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Sample records for brain edema

  1. Osmotherapy in brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grände, Per-Olof; Romner, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been used since the 1960s in diseases associated with brain edema and has been investigated in >150 publications on head injury, very little has been published on the outcome of osmotherapy. We can only speculate whether osmotherapy improves outcome, has no effect......, osmotherapy can be negative for outcome, which may explain why we lack scientific support for its use. These drawbacks, and the fact that the most recent Cochrane meta-analyses of osmotherapy in brain edema and stroke could not find any beneficial effects on outcome, make routine use of osmotherapy in brain...... edema doubtful. Nevertheless, the use of osmotherapy as a temporary measure may be justified to acutely prevent brain stem compression until other measures, such as evacuation of space-occupying lesions or decompressive craniotomy, can be performed. This article is the Con part in a Pro-Con debate...

  2. Aquaporin-4 and traumatic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; XU Qiu-ping

    2010-01-01

    Brain edema leading to an expansion of brain volume has a crucial impact on morbidity and mortal-ity following traumatic brain injury as it increases intracra-nial pressure, impairs cerebral perfusion and oxygenation,and contributes to additional ischemic injuries.Classically,two major types of traumatic brain edema exist: "vasogenic"and "cytotoxic/cellular".However, the cellular and molecu-lar mechanisms contributing to the development/resolution of traumatic brain edema are poorly understood and no ef-fective drugs can be used now.Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water-channel protein expressed strongly in the brain, pre-dominantly in astrocyte foot processes at the borders be-tween the brain parenchyma and major fluid compartments, including cerebrospinal fluid and blood.This distribution suggests that AQP4 controls water fluxes into and out of the brain parenchyma.In cytotoxic edema, AQP4 deletion slows the rate of water entry into brain, whereas in vasogenic edema, AQP4 deletion reduces the rate of water outflow from brain parenchyma.AQP4 has been proposed as a novel drug target in brain edema.These findings sug-gest that modulation of AQP4 expression or function may be beneficial in traumatic brain edema.

  3. Radiosurgery for brain metastases and cerebral edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Inbal; Har-Nof, Sagi; Cohen, Zvi R; Zibly, Zion; Nissim, Uzi; Spiegelmann, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess reduction in cerebral edema following linear accelerator radiosurgery (LINAC) as first line therapy for brain metastasis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LINAC radiosurgery for brain metastasis at our institution during 2010-2012, and who had not previously undergone either surgery or whole brain radiotherapy. Data were analyzed for 55 brain metastases from 46 patients (24 males), mean age 59.9 years. During the 2 months following LINAC radiosurgery, the mean steroid dose decreased from 4.8 to 2.6 mg/day, the mean metastasis volume decreased from 3.79±4.12 cc to 2.8±4.48 cc (p=0.001), and the mean edema volume decreased from 16.91±30.15 cc to 12.85±24.47 cc (p=0.23). The 17 patients with reductions of more than 50% in brain edema volume had single metastases. Edema volume in the nine patients with two brain metastases remained stable in five patients (volume change 10%, 2-14 cc). In a subanalysis of eight metastases with baseline edema volume greater than 40 cc, edema volume decreased from 77.27±37.21 cc to 24.84±35.6 cc (p=0.034). Reductions in brain edema were greater in metastases for which non-small-cell lung carcinoma and breast cancers were the primary diseases. Overall, symptoms improved in most patients. No patients who were without symptoms or who had no signs of increased intracranial pressure at baseline developed signs of intracranial pressure following LINAC radiosurgery. In this series, LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery for metastatic brain lesions resulted in early reduction in brain edema volume in single metastasis patients and those with large edema volumes, and reduced the need for steroids. PMID:25533053

  4. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Shotaro Michinaga; Yutaka Koyama

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vas...

  5. Aquaporin-4 and ischemic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saihong Dun; Yang Guo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and brain edema.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms of "aquaporin-4, brain edema", we searched PubMed database to identify studies published from January 1997 to April 2006 in the English languages. Meanwhile, we also searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for related studies.STUDY SELECTION: The collected data were selected firstly. Studies on AQP4 and brain edema were chosen and their full-texts were searched for, and those with repetitive or review studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 146 related studies were collected, 42 of them were involved and the other 104 studies were used for reading reference data.DATA SYNTHESIS: AQP4 is a selective water permeable integral membrane protein. It is mainly expressed in astrocytes and ependymocyte, and is the important structural basis for water regulation and transportation between glial cells and cerebrospinal fluid or vessels. Phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of AQP4.AQP4 participates in the formation of brain edema caused by various factors. Studies on the structure and pathological changes of AQP4 are still in the initial stage, and the role and mechanism of AQP4 in the formation of brain edema is very unclear.CONCLUSION: AQP4 plays a critical regulating role in the formation of ischemic brain edema, but whether it is regulated by drugs lacks reliable evidence.

  6. Peritumoral brain edema in angiomatous supratentorial meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Sørensen, Lars Peter; Dyrbye, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway and peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) through comparison of non-angiomatous and angiomatous meningiomas. Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors, which often have PTBE. VEGF-A is an integral part of PTBE...

  7. Effects of dexamethasone on brain edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental cerebral edema was produced on the right parietal lobe of Wistar male rats with a cold metal probe cooled by liquid nitrogen. Twenty hour later, 3H-dexamethasone was either intramuscularly or intravenously injected into rats, estimated in the brain tissue by the liquid scintillation counting method. Edematous brain generally contained much higher 3H-activity than the control. Furthermore, I.V. injection showed higher 3H-activity than I.M injection in edematous and control brains at all times. For examination of the subcellular distribution of 3H-dexamethasone in edematous brain, 3H-activity was most strongly detected in the supernatant fraction (63%), followed by the heavy mitochondrial fraction (25.4%) and the nuclear fraction (8.4%). Although edematous brain tissue constantly demonstrated higher 3H-activity than the control, its supernatant fraction conversely had less activity. As a next step, distribution of 3H-dexamethasone in the supernatant fraction was studies. The result was that the high molecular weight fraction in the edematous brain showed higher radioactivity than the control. From these findings, unequivocal distribution of dexamethasone in the supernatant fraction of edematous brain tissue could be correlated with its biochemical action for preventing brain edema. (J.P.N.)

  8. Effect of AVP on brain edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; HUANG Wei-dong; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Qiu-ping; CHEN Zhao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level in patients with traumatic brain injury and investigate the role of AVP in the process of brain edema. Methods: A total of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury were involved in our study. They were divided into two groups by Glasgow Coma Scale: severe traumatic brain injury group (STBI, GCS≤ 8) and moderate traumatic brain injury group (MTBI, GCS>8).Samples of venous blood were collected in the morning at rest from 15 healthy volunteers (control group)and within 24 h after traumatic brain injury from these patients for AVP determinations by radioimmunoassay. The severity and duration of the brain edema were estimated by head CT scan.Results: plasma AVP levels (ng/L) were (mean±SD): control, 3.06±1.49; MTBI, 38.12±7.25; and STBI, 66.61±17.10.The plasma level of AVP was significantly increased within 24 h after traumatic brain injury and followed by the reduction of GCS, suggesting the deterioration of cerebral injury (P<0.01). And the AVP level was correlated with the severity (STBI r=0.919, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.724, P<0.01) and the duration of brain edema (STBI r=0.790, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.712, P<0.01). Conclusions: The plasma AVP level is closely associated with the severity of traumatic brain injury. AVP may play an important role in pathogenesis of brain edema after traumatic brain injury.

  9. Role of ammonia in the pathogenesis of brain edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperammonemia in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema was investigated using mongrel dogs to develop a treatment for cerebral edema in acute hepatic failure. Intravenous infusion of ammonium acetate alone into dogs did not induce brain edema, although blood ammonia reached unphysiologically high levels. However, ammonium acetate infusion during mannitol-induced reversible (osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB effectively induced cytotoxic brain edema. Pretreatment with a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine solution prevented an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP and brain water content, and caused a decrease in brain ammonia content and an increase in brain BCAA and glutamic acid. The results suggest that ammonia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema during acute hepatic failure and that BCAAs accelerate ammonia detoxification in the brain.

  10. Mathematical modelling of blood-brain barrier failure and edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sarah; Lang, Georgina; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Injuries such as traumatic brain injury and stroke can result in increased blood-brain barrier permeability. This increase may lead to water accumulation in the brain tissue resulting in vasogenic edema. Although the initial injury may be localised, the resulting edema causes mechanical damage and compression of the vasculature beyond the original injury site. We employ a biphasic mixture model to investigate the consequences of blood-brain barrier permeability changes within a region of brain tissue and the onset of vasogenic edema. We find that such localised changes can indeed result in brain tissue swelling and that the type of damage that results (stress damage or strain damage) depends on the ability of the brain to clear edema fluid.

  11. CT findings in brain edema following the administration of corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is the first noninvasive method available for directly visualizing brain edema in man. On CT scans perifocal edema is shown as an area of low density surrounding a lesion. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effect of corticosteroids on brain edema as seen by CT (HITACHI CT-H 250). Nine patients with brain-tumor and one with brain-abscess were treated with betamethasone for about ten days (dosage started with 12 - 16 mg/day, and tapered). In eight cases, and improvement in the neurological findings was observed. An impressive reduction of peritumoral edema was shown on CT scans in six of these eight cases. There was, however, no significant correlation between the degree of the reduction of edema on CT and that of the improvement in neurological findings. The mode of the CT number in the region of edema did not differ significantly between pre- and post-steroid treatment in the cases showing a recognizable reduction of edema on CT. This failure to change is probably due to the insufficient mechanical accuracy of the CT scanner at the present stage of technology. Through our experiences, it seems that CT is one of the most promising tools for a dynamic study of brain edema in man. (author)

  12. Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles ... it can involve your entire body. Causes of edema include Eating too much salt Sunburn Heart failure ...

  13. Effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯东福; 朱志安; 卢亦成

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema and explore its possible mechanism.Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control, Trauma and Treatment groups. In Treatment group, magnesium sulfate was intraperitoneally administered immediately after the induction of brain trauma. At 24 h after trauma, total tissue water content and Na + , K + , Ca2 + , Mg2+ contents were measured. Permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB)was assessed quantitatively by Evans Blue (EB) dye technique. The pathological changes were also studied.Results: Water, Na + , Ca2 + and EB contents in Treatment group were significantly lower than those in Trauma group ( P < 0. 05 ). Results of light microscopy and electron microscopy confirmed that magnesium sulfate can attenuate traumatic brain injury and relieve BBB injury.Conclusions: Treatment with MgSO4 in the early stage can attenuate traumatic brain edema and prevent BBB injury.

  14. Generalised brain edema and brain infarct in ergotamine abuse: Visualization by CT, MR and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuse of ergotamine can release a generalised brain edema and brain infarctions. This can be visualized by CT, MR and angiography. The reason, however, can only be found in the patients history. (orig.)

  15. Automated 3D Brain Tumor Edema Segmentation in FLAIR MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    Vol. S1. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 2013, s. 489. ISSN 1352-8661. [ESMRMB 2013. Congress. Tolouse (FR), 03.10.2013-05.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Automated 3D * brain tumor edema segmentation * FLAIR MRI Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Effects of Gender and Estrogen Receptors on Iron-Induced Brain Edema Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that female mice have less brain edema and better recovery in neurological deficits after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and that 17β-estradiol treatment in male mice markedly reduces ICH-induced brain edema. In this study, we investigated the role of gender and the estrogen receptors (ERs) in iron-induced brain edema. There were three parts in this study: (1) either male or female mice received an injection of 10 μL FeCl2 (1 mM) into the right caudate; (2) females received an intracaudate injection of FeCl2 or saline with 1 μg of ICI 182,780 (antagonists of ERs) or vehicle; and (3) males were treated with the ER regulator tamoxifen (5 mg/kg subcutaneously) or vehicle 1 h after FeCl2 injection. Mice were euthanized 24 h later for brain edema determination. FeCl2 induced lower brain edema in females than in males. Co-injection of ICI 182,780 with FeCl2 aggravated iron-induced brain edema in female mice. ICI 182,780 itself did not induce brain edema at the dose of 1 μg. Tamoxifen treatment reduced FeCl2-induced brain edema in male mice. In conclusion, iron induced less brain edema in female mice than in males. ER modification can affect iron-induced brain edema. PMID:26463972

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERITUMORAL BRAIN EDEMA AND VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH MENINGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether VEGF plays a role in the development of peritumoral brain edema. Methods 50 meningioma patients and their VEGF expression were studied. We took a mono- clonal antibody from mouse to VEGF to stain the tumor cells, the vascular endothelial cells and the interstitial cells. The severity of brain edema was evaluated according to CT or MR scans by the following equation: edema index = Vtumor+edema/Vtumor. The relationship between VEGF expression and edema index was analyzed statisti- cally. Results VEGF was expressed in meningioma tumor cells, which is usually concentrated at the pe- ripheral sites of the tumor. There was a positive linear correlation between the expression and the brain edema index. Conclusion VEGF may play a role in the development of peritumoral brain edema in meningioma patient.

  18. Subtle BBB alterations in brain edema associated with acute liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Vasogenic mechanism of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) remains poorly understood. Recent work demonstrates that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the development of brain edema in experimental ALF (J Hepatol 44:1105, 2006). Importantly, MMP-9 blockage with specific monoclonal antibodies and/or synthetic inhibitor, the edema is attenuated. Specifically, utrastructural evaluations demonstrate intact blood-brain barrier and its tight junction. These results suggest that ...

  19. Activation of NF-κB mediates astrocyte swelling and brain edema in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Tong, Xiao Y; Ruiz-Cordero, Roberto; Bregy, Amade; Bethea, John R; Bramlett, Helen M; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-07-15

    Brain edema and associated increased intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While astrocyte swelling (cytotoxic edema) represents a major component of the brain edema in the early phase of TBI, its mechanisms are unclear. One factor known to be activated by trauma is nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Because this factor has been implicated in the mechanism of cell swelling/brain edema in other neurological conditions, we examined whether NF-κB might also be involved in the mediation of post-traumatic astrocyte swelling/brain edema. Here we show an increase in NF-κB activation in cultured astrocytes at 1 and 3 h after trauma (fluid percussion injury, FPI), and that BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB, significantly blocked the trauma-induced astrocyte swelling. Increased activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and the Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter were also observed in cultured astrocytes after trauma, and BAY 11-7082 reduced these effects. We also examined the role of NF-κB in the mechanism of cell swelling by using astrocyte cultures derived from transgenic (Tg) mice with a functional inactivation of astrocytic NF-κB. Exposure of cultured astrocytes from wild-type mice to in vitro trauma (3 h) caused a significant increase in cell swelling. By contrast, traumatized astrocyte cultures derived from NF-κB Tg mice showed no swelling. We also found increased astrocytic NF-κB activation and brain water content in rats after FPI, while BAY 11-7082 significantly reduced such effects. Our findings strongly suggest that activation of astrocytic NF-κB represents a key element in the process by which cytotoxic brain edema occurs after TBI. PMID:24471369

  20. Peritumoral brain edema in intracranial meningiomas Edema peritumoral em meningiomas intracranianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson de Azambuja Pereira-Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of peritumoral brain edema (PBE in meningiomas has been associated with several factors in recent years, although its pathophysiological mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the presence / degree of PBE and factors such as gender, age, size and histological subtype of tumor. We analyzed the MRI images of 74 patients operated on Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de Porto Alegre for the presence / degree of PBE and data was statistically correlated with the parameters of the patient. PBE was present in 70.1% of patients. Tumors with higher volume had more PBE. Tumors of the olfactory groove showed more PBE than sphenoid wing and parassagittal tumors. Transitional subtype showed more PBE than fibroblastic and meningothelial subtypes.A presença de edema cerebral peritumoral (ECP em meningiomas tem sido associada a diversos fatores nos últimos anos, embora o seu mecanismo fisiopatológico ainda não tenha sido inteiramente elucidado. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a correlação entre a presença/grau de ECP e fatores como sexo, idade, volume e subtipo histológico do tumor. Foram analisadas imagens de RM de 74 pacientes operados no Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de Porto Alegre quanto à presença/grau de ECP e os dados correlacionados estatisticamente com os parâmetros do paciente. ECP estava presente em 70,1% dos pacientes. Tumores com maior volume apresentaram mais ECP. Tumores da goteira olfatória apresentaram mais ECP que os da asa do esfenóide e que os parassagitais. Meningiomas transicionais apresentaram mais ECP que os fibroblásticos e que os meningoteliais.

  1. Correlation of cell apoptosis with brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-feng; LIU Wei-guo; SHEN Hong; GONG Jiang-biao; YU Jun; HU Wei-wei; L(U) Shi-ting; ZHENG Xiu-jue; FU Wei-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between brain edema, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and cell apoptosis in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: In this study, totally 42 rabbits in 7 groups were studied. Six of the animals were identified as a control group, and the remaining 36 animals were equally divided into 6 TBI groups. TBI models were produced by the modified method of Feeney. After the impact, ICP of each subject was recorded continuously by an ICP monitor until the animal was sacrificed at scheduled time. The apoptotic brain cells were detected by an terminal deoxynucleotide-transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cerebral water content (CWC) was measured with a drying method and calculated according to the Elliott formula. Then, an analysis was conducted to determine the correlation between the count of apoptotic cells and the clinical pathological changes of the brain. Results: Apoptotic cell count began to increase 2 h after the impact, and reached its maximum about 3 days after the impact. The peak value of CWC and ICP appeared 1 day and 3 days after the impact, respectively. Apoptotic cell count had a positive correlation with CWC and ICP. Conclusions: In TBI, occurrence of brain edema and ICP increase might lead to apoptosis of brain cells. Any therapy which can relieve brain edema and/or decrease ICP would be able to reduce neuron apoptosis, thereby to attenuate the secondary brain damage.

  2. Brain expression of the water channels Aquaporin-1 and -4 in mice with acute liver injury, hyperammonemia and brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Martin; Jelnes, Peter; Schmidt, Lars E;

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a feared complication to acute liver failure (ALF), but the pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The water channels Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) and -4 (Aqp4) has been associated with brain edema formation in several neuropathological conditions, indicating a possible role of Aqp1 and....../or Aqp4 in ALF mediated brain edema. We induced acute liver injury and hyperammonemia in mice, to evaluate brain edema formation and the parallel expression of Aqp1 and Aqp4 in ALF. Liver injury and hyperammonemia were induced by +D-galactosamine (GLN) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally and......(6266) (p <0.05), and stationary levels for Aqp1. Aqp1 and Aqp4 mRNA were stationary. This study indicates that Aqp4, but not Aqp1, may be of importance in the pathogenesis of cortical brain edema in mice with ALF....

  3. Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Contributes to the Astrocyte Swelling and Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, A.R.; Valdes, V.; Tong, X. Y.; Shamaladevi, N.; W Gonzalez; Norenberg, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte swelling (cytotoxic brain edema) is the major neurological complication of acute liver failure (ALF), a condition in which ammonia has been strongly implicated in its etiology. Ion channels and transporters are known to be involved in cell volume regulation and a disturbance in these systems may result in cell swelling. One ion channel known to contribute to astrocyte swelling/brain edema in other neurological disorders is the ATP-dependent, non-selective cation channel (NCCa-ATP ch...

  4. Brain Edema after Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for a Large Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Whan; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2016-08-01

    Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS. PMID:27574486

  5. Synthesis of 11C-methylated inulin as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain edema and pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    11C-methylated inulin, supposedly useful for imaging of brain edema and pulmonary edema, was prepared using cyclotron produced 11CO2. The synthesis consists of the production of 11C-methyl iodide and its coupling with inulin alkoxide sodium in dimethylsulfoxide as solvent. 11C labeled inulin was purified by alcohol precipitation. The radiochemical yield of pure 11C-inulin was 34% of 11CO2 30 min after the end of bombardment. The blood clearance and body distribution of 11C was observed in rabbits after i.v. injection of 11C-inulin. The blood clearance curve was composed of a sum of three exponential functions. The gamma camera image showed that the 11C activity in blood moved quickly to kidneys and urine and a small dose of radioactivity remained persistently in edematous tissues, i.e. the edematous lung tissues produced by oleic acid treatment. (orig.)

  6. Cortical edema in moderate fluid percussion brain injury is attenuated by vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Neese, S L; Sherill, L K; Tan, A A; Duke, A; Roosevelt, R W; Browning, R A; Smith, D C

    2007-06-29

    Development of cerebral edema (intracellular and/or extracellular water accumulation) following traumatic brain injury contributes to mortality and morbidity that accompanies brain injury. Chronic intermittent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) initiated at either 2 h or 24 h (VNS: 30 s train of 0.5 mA, 20 Hz, biphasic pulses every 30 min) following traumatic brain injury enhances recovery of motor and cognitive function in rats in the weeks following brain injury; however, the mechanisms of facilitated recovery are unknown. The present study examines the effects of VNS on development of acute cerebral edema following unilateral fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in rats, concomitant with assessment of their behavioral recovery. Two hours following FPI, VNS was initiated. Behavioral testing, using both beam walk and locomotor placing tasks, was conducted at 1 and 2 days following FPI. Edema was measured 48 h post-FPI by the customary method of region-specific brain weights before and after complete dehydration. Results of this study replicated that VNS initiated at 2 h after FPI: 1) effectively facilitated the recovery of vestibulomotor function at 2 days after FPI assessed by beam walk performance (P<0.01); and 2) tended to improve locomotor placing performance at the same time point (P=0.18). Most interestingly, results of this study showed that development of edema within the cerebral cortex ipsilateral to FPI was significantly attenuated at 48 h in FPI rats receiving VNS compared with non-VNS FPI rats (P<0.04). Finally, a correlation analysis between beam walk performance and cerebral edema following FPI revealed a significant inverse correlation between behavior performance and cerebral edema. Together, these results suggest that VNS facilitation of motor recovery following experimental brain injury in rats is associated with VNS-mediated attenuation of cerebral edema. PMID:17543463

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of cold injury-induced brain edema in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronological changes of blood-brain barrier disruption, and diffusion and absorption of edema fluid were investigated in rats with cold-induced brain injury (vasogenic edema) using magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast medium was administered intravenously at 3 and 24 hours after lesioning as a tracer of edema fluid. Serial T1-weighted multiple-slice images were obtained for 180 minutes after contrast administration. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was more prominent at 24 hours after lesioning than at 3 hours. Contrast medium leaked from the periphery of the injury and gradually diffused to the center of the lesion. Contrast medium diffused into the corpus callosum and the ventricular system (cerebrospinal fluid). Disruption of the blood-brain barrier induced by cold injury was most prominent at the periphery of the vasogenic edema. Edema fluid subsequently extended into the center of the lesion and was also absorbed by the ventricular system. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful method to assess the efficacy of therapy for vasogenic edema. (author)

  8. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodsch, W.; Huerter, T.; Hossmann, K.A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Forschungsstelle fuer Hirnkreislauf-Forschung)

    1982-10-07

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema.

  9. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema. (Auth.)

  10. Beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen on edema in rat hippocampus following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Liu, Ying; Deng, Shukun; Guo, Aisong; Wang, Xiubing; Shen, Guangyu

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy helps alleviate secondary injury following brain trauma [traumatic brain injury (TBI)], although the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we assessed recovery of post-TBI spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze (MWM) and measured changes in apparent diffusion coefficient in the hippocampus by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of HBO on TBI-associated brain edema. DWIs were obtained 8, 24, 48 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-TBI. Daily HBO therapy significantly improved post-TBI MWM performance and reduced edema in the ipsilateral hippocampus, suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy of HBO is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in brain edema. PMID:26267487

  11. Human neuronal changes in brain edema and increased intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Nóra; Kocsis, Ágnes Katalin; Braskó, Csilla; Lovas, Sándor; Rózsa, Márton; Baka, Judith; Kovács, Balázs; Mikite, Katalin; Szemenyei, Viktor; Molnár, Gábor; Ozsvár, Attila; Oláh, Gáspár; Piszár, Ildikó; Zvara, Ágnes; Patócs, Attila; Barzó, Pál; Puskás, László G; Tamás, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Functional and molecular changes associated with pathophysiological conditions are relatively easily detected based on tissue samples collected from patients. Population specific cellular responses to disease might remain undiscovered in samples taken from organs formed by a multitude of cell types. This is particularly apparent in the human cerebral cortex composed of a yet undefined number of neuron types with a potentially different involvement in disease processes. We combined cellular electrophysiology, anatomy and single cell digital PCR in human neurons identified in situ for the first time to assess mRNA expression and corresponding functional changes in response to edema and increased intracranial pressure. In single pyramidal cells, mRNA copy numbers of AQP1, AQP3, HMOX1, KCNN4, SCN3B and SOD2 increased, while CACNA1B, CRH decreased in edema. In addition, single pyramidal cells increased the copy number of AQP1, HTR5A and KCNS1 mRNAs in response to increased intracranial pressure. In contrast to pyramidal cells, AQP1, HMOX1and KCNN4 remained unchanged in single cell digital PCR performed on fast spiking cells in edema. Corroborating single cell digital PCR results, pharmacological and immunohistochemical results also suggested the presence of KCNN4 encoding the α-subunit of KCa3.1 channels in edema on pyramidal cells, but not on interneurons. We measured the frequency of spontaneous EPSPs on pyramidal cells in both pathophysiological conditions and on fast spiking interneurons in edema and found a significant decrease in each case, which was accompanied by an increase in input resistances on both cell types and by a drop in dendritic spine density on pyramidal cells consistent with a loss of excitatory synapses. Our results identify anatomical and/or physiological changes in human pyramidal and fast spiking cells in edema and increased intracranial pressure revealing cell type specific quantitative changes in gene expression. Some of the edema

  12. Influence of Age on Brain Edema Formation, Secondary Brain Damage and Inflammatory Response after Brain Trauma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luh, Clara; Gotthardt, Philipp; Huang, Changsheng; Schäfer, Michael K.; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C.

    2012-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI) elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months) and old (21 months) male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count) were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2%) compared to young (0%). This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral inflammation

  13. Influence of age on brain edema formation, secondary brain damage and inflammatory response after brain trauma in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Timaru-Kast

    Full Text Available After traumatic brain injury (TBI elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months and old (21 months male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2% compared to young (0%. This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral

  14. A new approach to ischemic brain edema and infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Yu; Jin Jia Xing; Liu De Ha

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility and efficiency of treatment in the patients with acute moderate and severe ischemic stroke with Neurotropin for its principle of inhibiting cerebral edema and repairing injured neurons. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with Neurotropin was performed in 50 patients admitted within 48h after an acute internal carotid artery infarction, Neurological deficits score ( Europe Stroke Scale-ESS ) <80 marks and the area of infarct and edema>2.25cm2. There were 31 patients in the Neurotropin group and 19 patients in the control group. Basic treatment was Troxerutin 250 mg intravenous drip per day for 21 days in two groups. Additionally, the patients in the Neurotropin group were intravenous injected 106 ampoule Neurotropin (3.6 unit per ampoule), divided into 11 days. We evaluated Neurological deficits score (ESS), ability of daily living (ADL)- Barthel Index, the size and average CT density of infarct and edema area on CT scan during different treatment stage and analyzed.them with statistics. Results: The percentage of improved patients (complete and partial recovery) reaches 64.5% in the Neurotropin group and 31.6% in the control group. The size of the infarct and edema area on CT scan is significantly reduced only in the Neurotropin group after treatment. The average range reduced is 28% on day 11 and 41.5% on day 21, and the average CT density in the Neurotropin group is more advanced than in the control group after onset. Conclusion: Neurotropin can be used as an effective therapy in acute ischemic stroke and ischemic cerebral edema.

