE) zones are areas of periphyseal edema seen near the time of physeal closure which are believed to be a physiologic phenomenon related to changes in distribution of forces around the physis as it closes. Since the original case series describing these areas of periphyseal edema, there has been little published in regard to FOPE zone outside of review articles. We present a set of three patients identified with focal periphyseal edema zones around the knee and comp...

  8. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Kelli; Murphy, Thomas; Tung, Tina; Davila, David; Binder, Devin K; Fiacco, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular edema (cell swelling) is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we report that one of the first effects of osmotic edema on excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is the generation of slow inward currents (SICs), which initiate after approximately 1 min. Frequency of SICs increased as osmolarity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging of real-time volume changes in astrocytes revealed that neuronal SICs occurred while astrocytes were still in the process of swelling. SICs evoked by cell swelling were mainly nonsynaptic in origin and NMDA receptor-dependent. To better understand the relationship between SICs and changes in neuronal excitability, recordings were performed in increasingly physiological conditions. In the absence of any added pharmacological reagents or imposed voltage clamp, osmotic edema induced excitatory postsynaptic potentials and burst firing over the same timecourse as SICs. Like SICs, action potentials were blocked by NMDAR antagonists. Effects were more pronounced in adult (8-20 weeks old) compared with juvenile (P15-P21) mice. Together, our results indicate that cell swelling triggered by reduced osmolarity rapidly increases neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors. Our findings have important implications for understanding nonsynaptic mechanisms of epilepsy in relation to cell swelling and reduction of the extracellular space. PMID:26489684

  9. Associations of subjective udder edema scores and descriptive trait codes for udder types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentine, M R; McDaniel, B T

    1984-01-01

    Edema severity was scored by herd personnel in six North Carolina Holstein herds from 1 (none) to 5 (extremely severe). Cows (2612) were scored at calving and 1 and 2 wk postpartum. Total score was calculated as the sum of these three scores. Official Holstein-Friesian classification descriptive udder trait codes were available on a subset of the cows. All statistical analyses were within lactation and included adjustments for herd-year and age as well as classifier and stage of lactation where appropriate. Correlations between corresponding edema scores for first and second lactations were .18, .18, .19, and .20 for scores at calving, 1 wk, 2 wk, and for total score. Stepwise regression procedures showed that udder support codes were associated with a larger amount of variation of edema scores than for any other single mammary trait code. Fore and rear udder codes also were associated with significant variation of edema scores in some analyses. Prediction models showed edema was a significant predictor of subsequent udder support codes, although udder trait codes were not significant predictors of subsequent edema severity. It appeared that severe edema may be one of the causes of pendulous udders. PMID:6707304

  10. The effect of TIP on pneumovirus-induced pulmonary edema in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301, a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM and received TIP or saline (control group by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration or day seven (late administration after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. RESULTS: TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. CONCLUSION: In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease.

  11. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF GRID PHOTOCOAGULATION IN DIFFUSE DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA IN RURAL SETUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra P

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema is a common cause of visual impairment in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Laser photocoagulation is considered to be the standard treatment for diabetic macular edema. This study was taken up to find out the efficacy and safety of grid photocoagulation in diffuse diabetic macular edema in our rural setup. OBJECTIVES: To assess visual improvement and document adverse effects if any in diffuse diabetic macular edema after grid photocoagulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 30 eyes of 17 patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema were evaluated at retina clinic at Tamaka, Kolar. The visual acuities, fundoscopic findings and adverse effects at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year checkup following laser were used in present analysis. RESULTS: After one year of follow up, visual acuity in 8 eyes (26.6% improved by one or more line, 17 (56.6% did not change and 5 (16.6% lost by one or more lines. Macular edema was found to regress in 23 (76.6% lasered eyes, found same in 6 (20%, worsened in 1 (3.3%. In our study 83.33% had positive visual acuity and 96.66% had positive fundoscopic finding. CONCLUSION: Grid photocoagulation is of benefit in maintaining vision and resolution of diffuse diabetic macular edema

  12. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential.

  13. Myocardial edema and compromised left ventricular function attributable to dirofilariasis and cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D A; Davis, K L; Mehlhorn, U; Allen, S J; Laine, G A

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (tau) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:7717590

  14. Diffuse vertebral body edema due to calcified intraspongious disk herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Ecomax-Diagnostico por Imagem, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Tiradentes, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Castro, C.E.S.; Castro, D.S. [Ecomax-Diagnostico por Imagem, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient with a recent history of high back pain, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showing intervertebral disk herniation into the spongious bone of the vertebral body of T9 that might have caused diffuse, low signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery T1-weighted (FLAIR-T1W) images, high signal intensity magnetic resonance (MR) on T2-weighted (T2W) images and T2-weighted fat-suppressed images (T2W-FSIs) and marked enhancement on the vertebral body of T9 with gadolinium on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (T1W-FSIs) images. Those findings suggested diffuse edema and might be indistinguishable from tumoral or inflammatory diseases, but the plain films and the reformatted sagittal computed tomography scans of the thoracic spine were helpful to show a calcified part of the intervertebral disk migrating into the vertebral body of T9. The patient made full recovery from the symptoms after conservative treatment and at the follow-up MRI showed normalization of the bone marrow signal intensity of the vertebral body of T9. (orig.)

  15. Pulmonary Edema in Healthy Subjects in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Garbella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several pieces of evidence showing occurrence of pulmonary edema (PE in healthy subjects in extreme conditions consisting of extreme psychophysical demand in normal environment and psychophysical performances in extreme environment. A combination of different mechanisms, such as mechanical, hemodynamic, biochemical, and hypoxemic ones, may underlie PE leading to an increase in lung vascular hydrostatic pressure and lung vascular permeability and/or a downregulation of the alveolar fluid reabsorption pathways. PE can be functionally detected by closing volume measurement and lung diffusing capacity test to different gases or directly visualized by multiple imaging techniques. Among them chest ultrasonography can detect and quantify the extravascular lung water, creating “comet-tail” ultrasound artefacts (ULCs from water-thickened pulmonary interlobular septa. In this paper the physiopathological mechanisms of PE, the functional and imaging techniques applied to detect and quantify the phenomenon, and three models of extreme conditions, that is, ironman athletes, climbers and breath-hold divers, are described.

  16. Microcystic macular edema detection in retina OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Emily K.; Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Howard S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging tool that is particularly useful for exploring retinal abnormalities in ophthalmological diseases. Recently, it has been used to track changes in the eye associated with neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) where certain tissue layer thicknesses have been associated with disease progression. A small percentage of MS patients also exhibit what has been called microcystic macular edema (MME), where uid collections that are thought to be pseudocysts appear in the inner nuclear layer. Very little is known about the cause of this condition so it is important to be able to identify precisely where these pseudocysts occur within the retina. This identi cation would be an important rst step towards furthering our understanding. In this work, we present a detection algorithm to nd these pseudocysts and to report on their spatial distribution. Our approach uses a random forest classi er trained on manual segmentation data to classify each voxel as pseudocyst or not. Despite having a small sample size of ve subjects, the algorithm correctly identi es 84.6% of pseudocysts as compared to manual delineation. Finally, using our method, we show that the spatial distribution of pseudocysts within the macula are generally contained within an annulus around the fovea.

  17. Intravitreal Diclofenac for Refractory Uveitic Cystoid Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ramezani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of intravitreal diclofenac on bestcorrected visual acuity (BCVA and central macular thickness (CMT in patients with refractory uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME. Methods: In this prospective non-comparative case series, 8 eyes of 8 patients with refractory CME secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis received a single intravitreal injection of diclofenac (500 μg/0.1ml in addition to other systemic (oral prednisolone and methotraxate and topical (betamethasone remission maintaining drugs. Outcome measures were changes in BCVA and CMT after treatment. Results: Mean BCVA remained relatively unchanged at 12, 24 and 36 weeks (0.69, 0.70 and 0.64 LogMAR, respectively as compared to baseline (0.71 LogMAR. Mean CMT, however, decreased from 488 μm at baseline to 416 and 456 μm at 24 and 36 weeks, respectively. None of the changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: In eyes with refractory uveitic CME, intravitreal injection of diclofenac insignificantly reduced CMT but this was not associated with visual improvement.

  18. Updates on the Clinical Trials in Diabetic Macular Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Sibel; Argo, Colby; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Parriott, Jacob; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this era of evidence-based medicine, significant progress has been made in the field of pharmacotherapeutics for the management of diabetic macular edema (DME). A. number of landmark clinical trials have provided strong evidence of the safety and efficacy of agents such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factors for the treatment of DME. Decades of clinical research, ranging from the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study to the present-day randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing novel agents, have shifted the goal of therapy from preventing vision loss to ensuring a maximum visual gain. Systematic study designs have provided robust data with an attempt to optimize the treatment regimens including the choice of the agent and timing of therapy. However, due to a number of challenges in the management of DME with approved agents, further studies are needed. For the purpose of this review, an extensive database search in English language was performed to identify prospective, RCTs testing pharmacological agents for DME. In order to acquaint the reader with the most relevant data from these clinical trials, this review focuses on pharmacological agents that are currently approved or have widespread applications in the management of DME. An update on clinical trials presently underway for DME has also been provided.

  19. Updates on the clinical trials in diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Demirel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this era of evidence.based medicine, significant progress has been made in the field of pharmacotherapeutics for the management of diabetic macular edema. (DME. A. number of landmark clinical trials have provided strong evidence of the safety and efficacy of agents such as anti.vascular endothelial growth factors for the treatment of DME. Decades of clinical research, ranging from the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study to the present.day randomized clinical trials. (RCTs testing novel agents, have shifted the goal of therapy from preventing vision loss to ensuring a maximum visual gain. Systematic study designs have provided robust data with an attempt to optimize the treatment regimens including the choice of the agent and timing of therapy. However, due to a number of challenges in the management of DME with approved agents, further studies are needed. For the purpose of this review, an extensive database search in English language was performed to identify prospective, RCTs testing pharmacological agents for DME. In order to acquaint the reader with the most relevant data from these clinical trials, this review focuses on pharmacological agents that are currently approved or have widespread applications in the management of DME. An update on clinical trials presently underway for DME has also been provided.

  20. Acute Pulmonary Edema in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Niafar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDyspnea refers to difficulty in breathing, and short and shallow breaths. This sign is seen in numerous diseases due to pulmonary, cardiac, metabolic and neurological causes. Among cardiac causes, heart failure is considered the main cause of dyspnea.Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome associated with a set of symptoms (dyspnea, and fatigue and signs (edema and rales. Common causes of cardiac failure include: myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathy. Among uncommon causes of heart failure, endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome can be cited. Cushing’s syndrome can present itself in less common forms such as dyspnea due to heart failure. Cushing’s syndrome’s cardiovascular complications usually occur due to hypertension, end organ damage such as left ventricular heart failure, diastolic and ischemic myocardial heart failure, which are rather seen in chronic cases of the disease and are often irreversible.Transient heart failure in patients with Cushing’s syndrome, due to adrenal adenoma, has been reported in a number of patients. In this case report, a patient is introduced who presented to emergency department with severe dyspnea (FC III, and was ultimately diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome after work up. Three months after treatment of Cushing’s syndrome, dramatic improvement was observed in this patient’s cardiac function.

  1. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by passive immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Thomsen, L.K.;

    2000-01-01

    The effect of treatment with verotoxin 2e (VT2e) specific antiserum was evaluated in 3 Danish pig herds with edema disease (ED). The antiserum was prepared by immunizing horses with a VT2e toroid. The study was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and control groups....... There were approximately 50 piglets in each group in each of the 3 herds and 741 piglets were included in the study (244 from herd A, 249 from herd B, and 247 from herd C). Treatment groups received 2, 4, or 6 mt anti-VT2e serum intramuscularly the day before weaning. Control groups were treated with 6 mt....... As there was no mortality due to ED, herd B was excluded from statistical calculations on mortality. The content of horse antibodies specific to VT2e in serum from pigs was analyzed in an indirect ELISA. A higher dose of anti-VT2e serum was reflected in higher optical density values in the indirect ELISA. Transient adverse...

  2. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  3. Hospitalized cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Khoa Bao-Anh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes stem from chronic hyperglycemia and are thought to have overlapping pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of hospitalized myocardial infarctions (MI and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME compared with diabetic patients without retinal diseases. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of a commercially insured population in an administrative claims database. DME subjects (n = 3519 and diabetes controls without retinal disease (n = 10557 were matched by age and gender. Healthcare claims were analyzed for the study period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2005. Incidence and adjusted rate ratios of hospitalized MI and CVA events were then calculated. Results The adjusted rate ratio for MI was 2.50 (95% CI: 1.83-3.41, p  Conclusion Event rates of MI or CVA were higher in patients with DME than in diabetes controls. This study is one of few with sufficient sample size to accurately estimate the relationship between DME and cardiovascular outcomes.

  4. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated threonine 435 phosphorylation of p65 nuclear factor-κB subunit in endothelial cells induces vasogenic edema and neutrophil infiltration in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ji-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Status epilepticus (SE induces severe vasogenic edema in the piriform cortex (PC accompanied by neuronal and astroglial damages. To elucidate the mechanism of SE-induced vasogenic edema, we investigated the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption during vasogenic edema and its related events in rat epilepsy models provoked by pilocarpine-induced SE. Methods SE was induced by pilocarpine in rats that were intracerebroventricularly infused with saline-, and soluble TNF p55 receptor (sTNFp55R prior to SE induction. Thereafter, we performed Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemical studies for TNF-α and NF-κB subunits. Results Following SE, most activated microglia showed strong TNF-α immunoreactivity. In addition, TNF p75 receptor expression was detected in endothelial cells as well as astrocytes. In addition, only p65-Thr435 phosphorylation was increased in endothelial cells accompanied by SMI-71 expression (an endothelial barrier antigen. Neutralization of TNF-α by soluble TNF p55 receptor (sTNFp55R infusion attenuated SE-induced vasogenic edema and neuronal damages via inhibition of p65-Thr435 phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Furthermore, sTNFp55R infusion reduced SE-induced neutrophil infiltration in the PC. Conclusion These findings suggest that impairments of endothelial cell functions via TNF-α-mediated p65-Thr 485 NF-κB phosphorylation may be involved in SE-induced vasogenic edema. Subsequently, vasogenic edema results in extensive neutrophil infiltration and neuronal-astroglial loss.

  6. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellers, Patrick; Grewal, Dilraj S; Fekrat, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema, and the visual outcomes of these eyes are better than ever. However, a variety of available treatment options including intravitreal corticosteroids and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have established novel challenges with regard to appropriate drug selection. This review summarizes the available clinical studies with special emphasis on the comparison of intravitreal aflibercept with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and steroid agents. PMID:27022238

  7. Loss of wwox expression in zebrafish embryos causes edema and alters Ca2+ dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuruwaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (wwox gene in the embryonic development of zebrafish, with particular emphasis on intracellular Ca2+ dynamics because Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger. Comparisons between zebrafish wwox and human WWOX sequences identified highly conserved domain structures. wwox was expressed in developing heart tissues in the zebrafish embryo. Moreover, wwox knockdown induced pericardial edema with similarities to conditions observed in human breast cancer. The wwox knockdown embryos with the edema died within a week. High Ca2+ levels were observed at the boundary between the edema and yolk in wwox knockdown embryos.

  8. Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema: Principles and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedantham Vasumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is fast emerging as a leading cause of newly diagnosed legal blindness amongst the working population. Macular edema, as it is commoner, accounts for more vision impairment than neovascular proliferation in diabetic patients. Laser photocoagulation, which is the standard treatment of macular edema, is associated with significant complications and an improvement in visual acuity is unsatisfactory. Intravitreal injection of corticosteroids (especially triamcinolone acetonide is an emerging treatment modality in the management of diabetic macular edema. This article presents an overview of the principles, technique and complications associated with this procedure.

  9. Bilateral and simultaneous cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost use: report of two cases Edema macular cistóide bilateral e simultâneo associado com o uso de latanoprost: relato de dois casos

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Ferreira Moura Brasil; Maria Vitoria Moura Brasil; Marcelo Palis Ventura; Hugo Soares Maia

    2010-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema is an uncommon, but well known, side effect of latanoprost. Two cases of bilateral and simultaneous cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost use are described, which complete resolution of the edema is observed upon drug discontinuation.O edema macular cistóide é um efeito colateral incomum, porém bem conhecido, do latanoprost. São descritos dois casos de edema macular cistóide bilateral e simultâneo associado ao uso de latanoprost, em que foi observada completa...

  10. Costs and Quality of Life in Diabetic Macular Edema: Canadian Burden of Diabetic Macular Edema Observational Study (C-REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Gonder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To characterize the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic macular edema (DME in Canadian patients. Patients and Methods. 145 patients with DME were followed for 6 months with monthly telephone interviews and medical chart reviews at months 0, 3, and 6. Visual acuity in the worst-seeing eye was assessed at months 0 and 6. DME-related healthcare costs were determined over 6 months, and vision-related (National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire and generic (EQ-5D quality of life was assessed at months 0, 3, and 6. Results. Mean age of patients was 63.7 years: 52% were male and 72% had bilateral DME. At baseline, visual acuity was categorized as normal/mild loss for 63.4% of patients, moderate loss for 10.4%, and severe loss/nearly blind for 26.2%. Mean 6-month DME-related costs/patient were as follows: all patients (n=135, $2,092; normal/mild loss (n=88, $1,776; moderate loss (n=13, $1,845; and severe loss/nearly blind (n=34, $3,007. Composite scores for vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity loss; generic quality of life scores were highest for moderate loss and lowest for severe loss/nearly blind. Conclusions. DME-related costs in the Canadian healthcare system are substantial. Costs increased and vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity severity.

  11. Edema pulmonar por presión negativa: a propósito de 3 casos Negative pressure pulmonary edema: 3 cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ortiz-Gómez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El edema agudo pulmonar por presión negativa es una complicación descrita desde 1977 tras la obstrucción de la vía aérea respiratoria, tanto en niños como en adultos. Aunque su etiopatogenia es multifactorial, destaca especialmente la excesiva presión intratorácica negativa causada por la inspiración forzada espontánea de un paciente con la glotis cerrada, que resulta en trasudación de líquido de los capilares pulmonares hacia el espacio alveolointersticial. El edema pulmonar resultante puede aparecer en pocos minutos tras la obstrucción de la vía aérea o de forma diferida al cabo de varias horas. Este cuadro clínico es potencialmente grave, pero habitualmente responde bien al tratamiento con oxigenoterapia, ventilación mecánica a presión positiva y diuréticos. Es importante el diagnóstico de sospecha para adecuar el tratamiento con presteza. Presentamos nuestra experiencia en 3 casos clínicos con edema agudo pulmonar por presión negativa.Negative pressure pulmonary edema is a complication, described since 1977, caused by upper airway obstruction in both children and adults. Although its aetiopathogeny is multifactorial, especially outstanding is excessive negative intrathoracic pressure caused by the forced spontaneous inspiration of a patient against a closed glottis, that causes high arteriole and capillary fluid pressures that favor transudation into the alveolar space The resulting pulmonary edema can appear a few minutes after the obstruction of the airway or in a deferred way after several hours. The clinical manifestations are potentially serious, but normally respond well to treatment with supplemental oxygen, positive pressure mechanical ventilation and diuretics. Diagnostic suspicion is important for acting promptly. We report three clinical cases with acute negative pressure pulmonary edema.

  12. Edema pulmonar hidrostático: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: high-resolution computed tomography aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Maria Cunha Ribeiro; Edson Marchiori; Rosana Rodrigues; Emerson Gasparetto; Arthur Soares de Souza Júnior; Dante Escuissato; Luiz Felipe Nobre; Gláucia Zanetti; César de Araujo Neto; Klaus Irion

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi caracterizar por meio de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax as principais alterações pulmonares do edema pulmonar hidrostático. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, as tomografias de quinze pacientes com quadro clínico de edema pulmonar hidrostático, divididos em cinco principais grupos etiológicos: insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, valvulopatia mitral aguda, infarto agudo do miocárdio, miocardite e mediastinite fibrosante, t...

  13. Edema pulmonar por presión negativa: a propósito de 3 casos Negative pressure pulmonary edema: 3 cases report

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Ortiz-Gómez; I. Plaja-Marti; F. Sos-Ortigosa; J.J. Pérez-Cajaraville; M. A. Arteche-Andrés; Bengoechea, C.; J. Lobo-Palanco; M. Ahmad-Al-Ghool

    2006-01-01

    El edema agudo pulmonar por presión negativa es una complicación descrita desde 1977 tras la obstrucción de la vía aérea respiratoria, tanto en niños como en adultos. Aunque su etiopatogenia es multifactorial, destaca especialmente la excesiva presión intratorácica negativa causada por la inspiración forzada espontánea de un paciente con la glotis cerrada, que resulta en trasudación de líquido de los capilares pulmonares hacia el espacio alveolointersticial. El edema pulmonar resultante puede...

  14. Albumin and Furosemide Combination for Management of Edema in Nephrotic Syndrome: A Review of Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Duffy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of edema in patients with nephrotic syndrome is generally managed by dietary sodium restriction and loop diuretics. However, edema does not improve in some patients despite adequate sodium restriction and maximal dose of diuretics. In such patients, combination of albumin and a loop diuretic may improve edema by diuresis and natriuresis. The response to this combination of albumin and a diuretic has not been observed in all studies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the physiology of diuresis and natriuresis of this combination therapy, and provide a brief summary of various studies that have used albumin and a loop diuretic to improve diuretic-resistant edema. Also, the review suggests various reasons for not observing similar results by various investigators.

  15. Etiology and treatment of the inflammatory causes of cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung; Madu, Assumpta

    2009-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema in its various forms can be considered one of the leading causes of central vision loss in the developed world. It occurs in a wide variety of pathologic conditions and represents the final common pathway of several basic processes. Therapeutic approaches to cystoid macular edema depend on a clear understanding of its contributing pathophysiologic mechanisms. This review will discuss the mechanism of ocular inflammation in cystoid macular edema with a particular focus on the inflammatory causes: post-operative, uveitic, and after laser procedures. A variety of pharmacologic agents targeting inflammatory molecules have been shown to reduce macular edema and improve visual function. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of most new therapies have yet to be established in controlled clinical trials.

  16. Etiology and treatment of the inflammatory causes of cystoid macular edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung; Madu, Assumpta

    2009-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema in its various forms can be considered one of the leading causes of central vision loss in the developed world. It occurs in a wide variety of pathologic conditions and represents the final common pathway of several basic processes. Therapeutic approaches to cystoid macular edema depend on a clear understanding of its contributing pathophysiologic mechanisms. This review will discuss the mechanism of ocular inflammation in cystoid macular edema with a particular focus on the inflammatory causes: post-operative, uveitic, and after laser procedures. A variety of pharmacologic agents targeting inflammatory molecules have been shown to reduce macular edema and improve visual function. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of most new therapies have yet to be established in controlled clinical trials. PMID:22096351

  17. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, which progressed to a fatal outcome; and the other case developed mild cerebral edema with a satisfactory evolution. The pathophysiology of this complication is not well known and probably is the consequence of hypoxia, secondary to respiratory failure, laryngospasm and seizures that are manifestations of envenomation by scorpion sting.

  18. Gabapentin induces edema, hyperesthesia and scaling in a depressed patient; a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bidaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a common drug used as analgesic and anticonvulsant and also is prescribed for insomnia, depression, obsessive - compulsive disorder and panic attack. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who is prescribed gabapentin because of insomnia, headache, and depressed mood. In the first period of using the drug no complication has been seen. However in the next period, side-effects such as hyperesthesia, scaling and severe localized edema has been observed. After several laboratory tests and imaging, no reason was found for his edema. And after discontinuing gabapentin the pain and edema was quite relieved. We found out the brand of the drug has been switched in the second stage. The point which makes our study special is the incidence of side-effects such as severe edema, scaling and hyperesthesia for the first time because of using gabapentin and changing the drug combination.

  19. Gabapentin induces edema, hyperesthesia and scaling in a depressed patient; a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaki, Reza; Sadeghi, Zahra; Shafizadegan, Safiye; Sadeghi, Ali; Khalili, Behrang; Haghshenas, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy

    2016-01-01

    Gabapentin is a common drug used as analgesic and anticonvulsant and also is prescribed for insomnia, depression, obsessive - compulsive disorder and panic attack. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who is prescribed gabapentin because of insomnia, headache, and depressed mood. In the first period of using the drug no complication has been seen. However in the next period, side-effects such as hyperesthesia, scaling and severe localized edema has been observed. After several laboratory tests and imaging, no reason was found for his edema. And after discontinuing gabapentin the pain and edema was quite relieved. We found out the brand of the drug has been switched in the second stage. The point which makes our study special is the incidence of side-effects such as severe edema, scaling and hyperesthesia for the first time because of using gabapentin and changing the drug combination. PMID:26955622

  20. Subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema:A clinical observation of 12 cases in Yushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuzhi; Zheng Bihai; Wu Tianyi; Chen Huixing; Zhang Ming

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a high incidence of acute high altitude illness was observed in the mountain rescuers,and 0.73 % of these patients suffered from high altitude pulmonary edema,of which 12 patients developed subclinical pulmonary edema and concomitantly contracted acute mountain sickness.Symptoms and signs were atypically high heart rate with high respiratory rate,striking cyanosis,and significantly low oxygen saturation,whereas no moist rates were heard on auscultation,and Chest X-ray showed peripheral with a patchy distribution of mottled infiltrations in one or both lung fields.We believe that subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema is an earliest stage of pulmonary edema at high altitude.The possible pathogenesis and the diagnosis were discussed.

  1. 神经源性肺水肿%Neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙若鹏; 赵翠芬

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a type of pulmonary edema that occurs secondary to central nervous sytem (CNS) damage, namely centrogenic pulmonary edema or cerebrogenic pulmonary edema[1,2] NPE is clinically characterized by acute dyspnea and progressive hypoxemia, while tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea are only nonspecific symptoms in early phase. Early diagnosis of NPE is difficult since chest X-ray shows no remarkable sign or only increased hazy lung markings in early stage[3]. Diagnosis can be made definitely in the late stage of NPE according to the following manifestation : paleness, clamminess, feeling of impending death, rales, frothy pink sputum, hypoxemia and bilateral widespread infiltration on chest roentgenography. However, successful rescue rate is very low and mortality rate could reach as high as 90% at this stage[4-6].

  2. Aquaporin 9 in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9 in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: Brain water content (BWC, tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC, immunofluorescence (IF, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS: The BWC reached the first and second (highest peaks at 6 and 72 hours, and the blood brain barrier (BBB was severely destroyed at six hours after the TBI. The worst brain ischemia occurred at 72 hours after TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes and neurons in the hypothalamus were detected by means of IHC and IF after TBI. The abundance of AQP9 and its mRNA increased after TBI and reached two peaks at 6 and 72 hours, respectively, after TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Increased AQP9 might contribute to clearance of excess water and lactate in the early stage of TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes might help lactate move into neurons and result in cellular brain edema in the later stage of TBI. AQP9-positive neurons suggest that AQP9 plays a role in energy balance after TBI.

  3. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaou Marinos; Stamenković Srđan; Stergiou Christos; Skarleas Christos; Torrens Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Case Outline. A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan during the work-up...

  4. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jindou Jiang; Xingyao Bu; Meng Liu; Peixun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Results from the present study demonstrated that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the lesion site in rat brain significantly ameliorated brain tissue pathological changes and brain edema, attenuated glial cell proliferation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. In addition, the number of cells double-labeled for 5-bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein and cells expressing nestin increased. Finally, blood vessels were newly generated, and the rats exhibited improved motor and cognitive functions. These results suggested that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promoted brain remodeling and improved neurological functions following traumatic brain injury.

  5. Severe Macular Edema in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Related Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paroli

    2013-01-01

    unilateral macular edema. OCT revealed massive macular thickening (range from 550 μm to 1214 μm. Conclusions. Macular edema appeared in female adolescent patients in eyes with long-dating CAU submitted to cataract surgery. In such patients, in presence of age-related microvascular changes due to the enhancer effect of sex hormones, cataract extraction should be a factor triggering the retinal complication.

  6. Negative pressure pulmonary edema with laryngeal mask airway use: Recognition, pathophysiology and treatment modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vandse, Rashmi; Kothari, Deven S; Tripathi, Ravi S; Lopez, Luis; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.A.; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an uncommon and under-reported event. We present a case of a 58-year-old male, who developed NPPE following LMA use. After biting vigorously on his LMA, the patient developed stridor upon emergence, with concurrent appearance of blood-tinged, frothy sputum and pulmonary edema. He subsequently required three days of mechanical ventilation. After discontinuation of mechanical ventilation the patient...

  7. Ipsilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema after drainage of a spontaneous pneumothorax: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Conen Anna; Joos Ladina; Bingisser Roland

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of ipsilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema occurring after the insertion of a chest tube in a patient with spontaneous pneumothorax. The patient received supplemental oxygen via a non-rebreather face mask to compensate for hypoxemia. 24 hours after the acute event, the patient recovered completely without residual hypoxemia. Reexpansion pulmonary edema after the insertion of a thoracic drainage for pneumothorax or pleural effusion is a rare complication with a high m...