  15. Comparative observation with MRI and pathology of brain edema at the early stage of severe burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between MRI features and pathology in brain edema at the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA Ⅲ degree) in dogs.Methods: Fifty-two dogs were randomized into control, simple burn (SB), burn plus sodium lactate (BSL), and burn plus glucose solution groups (BGS). The manifestation of the brain of control group was compared with that of burn groups at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours postburn with MRI and pathological examination (gross appearance, electron microscopy and light microscopy).Results: The earliest findings of brain edema were seen at 12 hours after burn in BGS group, in which brain swelling was the main feature of MRI. The decrease of SIR on T1WI was not observed until it was exceeded 10%.Signal of T2WI increased by 8.29% at 24 hours after burn.It was difficult to distinguish the gray matter from the white matter at the boundary line, which became blurred later. Histological changes of brain edema were observed as early as 6 hours after burn, being accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and peri-vescular astrocytes, and vacuolation took place in neurons at 12 hours after burn, with different degrees of necrosis of capillary endothelimn,neurons, and axons. These changes became more marked with elapse of time. The BGS group showed the most obvious changes mentioned above at 24 hours after burn.Conclusions: The model of the brain edema after severe burn has the feature of both vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema on the MRI and pathology. Positive MRI findings lagged behind that of the pathomorphological changes.ed

  16. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghui eJie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein in hippocampus of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  17. Prevention and management of brain edema in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendon, J.; Larsen, Finn Stolze

    2008-01-01

    1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema) and an...... increase in cerebral blood flow while the cerebrospinal fluid volume remains constant. 3. The development of intracranial hypertension in patients with acute liver failure may be controlled by manipulation of the position, body temperature, plasma tonicity, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial...

  18. Enhanced Expression of Aquaporin-9 in Rat Brain Edema Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaili WANG; Runming JIN; Peichao TIAN; Zhihong ZHUO

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of AQP9 in brain edema,the expression of AQP9 in an infectious rat brain edema model induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined.Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the expressions of AQP9 mRNA and protein at all observed intervals were significantly increased in LPS-treated animals in comparison with the control animals.Time-course analysis showed that the first signs of blood-brain barrier disruption and the increase of brain water content in LPS-treated animals were evident 6 h after LPS injection,with maximum value appearing at 12 h,which coincided with the expression profiles of AQP9 mRNA and protein in LPS-treated animals.The further correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlations among the brain water content,the disruption of the blood-brain barrier and the enhanced expressions of AQP9 mRNA and protein in LPS-treated animals.These results suggested that the regulation of AQP9 expression may play important roles in water movement and in brain metabolic homeostasis associated with the pathophysiology of brain edema induced by LPS injection.

  19. A STUDY ON PERITUMORAL BRAIN EDEMA AROUND MENINGIOMAS BY MRI AND CONTRAST CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; KAMMAN, RL; WILMINK, JT; MOOYAART, EL

    1994-01-01

    In the present study upon 9 meningiomas, the volume of peritumoral brain edema was calculated by integration of the cross-sectional edematous areas on serial MRI slices. It was zero in 3 cases and ranged from 11 to 176.4 ml in the other cases. There was disruption of the cortex in all cases, ranging

  20. 1H chemical shift imaging characterization of human brain tumor and edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of metabolites in human brain tumor, peritumoral edema, and unaffected brain tissue were assessed from point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) 1H chemical shift imaging results at different repetition times (TR=1500 and 5000 ms; T1: n=19) and echo times (TE=135 and 270 ms; T2: n=7). Metabolite T1 and T2 relaxation times in unaffected brain tissue corresponded with those published for healthy volunteers. T2 relaxation times were reduced in tumor (choline, N-acetyl aspartate) and edema (choline, creatine) compared with unaffected brain tissue (p1H chemical shift imaging is most suited in the use of choline elevation as tumor marker. (orig.)

  1. Pathophysiology of Juvenile Traumatic Brain Injury: Role of Edema and a Potential Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force to the head, resulting in damage to the brain. TBI is especially common in children and young adults and is associated with long-term mortality and morbidity. Juveniles seem to be at increased risk of developing cerebral edema after TBI partly due to higher water content and developmental differences in the brain's response to injury. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain and plays a critical role in edem...

  2. Central role of maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic brain edema formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the ensuing reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas; the two processes are interactive closely under the driving of maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphologic and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the ensuing glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K+ and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein and water channel protein aquaporin 4 to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the blood-brain barrier, but also lead to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation.

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein level and gene expression in intracranial meningiomas with brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Dyrbye, Henrik; Andresen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common primary intracranial tumors in adults. Although meningiomas are mostly benign, more than 50% of patients with meningioma develop peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), which may be fatal because of increased intracranial pressure. Vascular endothelial growth factor....... Forty-three patients had primary, solitary, supratentorial meningiomas with PTBE. In these, correlations in PTBE, edema index, VEGF-A protein, VEGF gene expression, capillary length, and tumor water content were investigated. DNA-branched hybridization was used for measuring VEGF gene expression in...... tissue homogenates prepared from frozen tissue samples. The method for VEGF-A analysis resembled an ELISA assay, but was based on chemiluminescence. The edema index was positively correlated to VEGF-A protein (p = 0.014) and VEGF gene expression (p <0.05). The capillary length in the meningiomas was...

  4. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  5. Hyperammonemia,brain edema and blood-brain barrier alterations in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats and paravrtamol intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; Maria A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema,animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication.METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ: sham operation; Ⅱ: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; Ⅲ:Acetaminophen intoxication and Ⅳ: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen. Acetaminophen was administered to produce acute hepatic injury. Portal pressure, liver serum enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were determined. Brain cortex water content was registered and trypan blue was utilized to study blood brain barrier integrity. Reflexes and behavioral tests were recorded.RESULTS: Portal hypertension was significantly elevated in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ. Liver enzymes and ammonia plasma levels were increased in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅳ. Prehepatic portal hypertension (group Ⅱ), acetaminophen intoxication (group Ⅲ) and both (group Ⅳ) had changes in the blood brain-barrier integrity (trypan blue) and hyperammonemia. Cortical edema was present in rats with acute hepatic injury in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Behavioral test (rota rod) was altered in group Ⅳ.CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of another pathway for cortical edema production because blood brain barrier was altered (vasogenic) and hyperammonemia was registered (cytotoxic). Group Ⅳ, with behavioral altered test, can be considered as a model for study at an early stage of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

  6. The apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured side after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hong; Lei, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury, vasogenic and cytotoxic edema appear sequentially on the involved side. Neuroimaging investigations of edema on the injured side have employed apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion tensor imaging. We investigated the changes occurring on the injured and uninjured sides using diffusion tensor imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient and histological samples in rats. We found that, on the injured side, that vasogenic edema appeared at 1 hour and in...

  7. Racking the brain: Detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to

  8. Racking the brain: Detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Nicole [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Schweitzer, Wolf; Ross, Steffen G.; Gascho, Dominic [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas D. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: patricia.flach@irm.uzh.ch [Institute of Forensic Medicine, Virtopsy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Postmortem swelling of the brain is a typical finding on PMCT and occurs concomitant with potential antemortem or agonal brain edema. •Cerebral edema despite normal postmortem swelling is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebral tonsils on PMCT. •Cases with intoxication or asphyxia demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units) and a ratio >1.58 between the gray and white matter. •The Hounsfield measurements of the white and gray matter help to determine the cause of death in cases of intoxication or asphyxia. -- Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. Materials and methods: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n = 109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter. The results were compared with the findings of subsequent autopsies as the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral edema. p-Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cerebellar edema (despite normal postmortem swelling) can be reliably assessed using postmortem computed tomography and is indicated by narrowed temporal horns and symmetrical herniation of the cerebellar tonsils (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between intoxication (or asphyxia) and all other causes of death; the former causes demonstrated higher deviations of the attenuation between white and gray matter (>20 Hounsfield Units), and the gray to

  9. Central Role of Maladapted Astrocytic Plasticity in Ischemic Brain Edema Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the resulting reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas, associated with maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphological and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the subsequent glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K(+) and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the BBB. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the BBB, but also leads to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation. PMID:27242440

  10. Brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: The role of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiangjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH results in secondary brain edema and injury that may lead to death and disability. ICH also causes inflammation. It is unclear whether inflammation contributes to brain edema and neuron injury or functions in repairing the brain tissue. Aims: To understand the effect of inflammation in ICH, we have carried out an investigation on the various aspects and the dynamic changes of inflammation. Settings and Design: An ICH model was generated by injecting 50 ml autologous tail artery blood stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of 30 rats, which were randomly divided into five ICH groups. Similarly, five Sham control groups were generated by inserting the needle to the right caudate nucleus of rats. Materials and Methods: Rat behavior was evaluated over the time course (6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d in each group. The rats were then killed by administering an overdose of pentobarbital. Following the euthanasia, the brain water content, neuronal loss, glia proliferation, inflammatory infiltration and brain morphology of the rats were measured. Additionally, the expression of TNF-a,IL-6, ICAM-1, VEGF, NF-kB, C3 and CR2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by student′s t test. Results: Rat brain water content increased progressively over the time course and reached its peak at 48h followed ICH. The maximum of inflammatory infiltrate (especially neutrophils and immunopositive cells of TNF-a, IL-6 and NF-kB, were at 48h. The expression of C3 and CR2 reached their peaks at 48-72h, while the expression ICAM-1 and VEGF were at maximum at 72h followed ICH. Conclusions: The results suggested that the inflammatory cytokines, complement system and VEGF may have a function in the development of the brain edema and neuron injury followed ICH.

  11. The apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured side after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lu; Xiaoyan Lei

    2014-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury, vasogenic and cytotoxic edema appear sequentially on the in-volved side. Neuroimaging investigations of edema on the injured side have employed apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion tensor imaging. We investigated the changes occurring on the injured and uninjured sides using diffusion tensor imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient and histological samples in rats. We found that, on the injured side, that vasogen-ic edema appeared at 1 hour and intracellular edema appeared at 3 hours. Mixed edema was observed at 6 hours, worsening until 12-24 hours post-injury. Simultaneously, microglial cells proliferated at the trauma site. Apparent diffusion coefficient values increased at 1 hour, decreased at 6 hours, and increased at 12 hours. The uninjured side showed no significant pathological change at 1 hour after injury. Cytotoxic edema appeared at 3 hours, and vasogen-ic edema was visible at 6 hours. Cytotoxic edema persisted, but vasogenic edema tended to decrease after 12-24 hours. Despite this complex edema pattern on the uninjured side with associated pathologic changes, no significant change in apparent diffusion coefficient values was detected over the first 24 hours. Apparent diffusion coefficient values accurately detected the changes on the injured side, but did not detect the changes on the uninjured side, giving a false-negative result.

  12. MRI findings of acute cerebral swelling and brain edema in the acute stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases, one of acute cerebral swelling and the other with a major stroke, whose MRI has shown very interesting findings. Case 1, a 32-year-old male, was admitted to our service because of a lowering of his consciousness immediately after a head injury. On admission, the patient was semicomatous (E1M2V1, with anisocoria (R > L). His plain skull X-ray was normal. A CT scan, however, demonstrated right isodensity hemispheric swelling associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. A right carotid angiogram showed no vascular disorders. MR imaging of the spin density demonstrated a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in the whole right hemisphere. Case 2, a 58-year-old female, was admitted because of a sudden onset of loss of consciousness, with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. On admission, her consciousness was semicomatous (E1M3V1), and it deteriorated to a deep coma 1 hour later. A CT scan demonstrated a diffuse left hemispheric low density, with a finding of hemorrhagic infarction in the basal ganglia. MR imaging of the spin density showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter resembling that of Case 1. The findings of the spin-echo images of our two cases showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in both. The hyperintensity and thickening of the gray matter apparently indicated a sort of hyperemia and brain edema. These findings led us to suspect that the hyperemia associated with acute cerebral swelling and ischemic brain edema of our two cases originated in the gray matter, although it has been considered that the pathogenesis of acute cerebral swelling is not known and that brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, will mostly develop in the white matter rather than in the gray matter. (author)

  13. Treatment of tyramine-induced brain edema with anion transport inhibitor L-644,711

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyramine induces coma in phenelzine-treated dogs. Development of coma in these animals is associated with brain edema, abnormal brain scans of Tc-99m-diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (Tc-99m-DTPA), and elevated levels of CSF catecholamines. We found that the intravenous administration of 6-7 mg/kg of a single dose of L-644,711 given fifteen minutes after the oral administration of tyramine to phenelzine-pretreated animals followed by an infusion of normal saline containing 6-7 mg/kg of the drug given over a period of 2 hr caused reversal of brain injury. This was accompanied by full recovery within a period of 24 hr of all the animals tested. A follow-up study revealed that 24 hr after treatment with L-644,711 CSF levels of catecholamines and brain images of Tc-99m-DTPA were indistinguishable from normal controls. Animals that received no drug died from unresolved coma within 4 to 24 hr. Animals that had recovered due to therapy with L-644,711 were given 10-14 days rest followed by a repetition of the phenelzine and tyramine treatment but denied L-644,711 therapy. These animals also died of unresolved coma within 24 hr. This preliminary study suggest that the use of L-644,711 may constitute an important advance in treatment of brain edema of a wide range of neurological disorders

  14. Multi-fractal texture features for brain tumor and edema segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, S.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we propose a fully automatic brain tumor and edema segmentation technique in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Different brain tissues are characterized using the novel texture features such as piece-wise triangular prism surface area (PTPSA), multi-fractional Brownian motion (mBm) and Gabor-like textons, along with regular intensity and intensity difference features. Classical Random Forest (RF) classifier is used to formulate the segmentation task as classification of these features in multi-modal MRIs. The segmentation performance is compared with other state-of-art works using a publicly available dataset known as Brain Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2012 [1]. Quantitative evaluation is done using the online evaluation tool from Kitware/MIDAS website [2]. The results show that our segmentation performance is more consistent and, on the average, outperforms other state-of-the art works in both training and challenge cases in the BRATS competition.

  15. Rifaximin, but not growth factor 1, reduces brain edema in cirrhotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gemma (ò)dena; Mireia Miquel; Anna Serafín; Amparo Galan; Rosa Morillas; Ramon Planas; Ramon Bartolí

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare rifaximin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 treatment of hyperammonemia and brain edema in cirrhotic rats with portal occlusion.METHODS:Rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis with ascites plus portal vein occlusion and controls were randomized into six groups:Cirrhosis; Cirrhosis + IGF-1;Cirrhosis + rifaximin; Controls; Controls + IGF-1; and Controls + rifaximin.An oral glutamine-challenge test was performed,and plasma and cerebral ammonia,glucose,bilirubin,transaminases,endotoxemia,brain water content and ileocecal cultures were measured and liver histology was assessed.RESULTS:Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced bacterial overgrowth and endotoxemia compared with cirrhosis groups,and improved some liver function parameters (bilirubin,alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase).These effects were associated with a significant reduction in cerebral water content.Blood and cerebral ammonia levels,and area-underthe-curve values for oral glutamine-challenge tests were similar in rifaximin-treated cirrhotic rats and control group animals.By contrast,IGF-1 administration failed to improve most alterations observed in cirrhosis.CONCLUSION:By reducing gut bacterial overgrowth,only rifaximin was capable of normalizing plasma and brain ammonia and thereby abolishing low-grade brain edema,alterations associated with hepatic encephalopathy.

  16. AQP4 expression and its relationship with brain edema after gamma kife radiosurgery in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore AQP4 expression and its relationship with brain edema after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into two groups-the control group and experimental group. The experimental group model was established by radiating rat left rotral caudate nucleus with GKRS (100 Gy, 4 mm), and was examinded at interval times of 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d, 30 d and 45 d. Brain water content (BWC) was determined by wet-dry weighing method. AQP4 expression on mRNA and protein were measured by immunohistochemistry (ICH) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Results: In control group, AQP4 protein and its mRNA were expressed in subpial astrocytes, choroid plexus, ependyma and perivascular astrocytes. After GKRS, AQP4 protein and its mRNA in these sites were enhanced, and became most remarkable at 30 d. The positive corrlationship was showed between AQP4 and its mRNA, and AQP4 and BWC. Conclusions: AQP4 protein and its mRNA can be induced in some brain zone after irradiating rat left rotral caudate nucleus with GKRS. The increased expression of AQP4 and its mRNA may play a role in the ocurrence or development of brain edema after GKRS. (authors)

  17. Minocycline-induced hypersensitivity syndrome presenting with meningitis and brain edema: a case report

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    Lefebvre Nicolas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypersentivity Syndrome (HS may be a life-threatening condition. It frequently presents with fever, rash, eosinophilia and systemic manifestations. Mortality can be as high as 10% and is primarily due to hepatic failure. We describe what we believe to be the first case of minocycline-induced HS with accompanying lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema reported in the literature. Case presentation A 31-year-old HIV-positive female of African origin presented with acute fever, lymphocytic meningitis, brain edema, rash, eosinophilia, and cytolytic hepatitis. She had been started on minocycline for inflammatory acne 21 days prior to the onset of symptoms. HS was diagnosed clinically and after exclusion of infectious causes. Minocycline was withdrawn and steroids were administered from the second day after presentation because of the severity of the symptoms. All signs resolved by the seventh day and steroids were tailed off over a period of 8 months. Conclusion Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for serious adverse reactions to minocycline including lymphocytic meningitis and cerebral edema among HIV-positive patients, especially if they are of African origin. Safer alternatives should be considered for treatment of acne vulgaris. Early recognition of the symptoms and prompt withdrawal of the drug are important to improve the outcome.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Qian, Z.; Yang, T.; Li, W.; Hu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μs') and BWC. By recording μs' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J; Qian, Z; Li, W; Hu, G [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, T, E-mail: zhiyu@nuaa.edu.cn [School of Clinical Medicine, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient ({mu}{sub s}') and BWC. By recording {mu}{sub s}' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  20. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  1. The significance of morphological changes in the brain-tumor interface for the pathogenesis of brain edema in meningioma: Magnetic resonance tomography and intraoperative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to verify a possible correlation between macroscopic changes of the brain-tumor interface (BTI) and the development of a peritumoral brain edema in meningiomas. Methods: 27 meningiomas were investigated in this prospective study using an optimized inversion-recovery (IR) sequence. After i.v. administration of 0.2 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg axial and coronary images were acquired (slice thickness=2 mm). The distances of signal altered cortex and obliterations of the subarachnoid space (SAS) were measured at the BTI and related to the pial tumor circumference (cortical-index and SAS-index). Intraoperatively the BTI was divided into the following categories: 0: SAS not obliterated, 1: SAS partially obliterated, 2: Direct contact between tumor and white matter, 3: Tumor infiltration into brain. Results: Edema-associated meningiomas showed a significantly (p=0.0001) increased SAS-index (0.47 vs. 0.07) and cortical index (0.45 vs. 0.0) compared to cases without edema. Intraoperatively 95% of meningiomas with brain edema showed SAS-obliterations, compared to 50% of cases without an edema. Conclusions: Arachnoid adhesions at the BTI with obliteration of the SAS seem to play an essential role in the induction of brain edema in meningiomas. (orig.)

  2. Effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 张光霁; 丁学华; 江基尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: An acute experimental closed TBI model in rats was induced by a fluid-percussion brain injury model. At five and sixty minutes after TBI, the animals were intraperitoneally injected by ganglioside GM1 (30 mg/kg) or the same volume of saline. At the 6th hour after TBI, effects of ganglioside GM1 or saline on changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), contents of water, lactic acid (LA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the injured cerebral tissues were observed.Results: After TBI, MAP decreased and contents of water, LA and LPO increased in brain injury group; however, MAP was back to normal levels and contents of water, LA and LPO decreased in ganglioside GM1 treated group, compared with those in brain injury group (P0.05) was observed.Conclusions: Ganglioside GM1 does have obvious neuroprotective effect on early TBI.

  3. Protection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor to Brain Edema Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Involved Mechanisms: Effect of Aquaporin-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heling Chu

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has protective effects on many neurological diseases. However, whether VEGF acts on brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is largely unknown. Our previous study has shown aquaporin-4 (AQP4 plays an important role in brain edema elimination following ICH. Meanwhile, there is close relationship between VEGF and AQP4. In this study, we aimed to test effects of VEGF on brain edema following ICH and examine whether they were AQP4 dependent. Recombinant human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165 was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 d after ICH induced by microinjecting autologous whole blood into striatum. We detected perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression, then examined the effects of rhVEGF165 on perihemotomal brain edema at 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after injection in wild type (AQP4(+/+ and AQP4 knock-out (AQP4(-/- mice. Furthermore, we assessed the possible signal transduction pathways activated by VEGF to regulate AQP4 expression via astrocyte cultures. We found perihemotomal AQP4 protein expression was highly increased by rhVEGF165. RhVEGF165 alleviated perihemotomal brain edema in AQP4(+/+ mice at each time point, but had no effect on AQP4(-/- mice. Perihemotomal EB extravasation was increased by rhVEGF165 in AQP4(-/- mice, but not AQP4(+/+ mice. RhVEGF165 reduced neurological deficits and increased Nissl's staining cells surrounding hemotoma in both types of mice and these effects were related to AQP4. RhVEGF165 up-regulated phospharylation of C-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK and AQP4 protein in cultured astrocytes. The latter was inhibited by JNK and ERK inhibitors. In conclusion, VEGF reduces neurological deficits, brain edema, and neuronal death surrounding hemotoma but has no influence on BBB permeability. These effects are closely related to AQP4 up-regulation, possibly through activating JNK and ERK pathways. The current study may present new insights to

  4. Estrogen provides neuroprotection against brain edema and blood brain barrier disruption through both estrogen receptors α and β following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Naderi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Estrogen (E2 has neuroprotective effects on blood-brain-barrier (BBB after traumatic brain injury (TBI. In order to investigate the roles of estrogen receptors (ERs in these effects, ER-α antagonist (MPP and, ER-β antagonist (PHTPP, or non-selective estrogen receptors antagonist (ICI 182780 were administered. Materials and Methods: Ovariectomized rats were divided into 10 groups, as follows: Sham, TBI, E2, oil, MPP+E2, PHTPP+E2, MPP+PHTPP+E2, ICI+E2, MPP, and DMSO. E2 (33.3 µg/Kg or oil were administered 30 min after TBI. 1 dose (150 µg/Kg of each of MPP, PHTPP, and (4 mg/kg ICI182780 was injected two times, 24 hr apart, before TBI and estrogen treatment. BBB disruption (Evans blue content and brain edema (brain water content evaluated 5 hr and 24 hr after the TBI were evaluated, respectively. Results: The results showed that E2 reduced brain edema after TBI compared to vehicle (P

  5. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

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    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  6. Neuroprotective effects of nimodipine and MK-801 on acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli to neocortex of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立华; 刘丽旭; 杨于嘉; 刘运生; 曹美鸿

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism and type of acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli (PB) in rat neocortex, to study the neuroprotective effect of non-competitive antagonist of N-methl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor ( MK-801 ) and antagonist of Ca2+ channels ( nimodipine )on brain edema, and to investigate the relationship between percentage of water content and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in synaptosomes or content of Evans Blue (EB).Methods: 95 SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, ie, normal control group, sham-operated control group, PB group, nimodipine treatment group and MK-801 pretreatment group. The acute infectious brain edema was induced by injection of PB into the rats. Quantitative measurements of water content and the concentration of EB were performed. [Ca2+]i was determined in calcium fluorescent indication Fura-2/AM loaded neuronal synaptosome with a spectrofluorophotometer. To observe the effect of MK-801 and nimodipine, we administered MK-801 48 hours and 24 hours before the injection of PB in MK-801 pretreatment group, and nimodipine after the injection of PB in nimodipine treatment group. The specific binding of NMDA receptor was measured with [3H]-MK-801 in the neuronal membrane of cerebral cortex. Results: The levels of water content and EB content of brain tissues, and [Ca2+]i in the neuronal synaptosomes increased more significantly in the PB-injected cerebral hemisphere in the PB group than those of normal control group and sham-operated control group (P0.05). Conclusions: The changes in the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and Ca2+-overload may participate in the pathogenesis of infectious brain edema. Treatment with nimodipine can dramatically reduce the damage of brain edema and demonstrate neuroprotective effect on brain edema by inhibiting the excess of Ca2+ influx and reducing the permeability of BBB. MK-801 pretreatment may inhibit the delayed Ca2+ influx into

  7. Treadmill exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced brain edema while suppressing Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ryutaro; Sugimoto, Kana; Aono, Hitomi; Mise, Ayano; Choudhury, Mohammed E; Miyanishi, Kazuya; Islam, Afsana; Fujita, Takahiro; Takeda, Haruna; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Yano, Hajime; Tanaka, Junya

    2016-03-01

    Exercise may be one of the most effective and sound therapies for stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying the curative effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of forced treadmill exercise with electric shock on ischemic brain edema were investigated. Wistar rats were subjected to transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Eighty nine rats with substantially large ischemic lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were randomly assigned to exercise and non-exercise groups. The rats were forced to run at 4-6m/s for 10 min/day on days 2, 3 and 4. Brain edema was measured on day 5 by MRI, histochemical staining of brain sections and tissue water content determination (n=7, each experiment). Motor function in some rats was examined on day 30 (n=6). Exercise reduced brain edema (Pexercise. Exercise prevented the ischemia-induced expression of mRNA encoding aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) (n=5 or 7, Prat brains and also in mixed glial cultures. Corticosterone at ~10nM reduced NHE1 and AQP4 expression in mixed glial and pure microglial cultures. Dexamethasone and aldosterone at 10nM did not significantly alter NHE1 and AQP4 expression. Exposure to a NHE inhibitor caused shrinkage of microglial cells. These results suggest that the stressful short-period and slow-paced treadmill exercise suppressed NHE1 and AQP4 expression resulting in the amelioration of brain edema at least partly via the moderate increase in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:26724742

  8. Brain edema and intracranial hypertension in fulminant hepatic failure: Pathophysiology and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Detry; Arnaud De Roover; Pierre Honoré; Michel Meurisse

    2006-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from fulminant hepatic failure. The etiology of this intracranial hypertension is not fully determined, and is probably multifactorial, combining a cytotoxic brain edema due to the astrocytic accumulation of glutamine, and an increase in cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow, in part due to inflammation, to glutamine and to toxic products of the diseased liver. Validated methods to control intracranial hypertension in fulminant hepatic failure patients mainly include mannitol, hypertonic saline, indomethacin, thiopental, and hyperventilation.However all these measures are often not sufficient in absence of liver transplantation, the only curative treatment of intracranial hypertension in fulminant hepatic failure to date. Induced moderate hypothermia seems very promising in this setting, but has to be validated by a controlled, randomized study. Artificial liver support systems have been under investigation for many decades. The bioartificial liver, based on both detoxification and swine liver cells, has shown some efficacy on reduction of intracranial pressure but did not show survival benefit in a controlled, randomized study.The Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System has shown some efficacy in decreasing intracranial pressure in an animal model of liver failure, but has still to be evaluated in a phase Ⅲ trial.

  9. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:26498936

  10. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure and brain natriuretic peptide in high altitude pulmonary edema susceptible non-mountaineers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder K. Gupta; Himashree, G.; Krishan Singh; Poonam Soree; Koundinya Desiraju; Anurag Agrawal; Dishari Ghosh; Deepak Dass; Prassana K. Reddy; Usha Panjwani; Shashi Bala Singh

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia is a pathgonomic feature observed in high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) susceptible mountaineers. It was investigated whether measurement of basal pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) could improve identification of HAPE susceptible subjects in a non-mountaineer population. We studied BNP levels, baseline hemodynamics and the response to hypoxia (FIo2 = 0.12 for 30 min duration at sea level) in 11 HAPE resistan...