  8. [Volumetric verification of edema protection with Serrapeptase after third molar osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, H A; Müller, K; Drubel, F; Halling, F

    1991-01-01

    Preventive edema protection using Serrapeptase after standardized one-stage osteotomy procedures of 4 third molars was verified by means of an opto-electronic measuring instrument. This measuring technique proved to be a sensitive tool for demonstrating the efficacy of Serrapeptase in reducing postoperative edema. Although statistically significant, the reduction of soft tissue swelling was only approximately 15% when compared with a patient group without Serrapeptase medication.

  9. Src blockade stabilizes a Flk/cadherin complex, reducing edema and tissue injury following myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, Sara; Shintani, Satoshi; Weber, Alberto; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Wood, Malcolm; Cravens, Adrianna; McSharry, Heather; Iwakura, Atsushi; Yoon, Young-Sup; Himes, Nathan; Burstein, Deborah; Doukas, John; Soll, Richard; Losordo, Douglas; Cheresh, David

    2004-01-01

    Ischemia resulting from myocardial infarction (MI) promotes VEGF expression, leading to vascular permeability (VP) and edema, a process that we show here contributes to tissue injury throughout the ventricle. This permeability/edema can be assessed noninvasively by MRI and can be observed at the ultrastructural level as gaps between adjacent endothelial cells. Many of these gaps contain activated platelets adhering to exposed basement membrane, reducing vessel patency. Following MI, genetic o...

  10. Flash pulmonary edema in patients with renal artery stenosis--the Pickering Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelta, Anna; Andersen, Ulrik B; Just, Sven;

    2010-01-01

    We report the prevalence of flash pulmonary edema in patients consecutively referred for balloon angioplasty of uni- or bilateral renal artery stenosis (PTRA), and describe the characteristics of this special fraction of the patients. We further report two unusual cases.......We report the prevalence of flash pulmonary edema in patients consecutively referred for balloon angioplasty of uni- or bilateral renal artery stenosis (PTRA), and describe the characteristics of this special fraction of the patients. We further report two unusual cases....

  11. Longstanding refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema resolved using intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Troels; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Halborg, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    Refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following cataract surgery has long posed a challenge to clinicians, but intravitreal injections with a sustained delivery 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant has emerged as a promising therapy for this condition.......Refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following cataract surgery has long posed a challenge to clinicians, but intravitreal injections with a sustained delivery 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant has emerged as a promising therapy for this condition....

  12. Post extubation negative pressure pulmonary edema due to posterior mediastinal cyst in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Prakash Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A 3-month-old male child underwent uneventful inguinal herniotomy under general anesthesia. After extubation, airway obstruction followed by pulmonary edema appeared for which the baby was reintubated and ventilated. The baby made a complete recovery and extubated after about 2 h. A post-operative computed tomography scan revealed a posterior mediastinal cystic mass abutting the tracheal bifurcation. Presumably, extrinsic compression by the mass on the tracheal bifurcation led to the development of negative pressure pulmonary edema.

  13. Newly expressed SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel mediates cerebral edema after ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Simard, J. Marc; Chen, Mingkui; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Bhatta, Sergei; Ivanova, Svetlana; Melnitchenko, Ludmila; Tsymbalyuk, Natalya; West, G. Alexander; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2006-01-01

    Pathological conditions in the central nervous system, including stroke and trauma, are often exacerbated by cerebral edema. We recently identified a nonselective cation channel, the NCCa-ATP channel, in ischemic astrocytes that is regulated by sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), is opened by depletion of ATP and, when opened, causes cytotoxic edema. Here, we evaluated involvement of this channel in rodent models of stroke. SUR1 protein and mRNA were newly expressed in ischemic neurons, astrocyte...

  14. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema in an Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Atul; Sinha Subijay

    2007-01-01

    Background: To report the anatomic and visual acuity response after intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema. Design: Prospective, interventional case series study. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 eyes of metabolically stable diabetes mellitus with diffuse diabetic macular edema with a mean age of 59 years who were treated with two intravitreal injections of bevacizumab 1.25 mg in 0.05 ml six weeks apart. Main outcome measures were ...

  15. Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema after Amlodipine Overdose without Refractory Hypotension and Bradycardia

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    M. Hedaiaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine overdose can be life-threatening when manifesting as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment remains challenging. We describe a case of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema without refractory hypotension and bradycardia after ingestion of 500 milligram amlodipine with suicidal intent. Mechanical ventilation, dexamethasone, atrovent HFA (ipratropium, pulmicort inhalation, and antibiotic therapy were used for the management. Length of hospital stay was 11 days. The patient was discharged with full recovery.

  16. Edema na hanseníase: aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos Edema in leprosy: clinical and therapeutical aspects

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    Attilio Valentini

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante o curso da hanseníase, o edema comumente descrito como um sintoma de estados reacionais, pode ocorrer. Tanto o diagnóstico como a terapêutica adequada são, freqüentemente, difíceis de conseguir e assim podem acarretar permanente dano aos membros inferiores. Em um ano de acompanhamento, pacientes hansenianos - 10 multibacilares e 1 paucibacilar -, que foram submetidos a um protocolo clínico para o diagnóstico e classificação histopatológica, apresentaram clinicamente edema, localizado ou sistêmico. Entre estes pacientes, cinco apresentaram simultaneamente outros sintomas de reação, 4 foram classificados como reação Tipo I e um como reação tipo II. Por outro lado, três pacientes não apresentaram reação no momento do diagnóstico, mas desenvolveram alguns aspectos de reação posteriormente (2 tiveram neurite e um teve reação tipo I. Os edemas observados precedendo ou associados a quadros reacionais apresentaram ótima resposta clínica às drogas de ação anti-inflamatória (corticóide, talidomida e pentoxifilina utilizadas para o tratamento dos estados reacionais, na ausência de qualquer outro tratamento normalmente usado para edema. Embora necessitem ser confirmados por estudos controlados, estes dados sugerem fortemente que mecanismos imunológicos estejam envolvidos na fisiopatologia dos edemas na hanseníase.Edema, which is commonly described as a symptom of reactional states, may occur during the course of leprosy. Both diagnosis and adequate treatment measures are often difficult to achieve and failure to do so may result in permanent damage to the lower limbs. In a one-year follow-up study of leprosy patients - ten multibacillary and one paucibacillary - who had been submitted to a clinical protocol for diagnosis and pathological classification, a clinical pattern of localized and/or systemic edema was observed. Among these patients, five simultaneously presented other symptoms related to reactional

  17. Lesões organofuncionais do tipo nódulos, pólipos e edema de Reinke Organic and functional lesions: nodules, polyps and Reinke's edema

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    Carla Aparecida Cielo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: lesões organofuncionais são formações benignas decorrentes de comportamento vocal alterado e inadequado, sendo as mais comuns: nódulos, pólipos vocais e edema de Reinke. OBJETIVO: realizar um estudo comparativo dos dados descritos na literatura sobre prega vocal normal e afecções organofuncionais do tipo nódulos, pólipos e edema de Reinke. O estudo foi realizado por meio de um levantamento bibliográfico em periódicos indexados no Science Direct, periódicos Capes, LILACS, SciELO, MedLine e Scopus e livros, no período de 1999 a 2010. CONCLUSÃO: a distribuição dos constituintes da matriz extracelular da lâmina própria lw32da mucosa, fibras elásticas, colágenas, ácido hialurônico e fibronectina, encontra-se alterada nas três afecções. Ocorre modificação das características vibratórias de amplitude, propagação da onda de mucosa e simetria do padrão vibratório devido à presença do aumento de massa nas pregas vocais, ao contrário do que se observa nas pregas vocais sem afecção. O sinal perceptivo-auditivo da qualidade vocal encontrado nas três lesões é a rouquidão, seguida da soprosidade e da aspereza (exceção do edema de Reinke, sinalizando a presença de ruído acústico à emissão, estando presente também, no edema de Reinke, o agravamento considerável da frequência fundamental. Quanto à etiologia observou-se a predominância dos usos incorretos, e quanto à incidência, nódulos e edema de Reinke predominam no sexo feminino e pólipos no sexo masculino.BACKGROUND: vocal nodules, vocal polyps and Reinke's edema are the most common benign organic lesions resulting from vocal misuse or abuse. PURPOSE: to conduct a comparative study about the normal vocal folds and the benign organic lesions, nodules, polyps and Reinke's edema. The study was performed using a literature review in indexed journals at Science Direct, Capes, LILACS, SciELO, MedLine and Scopus and books from 1999 to 2010. CONCLUSION

  18. Strong topical steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor cocktail for treatment of cystoid macular edema

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    Asahi MG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Masumi G Asahi, Gabriela L Bobarnac Dogaru, Spencer M Onishi, Ron P GallemoreRetina Macula Institute, Torrance, CA, USA Purpose: To report the combination cocktail of strong steroid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops for treatment of cystoid macular edema. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients with cystoid macular edema managed with a topical combination of strong steroid (difluprednate, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops. The patients were followed with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Results: In our six cases, resolution of the cystic edema with improvement in visual acuity was achieved with the use of a combination cocktail of drops. Leakage on fluorescein angiography and cystic edema on optical coherence tomography both responded to treatment with the topical cocktail of drops. Conclusion: A topical cocktail of strong steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops are effective for managing cystoid macular edema. Further studies comparing this combination with more invasive treatments should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of this cocktail over other treatment options. Keywords: birdshot chorioretinopathy, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion

  19. An orally active TRPV4 channel blocker prevents and resolves pulmonary edema induced by heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneloe, Kevin S; Cheung, Mui; Bao, Weike; Alsaid, Hasan; Lenhard, Stephen; Jian, Ming-Yuan; Costell, Melissa; Maniscalco-Hauk, Kristeen; Krawiec, John A; Olzinski, Alan; Gordon, Earl; Lozinskaya, Irina; Elefante, Lou; Qin, Pu; Matasic, Daniel S; James, Chris; Tunstead, James; Donovan, Brian; Kallal, Lorena; Waszkiewicz, Anna; Vaidya, Kalindi; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Larkin, Jonathan; Burgert, Mark; Casillas, Linda N; Marquis, Robert W; Ye, Guosen; Eidam, Hilary S; Goodman, Krista B; Toomey, John R; Roethke, Theresa J; Jucker, Beat M; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Townsley, Mary I; Lepore, John J; Willette, Robert N

    2012-11-01

    Pulmonary edema resulting from high pulmonary venous pressure (PVP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients, but current treatment options demonstrate substantial limitations. Recent evidence from rodent lungs suggests that PVP-induced edema is driven by activation of pulmonary capillary endothelial transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels. To examine the therapeutic potential of this mechanism, we evaluated TRPV4 expression in human congestive HF lungs and developed small-molecule TRPV4 channel blockers for testing in animal models of HF. TRPV4 immunolabeling of human lung sections demonstrated expression of TRPV4 in the pulmonary vasculature that was enhanced in sections from HF patients compared to controls. GSK2193874 was identified as a selective, orally active TRPV4 blocker that inhibits Ca(2+) influx through recombinant TRPV4 channels and native endothelial TRPV4 currents. In isolated rodent and canine lungs, TRPV4 blockade prevented the increased vascular permeability and resultant pulmonary edema associated with elevated PVP. Furthermore, in both acute and chronic HF models, GSK2193874 pretreatment inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema and enhanced arterial oxygenation. Finally, GSK2193874 treatment resolved pulmonary edema already established by myocardial infarction in mice. These findings identify a crucial role for TRPV4 in the formation of HF-induced pulmonary edema and suggest that TRPV4 blockade is a potential therapeutic strategy for HF patients.

  20. Investigation of postural edema in the lower extremities of traffic control workers

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    Ana Paula Nunes Pereira Brito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of postural edema and investigate whether working posture - sitting down or standing up - affect its frequency. METHODS: Sixteen traffic control agents were assessed by water displacement volumetry and the results were analyzed in two groups, depending on working posture. Those who worked standing up for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SU group and those who worked sitting down for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SD group. Each worker was assessed before and after their working shift for three consecutive days. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the test of equality of two proportions. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. The assessment showed that members of both groups had postural edema of the lower extremities (p ≤ 0.001. RESULTS: When the frequency of postural edema was compared across groups, a trend was observed for greater edema formation in the SU group than in the SD group, although without statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that traffic control agents suffer postural edema after 4 hours working in either of the postures investigated although with a predominance of edema formation among those who work standing up.

  1. Arginine-Restricted Therapy Resistant Bilateral Macular Edema Associated with Gyrate Atrophy

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    Sibel Doguizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gyrate atrophy is a rare genetical metabolic disorder affecting vision. Here, we report a 9-year-old boy with gyrate atrophy associated with bilateral macular edema at the time of diagnosis and the effect of long term metabolic control on macular edema. Case Presentation. A 9-year-old boy presented with a complaint of low visual acuity (best corrected visual acuity: 20/80 in both eyes, refractive error: −12.00 D. Dilated fundus examination revealed multiple bilateral, sharply defined, and scalloped chorioretinal atrophy areas in the midperipheral and peripheral zone. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed bilateral cystoid macular edema in both eyes. Serum ornithine level was high (622 μmol/L. An arginine-restricted diet reduced serum ornithine level (55 μmol/L. However, visual findings including macular edema remained unchanged in 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion. Arginine-restricted diet did not improve macular edema in our patient with gyrate atrophy. A more comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors for macular edema will lead to the development of effective therapies.

  2. Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot: one year follow-up with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR findings of bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) of the foot and its evolution at 1 year follow-up.Design and patients Twenty-five of 32 patients with disabling foot and ankle pain unrelated to trauma diagnosed as BMES when MR imaging demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern in one or more bones without any radiological or underlying clinical cause, were re-evaluated by MR imaging 1 year later. On the initial MR examinations an average of 4.7 individual bones were involved by bone marrow edema. Soft tissue edema was present in every patient and joint effusion in 10 patients. MR imaging at 1 year showed resolution of bone edema in 18 patients (72%), partial improvement in five (20%) and no improvement in two (8%). Six patients (24%) developed similar symptoms in the other foot during follow-up. Ten of 17 available plain radiographs showed some loss of radiodensity. Further bone marrow edema developed in bones of the same foot that were initially normal, or in uninvolved distant bone marrow areas in the same affected bone, in six of seven patients on follow-up MR imaging. The evolution of the MR findings of BMES of the foot is to complete resolution or partial improvement at 1 year in the majority of cases. Migration to the other foot occurs in up to a quarter of patients. (orig.)