  11. Treatment with the NK1 antagonist emend reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction and edema formation in an experimental model of brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harford-Wright

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide substance P (SP has been implicated in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and development of cerebral edema in acute brain injury. Cerebral edema accumulates rapidly around brain tumors and has been linked to several tumor-associated deficits. Currently, the standard treatment for peritumoral edema is the corticosteroid dexamethasone, prolonged use of which is associated with a number of deleterious side effects. As SP is reported to increase in many cancer types, this study examined whether SP plays a role in the genesis of brain peritumoral edema. A-375 human melanoma cells were injected into the right striatum of male Balb/c nude mice to induce brain tumor growth, with culture medium injected in animals serving as controls. At 2, 3 or 4 weeks following tumor cell inoculation, non-treated animals were perfusion fixed for immunohistochemical detection of Albumin, SP and NK1 receptor. A further subgroup of animals was treated with a daily injection of the NK1 antagonist Emend (3 mg/kg, dexamethasone (8 mg/kg or saline vehicle at 3 weeks post-inoculation. Animals were sacrificed a week later to determine BBB permeability using Evan's Blue and brain water content. Non-treated animals demonstrated a significant increase in albumin, SP and NK1 receptor immunoreactivity in the peritumoral area as well as increased perivascular staining in the surrounding brain tissue. Brain water content and BBB permeability was significantly increased in tumor-inoculated animals when compared to controls (p<0.05. Treatment with Emend and dexamethasone reduced BBB permeability and brain water content when compared to vehicle-treated tumor-inoculated mice. The increase in peritumoral staining for both SP and the NK1 receptor, coupled with the reduction in brain water content and BBB permeability seen following treatment with the NK1 antagonist Emend, suggests that SP plays a role in the genesis of peritumoral edema, and thus warrants

  12. A correlative study between AQP4 expression and the manifestation of DWI after the acute ischemic brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏; 孙善全

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rule of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression in acute ischemic brain edema, and to study the correlation between AQP4 expression and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups randomly, control group (n=12) and operation group (n=24) in which right middle cerebral artery of each animal had been occluded unilaterally (MCAO) at interval times of: 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours, respectively. The operation process of the control group was the same as the operation group except for the MCAO. All groups were examined using DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relative density (rd) and relative area (rs) of the biggest hyperintensity signal layer on DWI were measured. After that the animals were sacrificed and perfused with the mixture solution consisting of TTC. The biggest layers of the ischemic cerebral tissues in each rat corresponding to the DWI were stained with TTC and examined with immunochemistry (△S) , in situ hybridization (α) and histology.Results There was no significant change in the control group. In the operation group, a hyperintensity signal was found in the DWI of the right MAC territory at 15 minutes after MCAO. The ADC value decreased quickly within one hour after MCAO, while the AQP4 expression, rd-DWI and rs-DWI increased rapidly during this stage. As time progressed, the ADC value decreased further to (2.1±0.6)×10-4 mm2/s at 3 hours, and then began to increase slowly till 24 hours. But the AQP4 expression (△S and α) and rd as well as the rs continuously increased slowly between 1 hour and 6 hours after MCAO, followed a peak after 6 hours. The AQP4 expression (α) showed a positive relationship with the rs-DWI, they all presented two peaks and a plateau. The corresponding sequential pathologic changes were a gradual increase of intracellular edema (within one hour), then an emergence of vasogenic edema (1-6 hours), and final

  13. Brain edema and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renlan Zhou; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in brain edema. However, it is unclear whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with TWEAK during the process of brain edema OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TWEAK on BBB permeability in brain edema.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An immunohistochemical observation, randomized, controlled animal experiment was pertbrmed at the Laboratory of Neurosurgical Anatomy, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University & Central Laboratory, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University between January 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 48 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (n =8), sham-operated (n = 8), and ischemia/reperfusion (n = 32). Rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group were randomly assigned to four subgroups according to different time points, i.e., 2 hours of ischemia followed by 6 hours (n = 8), 12 hours {n = 8), 1 day (n = 8), or 12 days (n = 8) of reperfusion.METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the suture method in rats from the ischemia/reperfusion group. Thread was introduced at a depth of 17-19 mm. Rats in the sham-operated group were subjected to experimental procedures similar to the ischemia/reperfusion group; however, the introducing depth of thread was 10 mm. The normal control group was not given any intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TWEAK expression was examined by immunohistochemistry; brain water content on the ischemic side was calculated as the ratio of dry to wet tissue weight; BBB permeability was measured by Evans blue extravasation.RESULTS: A total of eight rats died prior to and after surgery and an additional eight rats were randomly entered into the study. Thus 48 rats were included in the final analysis. In the ischemia/reperfusion group,TWEAK-positive cells were

  14. MRI findings of acute cerebral swelling and brain edema in the acute stage. A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Hideo; Ueda, Shin; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kashihara, Michiharu; Furuichi, Masashi.

    1988-08-01

    We report two cases, one of acute cerebral swelling and the other with a major stroke, whose MRI has shown very interesting findings. Case 1, a 32-year-old male, was admitted to our service because of a lowering of his consciousness immediately after a head injury. On admission, the patient was semicomatous (E/sub 1/M/sub 2/V/sub 1/, with anisocoria (R > L). His plain skull X-ray was normal. A CT scan, however, demonstrated right isodensity hemispheric swelling associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. A right carotid angiogram showed no vascular disorders. MR imaging of the spin density demonstrated a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in the whole right hemisphere. Case 2, a 58-year-old female, was admitted because of a sudden onset of loss of consciousness, with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. On admission, her consciousness was semicomatous (E/sub 1/M/sub 3/V/sub 1/), and it deteriorated to a deep coma 1 hour later. A CT scan demonstrated a diffuse left hemispheric low density, with a finding of hemorrhagic infarction in the basal ganglia. MR imaging of the spin density showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter resembling that of Case 1. The findings of the spin-echo images of our two cases showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in both. The hyperintensity and thickening of the gray matter apparently indicated a sort of hyperemia and brain edema. These findings led us to suspect that the hyperemia associated with acute cerebral swelling and ischemic brain edema of our two cases originated in the gray matter, although it has been considered that the pathogenesis of acute cerebral swelling is not known and that brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, will mostly develop in the white matter rather than in the gray matter.

  15. Selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduces neurological deficit but not cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louin, G; Marchand-Verrecchia, C; Palmier, B; Plotkine, M; Jafarian-Tehrani, M

    2006-02-01

    The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cerebral edema and neurological deficit following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet clear-cut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different iNOS inhibitors on cerebral edema and functional outcome after TBI. First, the time courses of blood--brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, cerebral edema, and neurological deficit were studied in a rat model of fluid percussion-induced TBI. The permeability of BBB to Evans blue was increased from 1 h to 24 h after TBI. Consistently, a significant increase in brain water content (BWC) was observed at 6 and 24 h post-TBI. A deficit in sensorimotor neurological functions was also observed from 6 h to 7 days with a maximum 24 h after TBI. Second, a single dose of aminoguanidine (AG; 100 mg/kg, i.p.), L-N-iminoethyl-lysine (L-NIL; 20 mg/kg, i.p.), or N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamide (1400W; 20 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at 6 h post-TBI. Treatment with AG reduced by 71% the increase in BWC evaluated at 24 h, while L-NIL and 1400W had no effect. In contrast, the three iNOS inhibitors reduced the neurological deficit from 30% to 40%. Third, 1400W (20 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at 5 min, 8 and 16 h post-TBI. Although this treatment paradigm had no effect on cerebral edema evaluated at 24 h, it significantly reduced the neurological deficit and iNOS activity. In conclusion, iNOS contributes to post-TBI neurological deficit but not to cerebral edema. The beneficial effect of iNOS inhibitors is not due to their anti-edematous effect, and the reduction of cerebral edema by AG is unlikely related to iNOS inhibition. The 6 h therapeutic window of iNOS inhibitors could allow their use in the treatment of functional deficit at the acute phase of TBI. PMID:16242164

  16. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Anderson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed.

  17. Dietary Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Blood Brain Barrier Permeability, Brain Edema, and Brain Injury in Rats Subjected to Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohagheghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that dietary virgin olive oil (VOO reduces hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in rat brain slices. We sought to extend these observations in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Four groups, each consisting of 18 Wistar rats, were studied. One group (control received saline, while three treatment groups received oral VOO (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60-min period of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. After 24-h reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups of six animals drawn from each main group. VOO reduced the LDL/HDL ratio in doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05, and offered cerebroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 0.25 vs. 0.5 vs. 0.75 mL/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were 207.82 ± 34.29 vs. 206.41 ± 26.23 vs. 124.21 ± 14.73 vs. 108.46 ± 31.63 mm3; brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere was 82 ±± 0.25 vs. 81.5 ± 0.56 vs. 80.5 ± 0.22 vs. 80.5 ± 0.34%; and blood brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere was 11.31 ± 2.67 vs. 9.21 ± 2.28 vs. 5.83 ± 1.6 vs. 4.43 ± 0.93 µg/g tissue (p < 0.05 for measures in doses 0.5 and 0.75 mL/kg/day vs. controls. Oral administration of VOO reduces infarct volume, brain edema, blood brain barrier permeability, and improves neurologic deficit scores after transient MCAO in rats.

  18. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  19. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Su won (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  20. Neurological deficits and brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, T; Okauchi, M; Hua, Y; Schallert, T; Keep, R F; Xi, G

    2008-01-01

    We examined the time course of neurological deficits in gerbils after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced by autologous blood infusion and examined its correlation with the severity of perihematomal edema. Mongolian gerbils (n = 15) were subjected to stereotaxic autologous blood infusion (30 or 60 microL) into the left caudate nucleus. Corner-turn and forelimb-placing tests were performed before, and 1 and 3 days after ICH. Perihematomal water content was measured by tissue gravimetry. Gerbils developed neurological deficits and perihematomal edema at day 1 after ICH. Both neurological deficits and perihematomal edema were significantly greater in animals with 60 microL blood infusion compared to the 30 microL infusion group, and both neurological deficits and edema were also greater at 3 days compared to 1 day after ICH. The severity of neurological deficits paralleled the degree of perihematomal edema. We conclude that the Mongolian gerbil is a suitable model for studies on the behavioral effects of ICH. PMID:19066097

  1. Suppressive effect of dexamethasone on the neutrophil expression of CD18 in rats with radiation induced brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laixing Wang; Yibin Fang; Xiaoping Zhou; Xiaowu Hu; Jianmin Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stereo-tactic radiation therapy (SRT) is widely used to treat intracranial diseases, but some patients suffered from radiation induced brain edema after SRT. Once radiation induced brain edema occurs,the treatment is quite difficult, and it always leads to a poor outcome. Dexamethasone has certain therapeutic effect on traumatic brain edema, but the biological mechanism is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of dexamethasone on the neutrophil expression of CD18.DESIGN: A randomized control observation.SETTING: Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS : The experiment was carried out in Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from January 1999 to December 1999. Twenty SD rats (male and female each in half) weighing (250±50) g were used.METHODS: Twenty SD rats were divided into four groups at random. ① Blank control group (n=5): The rats were not treated without dexamethasone or irradiation; ② Irradiation group (n=5): The rats were given irradiation but no dexamethasone treatment; ③ Irradiation+1 mg/kg dexamethasone group (n=5):The rats were treated with irradiation and dexamethasone of 1 mg/kg; ④ Irradiation+5 mg/kg dexamethasone group (n=5): The rats were treated with irradiation and dexamethasone of 5 mg/kg. The heads of the rats were irradiated with 10 MeV X-ray (30 Gy), and brain tissue was removed after 2weeks to observe the pathological changes. Blood samples were taken from the carotid artery, gradient centrifugation was used, and neutrophile layer was obtained, the level of neutrophile expression of CD18 mRNA and quantity of membrane proteins in blood were detected with Northern blot and flow cytometry respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Blood cell count; ② Pathological results; ③ level of neutrophile expression of CD18 mRNA and quantity of membrane proteins.RESULTS: All the 20 SD rats were involved in the analysis of results without

  2. The brain in acute liver failure. A tortuous path from hyperammonemia to cerebral edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Eefsen, Martin; Hansen, Bent Adel;

    2008-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition with an unfavourable prognosis. Multiorgan failure and circulatory collapse are frequent causes of death, but cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension (ICH) are also common complications with a high risk of fatal outcome. The underlying pathogenesis has...... been extensively studied and although the development of cerebral edema and ICH is of a complex and multifactorial nature, it is well established that ammonia plays a pivotal role. This review will focus on the effects of hyperammonemia on neurotransmission, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress...

  3. Curcumin alleviates brain edema by lowering AQP4 expression levels in a rat model of hypoxia-hypercapnia-induced brain damage

    OpenAIRE

    YU, LIN-SHENG; FAN, YAN-YAN; YE, GUANGHUA; Li, Junli; FENG, XIANG-PING; Lin, Kezhi; DONG, MIUWU; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin (CU) against brain edema in a rat model of hypoxia-hypercapnia (HH)-induced brain damage (HHBD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, including a control group and four treatment groups. The rats in the control group were raised under normal laboratory conditions and were injected with water, whereas the rats in the treatment groups were exposed to a low O2/high CO2 environment simulating HH conditio...

  4. Ischemic brain edema following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. I: The time courses of the brain water, sodium and potassium contents and blood-brain barrier permeability to 125I-albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to analyze the roles of brain cations and of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to albumin in the development of ischemic brain edema. Using the rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model, changes in the brain water, sodium, and potassium contents were followed for a period of seven days. The permeability of the BBB to proteins was also followed by 125I-albumin transfer from the blood into the brain. A significant edema developed as early as three hours after MCA occlusion. This progressed rapidly to reach a maximum on the third day, gradually regressing thereafter. The increase in the brain water contents showed a parallel time course to the increase in the sodium and decrease in the potassium contents. A significant increase in the BBB permeability to albumin occurred 72 hours after MCA occlusion. However, there was no correlation between the brain water content and BBB permeability to albumin in the hemispheres studied 72 hours after MCA occlusion. The correlation between the brain water and sodium contents was not clear during the first six hours, but became highly significant thereafter. The data suggest that an increase in the BBB permeability to sodium occurred 12-48 hours after MCA occlusion, which, together with an antecedent intracellular shift of sodium, resulted in a massive influx of water and sodium into the brain. The BBB permeability change to sodium, not to proteins, seems to play a predominant role in the pathogenesis underlying ischemic brain edema

  5. The influence of carmustine wafer implantation on tumor bed cysts and peritumoral brain edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuzo; Iuchi, Toshihiko; Sakaida, Tsukasa; Yokoi, Sana; Kawasaki, Koichiro

    2016-09-01

    The development of perifocal edema and tumor bed cyst has been reported after implantation of biodegradable carmustine wafers for the treatment of malignant gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated these changes in a series of patients; 19 consecutive patients with malignant glioma who received carmustine wafer implantation at our hospital from January 2013 through July 2013, and 28 patients who underwent surgery prior to our institution's initiation of carmustine wafer implantation, as historical controls. The volume of the tumor bed cyst and perifocal edema was calculated on MRI acquired at four time points: ⩽72hours after surgery for baseline, and at 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12weeks after surgery. The volume of the tumor bed cyst in the wafer group increased significantly relative to the control group at all time points (p=0.04). Opening of the ventricle was inversely correlated with enlargement of the tumor bed cyst in the wafer group (p=0.04). The change in the volume of perifocal edema in the wafer group was not significantly different (p=0.48), but exhibited a considerable increase in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma relative to glioblastoma patients in the wafer group (p=0.01). We demonstrated significant enlargement of the tumor bed cyst volume after carmustine wafer implantation, as well as the development of marked perifocal edema in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:27430412

  6. The effect of pre-nutrition of hydroalcoholic extractof Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficits in a rat stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Foroozandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stroke is one of the most important factors of mortality and disability in the world. Free radicals are produced following ischemic stroke and they play a central role in breaking the blood-brain barrier and  causing brain edema formation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficit in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: In thisexperimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups.  The first  two groups (control and Sham received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract for 30days (50,75and 100 mg/kgdaily, respectively.  Two hours after the last dose of Origanum vulgare extract,each main group underwent  a 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion.  Then, the assessment of blood brain edema, and neurologic deficits analysis were done . Brain edema (brain water content was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA using LSD method and neurologic deficits analysis by means of Mann-Whitney U, and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Origanum vulgare extract reduced brain edema in the experimental groups of 50 (82.49±0.47, 75 (80.89±0.63 and 100 mg/kg/day (80.80±0.66 compared to the control group (84.46±0.67. The neurologic deficit scores in the experimental groups of 75and 100mg/kg/day, compared with control group, but neurologic deficit scores did not affect the group receiving the dose 50 mg/kg. Conclusion:  The obtained data indicate that Origanum vulgar extract via reduction of brain edema and neurologic deficits scorescan have a protective effect on the stroke model.

  7. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  8. Study on the relationship of cytochrome C expression and cerebral edema in perihematomal brain tissue in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Heng; LIU Guixiang; XU Chunsheng; LIU Qingxin; XU Xiaobo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue and its relationship with the histopathological change and formation of cerebral edema in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. Methods Thirty four patients (23 male, 11 female) of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in hospital from Sep. 2001 to Sep. 2002 were selected with a mean age 55.6± 10.2 years (from 35 to 75 years). The mean volume of hemorrhagic blood was 50.4±11.6 ml (from 25 to 85 ml). The perihematomal brain tissue was obtained from the minimally invasive surgery. Histopathological change and expressions of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue was detected by histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. The volume of perihematomal cerebral edema was determined by computed tomographic scan before operation. The results of staining and the volume of perihematomal cerebral edema were analyzed with double blind fashion. Results Perihematomal cerebral edema were found 12-72h after cerebral hemorrhage. Myelin sheath degeneration, condensation of nucleus and typical apopototic body were observed in perihematomal brain tissue. Expression of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue was observed at 4 h and reached peak around 48-72 h after cerebral hemorrhage. Cytochrome C expressed higher positively in 16 patients and lower positively in 13 patients. Cytochrome C expression was not detected only in 5 patints. There were significant differences in volume of perihematomal cerebral edema with different expression of cytochrome C in perihematomal brain tissue (P<0.01). Conclusions Cytochrome C expression was upregulated in perihematomal brain tissue in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. Cytochrome C might involve in the histopathological change and the formation of perihematomal cerebral edema.

  9. Automated Segmentation of Brain Tumor Edema in FLAIR MRI Using Symmetry and Thresholding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Kropatsch, W.G.

    Cambridge: The Electromagnetics Academy, 2013, s. 936-939. ISBN 978-1-934142-26-4. [Progress in electromagnetics research symposium - PIERS 2013. Stockholm (SE), 12.08.2013-15.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : tumor edema * FLAIR MRI * symmetry and thresholding Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Effects of Different Doses of Levetiracetam on Aquaporin 4 Expression in Rats with Brain Edema Following Fluid Percussion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongbo; Li, Wenling; Dong, Changzheng; Ma, Li; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the effects of different doses of levetiracetam on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in rats after fluid percussion injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operation group, traumatic brain injury group, low-dose levetiracetam group, and high-dose levetiracetam group. Brain edema models were established by fluid percussion injury, and intervened by the administration of levetiracetam. Samples from the 4 groups were collected at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days after injury. Histological observation was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. AQP4 and AQP4 mRNA expression was detected using Western blot assay and RT-PCR. Brain water content was measured by the dry-wet method. RESULTS Compared with the traumatic brain injury group, brain water content, AQP4 expression, and AQP4 mRNA expression were lower in the levetiracetam groups at each time point and the differences were statistically significant (Ppercussion injury by down-regulating AQP4 and AQP4 mRNA expression. There is a dose-effect relationship in the preventive effect of levetiracetam within a certain extent. PMID:26927633

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein level and gene expression in intracranial meningiomas with brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, Damoun; Dyrbye, Henrik; Andresen, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and angiogen. VEGF-A protein, which is identical to vascular permeability factor, is a regulator of angiogenesis. In this study, 101 patients with meningiomas, and possible co-factors to PTBE, such as meningioma subtypes and tumor location, were examined...... positively correlated to the PTBE (p = 0.038). If VEGF is responsible for the formation of PTBE, the edema may be treated with the anti-VEGF drug Bevacizumab (Avastin), which has been shown to reduce PTBE in patients with glioblastoma multiforme....

  12. ASPHYXIA, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES AND BRAIN EDEMA OF RISK CHILDREN IN THE ADVISORY INSTITUTE IN BITOLA FROM 1989-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ILIEVSKA,

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available 3986 files have been examined in the Advisory Institute for a five year period in relation to the present risk factors in the pre, peri and postnatal period, the occurrence of asphyxia, I.H. (intracranial hemorrhages and brain edema and their outcome for the children. There were 958 or 32% risk children, out of them 206 or 22% were with asphyxia, 25 or 3% were with brain edema and 14 or 1,5% were with intracranial hemorrhages.The analysis for the risk factors shows that 119 of them were abortive , and from them 15% were born with asphyxia; 124 were SFD and 21% of them with asphyxia; 272 children weighed over 4500 gr., 7% of them with asphyxia and 0.4% with I.H., there were 68 twins, 12% of them with asphyxia. Out of the children with no risk registered, 6 were born with I.H., or 0,2%.Mothers under the age of 18 gave birth to 13% children with asphyxia; treated for sterility and anemia during pregnancy 15%; with increased blood pressure 14%; and 5% with maintained pregnancy.The highest delivery risk is present with children born with vacuum extraction (30% or every third child is with asphyxia and 3% with I.H. and with children delivered by caesarean section (14% with asphyxia.As for the position of the fetus-Citus pedalicus gave 55% children with asphyxia, and Situs pelvicus 12%.The worst damage is suffered by infants with premature amnion disruption (62% are with asphyxia; with the umbilical cord round the neck-56% with asphyxia and 6% with I.H.; and with muddled amniotic fluid and placenta pelvia-50%.The order of risk factors related to asphyxia, I.H. and brain edema is as follows: the first is premature amnion disruption, then follows the umbilical cord round the neck, the muddled amniotic fluid, and placenta previa and Citus pedalicus-which are obstetric problems. The next are the vacuum extraction and S.C. As for the gestatory period the order is as follows: first the abortive, then the twins and hypertrofic infants. The outcome of the

  13. β-Dystroglycan cleavage by matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 disturbs aquaporin-4 polarization and influences brain edema in acute cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W; Zhao, X; Chen, H; Zhong, D; Jin, J; Qin, Q; Zhang, H; Ma, S; Li, G

    2016-06-21

    Dystroglycan (DG) is widely expressed in various tissues, and throughout the cerebral microvasculature. It consists of two subunits, α-DG and β-DG, and the cleavage of the latter by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 underlies a number of physiological and pathological processes. However, the involvement of MMP-2/-9-mediated β-DG cleavage in cerebral ischemia remains uncertain. In astrocytes, DG is crucial for maintaining the polarization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which plays a role in the regulation of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. The present study aimed to explore the effects of MMP-2/-9-mediated β-DG cleavage on AQP4 polarization and brain edema in acute cerebral ischemia. A model of cerebral ischemia was established via permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in male C57BL/6 mice. Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemical staining, immunofluorescent staining, electron microscopy, and light microscopy were used. Captopril was applied as a selective MMP-2/-9 inhibitor. Recombinant mouse MMP (rmMMP)-2 and -9 were used in an in vitro cleavage experiment. The present study demonstrated evidence of β-DG cleavage by MMP-2/-9 in pMCAO mouse brains; this cleavage was implicated in AQP4 redistribution and brain edema in cerebral ischemia. In addition, captopril exacerbated cytotoxic edema and ameliorated vasogenic edema at 24h after pMCAO, and alleviated brain edema and neurological deficit at 48h and 72h. In conclusion, this study provides novel insight into the effects of MMP-2/-9-mediated β-DG cleavage in acute cerebral ischemia. Such findings might facilitate the development of a therapeutic strategy for the optimization of MMP-2/-9 targeted treatment in cerebral ischemia. PMID:27038751

  14. Minocycline Attenuates Neonatal Germinal-Matrix-Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation and Brain Edema by Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Guo, Jing; Yang, Liming; Tao, Yihao; Li, Lin; Miao, Hongping; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns leading to detrimental neurological sequelae. Minocycline has been reported to play a key role in neurological inflammatory diseases by controlling some mechanisms that involve cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). The current study investigated whether minocycline reduces neuroinflammation and protects the brain from injury in a rat model of collagenase-induced GMH by regulating CB2R activity. To test this hypothesis, the effects of minocycline and a CB2R antagonist (AM630) were evaluated in male rat pups that were post-natal day 7 (P7) after GMH. We found that minocycline can lead to increased CB2R mRNA expression and protein expression in microglia. Minocycline significantly reduced GMH-induced brain edema, microglial activation, and lateral ventricular volume. Additionally, minocycline enhanced cortical thickness after injury. All of these neuroprotective effects of minocycline were prevented by AM630. A cannabinoid CB2 agonist (JWH133) was used to strengthen the hypothesis, which showed the identical neuroprotective effects of minocycline. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that minocycline attenuates neuroinflammation and brain injury in a rat model of GMH, and activation of CBR2 was partially involved in these processes. PMID:25833102

  15. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  16. Symmetrical Curvilinear Cytotoxic Edema Along the Surface of the Brain Stem: A Probable New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, A. Leum; Chang, Kee-Hyun; Yun, Tae Jin; Hong, Hyun Sook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is one of the most common neoplasms to appear leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better diagnostic choice for LM and usually shows focal nodular or diffuse linear enhancement on the leptomeninges along the sulci and tentorium in the brain. We experienced atypical 2 cases of lung cancer in patients who showed unusual brain MRI finding of symmetrical curvilinear or band-like, nonenhancing cytotoxic edema along the surface o...

  17. 采用CT技术研究颅脑损伤患者的早期神经功能恢复:脑水肿和脑肿胀的比较%CT study of patients neurological function recovery in the acute stage of brain injury:compared brain swelling and brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 池晓宇; 黄新才; 刘卫国; 蒋德清

    2002-01-01

    @@ ckground: Secondary clinical manifestations following brain injury may be due to either intracranial hemorrhage or brain edema and brain swelling.But brain swelling hasn't been understand adequately in clinical practice.Objective: 71 patients with brain edema or brain swelling following brain injury admitted to our hospital during Jan 1998 to Dec 1999 were selected for this study.Their CT findings were compared,and CT characters of traumatic brain swelling and neurological function recovery were analyzed emphatically.Unit: Department of Radiology,Guangdong Provincial Corps Hospital,Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.

  18. EFFECT OF GINKGO BILOBA EXTRACT ON BRAIN EDEMA AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙保亮; 夏作理; 杨明峰; 邱平明

    2001-01-01

    @@ The aim of this study was to investigate the protectiveeffect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) on brain edemaafter subarachnoid hemorrhage . Eighty male and femaleWistar rats, weighing 300~ 350g, were used in the ex-periment. Animals were divided into pure SAH group andEGb-treated group. Dynamic changes of regional cerebralblood flow (rCBF) were detected in eight rats from eachgroup. Brain water and electrolytes contents at differenttime points were detected in thirty-two rats from eachgroup (eight rats at each time point from each group) .EGb. provided by Pizhou Pharmaceutical Factory(Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China), was injected intraperi-toneally 30 minutes before operation and repeated withsingle dose of 15mg/kg .every 6 hours.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibition of Edema Formation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Bing; Cao, Shuhua; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability, which can decrease quality of life. In spite of numerous studies suggesting that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been used as a therapeutic agent for a broad range of disorders, the effect of EGCG on TBI remains unknown. In this study, a weight drop model was established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EGCG on TBI. Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg EGCG or PBS intraperitoneally. At different times following trauma, rats were sacrificed for analysis. It was found that EGCG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reduced brain water content and vascular permeability at 12, 24, 48, 72 hour after TBI. Real-time PCR results revealed that EGCG inhibited TBI-induced IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression. Importantly, CD68 mRNA expression decreasing in the brain suggested that EGCG inhibited microglia activation. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that administering of EGCG significantly inhibited the levels of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. TBI-induced oxidative stress was remarkably impaired by EGCG treatment, which elevated the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. Conversely, EGCG significantly reduced the contents of MDA after TBI. In addition, EGCG decreased TBI-induced NADPH oxidase activation through inhibition of p47(phox) translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that EGCG treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI and the underlying mechanism involves inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:26557015

  20. What Is Macular Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What Causes Macular ... Edema Diagnosis Macular Edema Treatment What Is Macular Edema? Dec. 01, 2010 Macular edema is swelling or ...