  3. Clinical correlates of the spectrum of lung microvascular injury in human noncardiac edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers measured the clearance from blood to pulmonary edema fluid of a small molecular researchersight hydrophilic radiotracer, Indium-111-DTPA (In-DTPA) and a larger molecular researchrsight radiotracer, Iodine-125-HSA (I-HSA), in patients with pulmonary edema on either a cardiac or noncardiac (permeability) basis. In previous investigations, researchers had noted an apparent relationship between the magnitude of clearance of I-HSA across the alveolocapillary membrane and the severity of noncardiac pulmonary edema. In this study, researchers were able to distinguish at least 2 distinct groups of patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema. Patients with the greatest damage to the alveolo-capillary exchanging membrane, defined by the flux of I-HSA from blood to edema fluid, were significantly differentiated from those with a lesser microvascular injury on the basis of higher mean heart rate (HR), temperature, cardiac index (CI), pulmonary artery pressures, right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), and a lower mean total white blood cell count (WBC), among others. Therefore, noncardiac pulmonary edema is characterized by a spectrum of permeability injury to the pulmonary microvasculature which seems to parallel other measurable indices of the severity of the systemic response to the illness

  4. Edema quantification by computerized morphometry as an evaluation parameter for the resistance of colon anastomoses

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    Priolli Denise Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This work had the objective of verifying the validity of using computerized morphometry as a method of quantitative analysis of the interference of edema in scar formation following colon anastomosis. METHODS: Forty-five adult female Wistar rats were utilized, divided into three groups of 15 animals according to whether sacrifice was performed on the first, second or seventh postoperative day. Each group was subdivided into a main group consisting of 10 animals, and a control group consisting of five animals. In the main group, in addition to the quantitative computerized morphometric analysis of the edema in the submucosal layer, the resistance of the colon anastomosis to bursting strength was verified. In the control group, edema quantification was studied alone. RESULTS: The results found via the computerized morphometry method showed that there is a 7% decrease in the presence of edema during the first postoperative week. They confirmed that there is an inverse statistically significant relationship (p< 0.001 between edema presence and the resistance of the anastomosis to bursting strength. CONCLUSION: The use of computerized morphometry is a reliable, fast, objective and low-cost methodology for the quantification of edema in colon anastomoses.

  5. Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot: one year follow-up with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Canton, Guillermo; Casado, Oscar; Capelastegui, Ana; Astigarraga, Elena; Larena, Jose Alejandro; Merino, Amaya [OSATEK, Unidades de Resonancia Magnetica, Dr. Areilza 12-16, 48011, Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    To describe the MR findings of bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) of the foot and its evolution at 1 year follow-up.Design and patients Twenty-five of 32 patients with disabling foot and ankle pain unrelated to trauma diagnosed as BMES when MR imaging demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern in one or more bones without any radiological or underlying clinical cause, were re-evaluated by MR imaging 1 year later. On the initial MR examinations an average of 4.7 individual bones were involved by bone marrow edema. Soft tissue edema was present in every patient and joint effusion in 10 patients. MR imaging at 1 year showed resolution of bone edema in 18 patients (72%), partial improvement in five (20%) and no improvement in two (8%). Six patients (24%) developed similar symptoms in the other foot during follow-up. Ten of 17 available plain radiographs showed some loss of radiodensity. Further bone marrow edema developed in bones of the same foot that were initially normal, or in uninvolved distant bone marrow areas in the same affected bone, in six of seven patients on follow-up MR imaging. The evolution of the MR findings of BMES of the foot is to complete resolution or partial improvement at 1 year in the majority of cases. Migration to the other foot occurs in up to a quarter of patients. (orig.)

  6. Environmental enrichment promotes neural remodeling in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjun Liu; Yankui Guo; Yalu Li; Zhenying Yang

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and treatment with early environmental enrichment intervention on development of newborn rats, as evaluated by light and electron microscopy and morphometry. Early intervention with environmental enrichment intelligence training attenuated brain edema and neuronal injury, promoted neuronal repair, and increased neuronal plasticity in the frontal lobe cortex of the newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  7. Asymmetric pulmonary edema after scorpion sting: a case report Edema pulmonar assimétrico após picada de escorpião: relato de caso

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    Ebrahim Razi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy was referred with acute asymmetric pulmonary edema (APE four-hour after scorpion sting to Emergency department. On admission, the main clinical manifestations were: dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Chest x-ray revealed APE predominantly on the right hemithorax. The patient was treated with oxygen, intravenous frusemide and digoxin and discharged on the sixth hospital day in a good condition. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of asymmetric pulmonary edema after severe scorpion envenomation within few hours immediately after the sting.Menino de 12 anos foi internado no Pronto Socorro, com edema pulmonar assimétrico agudo (APE, quatro horas após picada de escorpião. À admissão, as principais manifestações clínicas foram: dispnéa, taquipnéa e taquicardia. Raio X do pulmão revelou APE predominantemente no hemitórax direito. O paciente foi tratado com oxigênio, frusemida intravenosa e digoxina e teve alta no sexto dia de internação, em boas condições. Este relato de caso enfatiza a ocorrência de edema pulmonar assimétrico algumas horas após a picada.

  8. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

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    Andrea Bellone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  9. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by passive immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M; Andresen, L O; Thomsen, L K; Busch, M E; Wachmann, H; Jorsal, S E; Gyles, C L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of treatment with verotoxin 2e (VT2e) specific antiserum was evaluated in 3 Danish pig herds with edema disease (ED). The antiserum was prepared by immunizing horses with a VT2e toxoid. The study was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and control groups. There were approximately 50 piglets in each group in each of the 3 herds and 741 piglets were included in the study (244 from herd A, 249 from herd B, and 247 from herd C). Treatment groups received 2, 4, or 6 mL anti-VT2e serum intramuscularly the day before weaning. Control groups were treated with 6 mL normal horse serum or 6 mL RPMI 1640 medium as placebo. All pigs that died in the trial period (1 d before weaning to 44 d after weaning) were examined pathologically and microbiologically. Mortality due to ED, mortality due to other causes, and adverse effects due to treatment were recorded. As there was no mortality due to ED, herd B was excluded from statistical calculations on mortality. The content of horse antibodies specific to VT2e in serum from pigs was analyzed in an indirect ELISA. A higher dose of anti-VT2e serum was reflected in higher optical density values in the indirect ELISA. Transient adverse reactions, seen as vomiting, ataxia, and cyanosis, occurred shortly after the injection of horse serum in 1.5% of the pigs, and one pig died. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality due to other causes among the 3 treatment groups in herds A and C. Only pigs from which F18+, VT2e+, ST-, LT- hemolytic E. coli (0139 or O-rough) was isolated were diagnosed as dead due to ED. Deaths due to ED in the control groups were 8.1% and 12.0% in herds A and C, respectively, compared with 0% and 0.7% in the corresponding serum groups. The difference between treatment and control groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). It was not possible to establish an effect of dose (2, 4, or 6 mL) of anti-VT2e serum, because only one pig died of ED in the

  10. Persistent bone marrow edema after osteochondral autograft transplantation in the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan Franz [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Lazarettgasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at; Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Lazarettgasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Background and objective: The assessment of bone marrow edema-like signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients after osteochondral autograft transplantation (OCT) in the knee joint is a parameter of yet indefinite value. This study determines the prevalence of persistent edema-like signal intensity in OCT patients and evaluates the correlation between edema and morphological imaging findings of the graft and clinical pain symptoms. Materials and methods: In this longitudinal observational study, 10 patients after OCT were followed by MRI prospectively 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months post-operatively. All MR examinations were performed on a 1.0 T MR unit with the same protocol using a modified scoring system (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue-MOCART) for evaluation. Edema-like signal intensity in and beneath the osteochondral graft was assessed in its prevalence and graded using a coronal short tau inversion recovery fast spin echo (STIR-FSE) sequence: grade 1, normal; grade 2, moderate (diameter <2 cm); grade 3, severe (diameter >2 cm). The finding of edema-like signal intensity was correlated with graded parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue assessed in a sagittal dual FSE sequence including: (a) surface of repair tissue: grade 1, intact; grade 2, damaged. (b) Cartilage interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, incomplete. (c) Bone interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, delamination. The finding of edema-like signal intensity was also correlated with the KOOS pain score assessing knee pain after 12 months. Results: Initially, after 1 month the prevalence of edema-like signal intensity was 70% (7/10 patients) and finally after 24 months 60% (6/10 patients). We found no significant relationship between the prevalence and degree of edema-like signal intensity and parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue. Also the clinical pain score did not show significant

  11. Persistent bone marrow edema after osteochondral autograft transplantation in the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: The assessment of bone marrow edema-like signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients after osteochondral autograft transplantation (OCT) in the knee joint is a parameter of yet indefinite value. This study determines the prevalence of persistent edema-like signal intensity in OCT patients and evaluates the correlation between edema and morphological imaging findings of the graft and clinical pain symptoms. Materials and methods: In this longitudinal observational study, 10 patients after OCT were followed by MRI prospectively 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months post-operatively. All MR examinations were performed on a 1.0 T MR unit with the same protocol using a modified scoring system (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue-MOCART) for evaluation. Edema-like signal intensity in and beneath the osteochondral graft was assessed in its prevalence and graded using a coronal short tau inversion recovery fast spin echo (STIR-FSE) sequence: grade 1, normal; grade 2, moderate (diameter 2 cm). The finding of edema-like signal intensity was correlated with graded parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue assessed in a sagittal dual FSE sequence including: (a) surface of repair tissue: grade 1, intact; grade 2, damaged. (b) Cartilage interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, incomplete. (c) Bone interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, delamination. The finding of edema-like signal intensity was also correlated with the KOOS pain score assessing knee pain after 12 months. Results: Initially, after 1 month the prevalence of edema-like signal intensity was 70% (7/10 patients) and finally after 24 months 60% (6/10 patients). We found no significant relationship between the prevalence and degree of edema-like signal intensity and parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue. Also the clinical pain score did not show significant correlation with edema. Conclusion

  12. Relationship between AQP4 expression and structural damage to the blood-brain barrier at early stages of traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; LEI Xiao-yan; HU Hui; HE Zhan-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Although some studies have reported that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the brain edema after traumatic brain injury (TBI),little is known about the AQP4 expression in the early stage of TBI,or about the correlation between the structural damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and angioedema.The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship between AQP4 expression and damage to the BBB at early stages of TBI.Methods One hundred and twenty healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two greups:sham operation group (SO) and TBI group.The TBI group was divided into five sub-groups according to the different time intervals:1,3,6,12,and 24 hours.The brains of the animals were taken out at different time points after TBI to measure brain water content.The cerebral edema and BBB changes in structure were examined with an optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and the IgG content and AQP4 protein expression in traumatic brain tissue were determined by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0statistical software.Results In the SO greup,tissue was negative for IgG,and there were no abnormalities in brain water content or AQP4 expression.In the TBI group,brain water content significantly increased at 6 hours and peaked at 24 hours following injury.IgG expression significantly increased from 1 to 6 hours following injury,and remained at a high level at 24 hours.Pathological observation revealed BBB damage at 1 hour following injury.Angioedema appeared at 1 hour,was gradually aggravated,and became obvious at 6 hours.Intracellular edema occurred at 3 hours,with the presence of large glial cell bodies and mitochondrial swelling.These phenomena were aggravated with time and became obvious at 12 hours.In addition,microglial proliferation was visible at 24 hours.AQP4 protein expression were reduced at 1 hour,lowest at 6 hours,and began to increase at 12 hours

  13. Cerebrolysin reduces blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability change, brain pathology, and functional deficits following traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Johanson, Conrad E

    2010-06-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) induce profound breakdown of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers (BCSFB), brain pathology/edema, and sensory-motor disturbances. Because neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are neuroprotective in models of brain and spinal cord injuries, we hypothesized that a combination of neurotrophic factors would enhance neuroprotective efficacy. In the present investigation, we examined the effects of Cerebrolysin, a mixture of different neurotrophic factors (Ebewe Neuro Pharma, Austria) on the brain pathology and functional outcome in a rat model of TBI. TBI was produced under Equithesin (3 mL/kg, i.p.) anesthesia by making a longitudinal incision into the right parietal cerebral cortex. Untreated injured rats developed profound disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to proteins, edema/cell injury, and marked sensory-motor dysfunctions on rota-rod and grid-walking tests at 5 h TBI. Intracerebroventricular administration of Cerebrolysin (10 or 30 microL) either 5 min or 1 h after TBI significantly reduced leakage of Evans blue and radioiodine tracers across the BBB and BCSFB, and attenuated brain edema formation/neuronal damage in the cortex as well as underlying subcortical regions. Cerebrolysin-treated animals also had improved sensory-motor functions. However, administration of Cerebrolysin 2 h after TBI did not affect these parameters significantly. These observations in TBI demonstrate that early intervention with Cerebrolysin reduces BBB and BCSFB permeability changes, attenuates brain pathology and brain edema, and mitigates functional deficits. Taken together, our observations suggest that Cerebrolysin has potential therapeutic value in TBI.

  14. Heterogeneity of myocardial edema in isolated pig hearts after perfusion with different types of cardioprotective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahl, C F; Albers, J; Makabe, M H; Meinzer, H P; Ilg, M; Fu, X; Szabo, G; Mühling, J; Hagl, S

    1998-10-01

    The extent and distribution of myocardial edema induced by perfusion with cardioprotective solutions is of great interest. Domestic pig hearts (n = 12) were perfused in situ after aortic cross clamping either with Bretschneider's cardioplegic solution (HTK, 4 degrees C, n = 3), with a heparinized Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 30 mmol/L 2,3 Butanedionemonoxime (BDM, 4 degrees C, n = 3) or with heparinized pig blood (HPB, 24 degrees C, n = 3). After a three-hours storage period, magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) was carried out. The acquired T1-weighted data were used for the subsequent three-dimensional reconstruction based on the "Heidelberg ray-tracing technique". The small myocardial tissue blocks (n = 216) were excised from these hearts for dry weight measurements for 9 preselected regions in duplicate including ventricular papillary muscle, ventricular free wall, ventricular septum, apex, and atrial tissue. In control hearts (n = 3), dry weight was measured immediately after explantation (no MRI). The results of dry-weight measurements and three dimensional visualization were compared. Dry-weight measurements revealed that considerable myocardial edema is induced by any of the experimental procedures. The effects were most pronounced after BDM perfusion. Regardless how the edema was induced, there were significant differences of the water content within the heart: the water content in the heads of the papillary muscles and in the interventricular septum was always smaller than that of the free left- and right-ventricular walls. The heterogeneity of myocardial edema and its spatial distribution pattern could be qualitatively visualized. The experimental data (biophysical data and 3D visualization) clearly show a heterogeneity of myocardial edema induced by different types of cardioprotective solutions. As the presence of myocardial edema represents one of the crucial events in the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction occurring during myocardial

  15. Cyclosporin inhibits hyperalgesia and edema in arthritic rats: role of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Francischi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Since arthritis induced by Mycobacterium products (adjuvant in rats is considered to be immunologically driven, the objective of the present study was to determine if the immunosuppressor drug cyclosporin could affect hindpaw edema and joint hyperalgesia simultaneously. Female Holtzman rats (140-170 g presented hyperalgesia and edema on the 8th and 12th day following adjuvant injection. Daily systemic (oral or intramuscular administration of cyclosporin (0.5-5.0 mg kg-1 day-1 or dexamethasone (0.01-0.1 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days starting on day zero dose-dependently inhibited the hindpaw edema and hyperalgesia in arthritic rats. However, hyperalgesia but not edema could be detected two days after cyclosporin withdrawal. We concluded that a the continuous presence of cyclosporin is essential to reduce the development of joint hyperalgesia and that b different mechanisms underlie the appearance of hyperalgesia and edema in this model. The intracerebroventricular (icv administration of 5-50-fold smaller doses of cyclosporin (1.5-150 µg/day or dexamethasone (15 µg/day also reduced the arthritic hindpaw edema and hyperalgesia. Peripheral blood from animals injected with effective systemic cyclosporin doses showed detectable levels of the drug, whereas peripheral blood from those injected with icv cyclosporin did not, as measured by specific RIA. Our results indicate that cyclosporin administered by the central route is as effective as by the systemic route to reduce joint hyperalgesia and hindpaw edema in arthritic rats. The antiarthritic effect induced by low doses of cyclosporin in the central nervous system (CNS could be explored to avoid its often associated systemic side effects during chronic therapy. However, the mechanism(s involved in the antiarthritic response to cyclosporin in the CNS remain to be elucidated

  16. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  17. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  18. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  20. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  1. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  6. Differentiation of fat, muscle, and edema in thigh MRIs using random forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, William; Liu, Chia-Ying; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    There are many diseases that affect the distribution of muscles, including Duchenne and fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy among other myopathies. In these disease cases, it is important to quantify both the muscle and fat volumes to track the disease progression. There has also been evidence that abnormal signal intensity on the MR images, which often is an indication of edema or inflammation can be a good predictor for muscle deterioration. We present a fully-automated method that examines magnetic resonance (MR) images of the thigh and identifies the fat, muscle, and edema using a random forest classifier. First the thigh regions are automatically segmented using the T1 sequence. Then, inhomogeneity artifacts were corrected using the N3 technique. The T1 and STIR (short tau inverse recovery) images are then aligned using landmark based registration with the bone marrow. The normalized T1 and STIR intensity values are used to train the random forest. Once trained, the random forest can accurately classify the aforementioned classes. This method was evaluated on MR images of 9 patients. The precision values are 0.91+/-0.06, 0.98+/-0.01 and 0.50+/-0.29 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. The recall values are 0.95+/-0.02, 0.96+/-0.03 and 0.43+/-0.09 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing information from multiple MR sequences for the accurate quantification of fat, muscle and edema.

  7. Assessment of lung water by magnetic resonance in three types of pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitski, S; Steiner, R M; Wexler, H R; Rifkin, M

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary edema was produced in nine mongrel dogs by: (a) saline lavage; (b) intravenous injection of oleic acid; and (c) intravenous injection of propranolol followed by ureteral ligation. The resulting effect could be characterized by varying the protein concentration in the pulmonary edema fluid. After induction, all dogs were killed and 20 samples from each passively deflated lung were obtained. Proton T1 and T2 values were measured on a Praxis II NMR spectrometer operated at 10.7 MHz and 37 degrees C. The water content of all samples was determined gravimetrically. Correlation between T1 or T2 measured in vitro and the ratio of wet to dry weight was highly significant (r greater than 0.95, P less than 0.001) in each pathological state. Regression curves indicate that although all three types of pulmonary edema can be characterized by slightly different slopes, the differences are statistically insignificant. Moreover, the slopes of previous studies, when recast in the same format, are very similar to our findings despite the use of different magnetic field strengths and different animal models. This study indicates that quantitation of pulmonary edema is possible, but in vitro measurements do not give useful information for characterizing the etiology of pulmonary edema. PMID:3253274

  8. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellers P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Oellers,1,2 Dilraj S Grewal,1,2 Sharon Fekrat1,2 1Duke Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, 2Surgical Service, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema, and the visual outcomes of these eyes are better than ever. However, a variety of available treatment options including intravitreal corticosteroids and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have established novel challenges with regard to appropriate drug selection. This review summarizes the available clinical studies with special emphasis on the comparison of intravitreal aflibercept with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and steroid agents. Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, BRVO, macular edema, cystoid macular edema, grid-pattern laser photocoagulation, triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, pegaptanib, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  9. Ability of eugenol to reduce tongue edema induced by Dieffenbachia picta Schott in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dip, Etyene Castro; Pereira, Nuno Alvarez; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2004-05-01

    Dieffenbachia picta Schott (Araceae), known in Brazil as "comigo-ninguém-pode" is an ornamental plant with toxic properties. Its juice, when chewed, causes a painful edema of the oral mucous membranes, buccal ulcerations and tongue hypertrophy. This acute inflammation sometimes becomes severe enough to produce glottis obstruction, respiratory compromise and death. Eugenol (4-alil-2-metoxiphenol), the essential oil extracted from Caryophyllus aromaticus (Myrtaceae) is widely used in odontology. In this study, our objective was to standardize, in mice, a measurable methodology for the tongue edema induced by the topical application of the D. picta stem juice; evaluate the effects of eugenol in this model and compare the results with emergency treatment used in hospitals. Our results show that in spite of a small increase in edema a few minutes after administration, emergency treatment reduced by 70% the overall edema. When compared with the combination of the above drugs, eugenol, even at the smallest dose of 5 microg/kg, regardless of the chosen administration route, or the moment the treatment began, presents better results in the reduction and inhibition of the tongue edema induced by the D. picta juice.

  10. Aquaporin-1 Deficiency Protects Against Myocardial Infarction by Reducing Both Edema and Apoptosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihua; Weng, Zhiyong; Yao, Chenjuan; Song, Yuanlin; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have determined that AQP1 plays an important role in edema formation and resolution in various tissues via water transport across the cell membrane. The aim of this research was to determine both if and how AQP1 is associated with cardiac ischemic injury, particularly the development of edema following myocardial infarction (MI). AQP1+/+ and AQP1-/- mice were used to create the MI model. Under physiological conditions, AQP1-/- mice develop normally; however, in the setting of MI, they exhibit cardioprotective properties, as shown by reduced cardiac infarct size determined via NBT staining, improved cardiac function determined via left ventricular catheter measurements, decreased AQP1-dependent myocardial edema determined via water content assays, and decreased apoptosis determined via TUNEL analysis. Cardiac ischemia caused by hypoxia secondary to AQP1 deficiency stabilized the expression of HIF-1α in endothelial cells and subsequently decreased microvascular permeability, resulting in the development of edema. The AQP1-dependent myocardial edema and apoptosis contributed to the development of MI. AQP1 deficiency protected cardiac function from ischemic injury following MI. Furthermore, AQP1 deficiency reduced microvascular permeability via the stabilization of HIF-1α levels in endothelial cells and decreased cellular apoptosis following MI. PMID:26348407

  11. Bilateral Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant for Retinitis Pigmentosa-Related Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Osman Saatci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral cystoid macular edema unresponsive to topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Case Report: A 36-year-old man with bilateral cystoid macular edema associated with retinitis pigmentosa that was unresponsive to topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors underwent bilateral 0.7-mg intravitreal dexamethasone implants two weeks apart. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed resolution of macular edema one week following each injection in both eyes and his visual acuity improved. However, macular edema recurred two months later in OS and three months later in OD. Second implant was considered for both eyes. No implant-related complication was experienced during the follow-up of seven months. Conclusion: Inflammatory process seems to play a role in retinitis pigmentosa. Intravitreal dexamethasone implant may offer retina specialists a therapeutic option especially in cases unresponsive to other treatment regimens in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa-related macular edema.

  12. Bone marrow edema pattern around the knee on magnetic resonance imaging excluding acute traumatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Lynne S; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very sensitive for the detection of marrow abnormalities. Bone marrow edema on MRI has been defined as an area of low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, associated with intermediate or high signal intensity findings on T2-weighted images. The bone marrow edema pattern is a nonspecific finding with multiple etiologies. The knee is a common place for bone marrow signal abnormalities to appear on MRI. Besides contusions and fractures from acute trauma, there are a variety of other causes of the bone marrow edema pattern. It is important for the interpreter of the study to be aware of the different etiologies responsible for producing these changes and to be able to narrow the differential diagnosis without mistaking such a pattern for acute trauma or infiltrative tumor. This article concentrates on those entities that produce a bone marrow edema pattern not related to acute trauma including red marrow proliferation, stress, osteochondral lesions, osteonecrosis, bone marrow edema syndrome, arthropathy, infection, Paget's disease, and marrow replacement disorders. PMID:21644195

  13. Edema pulmonar hidrostático: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: high-resolution computed tomography aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Cunha Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi caracterizar por meio de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax as principais alterações pulmonares do edema pulmonar hidrostático. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, as tomografias de quinze pacientes com quadro clínico de edema pulmonar hidrostático, divididos em cinco principais grupos etiológicos: insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, valvulopatia mitral aguda, infarto agudo do miocárdio, miocardite e mediastinite fibrosante, tendo sido sete pacientes classificados no primeiro grupo e dois em cada um dos demais. RESULTADOS: Os principais achados do edema hidrostático foram opacidades em vidro fosco (100%, espessamento dos septos interlobulares (100%, derrame pleural (87% e espessamento do interstício peribroncovascular (80%. Outros achados menos comuns foram aumento do calibre dos vasos, consolidações e nódulos do espaço aéreo. CONCLUSÃO: O padrão predominante encontrado nos pacientes estudados foi o de opacidades em vidro fosco associadas a espessamento dos septos interlobulares (padrão de pavimentação em mosaico, com derrame pleural bilateral, predominante à direita.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest to characterize the principal alterations occurring in cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of the tomography scans of 15 patients presenting clinical profiles of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. The cases were divided into five groups by etiology: congestive heart failure (n = 7; acute mitral valve disease (n = 2; acute myocardial infarction (n = 2; myocarditis (n = 2; and fibrosing mediastinitis (n = 2. RESULTS: The principal findings in the cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema were ground-glass opacities (in 100%, interlobular septal thickening (in 100%, pleural effusion (in 87% and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (in 80%. Other, less common

  14. A different dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker in hypertensive patients who developed pedal edema on dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yüksel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCB are widely preferred for the treatment of hypertension for their efficacy, metabolic neutrality and low side effect profile. However pedal edema formation limits their usage. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the incidence of pedal edema formation with a different dihydropyridine CCB in hypertensive patients who developed pedal edema during a dihydropyridine CCB therapy. Method. Fifty-eight hypertensive patients (34 female, 24 male, mean age: 65.3±10.5 in whom pedal edema developed during treatment with a dihydropyridine CCB (amlodipine 10mg/day in 40 patients, amlodipine 5mg/day in 14 patients, nifedipine GITS 30mg/day in 4 patients were enrolled. CCB which caused pedal edema was withdrawn and a different CCB (felodipine or lacidipine were initiated after the resolution of the pedal edema. CCB therapy was continued as long as the patient tolerated pedal edema. Results. At the end of one year, 44 out of 58 patients (36 [81.8%] free of pedal edema, 8 [19.2%] with pedal edema continued CCB therapy. Eleven (37.9% patients in the felodipine group and 9 (31.0% patients in the lacidipine group developed pedal edema. In 7 patients in felodipine group and in 5 patients in the lacidipine group the study drug was withdrawn due to pedal edema. In two patients, study drug was withdrawn due to intractable headache (felodipine group or due to flushing (lacidipine group. Conclusion. A different group of dihydropyridine CCB be used as an alternative therapy for hypertension whenever pedal edema develops during treatment with a dihydropyridine CCB.

  15. Head computed tomographic measurement as a predictor of outcome in patients with subdural hematoma with cerebral edema

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Hitoshi; Morioka, Takasei; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to predict outcome in patients with cerebral edema is important because it can influence treatment strategy. We evaluated whether differences in head computed tomographic (CT) measurements in Hounsfield units (HU) of white matter and gray matter can be used as a predictor of outcome in patients with subdural hematoma with cerebral edema. Methods We evaluated 34 patients who had subdural hematoma with cerebral edema following acute closed head trauma and had undergone he...

  16. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keularts, Irene M L W; Leroy, Piet L J M; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M; Spaapen, Leo J M; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2010-12-01

    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and enzyme measurement (in one patient) excluded 3-PGDH deficiency. Deficiencies in other serine biosynthesis enzymes were highly unlikely on clinical grounds. On basis of the fasting state, ketone bodies and lactate in plasma, urine and CSF, we speculate that reduced serine levels were due to its use as gluconeogenic substrate, conversion to pyruvate by brain serine racemase or decreased L-serine production because of a lack of glucose. These are the first strikingly similar cases of patients with a clear secondary serine deficiency associated with a toxic encephalopathy.

  17. Volcano like pattern in optical coherence tomography in chronic diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sivakami A; Hussain, Nazimul; Hebri, Sudhira P; Lootah, Afra M; Dekhain, Moza A

    2014-04-01

    In this article we herein report an interesting vitreo-macular interface abnormality associated with chronic diabetic cystoid macular edema. It is an observational case study of three diabetic patients examined in the diabetic clinic. All the patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy with chronic macular edema. A serial cross sectional OCT examination and tracking of both the longitudinal progression of macular thickening and vitreo-macular interface revealed cystoid macular edema with a characteristic hyperreflective vitreous shadow emerging from the vitreofoveal interface. All the patients had dehiscence of inner retinal layers. This particular morphological feature at the vitreo-foveolar interface, which we name as "volcano sign", has not been described earlier. The probable mechanism of such a finding probably could be due to slow progressive leakage of chronic cytoid fluid into the vitreous with condensation of the overlying vitreous. Vitreo-macular traction followed by posterior vitreous detachment probably would have contributed to such a morphological event. PMID:24843311

  18. Ipsilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema after drainage of a spontaneous pneumothorax: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conen Anna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of ipsilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema occurring after the insertion of a chest tube in a patient with spontaneous pneumothorax. The patient received supplemental oxygen via a non-rebreather face mask to compensate for hypoxemia. 24 hours after the acute event, the patient recovered completely without residual hypoxemia. Reexpansion pulmonary edema after the insertion of a thoracic drainage for pneumothorax or pleural effusion is a rare complication with a high mortality rate up to 20%. It should be considered in case of hypoxemia following the insertion of a chest tube. The exact pathophysiology leading to this complication is not known. Risk factors for reexpansion pulmonary edema should be evaluated and considered prior to the insertion of chest tubes. Treatment is supportive.