  1. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara,Masachika

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64% of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more frequently in patients later found to have cerebral edema. Moreover, the length of time from deep coma to death was much shorter in the brain edema cases with cerebral herniation than without herniation.

  2. Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Anna S; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Ricken, Gerda; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Spanberger, Thomas; Hackl, Monika; Widhalm, Georg; Dieckmann, Karin; Prayer, Daniela; Bilocq, Amelie; Heinzl, Harald; Zielinski, Christoph; Bartsch, Rupert; Birner, Peter; Galon, Jerome; Preusser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8+ TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8+ (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings. PMID:26942067

  3. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure and brain natriuretic peptide in high altitude pulmonary edema susceptible non-mountaineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajinder K; Himashree, G; Singh, Krishan; Soree, Poonam; Desiraju, Koundinya; Agrawal, Anurag; Ghosh, Dishari; Dass, Deepak; Reddy, Prassana K; Panjwani, Usha; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia is a pathgonomic feature observed in high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) susceptible mountaineers. It was investigated whether measurement of basal pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) could improve identification of HAPE susceptible subjects in a non-mountaineer population. We studied BNP levels, baseline hemodynamics and the response to hypoxia (FIo2 = 0.12 for 30 min duration at sea level) in 11 HAPE resistant (no past history of HAPE, Control) and 11 HAPE susceptible (past history of HAPE, HAPE-S) subjects. Baseline Ppa (19.31 ± 3.63 vs 15.68 ± 2.79 mm Hg, p high and stroke volume was less (p < 0.05) in HAPE-S subjects compared to control. Acute hypoxia produced an exaggerated increase in heart rate (p < 0.05), mean arterial pressure (p < 0.05) and Ppa (28.2 ± 5.8 vs 19.33 ± 3.74 mm Hg, p < 0.05) and fall in peripheral oxygen saturation (p < 0.05) in HAPE-S compared to control. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that Ppa response to acute hypoxia was the best variable to identify HAPE susceptibility (AUC 0.92) but BNP levels provided comparable information (AUC 0.85). BNP levels are easy to determine and may represent an important marker for the determination of HAPE susceptibility. PMID:26892302

  4. Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients.

  5. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What Causes Macular Edema? Macular Edema Symptoms Macular Edema Diagnosis ... Privacy Policy Related Studies Show Zika Virus May Cause More Serious Eye Damage in Babies Than Thought ...

  6. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes Macular Edema? Macular Edema Symptoms Macular Edema Diagnosis Macular Edema Treatment What Is Macular Edema? Dec. ... common form of vision loss for people with diabetes—particularly if it is left untreated. Related Ask ...

  7. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What Causes Macular Edema? Macular Edema Symptoms Macular Edema Diagnosis ... 2014 Is Your Laser Pointer Dangerous Enough to Cause Eye Injury? Dec 20, 2013 Study Finds Tablets ...

  8. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe,Akiharu; Yamauchi,Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Makoto; Nakatsukasa, Harushige; Kobayashi, Michio; Higashi,Toshihiro; Nagashima,Hideo

    1985-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64%) of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more fre...

  9. Dissociation of brain edema induced by cold injury in rat model. MR imaging and perfusion studies with 14C-iodo-antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to confirm whether T2-weighted imaging and perfusion imaging, i.e. autoradiogram of 14C-iodoantipyrine, on the course of brain edema correspond to each other or not. Cold injured rat brains were used as a model and were sequentially examined by both methods and compared with each other and with histological specimens. Special focus relies on the time changes in the lesions. High SI of T2-weighted images were observed and the percentages in the high SI area to the total brain area in the same slice were 4.7±0.31, 5.6±0.46 and 3.4±0.42 for 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. By contrast, low perfusion areas were indicated in the perfusion study and their percentages were 4.6±0.55, 5.6±0.86 and 2.4±0.35 for 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. At 48 hours after cold injury, low perfusion areas were smaller than high SI areas. Moreover, high accumulation areas consisting of macrophages were observed surrounding necrosis. It is concluded that there is dissociation between perfusion and T2-weighted MR imaging, where the collection of macrophages surrounding edema lesions and necrosis had the same appearance on MRI and different accumulations on perfusion studies. (author)

  10. Quantitative evaluation of benign meningioma and hemangiopericytoma with peritumoral brain edema by 64-slice CT perfusion imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guang; CHEN Shuang; WANG Yin; ZHU Rui-jiang; GENG Dao-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have a relentless tendency for local recurrence and metastases,differentiating between benign meningiomas and HPCs before surgery is important for both treatment planning and the prognosis appraisal.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density (MVD) in extra-axial tumors and the possible role of CT perfusion imaging in preoperatively differentiating benign meningiomas and HPCs.Methods Seventeen patients with benign meningiomas and peritumoral edema, 12 patients with HPCs and peritumoral edema underwent 64-slice CT perfusion imaging pre-operation.Perfusion was calculated using the Patlak method.The quantitative parameters, include cerebral blood volume (CBV), permeability surface (PS) of parenchyma, peritumoral edema among benign meningiomas and HPCs were compared respectively.CBV and PS in parenchyma, peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were also compared to that of the contrallateral normal white matter respectively.The correlations between CBV, PS of tumoral parenchyma and MVD were examined.Results The value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05), while the values of CBV and PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not significantly different (P >0.05).MVD in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05).There were positive correlations between CBV and MVD (r=0.648, P<0.05), PS and MVD (r=0.541, P<0.05) respectively.Furthermore, the value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly higher than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), the value of CBV in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly lower than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), while the value of PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not

  11. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What Causes Macular ... Edema Diagnosis Macular Edema Treatment What Is Macular Edema? Dec. 01, 2010 Macular edema is swelling or ...

  12. Effects of Liangxue Tongyu Formula on brain edema and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-yan HE

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of Liangxue Tongyu Formula (LXTYF, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on brain edema in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage and to explore the mechanism. Methods: Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by using the intrastriatal autologous blood injection. Rats were randomized into sham-operated (SO group, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH group and LXTYF group. Rats in the LXTYF group were intragastrically administered with LXTYF every day while the other two groups were given normal saline. Brain water content was determined at 24, 48, 72, and 120 h after intracerebral hemorrhage. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 level, and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 mRNA expressions in perihematoma area were detected by gelatin zymography and fluorescence quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at the four time points, respectively. Results: Water content in the ICH group was highly elevated after intracerebral hemorrhage, and reached to the peak at 72 h. Compared with the ICH group, the LXTYF group had lower water contents at 48, 72 and 120 h after intracerebral hemorrhage (P<0.01. The difference in water content between the LXTYF and SO groups was significant only at 72 h (P<0.01. Although the pro-MMP-9 level and MMP-9 activity in the LXTYF and ICH groups were enhanced, they were still lower in the LXTYF group than in the ICH group (P<0.01 for 24, 48, 72 and 120 h, respectively. And there was no significant difference in them between the LXTYF group and the SO group at 120 h. Meanwhile, MMP-9 mRNA expressions were increased in the ICH and LXTYF groups, but the levels in the LXTYF group were significantly lower (P<0.01 for 48, 72 and 120 h, respectively than those in the ICH group. Also, TIMP-1 mRNA expressions at 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after intracerebral hemorrhage were up-regulated in the LXTYF group, and there were significant differences in TIMP-1 expressions

  13. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Improves Cognitive Function, Tissue Sparing, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Edema and White Matter Injury in the Immature Rat after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Abdullah, Osama M; Casper, T Charles; Beachy, Joanna; Malleske, Daniel; Pauly, James R

    2016-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Specific therapies to treat acute TBI are lacking. Cognitive impairment from TBI may be blunted by decreasing inflammation and oxidative damage after injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreases cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in adult rats after TBI. Effects of DHA on cognitive outcome, oxidative stress, and white matter injury in the developing rat after experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that DHA would decrease early inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, and improve cognitive, imaging and histologic outcomes in rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). CCI or sham surgery was delivered to 17 d old male rat pups exposed to DHA or standard diet for the duration of the experiments. DHA was introduced into the dam diet the day before CCI to allow timely DHA delivery to the pre-weanling pups. Inflammatory cytokines and nitrates/nitrites were measured in the injured brains at post-injury Day (PID) 1 and PID2. Morris water maze (MWM) testing was performed at PID41-PID47. T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging studies were obtained at PID12 and PID28. Tissue sparing was calculated histologically at PID3 and PID50. DHA did not adversely affect rat survival or weight gain. DHA acutely decreased oxidative stress and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 in CCI brains. DHA improved MWM performance and lesion volume late after injury. At PID12, DHA decreased T2-imaging measures of cerebral edema and decreased radial diffusivity, an index of white matter injury. DHA improved short- and long-term neurologic outcomes after CCI in the rat pup. Given its favorable safety profile, DHA is a promising candidate therapy for pediatric TBI. Further studies are needed to explore neuroprotective mechanisms of DHA after developmental TBI. PMID:26247583

  14. Pedal edema with olanzepine

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak Veena; Chogtu Bharti; Devaramane Virupaksha; Bhandary P

    2009-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic is considered superior to its conventional congeners. Here we report two cases of pedal edema secondary to olanzapine. In both cases the systemic causes of pedal edema were ruled out. On reducing the dose of olanzapine, pedal edema regressed and completely resolved after stopping the drug. So we attribute the edema to olanzapine therapy. As the definitive cause and further consequences of pedal edema are not known , hence stringent monitoring of adverse e...

  15. Expression of aquaporin-9 in the brain tissue of rats with infectious brain edema%AQP-9在大鼠感染性脑水肿脑组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田培超; 王怀立; 罗强; 禚志红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporin-9(AQP-9)in the brain tissue of rats with infectious brain edema and explore the role of AQP-9 in the oecurrgnce and progression of the brain edema. Methods A total of 128 normal 1-month-old SD rats weighing 70-100 g of either sex were randomly divided into two equal groups, namely the normal saline(NS) group and lipopolysaecharide(LPS)group.Acute infectious brain edema was induced in rats in the LPS group by injecting LPS via the left internal carotid artery,and the rats in the NS groups received NS injection.At 6,12,24 and 48 h after the injection,the brain tissue was taken from the rats to observe the histopathology by Hernatoxylin-Eosin Stain and lneasure the brain water content(BWC).The permeability of the blood-brain barrier of the rats was tested using Evans blue(EB)method.The expressions of AQP-9 protein and mRNA in the brain tissue Were detected using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR,respectively. Results InLPS group,the space around the blood vessels was obviously broadened in the brain tissue,where inflammatory cell infiltration,glioeyte swelling,vacuolar degeneration of the neurons and neuronal nuclear shrinkage were seen.At 6,12,24,and 48 h following LPS or NS injection,the BWC,EB content,and expressions of AQP-9 protein and mRNA in the LPS group were all significantly higher than those in the NS group(P<0.05),In the LPS group,positive correlations were found between BWC and EB content,AQP-9 protein expression and BWC,AQP一9 mRNA and BWC,AQP-9mR.NA and EBcontent,and between AQP-9 protein andmRNA.Conclusion AQP-9 might participate in occurrcnce and development of infectious brain edema in rats,it might be positive correlation.%目的 探讨水通道蛋白-9(AQP-9)在内毒素脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠感染性脑水肿脑组织中的表达及意义. 方法 1月龄普通级SD大鼠128只采用随机数字表法分为生理盐水(NS)组(64只)和LPS组(64只),采用颈内动脉注射LPS制作大鼠感染

  16. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... remains. Macular edema is often a complication of diabetic retinopathy , and is the most common form of ... 2016 Study Compares Eylea, Lucentis and Avastin for Diabetic Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk ...

  17. Edema control by cediranib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-targeted kinase inhibitor, prolongs survival despite persistent brain tumor growth in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamoun, Walid S; Ley, Carsten D; Farrar, Christian T;

    2009-01-01

    anti-VEGF agents may decrease tumor contrast-enhancement, vascularity, and edema, the mechanisms leading to improved survival in patients remain incompletely understood. Our goal was to determine whether alleviation of edema by anti-VEGF agents alone could increase survival in mice. METHODS: We treated...... mice bearing three different orthotopic models of glioblastoma with a VEGF-targeted kinase inhibitor, cediranib. Using intravital microscopy, molecular techniques, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we measured survival, tumor growth, edema, vascular morphology and function, cancer cell apoptosis...... mirrored by an increase in plasma collagen IV. These rapid changes in tumor vascular morphology and function led to edema alleviation -- as measured by MRI and by dry/wet weight measurement of water content -- but did not affect tumor growth. By immunohistochemistry, we found a transient decrease in...

  18. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  19. Micromechanics of Alveolar Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Perlman, Carrie E.; Lederer, David J.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of lung compliance in pulmonary edema underlies ventilator-induced lung injury. However, the cause of the decrease in compliance is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that in pulmonary edema, the mechanical effects of liquid-filled alveoli increase tissue stress in adjacent air-filled alveoli. By micropuncture of isolated, perfused rat lungs, we established a single-alveolus model of pulmonary edema that we imaged using confocal microscopy. In this model, we viewed a liquid-filled...

  20. Diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha-Vaz, JG

    2009-01-01

    Retinal edema is defined as any increase of water in retinal tissue resulting in an increase in its volume. This increase may be initially intracellular or extracellular. In the first case, there is cytotoxic edema. In the second, vasogenic edema, directly associated with an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Retinal thickness can now be measured, using the retinal thickness analyser (RTA). Similarly, local breakdown of the BRB can now be mapped using the retinal leakage analyser ...

  1. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    OpenAIRE

    Varner P

    2011-01-01

    Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papi...

  2. Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemia, trauma, tumors, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. The formation of cerebral edema results in an increase in tissue water content and brain swelling which, if unchecked, can lead to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), reduced cerebral blood flow, and ultimately cerebral herniation and death. Despite the clinical significance of cerebral edema, the mechan...

  3. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema ... for Thinning Retina Mar 10, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es un Edema Macular? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  4. What Is Macular Edema?

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    Full Text Available ... Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema ... for Thinning Retina Mar 10, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es un Edema Macular? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  5. What Is Macular Edema?

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    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Macular Edema Sections What Is Macular Edema? What ...

  6. What Is Macular Edema?

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    Full Text Available ... remains. Macular edema is often a complication of diabetic retinopathy , and is the most common form of vision ... 28, 2014 Restoring Vision Lost to Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) Jun 03, 2014 Prognosis for Thinning Retina Mar 10, ... 31, 2016 Study Compares Eylea, Lucentis and Avastin for Diabetic Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk ...

  7. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... remains. Macular edema is often a complication of diabetic retinopathy , and is the most common form of vision ... 28, 2014 Restoring Vision Lost to Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) Jun 03, 2014 Prognosis for ... 2016 Study Compares Eylea, Lucentis and Avastin for Diabetic Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk ...

  8. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) Jun 03, 2014 Prognosis for Thinning Retina Mar 10, 2014 Leer en ... Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk Factors for AMD Jan 29, 2014 Is Your Laser ...

  9. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... retina are leaking fluids. The macula does not function properly when it is swollen. Vision loss may ... Qué Es un Edema Macular? Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter ...

  10. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetic Macular Edema Jul 17, 2015 Top 5 Risk Factors for AMD Jan 29, 2014 Is Your Laser Pointer ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  11. Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Işık; İsmail Katı; Onur Palabıyık; Uğur Göktaş

    2011-01-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare but life threating complication which is occurring during the treatment of lung collapse secondary to pleural effusion, pneumothorax or atelectasis. We presented a 68 year-old case with hypertension, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus who had developed reexpansion pulmonary edema three hours after the application of unilateral thoracentesis (Journal of the Turkish Society of Intensive Care 2011; 9: 26-9)

  12. Cystoid macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Rotsos, Tryfon G; Moschos, Marilita M

    2008-01-01

    Tryfon G Rotsos1, Marilita M Moschos21Medical Retina Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, GreeceAbstract: We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of cystoid macular edema (CME). Inflammatory, diabetic, post-cataract, and macular edema due to age-related macular degeneration is described. The role of chronic inflammation and hypoxia and direct macular traction is evaluated in each case according to different views f...

  13. Cystoid macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryfon G Rotsos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tryfon G Rotsos1, Marilita M Moschos21Medical Retina Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, GreeceAbstract: We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of cystoid macular edema (CME. Inflammatory, diabetic, post-cataract, and macular edema due to age-related macular degeneration is described. The role of chronic inflammation and hypoxia and direct macular traction is evaluated in each case according to different views from the literature. The different diagnostic methods for evaluating the edema are described. Special attention is given to fluoroangiography and the most modern methods of macula examination, such as ocular coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinography. Finally, we discuss the treatment of cystoid macular edema in relation to its etiology. In this chapter we briefly refer to the therapeutic value of laser treatment especially in diabetic maculopathy or vitrectomy in some selected cases. Our paper is focused mainly on recent therapeutic treatment with intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and anti-VEGF factors like bevacizumab (Avastin, ranibizumab (Lucentis, pegaptamid (Macugen, and others. The goal of this paper is to review the current status of this treatment for macular edema due to diabetic maculopathy, central retinal vein occlusion and post-cataract surgery. For this reason the results of recent multicenter clinical trials are quoted, as also our experience on the use of intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF factors and we discuss its value in clinical practice.Keywords: cystoid macular edema, anti-VEGF, fluoroangiography, OCT, multifocal electroretinography

  14. RNAi沉默AQP-4技术治疗胶质瘤性脑水肿的实验研究%An experimental study of the treatment of glioma brain edema by RNAi silencing AQP-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 刘晓智; 张赛; 苏治国; 陈镭; 姜忠敏; 于士柱; 刘振林

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用RNA干扰(RNAi)技术靶向沉默胶质瘤内水通道蛋白4(AQP -4)的表达,观察其对胶质瘤源性脑水肿的治疗效果.方法 构建靶向AQP-4的siRNA质粒,免疫荧光化学方法检测其对C6细胞AQP-4的沉默效果;建立SD大鼠颅内C6胶质瘤模型,分对照组、空载组、无义序列组和siRNA组;聚合酶链式反应和蛋白印迹方法分别检测第3、6、9、12天AQP-4的mRNA和蛋白水平;干/湿比重法和Evans蓝测定法检测不同时相脑组织含水量和血脑屏障通透性改变;比较动物生存期.结果 siRNA可沉默AQP-4表达;siRNA组脑组织水含量和血脑屏障通透性均明显低于对照组、空载组和无义序列组,动物生存期最长.结论 靶向AQP-4的RNAi技术可在一定程度上减轻胶质瘤性脑水肿的发生和发展,为胶质瘤脑水肿提供了一种新的治疗策略选择.%Objective To observe the treatment effect on glioma cerebral edema by RNA interference ( RNAi ) technology silencing aquaporin 4 ( AQP-4 ) expression.Methods The siRNA plasmid targeting AQP-4 was constructed,and transfected into C6 glioma cells by liposome.Immunofluorescence assay was used to verify the silencing effect of AQP-4.The intracal C6 glioma model was established in SD rats,and four sub-groups,control group,empty vector transfected group,nonsense group and AQP-4 siRNA treated group,were divided.The AQP-4 mRNA and protein levels,in rats model brain tissue on 3,6,9,and 12 day,were detected by RT-PCR and Western Blot.Moreover,dry/wet weight method and evans blue assay were used to detect the brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability changes.Then the animal survival was compared.Results siRNA can effectively reduce AQP -4 expression in C6 glioma cells.Compared with the control and empty vector transfected group in vivo,AQP-4 siRNA treatment group can effectively reduce AQP-4 mRNA and protein level,decrease brain water content,and reduce blood-brain barrier

  15. Differentiating cardiac from noncardiac edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors review and explain the radiologic appearances of acute versus chronic left heart failure and of biventricular failure. They compare these observations with the mechanisms and appearances of hydrostatic noncardiac edema, (for example, renal failure, high-altitude edema, neurogenic edema), and show how the various types of cardiogenic and noncardiogenic edema, including the ''injury lung'' edema common to all cases of adult respiratory distress syndrome, can be differentiated from their appearance on the plain chest film

  16. Protective effects of different dose of ulinastatin pretreatment on traumatic brain edema in mice%不同剂量乌司他丁预处理对小鼠创伤性脑水肿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶维; 张磊; 曹宝萍; 马选鹏; 苏宁; 王凯; 张强; 费舟; 李兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential therapeutic effect and the related mechanism of ulinaslatin (UTI) on traumatic brain edema in mice. Methods Thirty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups: isotonic Na chloride control group (control group) and UTI pretreatment group (UTI group). The wet-dry weighing method was performed to measure the brain water content of mice. The expression of aquaporin4 (AQP4) was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with control group, UTI significantly inhibited (he neurological dysfunction of mice in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced brain water content. It is suggested that UTI could down-regulate the expression of AQP4 (P<0. 05). Conclusion Pretreatment of UTI can effectively protect traumatic brain edema, which may be associated with the regulation of AQP4 expression.%目的 探讨乌司他丁(UTI)预处理对小鼠创伤性脑水肿潜在的治疗作用及其机制.方法 BALB/c小鼠38只,随机分为生理盐水对照组(control组)和乌司他丁预处理组(UTI组).采用测干湿重法检测不同剂量UTI预处理对小鼠脑组织含水量的影响和Western -blot检测脑组织中水通道蛋白4(AQP4)蛋白表达情况.结果 与生理盐水对照组比较,UTI能明显减轻神经功能障碍,干湿重法检测结果显示,随着UTI剂量的增大小鼠脑组织含水量明显降低,Western-blot结果提示UTI下调AQP4蛋白的表达,不同组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 乌司他丁预处理能减轻创伤性脑水肿,具有显著的神经保护作用,可能是通过调控AQP4而减轻脑组织水肿.

  17. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  18. Latest advances in edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, J. L.; Hargens, A. R.; Pikoulicz, E.

    1996-01-01

    Basic concepts in the physiopathology of edema are reviewed. The mechanisms of fluid exchange across the capillary endothelium are explained. Interstitial flow and lymph formation are examined. Clinical disorders of tissue and lymphatic transport, microcirculatory derangements in venous disorders, protein disorders, and lymphatic system disorders are explored. Techniques for investigational imaging of the lymphatic system are explained.

  19. Edema (Swelling) (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and are not adequate treatment for edema. Body positioning — Leg, ankle, and foot edema can be improved ... medications, the user is advised to check the product information sheet accompanying each drug to verify conditions ...

  20. Pulmonary edema in renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-nine cases of pulmonary edema in nephropatic patients were studied. The most frequent radiologic findings are discussed. The unreliability of a precise differentiation between ''cardiac'' and ''renal'' patterns of pulmonary edema in nephropatic patients is emphasized

  1. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B4 and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability

  2. [The role of circulating immune complexes and the status of argyrophilic membranes of the vascular walls in the development of brain edema in patients with meningococcal meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebesh, V V; Iarosh, O A

    1991-01-01

    Based on clinical and immunological examinations of 60 patients with MME and 30 normal persons, the dynamics of the blood CIC content was studied depending on the time and gravity of the disease. The discovered changes in argyrophilic membranes of the vascular walls are determined to a considerable measure by the pathogenic action of CIC on microvessels, which entails the derangement of blood-brain barrier function and contributes to the development of acute purulent meningitis. PMID:1647627

  3. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10-3 and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10-3 mm/s2, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  4. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  5. Reexpansion pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genofre Eduardo Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE is a rare, but frequently lethal, clinical condition. The precise pathophysiologic abnormalities associated with this disorder are still unknown, though decreased pulmonary surfactant levels and a pro-inflammatory status are putative mechanisms. Early diagnosis is crucial, since prognosis depends on early recognition and prompt treatment. Considering the high mortality rates related to RPE, preventive measures are still the best available strategy for patient handling. This review provides a brief overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of RPE, with practical recommendations for adequate intervention.

  6. Diabetic Macular Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

  7. Angioneurotic Edema Associated with Haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    Samrina Kahlon; Cathy Lee; Roger Chirurgi; Getaw Worku Hassen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Angioneurotic edema is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Haloperidol is in the butyrophenone class of antipsychotic medications. Acute anaphylaxis to Haloperidol is very rare and no cases have been reported in literature. Objective. To report the association of life-threatening angioneurotic edema with intramuscular Haloperidol. Case Report. We present a case of an adult with no known allergies in whom angioneurotic edema with tongu...

  8. Variations of brain edema and neurological function of rat models of cerebral infarction after hyperbaric oxygen therapy%高压氧干预脑梗死模型大鼠脑水肿及神经功能变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田烜

    2015-01-01

    背景:研究认为,高压氧有较好保护脑神经和脑细胞的作用,应用高压氧可使氧分压快速弥撒到相对缺氧的脑组织中,增加脑组织的血氧含量,促进脑水肿及脑神经功能的恢复。目的:观察大脑中动脉阻塞造模后高压氧干预对大鼠脑梗死组织水肿的影响,并探讨其对脑梗死大鼠神经功能保护的可能作用机制。方法:成年雌性SD大鼠65只,造模成功60只,随机区组法分为假手术组、脑梗死组、高压氧组,每组20只,按照线栓线法建立大鼠大脑中动脉阻塞脑梗死模型。造模后3 d,通过TUNEL法检测各实验组大鼠脑梗死区神经细胞的凋亡情况。伤后72 h通过RT-PCR、Western blot检测脑梗死区周围AQP4/9、基质金属蛋白酶9/2基因转录和蛋白的表达,通过苏木精-伊红染色观察脑梗死区病理组织形态学变化,通过免疫组织化学法检测胶质纤维酸性蛋白的表达量,高压氧干预后24 h,3 d及伤后1、2周行Longa行为学评分,检测神经功能的损伤情况。结果与结论:①高压氧组Longa行为学评分在治疗后1,2 d均较脑梗死组显著降低(P <0.05)。②造模后3 d高压氧组细胞凋亡指数均明显低于脑梗死组(P<0.05)。③造模后72 h,与脑梗死组相比高压氧组AQP4/9、基质金属蛋白酶9/2基因和蛋白表达均较显著降低(P<0.05)。结果提示高压氧治疗通过减少大鼠脑梗死区神经细胞的凋亡和降低脑组织水肿,对脑梗死起到保护作用。%BACKGROUND:Several studies have suggested that hyperbaric oxygen could better protect cranial nerve and brain cels. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can make oxygen partial pressure rapidly diffusing toward relatively hypoxic brain tissue, so as to increase blood oxygen content in the brain tissue, reduce brain edema and promote the recovery of brain function. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on brain tissue

  9. Association of degree and type of edema in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with serum lactate dehydrogenase level: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bo, E-mail: gygb2004@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Medical School of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China); Division of MRI, Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, 264000 Shandong (China); Liu, Feng-li [Division of MRI, Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, 264000 Shandong (China); Zhao, Bin, E-mail: cjr.zhaobin@vip.163.com [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Medical School of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headache, blurred vision and seizures with typical parieto-occipital predominantly vasogenic edema, occasionally with cytotoxic edema. The association between the degree and type of edema in PRES with biochemical parameter, especially serum lactate dehydrogenase, has not been determined. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients with typical clinical symptoms and characteristic MR imaging findings of PRES were included in this study. The extent of brain edema was graded on the anatomical distribution by 2 observers blinded to patients’ clinical record, as well as the type of brain edema determined on DWI and ADC map. The levels of biochemical parameters were correlated with the degree of edema and compared between different types of edema. Results: Serum LDH concentrations between patients with cytotoxic edema and with vasogenic components were not statistically different (NWU test, U = 93.0, Z = 1.818, P = 0.069). Only serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration was significantly correlated with the score of brain edema distribution (Spearman's rho correlation, r = 0.721, P = 0.00). No relationship was found between other biochemical parameters and the degree and type of brain edema. Conclusion: Increased serum LDH level, which plays an essential role in endothelial injury, may be a potential risk factor for the development of edema in PRES.