  19. Association of Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting Edema, Polymyalgia Rheumatica, and Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Hess, Soeren; Gildberg-Mortensen, Rannveig;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare condition that occurs in elderly individuals. It can present alone or in association with various rheumatic or malignant diseases. CASE REPORT An 83-year-old man presented with anemia, hyper-sedimentation......BACKGROUND Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare condition that occurs in elderly individuals. It can present alone or in association with various rheumatic or malignant diseases. CASE REPORT An 83-year-old man presented with anemia, hyper......-sedimentation, and pitting edema of the back of the hands. The patient complained of pain and stiffness of the shoulder and hip girdles, especially in the morning. He was previously diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. After 3 years of watchful waiting, treatment with goserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone...

  20. One-year progression of diabetic subclinical macular edema in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the 1-year progression of retinal thickness (RT) increase occurring in eyes with subclinical macular edema in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-eight type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR; levels 20 and 35 in the Early Treatment...... Diabetic Retinopathy Study) classified as presenting subclinical macular edema at baseline completed the 1-year follow-up period, from a sample of 194 followed in a 12-month observational and prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145599). Automated segmentation of the retinal layers...... associated with increased thickening of other retinal layers aside from the INL. The microvascular disease activity shown by microaneurysm (MA) turnover ≥6 was associated with progression from subclinical to clinical macular edema. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in RT occurring over a period of 1 year in diabetic...

  1. Bilateral pulmonary edema after endoscopic sympathectomy in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C J; Luk, H N; Wu, C T; Chang, W K; Tsou, M Y; Lui, P W; Lee, T Y

    2001-01-01

    Transaxillary endoscopic sympathectomy of thoracic ganglia (T2-T3) has recently gained wider acceptance as the treatment of choice for palmar hyperhidrosis. It requires one-lung ventilation to facilitate the surgery. One-lung ventilation, however, is not without complications, among which acute pulmonary edema has been reported. In this case report, we present a patient with palmar hyperhidrosis complicated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, who received bilateral endoscopic sympathectomy under alternate one-lung anesthesia, and developed acute pulmonary edema immediately after recruitment of the successive collapsed lung. The effects of hypoxemia, G-6-PD deficiency and sympathectomy might all add to the development of acute pulmonary edema secondary to reexpansion of each individual lung after alternate one-lung ventilation. The possibilities of the inferred causes are herein discussed. PMID:11152024

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy Observation on Acupoint Sticking for Edema Due to Chronic Cardiac Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jia-li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of acupoint sticking with Chinese herbs for edema due to chronic cardiac failure. Methods: One hundred and seventy patients in conformity with the diagnostic criteria of edema due to chronic cardiac failure were randomly divided into two groups, 85 cases in each group. The observation group was treated by oral administration of diuretics plus acupoint sticking with Chinese herbs. The control group was treated just by oral administration of diuretics same as the observation group. The therapeutic effects were evaluated after continuous intervention for 14 d. Results: The total effective rate was 90.6% in the observation group, remarkably higher than 67.1% in the control group. The difference of overall therapeutic effect between the two groups was statistically significant (P Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of acupoint sticking with Chinese herbs plus oral administration of diuretics is better than simple oral administration of diuretics in treatment of edema due to chronic cardiac failure.

  3. Acupuncture plus Chinese Medicinal Fumigation and Washing for Edema of the Stroke-affected Limb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia. Methods: Two hundred patients with edema of the stroke-affected limb from our hospital were randomized into two groups according to their visiting sequence. In the observation group, 100 subjects were intervened by acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics, while the other 100 subjects in the control group were only given diuretics. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after successive 2-week treatments. Results: The total effective rate was 90.0% in the observation group, significantly higher than 66.0% in the control group, indicating that there was a significant difference in comparing the overall therapeutic effect (P Conclusion: Acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics is effective in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia.

  4. Generalized subcutaneous edema as a rare manifestation of dermatomyositis: clinical lesson from a rare feature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2011-04-01

    Generalized subcutaneous edema is a very rare manifestation of inflammatory myopathies. A 61-year-old woman presented with classic signs and symptoms of dermatomyositis. She was also noted to have generalized edema that was so florid that an alternative diagnosis was considered. Her disease was resistant to corticosteroids, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Intravenous administration of immunoglobulins was started because of marked worsening of her disease-muscle weakness, generalized anasarca, and involvement of her bulbar muscles. This led to dramatic resolution of her subcutaneous edema and significant improvement of her skin and muscle disease. As the initial screen for malignancy was negative, a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was requested, which interestingly showed a metabolically active cervical tumor. Anasarca is an unusual manifestation of dermatomyositis. In treatment-refractory cases, it seems reasonable to consider positron emission tomography scan in excluding underlying malignant disease.

  5. Influence of rotating magnetic field on cerebral infarction volume, cerebral edema and free radicals metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Liu; Zhiqiang Zhang; Lixin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that magnetic field can improve blood circulation, decrease blood viscosity, inhibit free radicals, affect Ca2+ flow in nerve cells, control inflammatory and immunological reaction, and accelerate nerve cell regeneration. In addition, protective effect of magnetic field, which acts as an iatrophysics, on ischemic brain tissues has been understood gradually.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on volume of cerebral infarction,cerebral edema and metabolism of free radicals in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Rehabilitation Center of disabled children, Liaoniang; Department of Rehabilitation, the Second Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University; Department of Rehabilitation Physiotherapy, the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 70 healthy Wistar rats aged 18-20 weeks of both genders were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group with 12 rats, control group with 20 rats and treatment group with 38 rats. The treatment group included 4 time points: immediate reperfusion with 6 ones, 6-hour reperfusion with 20 ones, 12-hour reperfusion with 6 ones and 18-hour reperfusion with 6 rats. Main instruments were detailed as follows: magnetic head of rotating magnetic device was 6 cm in diameter; magnetic induction intensity at the surface of magnetic head was 0.25 T in silence; the maximal magnetic induction intensity was 0.09 T at the phase of rotation; the average rotating speed was 2500 r per minute.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the China Medical University in March 2003. Focal cerebral ischemic animal models were established with modified Longa's method. Operation was the same in the sham operation, but the thread was inserted as 10 mm. Neurologic impairment was assessed with 5-rating method to screen out cases. Those survivals with grade 1 and grade 2 after ischemia for 2

  6. The prevalence of lumbar facet joint edema in patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to assess the prevalence of lumbar facet joint edema in patients with low back pain. Lumbar spine MR examinations (1.5 T) of 145 consecutive patients (87 women, 58 men; mean age 52.8, range 17-94 years) were retrospectively evaluated with regard to the presence of facet joint edema. The MR protocol included sagittal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), T1- and T2-weighted as well as transverse T2-weighted images. In 9 patients follow-up MR examinations were performed and results were compared with pain. The agreement between the change in intensity of facet joint edema and the change in intensity of pain was assessed using kappa statistics and Kendall's tau coefficient. In 21 of the 145 patients (14%) edema was found at the facet joints: in 52.4% at L4/5, in 19.0% at L5/S1, in 14.3% at L4/5 and L5/S1, in 9.5% at L3/4 and L4/5, and in 4.8% at L3/4. The agreement between the change in pain score and intensity of edema within the follow-up group was ''almost perfect'' (kappa = 0.81). Kendall's tau coefficient was 0.91, indicating high agreement. Sagittal STIR images detect facet joint edema in 14% of patients with low back pain. This fact may be useful for planning treatment including facet joint injections. (orig.)

  7. The prevalence of lumbar facet joint edema in patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Klaus M.; Pinker, Katja; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, Division of MSK, Department of Radiology, Center of Excellence for High Field MRI, Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan; Peloschek, Philipp; Weber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Division of MSK, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-08-15

    The objective was to assess the prevalence of lumbar facet joint edema in patients with low back pain. Lumbar spine MR examinations (1.5 T) of 145 consecutive patients (87 women, 58 men; mean age 52.8, range 17-94 years) were retrospectively evaluated with regard to the presence of facet joint edema. The MR protocol included sagittal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), T1- and T2-weighted as well as transverse T2-weighted images. In 9 patients follow-up MR examinations were performed and results were compared with pain. The agreement between the change in intensity of facet joint edema and the change in intensity of pain was assessed using kappa statistics and Kendall's tau coefficient. In 21 of the 145 patients (14%) edema was found at the facet joints: in 52.4% at L4/5, in 19.0% at L5/S1, in 14.3% at L4/5 and L5/S1, in 9.5% at L3/4 and L4/5, and in 4.8% at L3/4. The agreement between the change in pain score and intensity of edema within the follow-up group was ''almost perfect'' (kappa = 0.81). Kendall's tau coefficient was 0.91, indicating high agreement. Sagittal STIR images detect facet joint edema in 14% of patients with low back pain. This fact may be useful for planning treatment including facet joint injections. (orig.)

  8. Pharmacological Characterization of the Edema Caused by Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) Spider Venom in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-E-Silva, Thomaz A A; Linardi, Alessandra; Antunes, Edson; Hyslop, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bites by tarantulas (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) in humans can result in mild clinical manifestations such as local pain, erythema, and edema. Vitalius dubius is a medium-sized, nonaggressive theraphosid found in southeastern Brazil. In this work, we investigated the mediators involved in the plasma extravasation caused by V. dubius venom in rats. The venom caused dose-dependent (0.1-100 μg/site) edema in rat dorsal skin. This edema was significantly inhibited by ((S)1-{2-[3(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-iso-propoxyphenylacetyl)piperidine-3-yl]ethyl}-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octone, chloride) (SR140333, a neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist), indomethacin [a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor], cyproheptadine (a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine1/2 and histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). In contrast, mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist), D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Thi(5),D-Tic(7),Oic(8)-]-BK (JE 049, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist), and ((S)-N-methyl-N-[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-di-chlorophenyl)butyl]benzamide) (SR48968, a neurokinin NK2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability. In rat hind paws, the venom-induced edema was attenuated by ketoprofen (a nonselective COX inhibitor) administered 15 minutes postvenom. Preincubation of venom with commercial antiarachnid antivenom attenuated the venom-induced edema. These results suggest that the enhanced vascular permeability evoked by V. dubius venom involves serotonin, COX products, neurokinin NK1 receptors, and nitric oxide formation. The attenuation of hind paw edema by ketoprofen suggests that COX inhibitors could be useful in treating the local inflammatory response to bites by these spiders.

  9. Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: keitarosofue@yahoo.co.jp; Takeuchi, Yoshito, E-mail: yotake62@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro, E-mail: sugimura@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

  10. Edema pulmonar de altura: Modelo de estudio de la fisiopatología del edema pulmonar y de la hipertensión pulmonar hipóxica en humanos High altitude pulmonary edema: An experiment of Nature to study the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary edema in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Schwab; Pierre-Yves Jayet; Yves Allemann; Claudio Sartori; Urs Scherrer

    2007-01-01

    La altura, fascinante laboratorio natural de investigación médica, provee resultados con importantes implicancias para la comprensión de enfermedades que afectan a millones de personas que viven en ella, asi como para el tratamiento de enfermedades ligadas a la hipoxemia en pacientes que viven en baja altitud. El edema pulmonar de altura (EPA) es una entidad que pone en peligro la vida y que ocurre en sujetos predispuestos pero sanos. Esto permite estudiar los mecanismos subyacentes del edema...

  11. Funcionalidade e qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde em doentes com edema venoso

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Sara; Crisóstomo, Rute

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde em indivíduos com edema venoso por insuficiência venosa crónica nos membros inferiores. Relevância: Pretende-se perceber quais as consequências da insuficiência venosa crónica, de forma a melhorar a intervenção da Fisioterapia. Amostra: Participaram 50 indivíduos, 24 no Grupo Edema e 26 no Grupo Controlo. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, comparativo e correlacional, utilizando-...

  12. 水肿相关病名考%A Study about Relative Disease Names of Edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珊; 严季澜

    2016-01-01

    As one of the common clinical diseases,edema is named after symptoms in TCM. In ancient literature,relative disease names of edema include Shui,Shui Bing,Shui Zhang,Feng Shui,Pi Shui, Zheng Shui,Shi Shui,Yin Shui,Yang Shui,and so on. The names of edema in literature most are very simple. They name after syndrome,pathological factors,disease location and pathological factors,disease character and pathological factors,syndrome and pathological factors. With the development of the times,connotation of some disease names have changed. In order to comprehend and utilize ancient literature of TCM. This paper hackles relative disease names of edema in ancient literature,and make clear of the connotation and evolution of them. Nowadays we definite edema as the edema symptom of eyelid,face,arms and legs,abdomen and back or all body. While the disease with edema as main syndrome are classified as edema.%水肿是临床常见病证。关于水肿,在历代文献中又有水、水病、水胀、风水、皮水、正水、石水、阴水、阳水等相关名称。古代文献中病名多十分朴实,有单以病候命名者、以病理因素命名者、以病位和病理因素命名者、以病性和病理因素命名者、以病候特征和病理因素命名者、以病位和病候命名者、以病位和病候特征命名者等。随着时代的发展,一些相关名称的内涵也发生了变化。现今的水肿受西医诊断学的影响,定义为眼睑、头面、四肢、腹背或全身浮肿的症状,而以水肿为主症的疾病都为水肿病类。

  13. Early-stage hemangioblastoma presenting as a small lesion with significant edema in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Shen, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiong; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-03-01

    Hemangioblastomas are benign tumors that are frequently associated with peritumoral cysts; however, their early characteristics before cyst formation remain unclear. In this article, the authors present a novel case of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma presenting as a small solid lesion with significant edema. Surgery was performed to resect the tumor, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed complete excision of the mass and resolution of the cerebellar edema. Histological examination confirmed that the lesion was a hemangioblastoma. This is the only report in the literature to describe the imaging and histopathologic characteristics of an initial hemangioblastoma in the cerebellum. PMID:25699527

  14. Interventions for the treatment of uveitic macular edema: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rushmia Karim,1 Evripidis Sykakis,2 Susan Lightman,3 Samantha Fraser-Bell4 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Whipps Cross University Hospital, 3UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; 4University of Sydney, Clinical Ophthalmology and Eye Health, Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Uveitic macular edema is the major cause of reduced vision in eyes with uveitis. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of uveitic macular edema. Search strategy: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase. There were no language or data restrictions in the search for trials. The databases were last searched on December 1, 2011. Reference lists of included trials were searched. Archives of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, Retina, the British Journal of Ophthalmology, and the New England Journal of Medicine were searched for clinical trials and reviews. Selection criteria: Participants of any age and sex with any type of uveitic macular edema were included. Early, chronic, refractory, or secondary uveitic macular edema were included. We included trials that compared any interventions of any dose and duration, including comparison with another treatment, sham treatment, or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome data including adverse effects were collected. Conclusion: More results from randomized controlled trials with long follow-up periods are needed for interventions for uveitic macular edema to assist in determining the overall long-term benefit of different treatments. The only intervention with sufficiently robust randomized controlled trials for a meta-analysis was acetazolamide, which was shown to be ineffective in improving vision in eyes with uveitic