  10. Secondary limb edemas following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Bardychev, M.S.; Guseva, L.I.

    1981-09-01

    The results of clinical examination and treatment of 96 patients with secondary limb edemas, developed at late periods after radiation therapy of malignant tumors are discussed. The genesis of edema is accounted both for direct radiation injury of lymphatics and blood vessels (veins) and fibrous changes of tissue in irradiated areas.

  11. Secondary limb edemas following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of clinical examination and treatment of 96 patients with secondary limb edemas, developed at late periods after radiation therapy of malignant tumors are discussed. The genesis of edema is accounted both for direct radiation injury of lymphatics and blood vessels (veins) and fibrous changes of tissue in irradiated areas. (orig.)

  12. Progesterone is neuroprotective by inhibiting cerebral edema after ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zheng Zhao; Min Zhang; Heng-fang Liu; Jian-ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic edema can alter the structure and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Recent stud-ies have reported that progesterone reduces cerebral edema after cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, pro-gesterone effectively reduced Evans blue extravasation in the ischemic penumbra, but not in the ischemic core, 48 hours after cerebral ischemia in rats. Progesterone also inhibited the down-reg-ulation of gene and protein levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the penumbra. These results indicate that progesterone may effectively inhibit the down-regulation of tight junctions, thereby maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reducing cerebral edema.

  13. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the retina, where they are transmitted to the brain and interpreted as the images you see. It is the macula that is responsible for your pinpoint ... Dangerous Enough to Cause Eye Injury? Dec 20, 2013 Study Finds Tablets Help People ...

  14. Etiopathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 5-6 (2010), s. 152-154. ISSN 0043-5341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * intracranial pressure * sympathetic system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  15. 脑出血患者血肿周围组织水通道蛋白-4表达与脑水肿及病理超微结构变化的关系%The relationship between the aquaporin-4 and brain edema, pathologic change, ultrastructure in perihematoma tissue in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭富强; 吴文斌; 曾宪容; 唐建; 赵冬冬; YANG Zheng-lin; 杨果; 徐玉川; 陈隆益; 杨友松; 董凌琳; 代红源; 黄雨兰; 韦永胜; 李晓佳

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) mRNA and study the relationship between AQP-4,brain edema,pathological changes and uhrastructure of perihematoma tissue in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients.Methods Intracranial operation was performed via nonfunctional area with a funnel-like approach on 30 ICH patients.The brain tissue which must be removed 1 cm away the hematoma was removed within 12 hours for observation as normal brain tissue and taken as the control group (7 patients),and which of the brain tissue within 1 cm around hematoma was taken as the study specimens.The experimental group was subdivided into five groups according to the time interval after ICH;<6 hours (6 cases),6-12 hours (7 cases),12-24 hours (5 cases),24-72 hours (6 cases),and>72 hours (6 cases).Expression of the AQP-4 mRNA,brain edema,pathological and ultrastructural changes were observed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),light microscope and electron microscope. Results The expression of the AQP-4 mRNA was not remarkable,the morphology and construction were basically normal in control group.The expression of AQP-4 mRNA was mild (1.17±0.41 ) and there was edema of neuroglia in the <6 hours group.After 6 hours,besides neuroglial edema,the expression of the AQP-4 mRNA was gradually obvious,capillary endothelial cells began to swell too,and tight junctions gradually began to loosen.In the 12 - 72 hours group the expression of the AQP-4 mRNA reached its peak (3.50 ± 0.55,3.60±0.55,both P< 0.01 ),and brain edema was most prominent,and electron microscopy showed that neurons,neuroglia,and capillary endothelial cells were markedly deformed.After 72 hours,the expression of AQP-4 mRNA gradually recovered,and brain cells showed less damage.On the 5th day the damage began to repair,and on the 8th day,the damage was basically repaired.The correlation analysis showed that there was a remarkable positive correlation between the expression of

  16. Differential diagnostics of gestation edemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Анатольевич Хасхачих

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of skin conductivity is studied by the authors’ method for 155 pregnants with gestational edemas and 50 healthy pregnants. It is obtained the results that skin conductivity depends on its hydration. The diagnostic and differential criteria of preeclampsia process forecast and recommendations in relation to the follow up of pregnant with gestation edemas depending on the level of skin conductivity are developed.

  17. Primary report of noninvasive impedance monitoring of cerebral hematoma and edema in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yi Lu; Dong Wei-Wei; Yang Hao; Long Men; Yang Hua

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objective Brain edema is one of the most important clinical process in many diseases. Tissue impedance monitoring offers a non-invasive, bedside, rapid, and reliable technique for the monitoring of the brain edema. Methods We use a bioelectrical impedance(BEI) monitoring unit to record the brain impedance in the healthy volunteer and the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Percent of BEI variations were calculation. Results and Conclusions Brain BEI haven f any difference between both hemispheres in normal ones. In 48hrs, BEI value at hematoma-side was obviously decreased; after 48hrs, BEI value was obviously increased and continue to tenth day. Brain bioelectrical impedance monitoring, particularly noninvasively, is a first time in this field. The primary results show brain BEI could reflect the evolution of cerebral hematoma and edema.

  18. Diabetic papillopathy with macular edema treated with intravitreal bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Al-Hinai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old diabetic male presented with acute painless visual loss in his left eye (OS. Visual acuity was 6/36 OS with an unremarkable anterior segment examination (OU. Posterior segment showed a swollen left optic disc with large diffuse macular edema and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR. The right eye fundus showed only mild NPDR. Optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed which revealed left macular edema and a hyperfluorescent left optic disc. Computerized tomography scan orbit and brain was normal. The patient received an intravitreal bevacizumab injection OS followed by focal laser photocoagulation 1 month later. His optic disc swelling and the macular edema subsided rapidly after the injection and his visual acuity improved to 6/6 with disc pallor.

  19. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  20. Change of apuaporin4 in rats during brain edema induced by lipid polysaccharide%水通道蛋白4在脂多糖致大鼠感染性脑水肿模型中的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳; 高进; 陈萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the expression of aquaporin - 4 (AQP4) in rats with brain edema induced by lipid polysaccharide (LPS) as well as to expl6re the role of AQP4 in the formation and development of brain edema. Methods Eighty four SD male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group( group C,n = 12), saline group (group S, n = 12), LPS group (group L, n = 60). Group L was devided into 5 subgroups according to different time points after injecting LPS: 6h, 12h, 24h,48h,72h ( each subgroup, n = 12). Cerebral edema was induced by carotid injection with LPS ( 150μg/150μL). Dry - wet weight, evan blue,RT- PCR and immunohistochemistry methods were used respectively to measure the brain tissue water content, the integrity of BBB , the expression of AQP4 mRNA and AQP4 protein. Results: Compared with group C and group S, the brain tissue water content, EB content, AQP4 mRNA andprotein were significantly increased (P<0.05) in group L,except subgroup 72h. They were increased at 6h after LPS injection, with a peak at 24h. No significant difference was found between group C and group S(P> 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that the expression of AQP4 is up regulated in brain edema induced by LPS, and it has positive relationship with the integrity of BBB and the brain tissue water content. It shows AQP4 may participat in the formation and development of infections cerebral edema.%目的:观察脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠感染性脑水肿后水通道蛋白4的表达情况.探讨其在脑水肿形成发展中的作用.方法:84只雄性SD大鼠,随机分为3组:空白对照组(C组,n=12):生理盐水对照组(S组,n=12):水肿组(L组,n=60).水肿组又按注射脂多精后6h、12h、24h、48h、72h分为5个亚组(n=12).向颈内动脉注射脂多糖LPSl50μg(0.15mL)建立大鼠感染性脑水肿模型.采用干湿重法、甲酰胺法、PT-PCR和免疫组化法分别测定脑组织含水量、血脑屏障通透性、AQP4mRNA和AQP4蛋白表达.结果:

  1. Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra E Moura Garcia, C; Sokolova, A; Torre, M L; Amaro, C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy is a small vessel leucocytoclastic vasculitis affecting young infants. It is characterized by large, target-like, macular to purpuric plaques predominantly affecting the face, ear lobes and extremities. Non-pitting edema of the distal extremities and low-grade fever may also be present. Extra-cutaneous involvement is very rare. Although the lesions have a dramatic onset in a twenty-four to forty-eight hour period, usually the child has a non-toxic appearance. In most cases there are no changes in laboratory parameters. The cutaneous biopsy reveals an inflammatory perivascular infiltrate. It is a benign and auto-limited disease, with complete resolution within two to three weeks leaving no sequelae in the majority of cases. No recurrences are described. We report a case of a 42-day old girl admitted at our hospital with Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy. PMID:26808448

  2. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.)

  3. Does age matter? - A MRI study on peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platten Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritumoral edema is a characteristic feature of malignant glioma related to the extent of neovascularisation and to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. The extent of peritumoral edema and VEGF expression may be prognostic for patients with glioblastoma. As older age is a negative prognostic marker and as VEGF expression is reported to be increased in primary glioblastoma of older patients, age-related differences in the extent of peritumoral edema have been assessed. Methods In a retrospective, single-center study, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of steroid-naïve patients (n = 122 of all age groups were analysed. Patients with clinically suspected, radiologically likely or known evidence of secondary glioblastoma were not included. Extent of brain edema was determined in a metric quantitative fashion and in a categorical fashion in relation to tumor size. Analysis was done group-wise related to age. Additionally, tumor size, degree of necrosis, superficial or deep location of tumor and anatomic localization in the brain were recorded. Results The extent of peritumoral edema in patients >65 years (ys was not different from the edema extent in patients ≤ 65 ys (p = 0.261. The same was true if age groups ≤ 55 ys and ≥ 70 ys were compared (p = 0.308. However, extent of necrosis (p = 0.023, deep tumor localization (p = 0.02 and frontal localisation (p = 0.016 of the tumor were associated with the extent of edema. Tumor size was not linearly correlated to edema extent (Pearson F = 0.094, p = 0.303 but correlated to degree of necrosis (F = 0.355, p Conclusion Age at diagnosis does not determine degree of peritumoral edema, and tumor localization in the white matter is associated with greater extent of edema. The area of necrosis is reflective of volume of edema. In summary, the radiographic appearance of a glioblastoma at diagnosis does not reflect biology in the elderly patient.

  4. Reexpansion pulmonary edema following thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuman Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reexpansion pulmonary edema is an uncommon complication of the treatment of lung atelectasis, pleural effusion or pneumothorax and pathogenesis is unknown. An elderly male patient presented to us with right-sided pleural effusion. 2 h after thoracentesis, he felt chest discomfort and increased breathlessness. His chest examination showed right-sided crackles. Chest radiograph showed right-sided heterogeneous opacity in right lower zone consistent with unilateral pulmonary edema. He was managed conservatively along with bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator support. His condition improved gradually and was discharged successfully after 2 days.

  5. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ecer Menteş; Mustafa Taşkesen; Selahattin Katar; M.Emin Günel; Sedat Akdeniz

    2009-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is a rare form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Mostly it appears under three years of age and is characterized by purpuric skin lesions, fever and edema. A three years-old boy, who has cough and coryzea was admitted to our clinic for fever and red spots on legs and arms. In physical examination; ecimotic skin lesions on right ear, face, arms, dorsal of the hands, buttocks, legs and dorsal of the feet were found. In the laboratory tests acute phase reactants ...

  6. [Hereditary angioneurotic edema in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, H; Harmat, G; Füst, G; Varga, L; Visy, B

    2000-11-19

    Hereditary angioneurotic edema results from the deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor. The clinical picture of this autosomal dominant disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks of edema formation in the subcutis and/or the submucosa. The clinical records of 21 children with established hereditary angioneurotic edema were reviewed. Follow-up care included laboratory check-ups and abdominal ultrasound. Clinical manifestations of the disease first occurred in 2.5 to 12 years of age. Mechanical trauma was the most common precipitating factor. Pedigree-analysis revealed 19 patients with afflicted relatives. Long-term prophylaxis was initiated with tranexamic acid and danazol in 10 cases; 2 children required short-term prophylaxis. Therapy improved serum complement parameters significantly and reduced the frequency and severity of clinical manifestations. Acute, life-threatening edematous attacks were treated by the administration of C1-inhibitor concentrate, which achieved the resolution of the edema within several hours. Abdominal ultrasonography performed during the attack invariably demonstrated transitory ascites that resolved spontaneously after treatment. Adequate prophylaxis and follow-up care can spare pediatric patients from edematous attacks. Undesirable adverse effects can be avoided and the patient's quality of life can be enhanced considerably by administering the lowest effective drug dose. PMID:11143287

  7. Transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association between pre-operative and intra-operative factors leading to transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Shifa Foundation Community Health Centre, Islamabad, from October 2011 to September 2012. Methodology: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens (IOL) implantation were enrolled in the study using consecutive non-probability sampling. Pre-operative risk factors including peripheral corneal degenerations, the type and density of cataract were documented. Surgical risk factors included the incision site, the type of intraocular lens, the phacotechnique and the phacopower time. Postoperatively the patients were assessed for corneal clarity and the degree of striate keratopathy. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: There were 43% male and 57% female patients (n = 182). Mean age was 58.92 ± 13.00 years (median and mode-60 years). Factors which increased the risk of transient corneal edema after phacoemulsification included hypertension (p = 0.022), dense nuclear cataracts (p=0.006), divide and conquer technique (p = 0.008), duration of phacopower use (p < 0.001) and peripheral corneal degenerations (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with peripheral corneal degenerations and dense nuclear cataracts had significantly higher rates of postoperative corneal edema. Use of phaco-chop technique and less phaco-power time helps in decreasing corneal edema. (author)

  8. Contributions of Histamine, Prostanoids, and Neurokinins to Edema Elicited by Edema Toxin from Bacillus anthracis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, Jeffrey; Green, Candace; Padgett, Diana; Zhao, Wei; Schwartz, Lawrence; Hughes, Molly; Hewlett, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), composed of protective antigen and an adenylate cyclase edema factor (EF), elicits edema in host tissues, but the target cells and events leading from EF-mediated cyclic-AMP production to edema are unknown. We evaluated the direct effect of ET on several cell types in vitro and tested the possibility that mediators of vascular leakage, such as histamine, contribute to edema in rabbits given intradermal ET. ET increased the transendothelial electrical resis...

  9. Naloxone-induced pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J A; Koenigsberg, M D

    1987-11-01

    We present the case of a 68-year-old woman with acute pulmonary edema secondary to the administration of naloxone to reverse an inadvertent narcotic overdose. The patient presented following a 12-hour history of increasingly bizarre behavior and confusion. A total IV dose of 1.6 mg naloxone was administered in an attempt to reverse the suspected overconsumption of a codeine-containing cough suppressant. She immediately became agitated, tachycardic, and diaphoretic; a clinical diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema was made. Following treatment with furosemide, nitroglycerin, and morphine sulfate, the patient recovered completely without further incident. Although naloxone is thought to be a safe drug with few complications, it should not be used indiscriminantly, and the smallest doses necessary to elicit the desired response should be used. PMID:3662194

  10. Limb edemas in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic radiology in cancer patients suffering from limb edemas serves two main purposes: to detect or to rule out lymph node metastases, recurrent cancer, or secondary malignancies, and to differentiate venous edema from lymphedema. The authors suggest an algorithmic pathway where the non-invasive imaging modalities, real-time ultrasonography and computed tomography are recommended as the initial diagnostic step. Both techniques are equally well suited to detect enlarged lymph nodes with high accuracy. In addition, computed tomography allows to a certain degree to separate venous from lymphedema. Phlebography is rarely needed in these patients. Lymphography should only be considered in patients undergoing microsurgical reconstructive operations of the lymphatics (e.g. lymphovenous anastomoses) because this invasive study carries the risk of deteriorating the edematous limb. (orig.)

  11. Limb edemas in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, P.E.; Groth, W.

    1983-06-20

    Diagnostic radiology in cancer patients suffering from limb edemas serves two main purposes: to detect or to rule out lymph node metastases, recurrent cancer, or secondary malignancies, and to differentiate venous edema from lymphedema. The authors suggest an algorithmic pathway where the non-invasive imaging modalities, real-time ultrasonography and computed tomography are recommended as the initial diagnostic step. Both techniques are equally well suited to detect enlarged lymph nodes with high accuracy. In addition, computed tomography allows to a certain degree to separate venous from lymphedema. Phlebography is rarely needed in these patients. Lymphography should only be considered in patients undergoing microsurgical reconstructive operations of the lymphatics (e.g. lymphovenous anastomoses) because this invasive study carries the risk of deteriorating the edematous limb.

  12. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  13. Glioma-related edema: new insight into molecular mechanisms and their clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Xiong Lin

    2013-01-01

    Glioma-related edema (GRE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality from glioma.GRE is a complicated process involving not only peritumoral edema but also the water content of the tumor body.In terms of etiology,this condition derives from both GRE in the untreated state and GRE secondary to clinical intervention,and different cell types contribute to distinct components of GRE.Peritumoral edema was previously believed to loosen glioma tissue,facilitating tumor-cell invasion;however,the nutrition hypothesis of the tumor microecosystem suggests that tumor cells invade for the sake of nutrition.Edema is the pathologic consequence of the reconstructed trophic linkage within the tumor microecosystem.Glioma cells induce peritumoral brain edema via an active process that supplies a suitable niche for peritumoral invasive cells,suggesting that glioma-related peritumoral brain edema is determined by the invasive property of tumor cells.There are differences between pivotal molecular events and reactive molecular events in the development of GRE.Molecular therapy should target the former,as targeting reactive molecular events will produce undesired or even adverse results.At present,brain glioma angiogenesis models have not been translated into a new understanding of the features of brain images.The effect of these models on peritumoral brain edema is unclear.Clinical approaches should be transformed on the basis of new knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying GRE.Exploring clinical assessment methods,optimizing the existing control strategy of GRE,and simultaneously developing new treatments are essential.

  14. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in limb edemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is a safe, non-invasive and physiological method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system. Colloids as antimony or rhenium sulphide labeled with 99m technetium have been widely used for morphological studies. Quantitative studies involving a continuous count rate monitoring of the injection sites followed by a computer analysis of dynamic image sequences have been a new promising step for an objective measurement of the peripheral lymphatic function. The injection site is always bilateral on the first web space of either the hand or the foot using a small volume (<0.2 mL) of the radiocolloid. This method has been validated on 30 young healthy volunteers and normal values established from a group of 125 upper and 141 lower limbs (normal subjects). The normal results showed a slight but continuous decrease in lymphatic function depending on the age of the subject. In pathological situations, we observed dysfunction of the lymphatic system in pure lymphoedemas or so-called lympho-venous edemas as demonstrated on the 1,182 upper and 2,463 lower limbs tested. The radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy may be helpful in cases of unilateral swollen limbs demonstrating a lymphatic dysfunction on a clinically normal contralateral limb at the first stage of a distal edema which appears within a few weeks or days, in a transient edema phase when normal status and oedema alternate. The lymphoscintigraphy gives objective and reproducible parameters necessary to assess the lymphatic variation under therapy (decongestive physiotherapy, surgery, drugs) and may be useful in the selection of new lympho-tonic treatments. This method is only reflecting the lymphatic function and is unable to appreciate the total lymphatic flow of the limb. Its results only reflect what happens at the injection site and it may be necessary to add a second test using a proximal injection in order to assess the occurrence of lymph nodes not visualized by the

  15. Acute cerebral and pulmonary edema induced by hemodialysis in a dog model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zhen-wei; WANG Zhi-gang

    2008-01-01

    Background The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is characterized by neurologic deterioration and cerebral edema which occurs after hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of acute cerebral and pulmonary edema induced by hemodialysis.Methods We evaluated the effects of hemodialysis on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, including the intracranial pressure, dry/wet ratio, and pulmonary edema index, and we also examined the pathological changes of the brain and lung tissue in dogs suffering from uremia.Results Seventy-two hours after bilateral ureteral ligation, 10 uremic dogs were hemodialyzed for 2 hours, yielding a 73.6% and 60.1% decrease in the plasma urea and creatinine, respectively, a decrease in the plasma osmolality from (359±18) mOsm/kgH2O to (304±6) mOsm/kgH2O (P <0.01 ), a decrease in the dry/wet ratio of the lung and brain tissue,and an increase in the hemodynamic parameters (right atrial pressure, right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and central venous pressure), intracranial pressure, total pulmonary resistance index, and pulmonary edema index. Moreover, the pathological examination revealed lung and brain edema in the dialyzed dogs. This group was compared to 3 control groups: 6 uremic dogs which were sham dialyzed without dialysate so that no fall in the plasma urea occurred, and 12 uremic and 12 nonuremic animals that were not dialyzed.However, the parameters mentioned above were not significantly changed among these 3 control groups.Conclusions The acute brain and lung edema in our model appeared to be primarily due to a large osmotic gradient between the plasma and the brain and lung. This is the "urea reverse effect" which promoted the osmotically-induced lung and brain swelling.

  16. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  17. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  18. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  19. Does age matter? - A MRI study on peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritumoral edema is a characteristic feature of malignant glioma related to the extent of neovascularisation and to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The extent of peritumoral edema and VEGF expression may be prognostic for patients with glioblastoma. As older age is a negative prognostic marker and as VEGF expression is reported to be increased in primary glioblastoma of older patients, age-related differences in the extent of peritumoral edema have been assessed. In a retrospective, single-center study, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of steroid-naïve patients (n = 122) of all age groups were analysed. Patients with clinically suspected, radiologically likely or known evidence of secondary glioblastoma were not included. Extent of brain edema was determined in a metric quantitative fashion and in a categorical fashion in relation to tumor size. Analysis was done group-wise related to age. Additionally, tumor size, degree of necrosis, superficial or deep location of tumor and anatomic localization in the brain were recorded. The extent of peritumoral edema in patients >65 years (ys) was not different from the edema extent in patients ≤ 65 ys (p = 0.261). The same was true if age groups ≤ 55 ys and ≥ 70 ys were compared (p = 0.308). However, extent of necrosis (p = 0.023), deep tumor localization (p = 0.02) and frontal localisation (p = 0.016) of the tumor were associated with the extent of edema. Tumor size was not linearly correlated to edema extent (Pearson F = 0.094, p = 0.303) but correlated to degree of necrosis (F = 0.355, p < 0.001, Spearman-Rho) and depth of tumor (p < 0.001). In a multifactorial analysis of maximum edema with the uncorrelated factors age, regional location of tumor and degree of necrosis, only the extent of necrosis (p = 0.022) had a significant effect. Age at diagnosis does not determine degree of peritumoral edema, and tumor localization in the white matter is associated with greater

  20. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy s

  1. Reexpansive Pulmonary Edema Following Cardiac Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik F et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema may occur secondary to increased left ventricular load and systemic vascular resistance following a sudden drainage of cardiac tamponade fluid. In present case, a 65-year-old male patient who underwent heart surgery three months ago, was operated due to respiratory distress symptoms and developed reexpansion pulmonary edema, was reported.

  2. Immersion Pulmonary Edema in Female Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema has been reported in SCUBA divers, apnea divers, and long-distance swimmers however, no instances of pulmonary edema in triathletes exist in the scientific literature. Pulmonary edema may cause seizures and loss of consciousness which in a water environment may become life threatening. This paper describes pulmonary edema in three female triathletes. Signs and symptoms including cough, fatigue, dyspnea, haemoptysis, and rales may occur within minutes of immersion. Contributing factors include hemodynamic changes due to water immersion, cold exposure, and exertion which elevate cardiac output, causing pulmonary capillary stress failure, resulting in extravasation of fluid into the airspace of the lung. Previous history is a major risk factor. Treatment involves immediate removal from immersion and in more serious cases, hospitalization, and oxygen administration. Immersion pulmonary edema is a critical environmental illness of which triathletes, race organizers, and medical staff, should be made aware.

  3. 水通道蛋白4小RNA干扰技术优化亚低温治疗脑水肿%Optimized application of siRNA targeting aquaporin 4 with hypothermia treatment on cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 刘晓智; 刘振林; 张文彬; 曲阳; 何敬; 孙世中

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用针对靶向水通道蛋白4(aquapofin 4,AQP-4)的小RNA(siRNA)干扰技术优化亚低温减轻颅脑创伤(traumatic brain injury,TBI)后脑水肿程度的治疗效果.方法 构建沉默AQP-4 mRNA表达的siRNA质粒;液压打击法建立大鼠TBI模型,分TBI对照组、AQP-4 siRNA治疗组、亚低温治疗组、AQP-4 siRNA及亚低温联合治疗组;提取第1、3、5、7天脑组织总RNA和总蛋白,RT-PCR和Western blot方法 检测AQP-4的mRNA和蛋白表达水平;干/湿比重法和Evans蓝测定法观察大鼠TBI后不同时相脑组织含水量和血脑屏障通透性改变;实验动物予以神经功能缺陷综合评分.结果 亚低温在减轻TBI后脑水肿程度方面优于AQP-4 siRNA,但siRNA技术在沉默AQP-4表达方面强于亚低温,联合应用AQP-4 siRNA和亚低温在TBI后降低脑水肿程度方面获得最佳治疗效果.结论 靶向AQP-4的Si RNA干扰技术可优化亚低温在TBI后降低脑水肿方面的治疗效果.%Objective To optimize the treatment effect of siRNA targeting aquaporin 4 with hypothermia on cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury. Methods To construct siRNA targeting aquaporin 4, and establish the TBI models in rats. The animals were divided into four groups: TBI group, AQP-4 siRNA group, hypothermia group, and combined group. To extract the total mRNA and proteins on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th day for RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The changes of brain water content and permeability of blood-brain barrier were measured by the methods of wet and dry weight and Evans blue fluorometry. All the rats were given a mark for their nerve function on the 7th day. Results Hypothermia treatment can obtain better effect than AQP-4 siRNA in lessening brain edema level. Meanwhile, siRNA treatment can obtain better effect than hypothermia group in silencing AQP-4 mRNA and protein expression. When combining hypothermia treatment with AQP-4 siRNA, we can obtain an optimized result than the single

  4. Soft Tissue Edema Around Musculoskeletal Sarcomas at Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Panicek, David M.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of soft tissue edema around a malignant musculoskeletal neoplasm can interfere with accurate local tumor staging at magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses and illustrates such edema, emphasizing means for avoiding misinterpretation of edema and subsequent overstaging.

  5. Update on treatments of diabetic macular edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-lu; LIU Kun; XU Xun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the update research progress about the treatment of diabetic macular edema and to give helpful guidelines in the treatment of diabetic macular edema based on available evidence to date.Data sources A literature search of all English articles was performed on the online electronic PubMed database dated 1984 to 2009. The keywords searched included: macular edema, therapy, laser coagulation, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, protein kinase C inhibitor and Pars plana vitrectomy. After finding relevant articles within these search limits, a manual search was conducted through the references from these articles.Study selection Original articles and critical reviews were reviewed and selected to address the stated purpose.Results To date, demonstrated means to reduce the risk of vision loss from diabetic macular edema include focal/grid laser photocoagulation and improved metabolic control. Emerging pharmacologic therapies (intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and protein kinase C beta-isoform inhibitors) and Pars plana vitrectomy have shown early promise in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.Conclusions As there has been extensive development in multiple treatments of diabetic macular edema, choice of the most suitable treatment for specific patients becomes important. Combination therapy of laser, pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities may offer an alternative to treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  6. Examination of dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation in experimentally produced cerebral edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexamethasone sodium sulfate and hyperbaric oxygenation were used for experimentally produced cerebral edema for the examination of the water content of the brain and cerebrovascular permeability using 203Hg as the tracer. Although dexamethasone starts lowering vascular permeability of the edematous brain at one hour after the intravenous injection, a lapse of 24 hours is required until the water content returns to normal. Although hyperbaric oxygenation dose not reduce cerebrovascular permeability, it brings back the water content of the brain to normal immediately after pressurization. Since the combination of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygenation maintains the water content of the brain almost normal throughout the entire process, it is ideal for the treatment of cerebral edema. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Use of Electrical Impedance Tomography to Monitor Regional Cerebral Edema during Clinical Dehydration Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Feng; Li, Bing; Dai, Meng; Hu, Shi-Jie; Li, Xia; Xu, Can-Hua; Wang, Bing; Yang, Bin; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen; Fei, Zhou; Shi, Xue-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Variations of conductive fluid content in brain tissue (e.g. cerebral edema) change tissue impedance and can potentially be measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), an emerging medical imaging technique. The objective of this work is to establish the feasibility of using EIT as an imaging tool for monitoring brain fluid content. Design a prospective study. Setting In this study EIT was used, for the first time, to monitor variations in cerebral fluid content in a clinical ...

  8. Pedal edema associated with atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Munshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a patient diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder complaining of bothersome incidence of pedal edema 1 month after the initiation of atypical antipsychotic regimen with risperidone and quetiapine. All hematological and biochemical profiles were found to be normal. On discontinuation of risperidone, the condition remained unresolved even after 2 weeks, and the edema progressed reaching her calves. On tapering the dose of quetiapine, she started showing gradual improvement in edematous condition. Quetiapine was slowly discontinued. No further recurrence of edema occurred, and hence, no further medication changes were implemented. Pedal edema was found to be resolved within weeks of dechallenge of the regimen. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale gave a score of 7 which denotes "probable" adverse drug reaction with quetiapine.

  9. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte-Nuñez, A. E.; Téllez-Anguiano, A. C.; O. Hernández-Díaz; Rodríguez-Vera, R.; J. A. Gutiérrez-Gnecchi; Salazar-Martínez, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration), temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat....

  10. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Developing After Cesarean Section

    OpenAIRE

    Güleç, Handan; Babayigit, Münire; Kurtay, Aysun; Tutal, Zehra; Dereli, Necla; Sahin, Saziye; Horasanli, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a pathogenesis of pulmonary edema which occurs often in the early period following the acute neurologic changes affecting the central nervous system and proceeds with respiratory failure. It causes respiratory problems requiring intubation in the patient. When evaluated in general terms, the pathophysiology of NPE includes cardiopulmonary dysfunction caused by catecholamines that are secreted rapidly and abundantly. This case study will examine the respirat...

  11. Periorbital edema secondary to imatinib mesylate

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Collin M; Harocopos, George J; Custer, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    Collin M McClelland, George J Harocopos, Philip L CusterSchool of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec®) is a well-established pharmacologic treatment for all phases of chronic myeloid leukemia and for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Edema-related side effects are relatively common in imatinib therapy with the periocular skin representing one of the most common sites for localized edema. While the adverse effect of p...

  12. Lymphatic Edema in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    OpenAIRE

    Verstegen, Ruud HJ.; Theodore, Miranda; Klerk, Hans; Morava, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of metabolic disorders caused by deficient protein glycosylation. PMM2-CDG, the most common CDG, is caused by phosphomannomutase (PMM) deficiency. Clinical symptoms often include neurological involvement in addition to dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, cardiac failure, renal, and endocrine abnormalities. To our knowledge, lymphatic edema in CDG has not been reported. We present two cases of lymphatic edema in PMM2-CDG patients. The...

  13. Cystoid Macular Edema: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Alcobendas, Noelia; Zulueta, Joseba; García Martín, Elena Salobrar; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on cystoid macular edema published in the last seven years. Cystoid macular edema is a major cause of loss of visual acuity. It is the final common pathway of many diseases and can be caused by numerous processes including inflammatory, vascular, adverse drug reactions, retinal dystrophy or intraocular tumors. These processes disrupt the blood-retinal barrier, with fluid extravasation to the macular parenchyma. Imaging tests are esse...

  14. Combined Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Al Rashaed; J. Fernando Arevalo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients. Macular edema within 1 disk diameter of the fovea is present in 9% of the diabetic population. The management of DME is complex and often multiple treatment approaches are needed. This review demonstrates the benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone, bevacizumab and ranibizumab as adjunctive therapy to macular laser treatment in DME. The published results indicate that intravitreal injections of these agen...

  15. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation. Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema, is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries. Today, blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy. The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia, arteria...

  16. 胰岛素对大鼠局灶性脑缺血后脑水肿及水通道蛋白9的影响%Effects of Insulin on Expression of Aquaporin -9 and Brain Edema after Focal Cerebral Is-chemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊; 陈忠云; 李婧; 徐志伟; 杨旭

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of insulin on expression of Aquaporin-9 (AQP-9) and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Methods: One hundred and eighty SD rats were randomly divided into groups of sham, MCAO and insulin treatment, with 30 rats in each group. Six rats in each group were observed at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after MCAO. The MCAO models were estabilish by suture method, and the sham group without suture. The insulin treatment group was given insulin by intraperitoneal injection. The nerve function, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and AQP-9 mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: The brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and AQP-9 mRNA expression of groups MCAO and insulin began to increase at 6 h and reached peak at 48 h and gradually decreased at 72 h, which were signifi-cantly higher than those in sham group (P<0.05). Compared with the MCAO group, the brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and AQP-9 mRNA expression in insulin treatment group were obviously decreased (P<0.05). There were a significantly passive correlation between AQP-9 mRNA expression and brain water contents, blood-brain barrier permeability(r=0.905, P<0.01; r=0.923, P<0.01). Conclusion: Insulin can reduce brain edema through suppressing expression of AQP-9 in cerebral ischemia in rats.%目的:观察胰岛素对大脑中动脉栓塞(MCAO)大鼠模型脑水肿形成及水通道蛋白-9(AQP-9)表达的影响。方法:SD 大鼠180只,随机分为假手术组、模型组、胰岛素组各30只,分别在栓塞后6、12、24、48、72 h 观察6只。线栓法制备 MCAO 模型,假手术组不插入线栓,胰岛素组 MCAO 后立即给予腹腔注射胰岛素干预。各组进行神经功能评分,检测血脑屏障通透性、脑含水量和脑组织 AQP-9 mRNA 表达。结果:模型组和胰岛素组于缺血6 h 后,脑含水量、血脑屏障通透性及 AQP-9 mRNA

  17. 大鼠原发性脑损伤伴低血压对脑子肿形成时相的影响%Effects of primary cerebral injury with hypotension on the development and severity of brain edema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘励军; Payen JF; Farion R; LeBas JF; 包仕尧

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨脑外伤和伴发低血压的脑外伤对于大鼠脑水肿形成时间和程度的影响.方法 利用组织比重法测定创伤后大鼠顶叶皮层和纹状体含水量的变化.通过联合使用氯醛糖和潘龙诱发脑外伤后低血压.结果 改良的加速性脑创伤模型大鼠病死率为48.6%,而颅骨骨折的发生率为6.4%.创伤后8 h和24 h存活大鼠,其脑组织含水量与对照组比较无明显差别;但创伤后24 h较8 h大鼠,其顶叶皮层含水量[(79.1±0.5)%vs.(78.6±0.5)%,P<0.05]增加0.5%.然而,创伤后合并低血压大鼠,创伤后8 h就已出现明显的脑水肿.与创伤后8 h存活大鼠相比,其顶叶皮层含水量[(81.5±0.9)%vs.(78.6±0.5)%,P<0.01]和纹状体含水量[(78.5±0.9)%vs.(75.5±0.9)%,P<0.01]均明显增加,即,创伤后合并低血压使大鼠脑组织含水量增加了2.9%.结论 无低血压的颅脑外伤大鼠,其脑水肿形成晚且程度轻;而合并有低血压的脑外伤大鼠,其脑水肿出现早且严重.%Objective To study the effects of traumatic brain injury with or without hypotension on the development and severity of brain edema using the impact- acceleration model.Methods Brain tissue water content (BWC) was measured by the gravimetric technique in the cortex and striatum following traumatic brain injury (TBI) . The hypotension was induced by the combination of α - chloralose and pavulon after TBI.Results The mortality of this improved model of TBI was 48.6 %, but the rate of skull fracture was 6.4 %. Within the first 24 hours after TBI, the BWC of cortex and striatum in the survival rats showed a slight decrease at first, and then an increase. There appeared no difference in BWC between the two groups of TBI and the control. Nevertheless, the BWC in the area of parietal cortex at 24 hours after impact injury slightly increased by 0.5 % in comparison with that at 8 hours after impact [ (79.1 ± 0.5) % vs. (78.6 ± 0.5) %, P < 0.05]. Meanwhile,the BWC of

  18. Mitral Valve Regurgitation Causing Right Upper Lobe Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Andrew L.; Langston, Charles S.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Shortsleeve, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    When radiography is performed in patients with mitral regurgitation, cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a typical finding; however, asymmetric pulmonary edema has also been reported. We describe the case of a patient in whom mitral valve regurgitation caused isolated pulmonary edema in the right upper lung. We include a discussion of pulmonary edema in conjunction with mitral regurgitation.

  19. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliaperumal Mathan; Venkatesan Muthukrishnan; Vikas Menon

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  20. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Mathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  1. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  2. Expression of AQP4 and susceptivity to high-altitude cerebral edema in bovine brain%黄牛脑水通道蛋白4的表达及其对高原脑水肿的易感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国强; 王建林; 徐元青; 伍国芬; 邵宝平

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨黄牛对高原脑水肿的易感性,并为青藏高原养牛业提供参考,运用免疫组织化学SABC染色法并采用Image-Pro Plus 6.0软件,对成年黄牛大脑不同功能区水通道蛋白4(AQP4)的表达及分布特征进行了研究.结果显示,黄牛不同功能区脑组织中AQP4表达面积(S)和积分光密度(IOD)值的大小顺序为S扣带回>S中央前回>S丘脑>S尾状核,IOD扣带回>IOD中央前回>IOD丘脑>IOD尾状核,且扣带回和中央前回的S和IOD值均显著高于丘脑和尾状核(P<0.01).结果证实,成年黄牛脑不同功能区、同功能区不同层及同功能区同层不同类型细胞对水的通透性及代谢功能存在较大差异,对脑水肿的易感性是不同的.%To investigate the susceptivity of cattle to the high altitude cerebral edema as well as provide reference and theory evidence to the cattle-raising industry in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the expression and distributional characteristics of adult cattle cerebral aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in different functional area were studied by using immunohistochemical SABC and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Statistical analysis showed that both the immunostaining area(S) and the integral optical density(IOD) value of the cingulated gyrus and precentral gyrus were significantly larger than thalamus and caudate nucleus(P<0. 01, Scingulated gyrus>Sprecentral gyrus > Sthalamus > Scaudate uncleus and IODcingulated gyrus > IODprecentral gyrus > IODthalamus > IODcaudate nucleus ). The results showed that there was comparatively large discrepancy of cell water permeability and metabolism function among different functional area in cattle brain, distinct peers of a functional area and distinguished type cells in the same functional area and peer which might have different susceptivity to cerebral edema.

  3. MR imaging response of cerebral metastases and peritumoral edema after Gamma Knife surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluation the treatment response of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the control of cerebral metastases and peritumoral edema using standard MRI. Method: 42 consecutive patients with 75 metastatic lesions were recruited in this study (28 men, 14 women; mean age 60±12 years). Gadolinium enhancement T1WI scans were performed on one day before and three months after GKS. Treatment response was evaluated by calculating the changes of tumor volume and edema index before and after GKS. Results: Mean tumor volumes on the baseline and post treatment were 7.0 cm3 and 3.3 cm3 respectively. Mean peritumoral edema indexes were 9.9 and 4.3 respectively. Tumor growth control rate and peritumoral edema control rate were 91% and 85% respectively. Conclusion: GKS is effective for both brain metastasis and peritumoral edema, and the tumor volume influences GKS efficacy. Conventional MRI provides useful information to predict treatment response of GKS for cerebral metastasis. (authors)

  4. Combined therapy for diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Al Rashaed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is the main cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients. Macular edema within 1 disk diameter of the fovea is present in 9% of the diabetic population. The management of DME is complex and often multiple treatment approaches are needed. This review demonstrates the benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone, bevacizumab and ranibizumab as adjunctive therapy to macular laser treatment in DME. The published results indicate that intravitreal injections of these agents may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity, independent of the type of macular edema that is present. Therefore, pharmacotherapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in the management of DME. For this review, we performed a literature search and summarized recent findings regarding combined therapy for DME.

  5. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan Vikas; Chaudhary S; Gopal Lingam

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid...

  6. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro

    2013-10-15

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation. Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema, is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries. Today, blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy. The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia, arterial tension, lipids and renal status. The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries, but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs, the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME), can be valid as gold standard in many countries. The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs (ranibizumab and bevacizumab), are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME, but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies. The corticosteroids for diffuse DME, has a place in pseudophakic patients, but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients. Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients. PMID:24147200

  7. High altitude pulmonary edema: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute pulmonary edema is characterized by the accumulation of liquid in the pulmonary interstice, the alveoli, the bronchi and bronchioles; it is from the excessive circulation from the pulmonary vascular system towards extra vascular and the respiratory spaces. The Liquid filters first at the interstitial space to soon perivascular and peri bronchial and, gradually, towards the alveoli and bronchi

  8. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  9. Etoricoxib-induced pretibial erythema and edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase inhibitors were developed in the quest of enhanced analgesic efficacy devoid of gastric side effects. Etoricoxib is a second-generation cox-2 inhibitor and as its use increases so do the reports of side effects. We report a case of extoricoxib-induced pretibial erythema and edema; and review the literature.

  10. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2015), s. 1135-1145. ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : baroreflex-induced bradycardia * blood pressure rise * blood volume redistribution * neurogenic pulmonary edema * spinal cord injury * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.714, year: 2014

  11. Periorbital edema as initial manifestation of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Erras, Samar; Benjilali, Laila; Essaadouni, Lamiaa

    2012-01-01

    Periorbital edema occurs frequently in dermatomyositis, but it has rarely been noted in systemic systemic lupus erythematosus. We describe a patient who developed bilateral periorbital edema and erythema as the sole manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  12. An Adult Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting with Cerebral Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Akıncı

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA which may predominantly develop in pediatric cases during the management of DKA.. Symptomatic cerebral edema in children is rarely detected at admission, before initiation of the treatment. Cerebral edema associated with DKA is extremely rare in adults. Here, we report an adult patient with DKA who presented with symptomatic cerebral edema. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 16-8

  13. Generalized edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter J. Vlaar; Glen Mithoe; Janssen, Wilbert M

    2014-01-01

    Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.

  14. An Adult Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting with Cerebral Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Barış Akıncı; Abdurrahman Çömlekçi; Serkan Yener; Süleyman Men

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) which may predominantly develop in pediatric cases during the management of DKA.. Symptomatic cerebral edema in children is rarely detected at admission, before initiation of the treatment. Cerebral edema associated with DKA is extremely rare in adults. Here, we report an adult patient with DKA who presented with symptomatic cerebral edema. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 16-8

  15. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Kumar Reddy Lakkireddigari; Padmaja Durga; Madhukar Nayak; Gopinath Ramchandran

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the iss...

  16. Generalized edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Vlaar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.

  17. Hypercapnic cerebral edema presenting in a woman with asthma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    McGee William T; Joyce Ryan R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Common causes of non-traumatic acute cerebral edema include malignant hypertension, hyponatremia, anoxia, and cerebral vascular accident. The computed tomographic images and data obtained during care of the patient described in this case report provide evidence that hypercarbia can cause increased intracranial pressure and coma without permanent brain injury. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide evaluation for coma is essential to provide faster diagnosis and therapeutic c...

  18. Macular edema in uveitis with emphasis on ocular sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norel, J. van

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the accumulation of fluid in the yellow spot (macular edema) in ocular inflammation (uveitis). Macular edema may result in definitive loss of vision.Two methods of imaging of macular edema are fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The first met

  19. MR imaging of edema accompanying benign and malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence, quantity, and presentation of intra- and extraosseous edema accompanying benign and malignant primary bone lesions, the magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 63 consecutive patients with histologically proven primary bone tumors were reviewed. MR scans were assessed for the presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema and correlated with preoperative findings, resected specimens and follow-up data. The signal intensity and enhancement of tumor and edema prior to and after intravenous administration (if any) of gadolinium-labled diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) was analyzed. Marrow edema was encountered adjacent to 8 of 39 maglinant tumors and 14 of 24 benign lesions. Soft tissue edema was found accompanying 28 of 39 malignancies and 10 of 24 benign disorders. On enhanced T1-weighted MR images tumor and edema were difficult to differentiate. Tumor inhomogeneity made this differentiation easier on T2-weighted sequences. In 36 patients the contrast medium Gd-DTPA was used. Edema was present in 27 of these patients and the respective enhancement of tumor and edema could be compared. Edema always enhanced homogeneously, and in most cases it enhanced to a similar degree as or more than tumor. Marrow and, more specifically, soft tissue edema is a frequent finding adjacent to primary bone tumors. The mere presence and quantity of marrow and soft tissue edema are unreliable indicators of the biologic potential of a lesion. Unenhanced MR scans cannot always differentiate between tumor and edema, but the administration of Gd-DTPA is of assistance in differentiating tumor from edema. Awareness of marrow and/or soft tissue edema adjacent to bone lesions is of importance because edema can be a pitfall in the diagnostic work-up and staging prior to biopsy or surgery. (orig.)

  20. Management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suqin; Patel, Shriji; Baumrind, Ben; Johnson, Keegan; Levinsohn, Daniel; Marcus, Edward; Tannen, Brad; Roy, Monique; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Zarbin, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Acute PCME may resolve spontaneously, but some patients will develop chronic macular edema that affects vision and is difficult to treat. This disease was described more than 50 years ago, and there are multiple options for clinical management. We discuss mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of these treatment modalities. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids are widely used and, when combined, may have a synergistic effect. Intravitreal corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have shown promise when topical medications either fail or have had limited effects. Randomized clinical studies evaluating anti-VEGF agents are needed to fully evaluate benefits and risks. When PCME is either refractory to medical therapy or is associated with significant vitreous involvement, pars plana vitrectomy has been shown to improve outcomes, though it is associated with additional risks. PMID:25438734

  1. Influenza leaves a TRAIL to pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Influenza infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to poor disease outcome with high mortality. One of the driving features in the pathogenesis of ARDS is the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, which causes severe pulmonary edema and impaired oxygen uptake. In this issue of the JCI, Peteranderl and colleagues define a paracrine communication between macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells during influenza infection where IFNα induces macrophage secretion of TRAIL that causes endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase by the alveolar epithelium. This reduction of Na,K-ATPase expression decreases alveolar fluid clearance, which in turn leads to pulmonary edema. Inhibition of the TRAIL signaling pathway has been shown to improve lung injury after influenza infection, and future studies will be needed to determine if blocking this pathway is a viable option in the treatment of ARDS. PMID:26999598

  2. Cystoid Macular Edema in Bietti's Crystalline Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Osman Saatci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old man with progressive bilateral visual decline was diagnosed to have Bietti's crystalline dystrophy (BCD. Fluorescein angiography revealed bilateral petaloid type late hyperfluorescence implicating concurrent cystoid macular edema (CME. Optical coherence tomography exhibited cystoid foveal lacunas OU. During the follow-up of six years, intraretinal crystals reduced in amount but CME persisted angiographically and tomographically. CME is among the rare macular features of BCD including subfoveal sensorial detachment, subretinal neovascular membrane, and macular hole.

  3. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Lauderdale, Kelli; Murphy, Thomas; Tung, Tina; Davila, David; Binder, Devin K.; Fiacco, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular edema (cell swelling) is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techn...

  4. Cerebral edema induced in mice by a convulsive dose of soman. Evaluation through diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the present study, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and histology were used to assess cerebral edema and lesions in mice intoxicated by a convulsive dose of soman, an organophosphate compound acting as an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor. Methods: Three hours and 24 h after the intoxication with soman (172 μg/kg), the mice were anesthetized with an isoflurane/N2O mixture and their brain examined with DW-MRI. After the imaging sessions, the mice were sacrificed for histological analysis of their brain. Results: A decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was detected as soon as 3 h after the intoxication and was found strongly enhanced at 24 h. A correlation was obtained between the ADC change and the severity of the overall brain damage (edema and cellular degeneration): the more severe the damage, the stronger the ADC drop. Anesthesia was shown to interrupt soman-induced seizures and to attenuate edema and cell change in certain sensitive brain areas. Finally, brain water content was assessed using the traditional dry/wet weight method. A significant increase of brain water was observed following the intoxication. Conclusions: The ADC decrease observed in the present study suggests that brain edema in soman poisoning is mainly intracellular and cytotoxic. Since entry of water into Brain was also evidenced, this type of edema is certainly mixed with others (vasogenic, hydrostatic, osmotic). The present study confirms the potential of DW-MRI as a non-invasive tool for monitoring the acute neuropathological consequences (edema and neurodegeneration) of soman-induced seizures

  5. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment. PMID:25291181

  6. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary edema in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary edema has been revealed in 132 patients (51.6 %) during radiologic examination of 256 patients with chronic renal failure. The performance of anterio-posterior chest radiographs was in most cases necessary and quite sufficient for making diagnostic conclusions. Follow up study of patients with pulmonary edema and analysis of radiologic picture of the alterations permitted physicians to distinguish approximately 3 stages of the process development, which transit from one into another. Stage 1 involves early disorders and prodromes of pulmonary edema; Stage 2 interstitial lung edema; Stage 3 alveolar edema. The circulation enforcement of the upper lobar vessels has been the main feature of stage 1. Radiogramometry provided additional information for the pulmonary edema diagnosis. For instance, cardioradiometric data are useful for pulmonary edema diagnosis and evidence in favour of its close connection with heart disorders

  7. Ataxia, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Ma Siqing; Bian Huiping; Zhang Minming

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that ataxia is common and often one of the most reliable warning signs of high altitude cerebral edema(HACE).The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of ataxia in acute mountain sickness (AMS) and HACE among mountain rescuers on the quake areas,and in approaching the relation between AMS and HACE.After the earthquake on April 14,2010,approximately 24080 lowland rescuers were rapidly transported from sea level or lowlands to the mountainous rescue sites at 3750 ~ 4568 m,and extremely hardly worked for an emergency treatment after arrival.Assessments of acute altitude illness on the quake areas were using the Lake Louise Scoring System.73 % of the rescuers were found to be developed AMS.The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) and HACE was 0.73 % and 0.26 %,respectively,on the second to third day at altitude.Ataxia sign was measured by simple tests of coordination including a modified Romberg test.The clinical features of 62 patients with HACE were analyzed.It was found that the most frequent,serious neurological symptoms and signs were altered mental status(50/62,80.6 %)and truncal ataxia (47/62,75.8 %).Mental status change was rated slightly higher than ataxia,but ataxia occurred earlier than mental status change and other symptoms.The earliest sign of ataxia was a vague unsteadiness of gait,which may be present alone in association with or without AMS.Advanced ataxia was correlated with the AMS scores,but mild ataxia did not correlate with AMS scores at altitudes of 3750~4568 m.Of them,14 patients were further examined by computerized tomographic scanning of the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imagines were examined in another 15 cases.These imaging studies indicated that the presence of the cerebral edema was in 97 % of cases who were clinically diagnosed as HACE (28/29).Ataxia seems to be a reliable sign of advanced AMS or HACE,so does altered mental status.

  8. Brain Volume Determination in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Tim; Hardy, Maurice; Fujii, Mutsumi; McBride, Devin W; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema is routinely measured using the wet-dry method. Volume, however, is the sum total of all cerebral tissues, including water. Therefore, volumetric change following injury may not be adequately quantified using percentage of edema. We thus tested the hypothesis that dried brains can be reconstituted with water and then re-measured to determine the actual volume. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30). Animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h after evaluation of neurobehavior for determination of brain water content. Dried brains were thereafter reconstituted with equal parts of water (lost from brain edema) and centrifuged to remove air bubbles. The total volume was quantified using hydrostatic (underwater) physics principles that 1 ml water (mass) = 1 cm(3) (volume). The amount of additional water needed to reach a preset level marked on 2-ml test tubes was added to that lost from brain edema, and from the brain itself, to determine the final volume. SAH significantly increased both brain water and volume while worsening neurological function in affected rats. Volumetric measurements demonstrated significant brain swelling after SAH, in addition to the brain edema approach. This modification of the "wet-dry" method permits brain volume determination using valuable post hoc dried brain tissue. PMID:26463930

  9. Loss of vascular early response gene reduces edema formation after experimental stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fudong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular Early Response Gene (Verge is an immediate early gene (IEG that is up-regulated in endothelial cells in response to a number of stressors, including ischemic stroke. Endothelial cell lines that stably express Verge show enhanced permeability. Increased Verge expression has also been associated with blood brain barrier breakdown. In this study we investigated the role of Verge in ischemic injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in both Verge knockout (KO and wild type (WT mice. Verge KO mice had significantly less cerebral edema formation after MCAO compared to WT mice. However, stroke outcome (infarct size and neurological deficit scores evaluated at either 24 or 72 hours after stroke showed no differences between the two genotypes. Verge deletion leads to decreased edema formation after ischemia; however acute stroke outcomes were unchanged.

  10. MR imaging of edematous limbs in lymphatic and nonlymphatic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kinki Univ. School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of edema, various types of edema were examined with MR imaging. MR imaging of edematous limbs was performed on 60 patients (lymphatic edema 48, nonlymphatic edema 12) using. T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo and shot inversion time inversion recovery sequences. Thickness and signal intensity of the cutis, subcutis and subfascia were evaluated in the images. In all 48 cases with lymphatic edema, trabecular structures suggesting dilated collateral lymphatic vessels were observed in the swollen subcutis. Two cases with nephrotic syndrome showed similar findings. In 6 cases with venous edema, fatty intensity was found in the subfascia. In the remaining 4 cases, the subcutis exhibited only water intensity. MR imaging is a potential contributor to the diagnosis of various edematous diseases. (orig./MG).

  11. Pulmonary Edema and Myocarditis Developing Due to Scorpion Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although most of the scorpion stings are harmless, deadly species of scorpions may cause multiorgan failure, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and pulmonary edema. The cases should be observed in the emergency department against the possibility of development of systemic effects. Fatal complications, in particular such as pulmonary edema, and myocarditis should be considered. In this study, a case of myocarditis and pulmonary edema was detected on the patient who had applied to the emergency department due to a scorpion sting is presented.

  12. Unicompartmental muscle edema: an early sign of deep venous thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Patrick T. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Ilaslan, Hakan [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The finding of muscle edema restricted to a single muscle compartment on MRI usually indicates a diagnosis of traumatic injury, myositis, denervation or neoplasm. This case demonstrates that deep venous thrombosis can also be the cause of isolated deep posterior compartment muscle edema in the calf and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in the absence of diffuse soft tissue or subcutaneous edema. (orig.)

  13. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This sug...