  15. Hemiretinal vein occlusion with macular hemorrhage and edema treated with intravitreal bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalamanchi S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Shalini Yalamanchi, Harry W Flynn Jr.Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami Miller School of Medicine Miami, FL, USAAbstract: A 39-year-old male with decreased visual acuity and extensive macular hemorrhage and edema secondary to a hemiretinal vein occlusion was treated with multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab 1.25 mg every four to six weeks for over one year. Treatment outcomes were assessed by visual acuity and Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Treatment resulted in ongoing visual and anatomic improvement, with resolution at the last visit.Keywords: retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, bevacizumab

  16. FCM Clustering Algorithms for Segmentation of Brain MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita K. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of brain disorders requires accurate tissue segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR brain images which is very important for detecting tumors, edema, and necrotic tissues. Segmentation of brain images, especially into three main tissue types: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Gray Matter (GM, and White Matter (WM, has important role in computer aided neurosurgery and diagnosis. Brain images mostly contain noise, intensity inhomogeneity, and weak boundaries. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is still a challenging area of research. This paper presents a review of fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithms for the segmentation of brain MR images. The review covers the detailed analysis of FCM based algorithms with intensity inhomogeneity correction and noise robustness. Different methods for the modification of standard fuzzy objective function with updating of membership and cluster centroid are also discussed.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  18. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days

  19. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Choon Yul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Bahk, Young Whee; Kim, Seung Jo [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  2. The impact of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Jay Chen, Zhe; Roberts, Kenneth; Decker, Roy; Pathare, Pradip; Rockwell, Sara; Nath, Ravinder

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that procedure-induced prostate edema during permanent interstitial brachytherapy (PIB) can cause significant variations in the dose delivered to the prostate gland. Because the clinical impact of edema-induced dose variations strongly depends on the magnitude of the edema, the temporal pattern of its resolution and its interplay with the decay of radioactivity and the underlying biological processes of tumor cells (such as tumor potential doubling time), we investigated the impact of edema-induced dose variations on the tumor cell survival and tumor control probability after PIB with the 131Cs, 125I and 103Pd sources used in current clinical practice. The exponential edema resolution model reported by Waterman et al (1998 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41 1069-77) was used to characterize the edema evolutions previously observed during clinical PIB for prostate cancer. The concept of biologically effective dose, taking into account tumor cell proliferation and sublethal damage repair during dose delivery, was used to characterize the effects of prostate edema on cell survival and tumor control probability. Our calculation indicated that prostate edema, if not appropriately taken into account, can increase the cell survival and decrease the probability of local control of PIB. The magnitude of an edema-induced increase in cell survival increased with increasing edema severity, decreasing half-life of radioactive decay and decreasing photon energy emitted by the source. At the doses currently prescribed for PIB and for prostate cancer cells characterized by nominal radiobiology parameters recommended by AAPM TG-137, PIB using 125I sources was less affected by edema than PIB using 131Cs or 103Pd sources due to the long radioactive decay half-life of 125I. The effect of edema on PIB using 131Cs or 103Pd was similar. The effect of edema on 103Pd PIB was slightly greater, even though the decay half-life of 103Pd (17 days) is longer than

  3. Involvement of COX2–thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Hiroki, E-mail: hteraoka@rakuno.ac.jp [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Okuno, Yuki; Nijoukubo, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Ayumi [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Peterson, Richard E. [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Kubota, Akira [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We establish a new indicator of pericardial edema in developing zebrafish (precardiac edema). • Property of precardiac edema by TCDD is similar to that for conventional pericardial edema. • COX2b (but not COX2a)–thromboxane pathway is involved in precardiac edema by TCDD. - Abstract: The cardiovascular system is one of the most characteristic and important targets for developmental toxicity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in fish larvae. However, knowledge of the mechanism of TCDD-induced edema after heterodimerization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) and AHR nuclear translocator type 1 (ARNT1) is still limited. In the present study, microscopic analysis with a high-speed camera revealed that TCDD increased the size of a small cavity between the heart and body wall in early eleutheroembryos, a toxic effect that we designate as precardiac edema. A concentration–response curve for precardiac edema at 2 days post fertilization (dpf) showed close similarity to that for conventional pericardial edema at 3 dpf. Precardiac edema caused by TCDD was reduced by morpholino knockdown of AHR2 and ARNT1, as well as by an antioxidant (ascorbic acid). A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema. A thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, ICI-192,605 almost abolished TCDD-induced precardiac edema and this effect was canceled by U46619, a TP agonist, which was not influential in the action of TCDD by itself. Knockdown of COX2b and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS), but not COX2a, strongly reduced TCDD-induced precardiac edema. Knockdown of COX2b was without effect on mesencephalic circulation failure caused by TCDD. The edema by TCDD was also inhibited by knockdown of c-mpl, a thrombopoietin receptor necessary for thromobocyte production. Finally, induction of COX2b, but not COX2a, by TCDD was seen in eleutheroembryos at 3 dpf. These results suggest a role of the COX2b

  4. Bilobalide inhibits the expression of aquaporin 1, 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in rat brain tissue after permanent focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiming Qin; Fulin Song; Hongguang Han; Hong Qu; Xingwen Zhai; Bin Qin; Song You

    2011-01-01

    The present results demonstrated that in an adult rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), pretreatment with bilobalide reduced brain water content and infarct area, down-regulated aquaporin 1, 4 mRNA expression in brain edema tissue, then inhibited their synthesis in the striatum, in particular at the early stage of ischemia (at 8 hours after pMCAO), inhibited glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, and lightened reactive gliosis. These data sug-gest that bilobalide attenuates brain edema formation due to reduced expression of aquaporins.

  5. Correlation between brain volume change and T2 relaxation time induced by dehydration and rehydration: Implications for monitoring atrophy in clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Our results show that pseudo-T2 may be used in conjunction with the measures of brain volume to distinguish reversible water fluctuations and irreversible brain tissue loss (atrophy and to investigate disease mechanisms related to neuro-inflammation, e.g., in multiple sclerosis, where edema-related water fluctuations may occur with disease activity and anti-inflammatory treatment.

  6. Localized changes in Retinal Vessel Caliber after focal/grid laser treatment in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Lars Kristian; Kawasaki, Ryo; Sjølie, Anne K;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To compare retinal vessel caliber changes at the macula region and surrounding the optic disk after focal/grid laser treatment for diabetic macular edema. METHODS:: The study included 69 eyes from 46 patients treated with focal/grid laser for diabetic macular edema. Retinal photographs ...

  7. Chronic cerebrovascular dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullienne, Amandine; Obenaus, Andre; Ichkova, Aleksandra; Savona-Baron, Catherine; Pearce, William J; Badaut, Jerome

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) often involve vascular dysfunction that leads to long-term alterations in physiological and cognitive functions of the brain. Indeed, all the cells that form blood vessels and that are involved in maintaining their proper function can be altered by TBI. This Review focuses on the different types of cerebrovascular dysfunction that occur after TBI, including cerebral blood flow alterations, autoregulation impairments, subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasms, blood-brain barrier disruption, and edema formation. We also discuss the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions, focusing on the cellular components of cerebral blood vessels (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, astrocytes, pericytes, perivascular nerves) and their known and potential roles in the secondary injury cascade. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117494

  8. Computer Aided Diagnosis of Macular Edema Using Color Fundus Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashree R. Zinjarde,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the western working age population and micro aneurysms are one of the first pathologies associated with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is caused by damage to the blood vessels of the retina which affects the vision. But when DR becomes severe it results into macular edema. Macula is the region near the centre of the eye that provides the vision. Blood vessels leak fluid onto the macula leading to the swelling which blurs the vision eventually leading to complete loss of vision. This paper is based on the detection of the edema affected image from the normal image. If the image is edema affected it also states its severity of the disease using a rotational asymmetry metric by examining the symmetry of the macular region. Diabetic macular edema (DME is an advanced symptom of diabetic retinopathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. A feature extraction technique is introduced to capture the global characteristics of the fundus images and discriminate the normal from DME images.

  9. Iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein resulting in acute lower leg edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seung Bae; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Jeong, Yeon Jun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    The clinical manifestations related to iliopsoas bursitis can vary due to compression of the adjacent structure such as the common femoral vein, nerve and bladder. We report here on a rare case of iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein that resulted in acute lower leg edema.

  10. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva, Fabio Petersen; Costa, Patricia Grativol; Inomata, Daniela Lumi; Melo, Carlos Sergio Nascimento; Helal Junior, John; Nakashima, Yoshitaka [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Oftalmologia]. E-mail: fabiopetersen@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Objectives: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. Introduction: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. Methods: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group) and with diffuse macular edema (case group). Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. Results: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. Discussion: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema. (author)

  11. Reversible retinal edema in an infant with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Ramiro S; Freedman, Sharon F; Cotten, C Michael; Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Toth, Cynthia A

    2011-02-01

    We present a case of bilateral severe retinal edema with subretinal fluid in an infant diagnosed with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure. A macular cherry-red spot in each eye mimicked the clinical appearance of many metabolic storage diseases. Both the clinical retinal appearance and the anatomic abnormalities observed on spectral domain optical coherence tomography resolved after successful liver transplant.

  12. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Su, I-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

  13. Acute bone marrow edema of the hip: role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-09-15

    Acute bone marrow edema of the hip is a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and clinicians. Marrow edema is often seen in patients with hip pain and restriction of motion. In patients with acute non-traumatic hip pain, whose radiographs are negative or inconclusive, MR imaging is the imaging study of choice. MR imaging is the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for detecting transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, as well as for detecting and staging fractures and microfractures. MR imaging is able to show marrow involvement in various inflammatory disorders and to diagnose reactive marrow edema from femoroacetabular impingment and greater trochanteric pain syndrome. In patients with septic arthritis, it may also depict associated marrow edema and suggest its reactive or infectious origin. For the neoplastic disorders, although plain radiographs should be the initial examination, MR imaging may follow for assessing extension to the surrounding soft tissues and/or associated pathologic fracture, facilitating thus the treatment planning. Computed tomography is more accurate compared with MR imaging in diagnosing intra-articular osteoid osteomas. (orig.)

  14. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle carcasses affected with... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a) Carcasses of cattle found on post-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages...

  15. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle affected with anasarca and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.8 Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca...

  16. A case of unilateral lung edema after treatment of pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As HRCT (high resolution computed tomography) has become increased commonly used, it has become apparent that GGA (ground-glass attenuation) is present in a variety of lung diseases. We report a case of unilateral lung edema represented as GGA in an opposite lung field after treatment of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A 70-year-old man with uncontrolled diabetes was admitted because of an abnormal shadow discovered during a routine chest X-ray in June 2003. In 1994, he underwent a left lower lobectomy and post-operative mediastinal radiation for pulmonary adenocarcinoma (p-Stage IIIA). Chest CT on admission demonstrated widespread GGA in the right hilar lesion of the middle and lower lobes. Detailed examinations including transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB), bacterial culture and a serological test could not confirm bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, interstitial pneumonia, viral pneumonia or alveolar proteinosis. The patient increased his weight by 5 kg and ultrasound examination showed dilatation of the inferior vena cava and a congestive liver. The GGA disappeared one month after the administration of furosemide. The clinical course, HRCT and pathological findings suggested that lung edema caused by volume overload affected as localized unilateral GGA in the chest CT. The decrease in pulmonary vessel beds due to surgical resection, obstruction of lymphatic circulation after mediastinal radiation, and increased permeability of microvessels associated with diabetes are supposed to be linked to lung edema. Localized lung edema should be considered as a possible cause of GGA after lung cancer treatment. (author)

  17. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency with Systemic Edema after Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Minami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is caused by primary diseases such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and main pancreatic duct occlusion due to a tumor, or it may develop because of pancreatectomy. Steatorrhea or diarrhea, which occurs along with inadequate digestion/absorption of fat, often leads to a diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Case report An 81-year-old man presented to our outpatient department with systemic edema. He had undergone pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas (pT3N1M0, stage III 3 months previously. No pyrexia, nausea, vomiting, appetite impairment, or dyspnea was observed. Although fecal fat staining yielded negative results, lower gastrointestinal endoscopy indicated occasional lipid droplets in the large intestine. Neutral fat indigestion and protein absorption impairment were sus pected due to pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Therefore, LipaCreon®?a high-titer pancreatin?was administered for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. After 2 months, no residual edema was observed, and the serum albumin level returned to normal. Conclusions We report a case wherein the patient developed systemic edema leading to a diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Thus, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency should be considered in patients with edema after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  18. 111In-chloride thorax scintigraphic study for demonstration of pulmonary edema: Canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary edema induced by injections of oleic acid was demonstrated using 111In-chloride lung/heart image in five anesthetized dogs. The anesthetized dogs were positioned under a gamma camera interfaced to a computer. After 111In-chloride IV injections, dynamic data were recorded at 1 frame/min before and after induced pulmonary edema. The computer generated the curve of the lung-to-heart activity ratio; the ratio rose from 0.5-0.6 at baseline to 0.85-1.5 at th end of the study in the dogs. At the end of each study, the removed lungs demonstrated edematous fluid, and a few red blood cells were seen in the alveoli. The results indicating pulmoinary edema exhibited in the 111In-chloride lung-to-heart ratio obtained froma computerized gamma camera were compatable with the pathological results. Since 111In-chloride instantly binds to plasma transferrin, an excellent intravascular imaging agent, leakage of this tracer into alveoli indicates loss of membranous wall competence. Pulmonary edema, as in the adult respiratory distress syndrome, is sometimes difficult to diagnose; and this 111In-chloride lung-to-heart imaging technique may be potentially useful. (orig.)

  19. Hypoxia and the Edema Syndrome: Elucidation of a Mechanism of Teratogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elucidation of mechanisms and pathogenesis of birth defects is exceedingly complex. Consequently, there are few examples where the etiology of birth defects caused by a specific agent has been well described. One such example is the "Edema Syndrome" first described by Casimer...