  14. Early polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation correlates with the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema, we quantitatively assessed the time course and magnitude of PMN accumulation and its relationship to cerebral edema formation after cerebral trauma in 78 rats. 111In-labeled PMN accumulation was measured in 26 rats in the first 8 h after right hemispheric percussive cerebral trauma or a sham control condition. 51Cr-labeled erythrocyte accumulation was measured simultaneously in 22 rats to assess the contribution of expansion of blood volume to early posttraumatic PMN accumulation. Edema formation [right-left (R-L) hemispheric difference in percent brain water], R-L hemispheric labeled-PMN accumulation, and blood volume index-adjusted PMN accumulation were measured between 0-2 h and 4-8 h posttrauma. PMN accumulation was elevated markedly in the first 2 h posttrauma compared with values in sham controls (13.45 +/- 2.53 vs -0.03 +/- 0.31, p less than 0.01) but not when adjusted for blood volume index (BVI), suggesting that PMN accumulation in the first 2 h posttrauma was due to expansion of blood volume. Between 4 and 8 h posttrauma, however, both total (2.56 +/- 0.82 vs -0.29 +/- 0.52) and BVI-adjusted (8.78 +/- 3.97 vs -0.48 +/- 0.79) PMN accumulation were elevated (p less than 0.05) compared with sham. Brain edema and total PMN accumulation were significantly correlated at both 2 h and 8 h posttrauma (r2 = 0.77, p less than 0.001, and r2 = 0.69, p less than 0.002, respectively), but a significant correlation between edema and BVI-adjusted PMN accumulation was observed only at 8 h posttrauma (r2 = 0.96, p less than 0.001). These data show that PMN accumulation after traumatic brain injury occurs with an initial phase explained by an increase in blood volume in the first 2 h posttrauma followed by a subsequent acute inflammatory phase

  15. Hypercapnic cerebral edema presenting in a woman with asthma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee William T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Common causes of non-traumatic acute cerebral edema include malignant hypertension, hyponatremia, anoxia, and cerebral vascular accident. The computed tomographic images and data obtained during care of the patient described in this case report provide evidence that hypercarbia can cause increased intracranial pressure and coma without permanent brain injury. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide evaluation for coma is essential to provide faster diagnosis and therapeutic correction in certain common critical disease states. We present the case of a patient in a coma associated with cerebral edema during a typical asthma exacerbation with hypercapnic respiratory failure. Case presentation An obese 63-year-old African American woman with asthma presented to our hospital with facial swelling and shortness of breath. Immediately following intubation for hypercapnic respiratory failure, she was noted to have a dilated, unresponsive right pupil. An emergent computed tomographic head scan revealed that she had increased intracranial pressure. A neurosurgeon agreed with the computed tomography interpretation and recommended no surgical intervention. The patient's respiratory acidosis was corrected with ventilatory management over several hours in the intensive care unit. Nine and one-half hours later a follow-up head computed tomographic scan was read as normal without cerebral edema. At 12 hours, the patient's right pupil was 5 mm in diameter and reactive. By 24 hours, her pupils were symmetrically equal and reactive. Her symptoms had improved, and she was extubated. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed no abnormalities. Conclusion Alteration of consciousness related to hypercapnia during respiratory failure is not generally thought to be related to cerebral edema. Respiratory acidosis resulting from hypercarbia is known to produce carbon dioxide narcosis and coma, but no current treatment algorithm suggests that rapid

  16. Serotonin syndrome presenting as pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nilima Deepak; Jain, Ajay B

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive central and peripheral serotonergic activity. Clinically, it is a triad of mental-status changes, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. It can be caused by intentional self-poisoning, overdose, or inadvertent drug interactions. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obsessive compulsive disorder who developed pulmonary edema as a possible complication of SS. SS was caused by a combination of three specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline), linezolid, and fentanyl. The hospital course was further complicated by difficult weaning from the ventilator. SS was identified and successfully treated with cyproheptadine and lorazepam. The case highlights the importance of effective consultation-liaison and prompt recognition of SS as the presentation may be complex in the presence of co-morbid medical illness. PMID:26997733

  17. Edema pulmonar postobstructivo: reporte de 3 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio Padilla; Donato Salas-Segura; Suen Kwoh-Sánchez

    2002-01-01

    El edema pulmonar postobstructivo (EPPO) es una complicación postoperatoria cuyo manejo adecuado depende de un diagnóstico etiológico correcto. El EPPO se clasifica en dos tipos. El tipo I es secundario a la obstrucción aguda de la vía aérea superior. Por su parte, el tipo II ocurre luego de corregir quirúrgicamente una obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea. Fisiopatológicamente, el mecanismo que explica el cuadro es una disminución marcada de la presión intersticial en el nivel pericapilar pul...

  18. CT diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of CT diagnosis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Methods: The CT findings in 16 patients unfit to high altitude were analyzed. Results: The findings on CT were as follows: (1) The early stage of HAPE showed ground glass opacity, most of which located at the superior segment and posterior basis segment of inferior lobes, with the right lung to occur earlier than that of the left lung. (2) The advanced stage showed shaggy opacity. (3) The late stage lesions developed to posterior and apical segment of the superior lobes, air bronchus sign could be seen on involved segments. (4) Right lung was more serious than left lung. Conclusion: CT was an ideal method to find HAPE. The accuracy of CT diagnosis in HAPE was 100%

  19. Serotonin syndrome presenting as pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Deepak Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin syndrome (SS is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive central and peripheral serotonergic activity. Clinically, it is a triad of mental-status changes, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. It can be caused by intentional self-poisoning, overdose, or inadvertent drug interactions. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obsessive compulsive disorder who developed pulmonary edema as a possible complication of SS. SS was caused by a combination of three specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline, linezolid, and fentanyl. The hospital course was further complicated by difficult weaning from the ventilator. SS was identified and successfully treated with cyproheptadine and lorazepam. The case highlights the importance of effective consultation-liaison and prompt recognition of SS as the presentation may be complex in the presence of co-morbid medical illness.

  20. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, B K; Bonanno, J A; Radke, C J

    2011-11-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem-Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. PMID:21820076

  1. Pathophysiology and treatment of edema following femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Slaa, A.; Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.; Ho, G. H.; Moll, F. L.; van der Laan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial lower-limb edema affects the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery. Edema has impairing effects on the microvascular and the macrovascular circulation, causes discomfort and might delay the rehabilitation process of the patient. However, the pathophysiology of this e

  2. Elephantoid eyelid edema associated with continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Patrick J T; Hubbard, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    A man with rosacea developed bilateral eyelid edema from wearing a continuous positive airway pressure nasal mask daily. The edema was refractory to steroid, diuretics, and lymphatic drainage massage. The effect may be related to cumulative venous congestion and lymphostasis due to the continuous positive airway pressure treatment. PMID:23128530

  3. Bilateral Very Late Onset Cystoid Macular Edema after Uncomplicated Phacoemulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the occurrence of a very rare type of bilateral pseudophakic cystoids macular edema 16 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in a 55 year old patient. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a bilateral very late onset cystoids macular edema following uncomplicated phacomulsification with posterior intraocular lens implantation. (author)

  4. LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION IN DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AND MACULAR EDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Dehghan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of clinically significant macular edema in diabetic patients, this study is aimed to determine if laser photocoagulation is effective in the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema. In addition, the effects of risk factors arc surveyed* This is an existing data study considering patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema, treated with argon-green laser photocoagulation in Labbafinejad hospital, department of lasertherapy, from 1995 to 1997. in 60 (42.6% eyes the treatment method was focal, in 22 (15.6% eyes grid, and in 59 (41.84 modified grid laser photocoagulation was performed. The results are based upon deterioration of visual acuity, occurance of moderate visual loss and improvement or persistence of CSME. We studied 114 eyes from 87 patients. Two years after initial treatment, visual acuity improved in 19.1% of eyes, unchanged in 9.5% and worsened in 71.4% of eyes. After this period the rate of moderate visual loss was 28.6% and CSME was improved in 23.8% of eyes. According to our study, baseline visual acuity and retinopathy severity were two important intervening factors in response to lasertherapy. Comparing our results with natural course of diabetic macular edema, indicates that in assessing visual outcome laser photocoagulation is an effective modality in treatment of CSME, but it is not effective in maintaining or improving visual acuity, which is due to patients delay in visiting ophthalmologists and paying not enough attention to follow-up visits.

  5. Transcriptional Stimulation of Anthrax Toxin Receptors by Anthrax Edema Toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spore

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qingfu; Hesek, Eric D.; Zeng, Mingtao

    2007-01-01

    We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to not only investigate the mRNA levels of anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1) and 2 (ANTXR2) in the murine J774A.1 macrophage cells and different tissues of mice, but also evaluate the effect of anthrax edema toxin and Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores on the expression of mRNA of these receptors. The mRNA transcripts of both receptors was detected in J774A.1 cells and mouse tissues such as the lung, heart, kidney, spleen, stomach, jejunum, brain, skeleton ...

  6. Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome-Induced Cerebral Edema in a Patient with Uremia Following Hemodialysis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Heung Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a metabolic complication that can be caused by rapid removal of plasma urea during hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome can lead to osmotic demyelinating syndrome. This case report describes one case of encephalopathy accompanied by dialysis disequilibrium syndrome with imaging findings acquired immediately after hemodialysis in a 55-year-old woman with chronic renal failure. The patient was observed to present repetitive seizures and sudden deterioration of consciousness immediately after hemodialysis. Shortly after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent a CT scan. The imaging findings of the CT scan reveal symmetrical diffuse white matter edema of bilateral cerebral hemispheres that extends to the pons along the internal capsule. A follow-up MRI taken two years later shows that reversible changes without damage have occurred in the lesions. The patient can thus be seen to present symptoms characteristically associated with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, while brain imaging reveals dif-fuse reversible brain edema.

  7. Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome-Induced Cerebral Edema in a Patient with Uremia Following Hemodialysis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a metabolic complication that can be caused by rapid removal of plasma urea during hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome can lead to osmotic demyelinating syndrome. This case report describes one case of encephalopathy accompanied by dialysis disequilibrium syndrome with imaging findings acquired immediately after hemodialysis in a 55-year-old woman with chronic renal failure. The patient was observed to present repetitive seizures and sudden deterioration of consciousness immediately after hemodialysis. Shortly after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent a CT scan. The imaging findings of the CT scan reveal symmetrical diffuse white matter edema of bilateral cerebral hemispheres that extends to the pons along the internal capsule. A follow-up MRI taken two years later shows that reversible changes without damage have occurred in the lesions. The patient can thus be seen to present symptoms characteristically associated with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, while brain imaging reveals dif-fuse reversible brain edema.

  8. The Effect of Intrathecal Administration of Vitamin K2 on Inflammatory Rat Paw Edema Induced by Formalin

    OpenAIRE

    F Hajipoor; M Fereidoni; A. Moghimi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: vitamin K2 involves one of the vitamin K derivatives which is synthesized by intestinal bacteria. A great number of studies have demonstrated the presence of high concentration of vitamin K2 as well as its important functions in the brain. Vitamin K2 is capable to inhibit many inflammatory mediators in different diseases. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 at the level of spinal cord in inflammatory paw edema induced by formalin. Methods: I...

  9. Reversal of Low-Grade Cerebral Edema After Lactulose/Rifaximin Therapy in Patients with Cirrhosis and Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Rahul; Ahuja, Chirag K; Agrawal, Swastik; Kalra, Naveen; Duseja, Ajay; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Chawla, Yogesh; Radha K Dhiman

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in the brain characterizes cerebral edema (CE) in patients with liver cirrhosis, but the role of treatment on its reversibility has not been studied in patients who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This study was carried to evaluate the reversibility of CE with lactulose and rifaximin treatment in patients with MHE and role of ammonia, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in its pathogen...

  10. The Effect of Intrathecal Administration of Vitamin K2 on Inflammatory Rat Paw Edema Induced by Formalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hajipoor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: vitamin K2 involves one of the vitamin K derivatives which is synthesized by intestinal bacteria. A great number of studies have demonstrated the presence of high concentration of vitamin K2 as well as its important functions in the brain. Vitamin K2 is capable to inhibit many inflammatory mediators in different diseases. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 at the level of spinal cord in inflammatory paw edema induced by formalin. Methods: In this research study, male Wistar rats (200-250g, except those of the control group, after recovery from cannulation surgery for intrathecal administration (i.t., were classified into four groups including sham (DMSO, 2µg/10µl vitamin K2, 10µg/10µl vitamin K2 and 20µg/10µl vitamin K2. In each group, inflammatory edema volume caused by sub plantar injection of formalin (0.05 ml, 2.5% was measured after one hour using plethysmometric method. Results: The study results indicated that I.t injection of vitamin K2 reduced formalin induced inflammatory paw edema significantly (P<0.01. In addition, in comparison with the other concentrations, the lowest concentration of vitamin K2 (2µg/10µl demonstrated the highest decrease in inflammatory paw edema volume induced by formalin (P<0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin K2 can reduce the edema volume induced by formalin, probably by diminishing as well as inhibiting the activity of COX and synthesis of prostaglandins. Moreover, this effect on edema can be exerted via reducing free radicals such as ROS and NO followed by decreasing the release of inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord and thus in the peripheral.

  11. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  12. Synthetic smoke with acrolein but not HCl produces pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, C.A.; Barkin, P.W.; Jung, W.; Trautman, E.; Lamborghini, D.; Herrig, N.; Burke, J.

    1988-03-01

    The chemical toxins in smoke and not the heat are responsible for the pulmonary edema of smoke inhalation. We developed a synthetic smoke composed of carbon particles (mean diameter of 4.3 microns) to which toxins known to be in smoke, such as HCl or acrolein, could be added one at a time. We delivered synthetic smoke to dogs for 10 min and monitored extravascular lung water (EVLW) accumulation thereafter with a double-indicator thermodilution technique. Final EVLW correlated highly with gravimetric values (r = 0.93, P less than 0.01). HCl in concentrations of 0.1-6 N when added to heated carbon (120 degrees C) and cooled to 39 degrees C produced airway damage but no pulmonary edema. Acrolein, in contrast, produced airway damage but also pulmonary edema, whereas capillary wedge pressures remained stable. Low-dose acrolein smoke (less than 200 ppm) produced edema in two of five animals with a 2- to 4-h delay. Intermediate-dose acrolein smoke (200-300 ppm) always produced edema at an average of 147 +/- 57 min after smoke, whereas high-dose acrolein (greater than 300 ppm) produced edema at 65 +/- 16 min after smoke. Thus acrolein but not HCl, when presented as a synthetic smoke, produced a delayed-onset, noncardiogenic, and peribronchiolar edema in a roughly dose-dependent fashion.

  13. A female survivor of childhood medulloblastoma presenting with growth-hormone-induced edema and inflammatory lesions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biassoni Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The improved survival of children with brain tumors has increased concerns about treatment-related sequelae. Growth hormone deficiency is frequently observed after craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. It has been widely reported that growth hormone replacement therapy does not increase the risk of second tumors, but there are reports in the literature of growth hormone, and its downstream mediator insulin-like Growth Factor 1, having an important proinflammatory action. There are few reports, however, on the "in-vivo" induction of edema and symptomatic inflammatory lesions during replacement therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 7-year-old girl treated for metastatic medulloblastoma who developed growth hormone deficiency 2 years after oncological treatment. Three months after replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed exacerbation of her brain edema, which was already present after oncological treatment. We consequently suspended the growth hormone until a new magnetic resonance image obtained 3 months later documented a reduction of the inflammatory areas. We then re-introduced somatotropin at lower doses with no further increase in brain edema in subsequent radiological controls. Conclusion This case and its iconography suggest a strong association between growth hormone administration and the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions within the tumor bed. Replacement therapy should be carefully monitored in this particular subset of patients.

  14. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg-1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  15. Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Xiao Chen; Suchi Qiao; Xinwei Liu; Chang Liu; Degang Zhu; Jiacan Su; Zhiwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein.

  16. [Pulmonary circulation in embolic pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanotskaia, N V; Polikarpov, V V; Matsievskiĭ, D D

    1989-02-01

    The ultrasonic method was used in acute experiments on cats with open chest under artificial lung ventilation to obtain blood flow in low-lobar pulmonary artery and vein, the blood pressure in pulmonary artery, as well as the left atrial pressure in fat (olive oil) and mechanical (Lycopodium spores) pulmonary embolism. It is shown that pulmonary embolism produces the decrease in the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein, the increase of the pressure in pulmonary artery and left atria, the increase of lung vessels resistance. The decrease is observed of systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia, and extrasystole. After 5-10 min the restoration of arterial pressure and heart rhythm occur and partial restoration of blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. In many experiments the blood flow in vein outdoes that in the artery--it allows to suppose the increase of the blood flow in bronchial artery. After 60-90 min there occur sudden decrease of systemic arterial pressure, the decrease of the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. The pressure in pulmonary artery and resistance of pulmonary vessels remain high. Pulmonary edema developed in all animals. The death occurs in 60-100 min after the beginning of embolism. PMID:2923969

  17. Visual Impairment Caused by Periorbital Edema in an Infant with Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Priscila; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    vascular immunoglobulin A deposition. It is clinically characterized by large "cockade" or rosette-shaped, annular, purpuric lesions involving the face and extremities; erythematous edema; and mild fever. It seems to appear secondary to a history of viral or bacterial infection, course of antibiotics, or...... vaccination. Because of the unknown etiology and benign character, which leads to spontaneous complete recovery, there is no specific treatment necessary for AHEI, and according to the literature, systemic corticosteroids do not seem to alter the course of the disease. We report the case of an 11-month...

  18. Aspectos atuais na fisiopatologia do edema macular diabético Recent aspects on physiopathology of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Martins dos Santos Motta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O edema macular é a principal causa de baixa visual em pacientes diabéticos. Seu mecanismo de formação é complexo e envolve alterações bioquímicas e estruturais. Os autores fazem uma revisão e atualização dos conceitos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na maculopatia diabética.Macular edema is the leading cause of poor vision in diabetic patients.The mechanism of edema formation is complex and involves biochemical and structural changes. The authors review and update the physiopathologic concepts related to diabetic maculopathy.

  19. Effect of neutrophil depletion on gelatinase expression, edema formation and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Livia S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity is increased after focal ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain, the relative contribution of neutrophils to the MMP activity and to the development of hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. Results Anti-PMN treatment caused successful depletion of neutrophils in treated animals. There was no difference in either infarct volume or hemorrhage between control and PMN depleted animals. While there were significant increases in gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity and edema formation associated with ischemia, neutrophil depletion failed to cause any change. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that, in the absence of circulating neutrophils, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity are still up-regulated following focal cerebral ischemia. Additionally, neutrophil depletion had no influence on indicators of ischemic brain damage including edema, hemorrhage, and infarct size. These findings indicate that, at least acutely, neutrophils are not a significant contributor of gelatinase activity associated with acute neurovascular damage after stroke.

  20. Cerebral embolism: local CFBF and edema measured by CT scanning and Xe inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serial CT scans were made in baboons after cerebral embolization during stable Xe inhalation for measuring local values for CBF and lambda (brain-blood partition or solubility coefficients), followed by iodine infusion for detecting blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Persistent zones of zero flow surrounded by reduced flow were measured predominantly in subcortical regions, which showed gross and microscopic evidence of infarction at necropsy. Overlying cortex was relatively spared. Reduced lambda values attributed to edema appeared within 3 to 5 minutes and progressed up to 60 minutes. Damage to BBB with visible transvascular seepage of iodine began to appear 1 to 1 1/2 hours after embolism. In chronic animals, lambda values were persistently reduced in areas showing histologic infarction. Contralateral hemispheric CBF increased for the first 15 minutes after embolism, followed by progressive reduction after 30 minutes

  1. Cerebral embolism: local CBF and edema measured by CT scanning and Xe inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serial CT scans were made in baboons after cerebral embolization during stable Xe inhalation for measuring local values for CBF and lambda (brain-blood partition or solubility coefficients), followed by iodine infusion for detecting blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Supplementary 133Xe CBF measurements were made at corresponding intervals. Persistent zones of zero flow surrounded by reduced flow were measured predominantly in subcortical regions, which showed gross and microscopic evidence of infarction at necropsy. Overylng cortex was relatively spared. Reduced lambda values attributed to edema appeared with in 3 to 5 minutes and progressed up to 60 minutes. Damage to BBB with visible transvascular seepage of iodine began to appear 1-11/2 hours after embolism. In chronic animals, lambda values were persistently reduced in areas showing histologic infarction. Contralateral hemispheric CBF increased for the first 15 minutes after embolism, followed by progressive reduction after 30 minutes

  2. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for diabetic macular edema during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concillado, Michael; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the management of diabetic macular edema during pregnancy with the use of a dexamethasone slow-release intravitreal implant. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, consecutive case series. METHODS: The study included 5 pregnant women who presented with diabetic macular edema....... RESULTS: Diabetic macular edema involving the foveal center was observed between gestational weeks 9 and 23 in 10 eyes in 5 patients. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant injection was given 10 times in 9 eyes with a mean pre-injection center field retinal thickness of 535 μm (range 239-727 μm) and a mean...... field thickness and in 6 of 8 eyes by an increase in BCVA of 5 or more approxETDRS letters. A mild transient rise in intraocular pressure occurred in 3 out of 8 eyes. CONCLUSION: Diabetic macular edema involving the foveal center that presented during pregnancy responded promptly to intravitreal...

  3. A Case of Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema by Ethanolamine Oleate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jee Yun; Moon, Seung Hyug; Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Uh, Sootaek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    1994-01-01

    Endoscopic injection of sclerosing agents is a strategy for control of esophageal varix bleeding. Five percent solution of ethanolamine oleate(EO) has been used as sclerosing agent. It is well known that intravascular injection of oleic acid induces acute respiratory failure in animal models. However, EO-induced noncardiogenic pulmonary edema has not been reported in human. We report a case of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema developed after therapeutic trial of EO as sclerosing agent for esoph...

  4. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to delayed radiation necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is oftten missed in the ICU setting as it is mistaken for pneumonia or ARDS. The case presented here illustrates how a high index of suspicion in the appropriate setting can lead to the diagnosis. The patient in this report developed acute-on-chronic cerebral edema due to radiation necrosis following gamma-knife radiation therapy for cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

  5. Periorbital Edema Secondary to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dandekar, F.; Camacho, M; J. Valerio; Ruoff, C.

    2015-01-01

    Two patients developed bilateral, periorbital edema after initiating positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy with a full face mask. The periorbital edema was more pronounced in the morning and would dissipate throughout the day. This phenomenon seemed to be correlated with the direct pressure of the full face mask, which may have impaired lymphatic and venous drainage. To test this hypothesis, each patient was changed to a nasal pillow interface with subsequent improvement in the periorbital e...

  6. Diabetic papillopathy with macular edema treated with intravitreal bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A 46-year-old diabetic male presented with acute painless visual loss in his left eye (OS). Visual acuity was 6/36 OS with an unremarkable anterior segment examination (OU). Posterior segment showed a swollen left optic disc with large diffuse macular edema and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The right eye fundus showed only mild NPDR. Optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed which revealed left macular edema and a hyperfluorescent ...

  7. Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Ateeq, Asim; Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Cheema, Alyscia; Dahri, Arif; Tareen, Saifullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Methods: This case series was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi. The duration of study was six months from May 26, 2011 to November 25, 2011. The study group comprised of 54 patients of the Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). Intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (Avastin) was injected 3.5 mm from the limbu...

  8. Angioneurotic edema: a rare case of hypersensitivity to metoclopramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Aleksander; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman who had already experienced two incidents of angioneurotic edema and urticaria caused by drugs during the acute gastroenteritis. The allergological workup revealed hypersensitivity to metoclopramide. This case documents that metoclopramide, a drug commonly used to inhibit the vomiting, may cause not only bronchospastic reaction in an asthmatic patient but also angioneurotic edema of the tongue and larynx as well as urticaria. No similar cases in the literature were found. PMID:24278059

  9. Nonallergic Eyelid Edema After Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yin-Shuo; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Shen, Jen-Hsiang; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Chan, Karen Kar-Wun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periocular botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) injections are generally safe. Ptosis is the most common adverse effect, whereas eyelid edema is rarely reported. There is no consensus on the latter's incidence, clinical course, or treatment strategy. Here we managed a 59-year-old woman who received BoNTA injections to her forehead, glabella, and eye corner. At 3-day follow-up, she presented with painless, nonpruritic, bilateral periorbital edema, and erythema. Preliminary diagnosis was a l...

  10. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  11. Massive vulval edema with severe preeclampsia. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pérez Rumbaut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Massive vulval edema with severe preeclampsia is presented as one of the consequences that may appear on patients with hypertension disorders during pregnancy, therefore the attention in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Service must be systematical and permanent. On women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, although edemas may not be constant, they may either appear at minor, barely perceptible extents, or even in the most severe ways, such as anasarca. A very peculiar manifestation of edema on preeclampsia is massive vulval edema, which appears as a highly rare complication, in whose basis there is a complex, systemic pathological process involved. We present a case of a pregnant woman who was admitted with high blood pressure values and excessive weight gain, plus very noticeable general edemas, and during her stay developed massive vulval edema. No data on this complication were found in the bibliography reviewed. Very few experienced professionals recall having dealt with similar cases in the last fifteen years, hence the decision to publish it.

  12. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

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    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  13. Regression of diabetic macular edema after subcutaneous exenatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarao, Valentina; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report a case of complete regression of diabetic macular edema after subcutaneous injection of exenatide in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study is an interventional case report. Blood investigations, complete ophthalmic examinations and optical coherence tomography were performed. A 55-year-old female affected by poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with visual impairment due to macular edema in the right eye. The left eye showed mild edema without visual loss. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/80 and 20/20, respectively. The patient was encouraged to improve metabolic control, and the antidiabetic therapy was modified combining exenatide 10 μg subcutaneously twice daily to her regimen of oral metformin. The patient did not receive any ocular treatment. A complete tomographic resolution of macular edema was observed after 1 month and BCVA improved to 20/63. These findings were confirmed for the entire 6-month follow-up duration. No ocular or non-ocular adverse events were recorded. This is the first reported case of complete regression of macular edema in a diabetic patient after subcutaneous injection of exenatide. PMID:23925692

  14. Connectivity of default-mode network is associated with cerebral edema in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lin

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema, a well-known feature of acute liver disease, can occur in cirrhotic patients regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE and adversely affect prognosis. This study characterized and correlated functional HE abnormalities in the brain to cerebral edema using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Forty-one cirrhotic patients (16 without HE, 14 minimal HE, 11 overt HE and 32 healthy controls were assessed. The HE grade in cirrhotic patients was evaluated by the West Haven criteria and neuro-psychological examinations. Functional connectivity correlation coefficient (fc-CC of the default mode network (DMN was determined by rs-fMRI, while the corresponding mean diffusivity (MD was obtained from DTI. Correlations among inter-cortical fc-CC, DTI indices, Cognitive Ability Screening Instrument scores, and laboratory tests were also analyzed. Results showed that gradual reductions of HE-related consciousness levels, from "without HE" or "minimal HE" to "overt HE", correlated with decreased anterior-posterior fc-CC in DMN [F(4.415, p = 0.000]. The MD values from regions with anterior-posterior fc-CC differences in DMN revealed significant differences between the overt HE group and other groups. Increased MD in this network was inversely associated with decreased fc-CC in DMN and linearly correlated with poor cognitive performance. In conclusion, cerebral edema can be linked to altered cerebral temporal architecture that modifies both within- and between-network connectivity in HE. Reduced fc-CC in DMN is associated with behavior and consciousness deterioration. Through appropriate targets, rs-fMRI technology may provide relevant supplemental information for monitoring HE and serve as a new biomarker for clinical diagnosis.

  15. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  16. MASSIVE OVARIAN EDEMA – CASE REPORT OF A RARE PSEUDOTUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive ovarian edema is a very rare disease characterized by a tumor like enlargement of the ovary. The presenting symptoms are non - specific and often the condition is mistaken for an ovarian neoplasm. A 28 year old nulligravid a lady , presented with chronic pain abdomen and irregular menses to our gynecological outpatient department. Ultrasound was suspicious of an ovarian neoplasm , but all biochemical parameters , including ovarian tumor markers were within normal limits. Considering the young age of the patient , laparotomy was done , and the mass excised. On histopathologi cal examination the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema was made. We present this case , not only because if its rarity , but also to stress on the fact that massive ovarian edema should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral ovarian masses especially in young patients to avoid aggressive treatment as compromising fertility and hormonal function is always an issue

  17. Resolution of macular edema in Coats′ disease with intravitreal bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entezari Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy was referred because of visual deterioration in his right eye. The visual acuity was two meters of counting fingers. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopy revealed exudative macular edema as well as tumor-like telangiectatic vessels and exudation in temporal periphery. With diagnosis of Coats′ disease (stage II confirmed by fluorescein angiography, three intravitreal injections of bevacizumab were performed at 6-week intervals. One year after the last injection, there was a significant resolution of macular edema as well as visual acuity improvement to 20/20. This is the first case report in which a distinct improvement in macular edema was observed with intravitreal bevacizumab in Coats′ disease.