  20. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. Introduction: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. Methods: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group) and with diffuse macular edema (case group). Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. Results: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. Discussion: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema. (author)

  1. Aquaporin 4 expression and ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier following cerebral contusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjun Li; Yangyun Han; Hong Xu; Zhongshu Sun; Zengjun Zhou; Xiaodong Long; Yumin Yang; Linbo Zou

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate aquaporin 4 expression and the ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier at 2–72 hours following cerebral contusion injury, and correlate these changes to the formation of brain edema. Results revealed that at 2 hours after cerebral contusion and laceration injury, aquaporin 4 expression significantly increased, brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability increased, and the number of pinocytotic vesicles in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells increased. In addition, the mitochondrial accumulation was observed. As contusion and laceration injury became aggravated, aquaporin 4 expression continued to increase, brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability gradually increased, brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes swelled, and capillary basement membrane injury gradually increased. The above changes were most apparent at 12 hours after injury, after which they gradually attenuated. Aquaporin 4 expression positively correlated with brain water content and the blood-brain barrier index. Our experimental findings indicate that increasing aquaporin 4 expression and blood-brain barrier permeability after cerebral contusion and laceration injury in humans is involved in the formation of brain edema.

  2. Biochemical and morphological changes in endothelial cells in response to hypoxic interstitial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miserocchi Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A correlation between interstial pulmonary matrix disorganization and lung cellular response was recently documented in cardiogenic interstitial edema as changes in the signal-cellular transduction platforms (lipid microdomains: caveoale and lipid rafts. These findings led to hypothesize a specific "sensing" function by lung cells resulting from a perturbation in cell-matrix interaction. We reason that the cell-matrix interaction may differ between the cardiogenic and the hypoxic type of lung edema due to the observed difference in the sequential degradation of matrix proteoglycans (PGs family. In cardiogenic edema a major fragmentation of high molecular weight PGs of the interfibrillar matrix was found, while in hypoxia the fragmentation process mostly involved the PGs of the basement membrane controlling microvascular permeability. Based on these considerations, we aim to describe potential differences in the lung cellular response to the two types of edema. Methods We analysed the composition of plasma membrane and of lipid microdomains in lung tissue samples from anesthetized rabbits exposed to mild hypoxia (12 % O2 for 3–5 h causing interstitial lung edema. Lipid analysis was performed by chromatographic techniques, while protein analysis by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Lipid peroxidation was assessed on total plasma membranes by a colorimetric assay (Bioxytech LPO-586, OxisResearch. Plasma membrane fluidity was also assessed by fluorescence. Lipid microdomains were isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradient. We also performed a morphometric analysis on lung cell shape on TEM images from lung tissue specimen. Results After hypoxia, phospholipids content in plasma membranes remained unchanged while the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio increased significantly by about 9% causing a decrease in membrane fluidity. No significant increase in lipid peroxidation was detected. Analysis of lipid microdomains showed a

  3. Determination of Edema in Porcine Coronary Arteries by T2 Weighted Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Erling

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation plays a pivotal role in all stages of atherosclerosis. Since edema is known to be an integral part of inflammation, a noninvasive technique that can identify edema in the coronary artery wall may provide unique information regarding plaque activity. In this study, we aimed to determine whether edema induced in porcine coronary arteries by balloon injury could be reliably detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR using a water sensitive T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery sequence (T2-STIR. We also aimed to compare these results to those of conventional T2-weighted (T2W imaging. Methods Edema was induced in the proximal left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery wall in seven pigs by balloon injury. At baseline, and 1-10 days (average four post injury, the proximal LAD was assessed by water sensitive T2-STIR and conventional T2W sequences in cross-sectional planes. CMR images were matched to histopathology, validated against Evans blue as a marker of increased vessel wall permeability, and correlated with the arterial amount of fibrinogen used as an edema surrogate marker. Results Post injury, the T2-STIR images of the injured LAD vessel wall showed a significant 72%, relative signal intensity (SI increase compared with baseline (p = 0.028. Using a threshold value of SI 7 SD above the average SI of the myocardium, T2-STIR detected edema in the vessel wall (i.e. enhancement with a sensitivity of 100 and a specificity of 71. Twelve out of the 14 (86% T2-STIR images displaying coronary artery wall enhancement also showed Evans blue uptake in the corresponding histology. The relative signal intensity showed a linear correlation with the amount of fibrinogen detected on the corresponding histopathology (ρ = 0.750, p = 0.05. The conventional T2W images did not show significant changes in SI post injury. Conclusion T2-STIR CMR enabled detection of coronary artery wall edema and could therefore be a non

  4. Unusual Presentations of Focal Periphyseal Edema Zones: A Report of Bilateral Symmetric Presentation and Partial Physeal Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nicholas; Spence, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Focal periphyseal edema (FOPE) zones are areas of periphyseal edema seen near the time of physeal closure which are believed to be a physiologic phenomenon related to changes in distribution of forces around the physis as it closes. Since the original case series describing these areas of periphyseal edema, there has been little published in regard to FOPE zone outside of review articles. We present a set of three patients identified with focal periphyseal edema zones around the knee and compare our findings with the initial case series. We include a patient presenting with bilateral, nearly symmetric, focal periphyseal edema zones of the proximal tibia physis and a patient with partial closure of the physis at time of presentation, which were not reported in the original case series. PMID:26640734

  5. Spatiotemporal correlation of optical coherence tomography in-vivo images of rabbit airway for the diagnosis of edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, DongYel; Wang, Alex; Volgger, Veronika; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2015-07-01

    Detection of an early stage of subglottic edema is vital for airway management and prevention of stenosis, a life-threatening condition in critically ill neonates. As an observer for the task of diagnosing edema in vivo, we investigated spatiotemporal correlation (STC) of full-range optical coherence tomography (OCT) images acquired in the rabbit airway with experimentally simulated edema. Operating the STC observer on OCT images generates STC coefficients as test statistics for the statistical decision task. Resulting from this, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnosis of airway edema with full-range OCT in-vivo images were extracted and areas under ROC curves were calculated. These statistically quantified results demonstrated the potential clinical feasibility of the STC method as a means to identify early airway edema.

  6. Treatment of Severe Edema in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome with Diuretics Alone — A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Gaurav; Valentini, Rudolph P.; Imam, Abubakr A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: Severe edema in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) may be associated with volume contraction (VC) or volume expansion (VE). Usually, severe edema in children is treated with intravenous (IV) albumin and diuretics, which is appropriate for VC patients. However, in VE patients, this can precipitate fluid overload. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment of severe edema in NS with diuretics alone. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Thirty NS patients with severe edema were enrolled in this prospective study in two phases. VC was diagnosed based on fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) <1%. VC patients received IV albumin and furosemide. VE patients received IV furosemide and oral spironolactone. On the basis of phase 1 observations, FeNa <0.2% identified VC in 20 phase 2 patients. Results: All phase 1 patients had FeNa <1%. Phase 1 patients when reanalyzed based on a FeNa cutoff of 0.2%; it was noted that VC patients had higher BUN, BUN/creatinine ratio, urine osmolality, and lower FeNa and urine sodium compared with VE patients. Similar results were observed in phase 2. VC patients had significantly higher renin, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone levels. In phase 2, 11 VE patients received diuretics alone and 9 VC patients received albumin and furosemide. There was no difference in hospital stay and weight loss in VC and VE groups after treatment. Conclusions: FeNa is useful in distinguishing VC versus VE in NS children with severe edema. The use of diuretics alone in VE patients is safe and effective. PMID:19406963

  7. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Manifested as Unusual Edemas and Effusions: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Jin, Hong; Wu, Weilu

    2016-03-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse or localized dilation and eventual rupture of the enteric lymphatic vessels in mucosa, submucosa, and/or subserosa. Lymph, rich in all kinds of proteins and lymphocytes, leaks into the gastrointestinal tract via the affected lymphatic vessels causing hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia. The main symptom is variable degrees of pitting edemas of bilateral lower limbs. But edemas of any other parts of body, and mild serous effusions may also occur sometimes. PIL occurs in conjunction with a right hemifacial edema, a right upper limb lymphedema, asymmetric bilateral calves edemas, and a unilateral massive pleural effusion seems never to be reported before. In addition, increased enteric protein loss that may cause severe hypoproteinemia usually get overlooked, and the lymphatic system disorders always put the diagnoses in a dilemma.We described a case of a 17-year-old Chinese girl with a history of gradually progressive swellings of right-sided face, right upper limb, and bilateral calves since 3 to 4 months of age. A right-sided massive pleural effusion, a moderate pericardial effusion, and a mild ascites have been proved unchanged by a series of computerized tomography (CT) scans since 5 years ago. The diagnosis of PIL was finally confirmed by severe hypoproteinemia, endoscopic changes, and histology of jejunum biopsy. Further lymphoscintigraphy and lymphangiography also identified lymph leakage in her bowel and several abnormal lymphatic vessels. A high-protein, low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) showed some benefit.This case suggested that PIL was a rare but important etiology of hypoproteinemia, effusions, and edemas. PIL, effusions, and lymphedema can be the features of multisegmental generalized lymphatic dysplasia. In addition, both lymphoscintigraphy and intranodal lymphangiography could be considered when lymphatic system

  8. Cerebrolysin attenuates blood-brain barrier and brain pathology following whole body hyperthermia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Aruna; Johanson, Conrad E

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that Cerebrolysin, a mixture of several neurotrophic factors, has some neuroprotective effects on whole body hyperthermia (WBH) induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), brain edema formation and neuropathology were examined in a rat model. Rats subjected to a 4 h heat stress at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator exhibited profound increases in BBB and BCSFB permeability to Evans blue and radioiodine tracers compared to controls. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus exhibited pronounced increase in water content and brain pathology following 4 h heat stress. Pretreatment with Cerebrolysin (1, 2 or 5 mL/kg i.v.) 24 h before WBH significantly attenuated breakdown of the BBB or BCSFB and brain edema formation. This effect was dose dependent. Interestingly, the cell and tissue injury following WBH in cerebrolysin-treated groups were also considerably reduced. These novel observations suggest that cerebrolysin can attenuate WBH induced BBB and BCSFB damage resulting in neuroprotection.

  9. A influência da crioterapia na dor e edema induzidos por sinovite experimental The cryotherapy influence on pain and edema induced by experimental synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Boneti Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da crioterapia na dor e edema advindos de sinovite induzida em ratos. Foram utilizados 12 ratos, distribuídos em dois grupos: Controle (GC - submetido à indução de sinovite no joelho direito, e não tratado; e Tratamento (GT - submetido à sinovite no joelho direito, e tratado com crioterapia. Para induzir a lesão, foi injetado no espaço tíbio-femoral formalina 5%. Para avaliação da dor foi utilizado o teste de incapacidade funcional, que avaliou a dor durante a marcha do animal (tempo de elevação da pata - TEP; e para quantificar o edema foi utilizado um paquímetro metálico, na região da interlinha do joelho. As avaliações ocorreram antes da injeção de formalina (AV1, 1 (AV2 e 2 horas (AV3 após. Após 10 minutos da lesão, o membro posterior direito foi submerso em água com gelo, à 5ºC por 20 minutos. A avaliação do TEP mostrou aumento de 194,03% (AV2 e 169,26% (AV3 para GC; e 134,25% (AV2 e 103,13% (AV3 para GT, com relação à AV1. Na comparação entre os grupos, em AV3, houve diminuição significativa para GT. A avaliação do edema mostrou aumento do diâmetro, para GC de 39,15% (AV2 e 42,39% (AV3; e 27,91% (AV2 e 14,50% (AV3 para GT, tendo como referência AV1; sendo que apenas GT apresentou diminuição significativa entre AV2 e AV3. Conclui-se que os efeitos em curto prazo, da crioterapia, foram significativos para reduzir a dor e edema, em ratos submetidos à indução de sinovite.The Aim of this study was to examine the influence of cryotherapy on pain and swelling in an induced synovitis in rats. A total of 12 rats were allocated into two groups: the control (CG - underwent the synovitis induction in his right knee, and not treated, and treatment (TG - synovitis in his right knee, and treated with cryotherapy. To induce injury, was injected into the tibio-femoral joint space 5% formalin. For the pain assessment was used the functional incapacitation test

  10. Brain abscess uptake at TI-201 brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Han, Eun Ji; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Choi, Yeong Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A 22-year-old woman with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was hospitalized for headache and vomiting CT scan showed a well-defined, ring like enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe with surrounding edema and midline shift. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round homogeneous mass with a ring of enhancement in the left frontal lobe. TI-201 brain SPECT showed increased focal uptake coinciding with the CT and MRI abnormality. Aspiration of the lesion performed through a burr hole yielded many neutrophils, a few lymphocytes and histiocytes with some strands of filamentous microorganism-like material. Modified AFB stained negative for norcardia. Gram stain showed a few white blood cells and no microorganism. Antibiotics were started and produced a good clinical response. After one month, CT scan showed markedly reduction in size and extent was observed.

  11. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  12. The impact of dietary isoflavonoids on malignant brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Weiss, Ruth; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Hore, Nirjhar; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Iiker Y; Savaskan, Nic E

    2014-08-01

    Poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options render malignant brain tumors one of the most devastating diseases in clinical medicine. Current treatment strategies attempt to expand the therapeutic repertoire through the use of multimodal treatment regimens. It is here that dietary fibers have been recently recognized as a supportive natural therapy in augmenting the body's response to tumor growth. Here, we investigated the impact of isoflavonoids on primary brain tumor cells. First, we treated glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes with various isoflavonoids and phytoestrogens. Cell viability in a dose-dependent manner was measured for biochanin A (BCA), genistein (GST), and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Dose-response action for the different isoflavonoids showed that BCA is highly effective on glioma cells and nontoxic for normal differentiated brain tissues. We further investigated BCA in ex vivo and in vivo experimentations. Organotypic brain slice cultures were performed and treated with BCA. For in vivo experiments, BCA was intraperitoneal injected in tumor-implanted Fisher rats. Tumor size and edema were measured and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In vascular organotypic glioma brain slice cultures (VOGIM) we found that BCA operates antiangiogenic and neuroprotective. In vivo MRI scans demonstrated that administered BCA as a monotherapy was effective in reducing significantly tumor-induced brain edema and showed a trend for prolonged survival. Our results revealed that dietary isoflavonoids, in particular BCA, execute toxicity toward glioma cells, antiangiogenic, and coevally neuroprotective properties, and therefore augment the range of state-of-the-art multimodal treatment approach. PMID:24898306

  13. A influência da crioterapia na dor e edema induzidos por sinovite experimental The cryotherapy influence on pain and edema induced by experimental synovitis

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Boneti Moreira; Elisângela Lourdes Artifon; Anamaria Meireles; Lígia Inez Silva; Camila Thieime Rosa; Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a influência da crioterapia na dor e edema advindos de sinovite induzida em ratos. Foram utilizados 12 ratos, distribuídos em dois grupos: Controle (GC) - submetido à indução de sinovite no joelho direito, e não tratado; e Tratamento (GT) - submetido à sinovite no joelho direito, e tratado com crioterapia. Para induzir a lesão, foi injetado no espaço tíbio-femoral formalina 5%. Para avaliação da dor foi utilizado o teste de incapacidade funcional, que aval...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  15. Brain Basics

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  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...