  18. Unilateral lower extremity edema in iliac compression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of iliac compression syndrome for etiological diagnosis and treatment of unilateral lower extremity edema. Methods: The diagnosis of iliac compression syndrome was confirmed with venography in 32 cases presented with left lower extremity edema. The compressed or occluded venous segment was dilated with a 10 mm or 12 mm diameter balloon and then followed by self-expandable stent placement with a diameter from 10 to 16 mm in the diseased left iliac vein. Oral anticoagulant was taken for 6 months. Results: Left lower extremity edema was resolved within 2 days after the procedure in all 32 cases without any major complications. The primary patency of stents reached 100% and no deep venous thrombosis occurred afterwards. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of iliac compression syndrome could prevent DVT. (authors)

  19. Brain-lung crosstalk: Implications for neurocritical care patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Major pulmonary disorders may occur after brain injuries as ventilator-associated pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or neurogenic pulmonary edema. They are key points for the management of brain-injured patients because respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation seem to be a risk factor for increased mortality, poor neurological outcome and longer intensive care unit or hospital length of stay. Brain and lung strongly interact via complex pathways from the brain to the lung b...

  20. Intravitreal triamcinolone for intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Couch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Couch, Sophie J BakriMayo Clinic Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Triamcinolone acetonide (TA is a corticosteroid that has many uses in the treatment of ocular diseases because of its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-permeability actions. Intraocular inflammation broadly referred to as uveitis can result from several causes, including the immune system and after ophthalmic surgery. One of the most common reasons for vision loss with uveitis is macular edema. TA has been used for many years as an intravitreal injection for the treatment of ocular diseases. Several case control studies have been reported showing the efficacy of TA in the treatment of intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema caused by Behcet’s disease, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia and white dot syndromes. It has also been shown efficacious in cases of pars planitis and idiopathic posterior uveitis. Some authors have reported its use in postoperative cystoid macular edema. Many of the studies on the use of TA in controlling intraocular inflammation and concomitant macular edema showed its effect to be transient in many patients requiring reinjection. Complications can arise from intravitreal injection of TA including elevated intraocular pressure and cataract. Rarely, it can be associated with infectious and non-infectious endophthalmitis. TA may be useful as an adjuvant in the treatment of uveitis and its associated macular edema, especially in patients resistant or intolerant to standard treatment.Keywords: triamcinolone acetonide, Behcet’s disease, sympathetic ophthalmia, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, white dot syndromes, uveitis, cataract surgery, macular edema, endophthalmitis

  1. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  2. Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema: A Rare But Life Threating Clinical Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasih Yazkan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Reexpansion pulmonary edema is a rare but life threating complication which is occurring while treatment of the lung had collapsed a long time. It generally occurs after rapid evacuation or removal, air, liquid or atelectasis caused by endobronchial lesion. Pulmonary collapse lasting for over 72 hours is most important risk factor. Rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In conclusion, the history, risk factors, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment and prevention methods of reexpansion pulmonary edema reported in the light of literatures with a review article in this study.

  3. Hereditary angio-edema involving the gastrointestinal tract: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of hereditary angio-edema in a young man presenting with recurrent abdominal pain for many years. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of abdominal CT performed during an abdominal attack and was then confirmed by the measurement of serum concentration of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of the hereditary form of angio-edema with isolated abdominal pain and in which the diagnosis was suggested by abdominal CT findings. (orig.)

  4. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes. PMID:27224079

  5. Accuracy of Non-Enhanced CT in Detecting Early Ischemic Edema Using Frequency Selective Non-Linear Blending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bier

    Full Text Available Ischemic brain edema is subtle and hard to detect by computed tomography within the first hours of stroke onset. We hypothesize that non-enhanced CT (NECT post-processing with frequency-selective non-linear blending ("best contrast"/BC increases its accuracy in detecting edema and irreversible tissue damage (infarction.We retrospectively analyzed the NECT scans of 76 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke (exclusively middle cerebral artery territory-MCA before and after post-processing with BC both at baseline before reperfusion therapy and at follow-up (5.73±12.74 days after stroke onset using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS. We assessed the differences in ASPECTS between unprocessed and post-processed images and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of baseline NECT using follow-up CT serving as reference standard for brain infarction.NECT detected brain tissue hypoattenuation in 35 of 76 patients (46.1%. This number increased to 71 patients (93.4% after post-processing with BC. Follow-up NECT confirmed brain infarctions in 65 patients (85.5%; p = 0.012. Post-processing increased the sensitivity of NECT for brain infarction from 35/65 (54% to 65/65 (100%, decreased its specificity from 11/11 (100% to 7/11 (64%, its positive predictive value (PPV from 35/35 (100% to 65/69 (94% and increased its accuracy 46/76 (61% to 72/76 (95%.This post-hoc analysis suggests that post-processing of NECT with BC may increase its sensitivity for ischemic brain damage significantly.

  6. Computed tomography in brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, J.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, T. (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-05-01

    CT scan of the one hundred and sixteen metastatic brain tumors in 50 patients was reviewed and compared to the previous reports. The most common primary organ was lung (43%) followed by breast (18%), colon (10%) and kidney (6%). Solitary nodule was found in 20 patients (40%). On plain CT scan, tumor nodules were demonstrated as slightly high density in 38 (33%), isodensity in 50 (43%) and slightly low density in 28 (24%). Majority of tumor nodules were present in the corticomedullary junction (82%). Brain edema seen as a peritumoral low density was extensive in comparison with the edema in the glioma of the similar size. On contrast CT scan, ring like enhancement was seen in 41 (35%). Intra-tumoral bleeding was shown in 2 metastatic nodules from choriocarcinoma and in one metastatic nodule from renal cell carcinoma. All 3 cases were proved by surgery or autopsy.

  7. Effects of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter on cerebral edema in a rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin Li; Shilei Wang; Haihong Luan

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red and the agonist spermine on cerebral edema in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.Left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats using the suture method.Following 24 hours of ischemic reperfusion, neurological function scores of rats with MCAO, and rats pretreated with ruthenium red and spermine were significantly lower, however, water content of brain tissue, aquaporin 4 expression and immunoglobulin G (IgG) exudation were significantly higher than those of sham-operated rats.Compared with MCAO rats and spermine-treated rats, neurological function scores were considerably higher, and brain tissue water content, aquaporin 4 expression and IgG exudation decreased in ruthenium red-treated rats.These findings suggest that preventive application of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red can significantly decrease aquaporin 4 and IgG expression, influence the permeability of the blood brain barrier, and thereby decrease the extent of cerebral edema.

  8. POST OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY EDEMA AFTER ATTEMPTED NYLON ROPE SUICIDAL HANGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival after nylon rope suicidal hanging is a rare occurance . We describe here a patient who attempted suicide by nylon rope hanging and developed post obstructive pulmonary edema was managed successfully . Patient recovered completely with ventilatory support in next 60 hours without any neurological deficit.This case highlights an unusual complication of hanging and its recovery.

  9. Effect of Foot Massage on Physiological Edema During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahimikian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common and annoying problems during pregnancy is physiological foot edema that may cause activity restrictions during pregnancy for pregnant women. Present study aimed to determine the effect of foot massage on physiological edema during pregnancy. Methods: This study was non-randomized clinical trial and performed in 2012. 120 pregnant women aged 20 to 35 years were non randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group, received 20 minutes daily foot massage during 5 days. Data were analyzes using SPSS statistical software, independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Foot edema measured by using a measuring non- elastic tape on the leg. Results: The results indicates a statistically significant difference between the average of the feet environments (around the ankle, heel and metatarsal joints between the finger bones in both treatment and control groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that massage therapy is effective in reducing physiological edema during pregnancy. Therefor the lower limb massage can be performed by trained midwives and as a useful, low risk and low cost method in prenatal clinics or pregnant women homes.

  10. Dichotomal role of TNF in experimental pulmonary edema reabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, C; Hamacher, J; Morel, DR; Wendel, A; Lucas, R

    2005-01-01

    Distinct from its receptor binding sites, TNF carries a lectin-like domain, situated at the tip of the molecule, which specifically binds oligosaccharides, such as NN'-diacetylchitobiose. In view of the apparently conflicting data concerning TNF actions in pulmonary edema, we investigated the contri

  11. Computerized tomography in the differential diagnosis of extremity edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized tomography provides valuable information for differentiating some cases of extremity edemas of acute and chronic venostatic origin and lymphedema - primary and secondary, in malignant processes. Graphic representation of individual kinds of changes and observed densities in 33 patients are presented. (author). 9 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  12. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by passive immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Thomsen, L.K.; Busch, M.E.; Wachmann, H.; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Gyles, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of treatment with verotoxin 2e (VT2e) specific antiserum was evaluated in 3 Danish pig herds with edema disease (ED). The antiserum was prepared by immunizing horses with a VT2e toroid. The study was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and control groups...

  13. Effects of endostatin on C6 glioma-induced edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-juan; LIN Zhi-xiong; KANG De-zhi; WENG Shen-mei; LIN Jian-hua; HUANG Qiang; ZHANG Peng-fei

    2011-01-01

    Background Glioma-induced edema is considered as one of the most pathological characteristics of glioma and a significant source of morbidity and mortality.New strategies are needed for the treatment of peritumoral edema in glioma.Endostatin has been proven to be beneficial as an anti-angiogenic agent in experimental gliomas,but the effects are unclear.This study aimed to investigate the effects of endostatin on C6 glioma-induced edema.Methods Tumorigenic mice were established by subcutaneous injection of three glioma cell lines,C6-null cells and stable transfected-C6 cells overexpressing mock vector (C6-mock cells) and endostatin (C6-endo cells).Endostatin expression in xenograft C6 glioma was determined by immunostaining and Western blotting.Glioma-induced edema and tumor vessel permeability were assayed.The effect of endostatin on vascular enodothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vivo was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The number of vesiculo-vascuolar organelles (VVOs) formed in tumor endothelia was calculated using electron microscopy.Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's post hoc test for multiple comparisons to the control groups.Results Overexpression of endostatin (C6-endo cells) significantly suppressed tumor growth and reduced tumor edema and vessel permeability.ELISA analysis showed that the level of VEGF protein was markedly decreased in tumor from C6-endo cells compared with tumor from C6-null cells and C6-mock cells.Similar results were obtained by Q-PCR.Furthermore,the number of VVOs observed in tumor from C6-endo mice was significantly reduced compared with tumor from C6-null cells or C6-mock cells.Conclusions Our data provide primary evidence that endostatin reduces glioma-induced edema and vascular permeability.Using endostatin may be an effective strategy for treating glioma edema.

  14. Multifocal electroretinogram in evaluating retinal function of diabetic macular edema after pars plana vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马进; 吴德正; 高汝龙; 吕林; 张少冲; 文峰; 黄时洲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beneficial effects of vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) have been demonstrated in a series of clinical trials. Vitreous surgery is useful in reducing the edema and improving visual acuity.

  15. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G.; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case ...

  16. The Effect of TIP on Pneumovirus-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Elske; Reinout A. Bem; Bos, Albert P.; Lutter, Rene; van Woensel, Job B M

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301), a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in differ...

  17. Acute infantile hemorrhagic edema mimicking henoch-schonlein purpura: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kars, Veysel; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Celepkolu, Tahsin; Aslanhan, Hamza; ASLAN, Necmi; Demir, Vasfiye

    2015-01-01

    Acute infantile hemorrhagic edema is an acute cutaneous leucocytoclastic vasculitis that can be seen in infancy and characterized by fever, palpable purpura, and edema. Although it presents with severe symptoms, the clinical course is benign and the disease resolves in a short time. In this report, we present a 17-month-old infant who was admitted with cutaneous purpuric rash and edema of the extremities and subsequently diagnosed as acute infantile hemorrhagic edema

  18. 9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anasarca or generalized edema. 311.8 Section 311.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a... characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses of...

  19. 9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... generalized edema. 309.8 Section 309.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive and generalized edema shall be identified as...

  20. Glyburide in Treating Malignant Cerebral Edema. Blocking Sulfonyl Urea One (SUR1) Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Pallan, Tony V; Ahmed, Iftekhar

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a serious side effect of malignant stroke. On average 70,000 patients are diagnosed with malignant cerebral edema every year, of those patients, approximately 60-80% results in fatalities. The treatment of cerebral edema includes multimodality approaches.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings in Berlin′s Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila El Matri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in a patient with Berlin′s edema following blunt ocular trauma. Case Report: A 26-year-old man presented with acute loss of vision in his left eye following blunt trauma. He underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination and OCT. Fundus examination revealed abnormal yellow discoloration in the macula. OCT disclosed thickening of outer retinal structures and increased reflectivity in the area of photoreceptor outer segments with preservation of inner retinal architecture. Re-examination was conducted one month later at the time which OCT changes resolved leading to a surprisingly normal appearance. Conclusion: OCT can be a useful tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of eyes with Berlin′s edema and may reveal ultrastructural macular changes.

  2. A case of subretinal tubercular abscess presenting as disc edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Bermu Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ocular tuberculosis (TB which initially presented with disc edema and was mistaken for optic neuritis. With no definite pathology being identified, the patient was treated on the lines of optic neuritis with intravenous (IV steroid with beneficial effect. Ocular TB was suspected when he presented later with a subretinal abscess. Based on positive Mantoux, QuantiFERON TB gold results and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of subretinal abscess of presumed tubercular etiology was made. The patient was successfully treated with anti-tubercular therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ocular TB presenting as disc edema followed by subretinal abscess.

  3. Diabetic Retinal and Choroidal Edema in SDT Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Shimmura, Machiko; Kinoshita, Nozomi; Takano, Hiroko; Kakehashi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the features of diabetic retinal and choroidal edema in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. We measured the retinal and choroidal thicknesses in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 9) and SDT rats (n = 8). The eyes were enucleated 40 weeks later after they were diagnosed with diabetes, and 4-micron sections were cut for conventional histopathologic studies. The mean retinal and choroidal thicknesses were significantly thicker in the SDT rats than in the normal SD rats. The choroidal thickness was correlated strongly with the retinal thickness in both rat models. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic choroidopathy appeared as edema in the SDT rats. The retinal thickness was correlated strongly with the choroidal thickness in the SDT rats, which is an ideal animal model of both DR and choroidopathy. PMID:26783535

  4. Methylprednisolone Therapy in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthini Risikesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who showed severe clinical signs indicative of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI with painful purpuric skin affection primarily of the face and marked edema of the ears. The histological findings were diagnostic for leukocytoclastic vasculitis and thus met the histological criteria for AHEI. Indicative of infection as causative agent for the condition were symptoms of gastroenteritis. High-dose intravenous corticosteroids led to a fast resolution of symptoms and normalization of laboratory parameters. AHEI is usually not described as being very responsive to corticosteroids. The case presented here indicates that severe cases of AHEI can be treated with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids resulting in significant relief and shortening of the symptoms. Clinical followup showed no underlying malignancy or other severe chronic systemic diseases thus confirming earlier reports that AHEI is not associated with such conditions. The differential diagnoses with AHEI are discussed.

  5. Grid pattern Argon Laser photocoagulation for diabetic diffuse macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkhane R

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of Grid pattern laser photocoagulation on diabetic diffuse macular edema with assessment of visual outcome. Patients & Methods: The author reviewed the medical records of 84 eyes of 62 patients with diabetic diffuse macular edema treated with Grid pattern green Argon laser photocoagulation in Farabi Eye Hospital between the years 1992-1995, the follow-up period was 16-48 months (average 24.55±6.42, median 28 mounths. Results: Visual acuity was improved in 11.9%; unchanged in 65.4% and worsened in 22.7% of eyes. Conclusion: In assessing long-term visual outcome, Grid laser photocoagulation is an effective modality in maintaining or improving visual acuity.

  6. Scorpion bite induced myocardial damage and pulmonary edema

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Maheshwari; C P Tanwar

    2012-01-01

    A patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities after scorpion sting, simulating early myocardial infarction, is reported here. Pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure accompanied these electrocardiographic changes. The etiology of the cardiovascular manifestations in severe scorpion sting is related to the venom effects on the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal secretion of catecholamines as well as to the toxic effects of the venom on the myocardium.

  7. Immediate reaction to lidocaine with periorbital edema during upper blepharoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Presman; Vincenzo Vindigni; Ilaria Tocco-Tussardi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Blepharoplasty is the fourth most commonly performed cosmetic surgery in the US, with 207,000 operations in 2014. Lidocaine is the preferred anesthetic agent for blepharoplasty. Presentation of case: We describe the unusual case of acute periorbital edema following local anesthesia with lidocaine for upper blepharoplasty. At present, only two other reports of periorbital reactions to lidocaine are present in the literature. The reactions observed are significant palpebral swe...

  8. Molecular analysis of adenylyl cyclase: Bacillus anthracis edema factor exotoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Hesham Hamada Taha

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax disease and exerts its deleterious effects by the release of three exotoxins, i.e. lethal factor, protective antigen and edema factor EF), a highly active calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, conventional antibiotic treatment is ineffective against either toxemia or antibiotic- resistant strains. Thus, more effective drugs for anthrax treatment are needed. We successfully purified the recombinant full-length EF and EF3(F586A) from E. coli with...

  9. Intraoperative intravitreal triamcinolone decreases macular edema after vitrectomy with phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    D Wilkin Parke III, Robert A Sisk, Timothy G MurrayDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and amount of macular edema by optical coherence tomography (OCT) after combined small gauge sutureless vitrectomy with phacoemulsification and intravitreal triamcinolone.Methods: This retrospective case series included 194 consecutive eyes undergoing noneme...

  10. Updates in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has multiple effects on different end-organs, including the retina. In this paper, we discuss updates on diabetic macular edema (DME) and the management options. The underlying pathology of DME is the leakage of exudates from retinal microaneurysms, which trigger subsequent inflammatory reactions. Both clinical and imaging techniques are useful in diagnosing, classifying, and gauging the severity of DME. We performed a comprehensive literature sear...

  11. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of peripheral edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    It has been difficulty to visualize lymphatics in living patients. Conventional or direct lymphography has been the gold standard for delineation of the lymphatic system, but this procedure is invasive, difficulty to perform, and harmful to the lymphatic vascular endothelium. The aim of our study was to determine its severity, and to understand the drainage patterns on patients with peripheral edema by functional lymphatic studies. Tc-99m antimony sulfide colloid 25 MBq with 0.4 ml volume was injected intradermally in the first, second and third web space of the foot or hand in 40 patients with peripheral edema (5 in upper extremity and 35 in lower extremity). Initial flow after injection and whole body images at approximately 30 minutes. 1-4 hours were obtained. In 9/40 cases with peripheral edema normal lymphoscintigram were revealed, primary lymphedema was observed in 5/31 cases. The imaging patterns in primary lymphedema were absent (3 cases) or delayed (2 cases) transport, lymphatic duct dilatation (1), cutoff (1), decrease in size and number of lymph nodes (2). The Common caused of edema in secondry lymphedema (26/31) were carcinoma (13), inflammation (5), post-operation (5), and unknown origin (3). The common imaging findings in carcinoma showed non-visualization of lymph nodes (13), dermal backflow (8), collateral circulation (5), and in inflammation lymphatic obstruction (2), increase in size and number of lymph nodes (2), delayed transport (1), and in post-operation dermal backflow (3), delayed transport (2), decrease in number and size of lymph node (2) Clear images patterns were observed difference between primary lymphedema an secondary lymphedema. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is essentially non-invasive, easy to perform repeatedly, and harmless to the lymphatic vascular endothelium for evaluation of a patient with lymphedema.

  12. Pulmonary Edema in Healthy Subjects in Extreme Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Garbella; Alessandro Pingitore; Lorenza Pratali; Giosuè Catapano

    2011-01-01

    There are several pieces of evidence showing occurrence of pulmonary edema (PE) in healthy subjects in extreme conditions consisting of extreme psychophysical demand in normal environment and psychophysical performances in extreme environment. A combination of different mechanisms, such as mechanical, hemodynamic, biochemical, and hypoxemic ones, may underlie PE leading to an increase in lung vascular hydrostatic pressure and lung vascular permeability and/or a downregulation of the alveolar ...

  13. Diabetic Retinal and Choroidal Edema in SDT Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fumihiko Toyoda; Yoshiaki Tanaka; Machiko Shimmura; Nozomi Kinoshita; Hiroko Takano; Akihiro Kakehashi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the features of diabetic retinal and choroidal edema in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats. We measured the retinal and choroidal thicknesses in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 9) and SDT rats (n = 8). The eyes were enucleated 40 weeks later after they were diagnosed with diabetes, and 4-micron sections were cut for conventional histopathologic studies. The mean retinal and choroidal thicknesses were significantly thicker in the SDT rats than in the normal SD rats. The ...

  14. Hospitalized cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Khoa Bao-Anh; Goehring Earl L; Werther Winifred; Fung Anne E; Do Diana V; Apte Rajendra S; Jones Judith K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes stem from chronic hyperglycemia and are thought to have overlapping pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of hospitalized myocardial infarctions (MI) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) compared with diabetic patients without retinal diseases. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of a commercially insured population in an a...

  15. Intravitreal Diclofenac for Refractory Uveitic Cystoid Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ramezani; Nassim Fard Esmaeilpour; Armen Eskandari; Zahra Rabbanikhah; Roham Soheilian; Masoud Soheilian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of intravitreal diclofenac on bestcorrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with refractory uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME). Methods: In this prospective non-comparative case series, 8 eyes of 8 patients with refractory CME secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis received a single intravitreal injection of diclofenac (500 μg/0.1ml) in addition to other systemic (oral prednisolone and methotraxate) ...

  16. Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

  17. Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema; a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani; Mohammad-Mehdi Parvares; Mehdi Modarre; Masih Hashem; Nasrollah Sami

    2012-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a major cause of decreased vision after complicated or uncomplicated cataract surgery. This paper reviews the use of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection for treatment of pseudophakic CME. In a literature search of all articles available on Medline and Scopus databases, 11 studies including one prospective and 4 retrospective studies, 4 case reports, one letter to editor and one review article were identified. All articles except one, reported the use of IVB...

  18. The clinical utility of aflibercept for diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Michael W StewartDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: The treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME) has improved because of the proven efficacy of drugs that inhibit the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The newest anti-VEGF drug, aflibercept, has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of center-involving DME and for diabetic retinopathy in eyes with DME. In...

  19. Resolution of macular edema in Coats' disease with intravitreal bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Entezari, Morteza; Ramezani, Alireza; Safavizadeh, Ladan; Bassirnia, Nader

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred because of visual deterioration in his right eye. The visual acuity was two meters of counting fingers. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopy revealed exudative macular edema as well as tumor-like telangiectatic vessels and exudation in temporal periphery. With diagnosis of Coats' disease (stage II) confirmed by fluorescein angiography, three intravitreal injections of bevacizumab were performed at 6-week intervals. One year after the last injection, there w...

  20. Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Jeong Won; Park, In Won

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on visual function and retinal thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods Thirty eyes of twenty-eight patients (mean age, 57.9±13.8 years) with DME were included in this study. Complete ophthalmic examination, including determination of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), stereoscopic biomicroscopy, and retinal thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography (OCT), was done at baseline and at each follow-u...

  1. Anti-VEGF for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rosa Stefanini; Emmerson Badaró; Paulo Falabella; Michael Koss; Michel Eid Farah; Maurício Maia

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important cause of vision loss around the world, being the leading cause in the population between 20 and 60 years old. Among patients with DR, diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most frequent cause of vision impairment and represents a significant public health issue. Macular photocoagulation has been the standard treatment for this condition reducing the risk of moderate visual loss by approximately 50%. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ...

  2. A Case of Cystoid Macular Edema Associated with Paclitaxel Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Dong Sik; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong; Yun, Il Han

    2012-01-01

    We encountered a patient with cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to paclitaxel use. A 57-year-old man presented with gradual decreased bilateral vision. His chemotherapeutic regimen consisted of bevacizumab, paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 for 5 months), and carboplatin. Optical coherence tomography imaging revealed bilateral CME greater than 500 µm. However, one year later, visual acuity was improved, best-corrected Snellen visual acuity was 40 / 80 in each eye, and CME was spontaneously improved. ...

  3. Fatal cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage associated with hypernatremic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocharla, R. [Department of Radiology, Slot 105, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, 800 Marshall Street, Litte Rock, AR 72202-3591 (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)]|[Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Glasier, C.M. [Department of Radiology, Slot 105, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, 800 Marshall Street, Litte Rock, AR 72202-3591 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    We report neuroimaging findings of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral edema in an infant with obtundation and seizures, initially suspected to be secondary to non-accidental trauma but finally attributed to hypernatremic dehydration. Neuroimaging findings due to hypernatremic dehydration have not been previously described in the radiologic literature. Hypernatremia should be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in the infant without evidence of nonaccidental trauma. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  4. Fatal cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage associated with hypernatremic dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report neuroimaging findings of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral edema in an infant with obtundation and seizures, initially suspected to be secondary to non-accidental trauma but finally attributed to hypernatremic dehydration. Neuroimaging findings due to hypernatremic dehydration have not been previously described in the radiologic literature. Hypernatremia should be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in the infant without evidence of nonaccidental trauma. (orig.). With 1 fig

  5. Enzymatic vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; Udaondo, Patricia; Millán, Jose Maria; Arevalo, J. Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the role of enzymatic vitrectomy performed by intravitreal injection of autologous plasmin enzyme (APE) in the management of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME). Diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or DME and evident posterior hyaloid adherence to the retinal surface were included. All cases were treated with an initial intravitreal injection of APE and reevaluated one month later, measuring changes in best-correcte...

  6. Management of upper airway edema caused by hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder with a genetic background involving mutations in the genes encoding C1-INH and of factor XII. Its etiology is unknown in a proportion of cases. Recurrent edema formation may involve the subcutis and the submucosa - the latter can produce obstruction in the upper airways and thereby lead to life-threatening asphyxia. This is the reason for the high, 30-to 50-per-cent mortality of undiagnosed or improperly managed cases. Airway obstruction can be prevented through early diagnosis, meaningful patient information, timely recognition of initial symptoms, state-of-the-art emergency therapy, and close monitoring of the patient. Prophylaxis can substantially mitigate the risk of upper airway edema and also improve the patients' quality of life. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any form of upper airway edema should be regarded as a potentially life-threatening condition. None of the currently available prophylactic modalities is capable of preventing UAE with absolute certainty.

  7. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Kamlesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  8. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Keyur Kamlesh; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Shah, Vikas; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR) was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management. PMID:26744691

  9. Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushmia Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rushmia Karim, Benjamin TangUniversity of Sydney School of Public Health, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Diabetic macular edema (DME is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity.Objective: For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME.Data sources: We identified five trials (n = 525 using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®] in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts.Methods: We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate.Results: We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our metaanalysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of -0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.23, -0.10 and central macular thickness -84.69 (95% CI: -117

  10. Pharmacological characterization of the rat paw edema induced by Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria L; Antunes, E; Bon, C; de Araújo, A L

    2001-06-01

    The inflammatory response induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom (BLV) in the rat hind-paw was studied measuring paw edema. Non-heated BLV (75microg/paw) caused a marked paw edema accompanied by intense haemorrhage whereas heated venom (97 degrees C, 30s; 12.5-100microg/paw) produced a dose- and time-dependent non-haemorrhagic edema. The response with heated BLV was maximal within 15min disappearing over 24h. Heated venom was then routinely used at the dose of 75microg/paw. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost (0.1microg/paw) potentiated by 125% the venom-induced edema. The histamine H(1) receptor antagonist mepyramine (6mg/kg) or the serotonin/histamine receptor antagonist cyproheptadine (6mg/kg) partially inhibited BLV-induced edema whereas the combination of both compounds virtually abolished the edema. The lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4C (10mg/kg), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg), significantly inhibited the edema (35% reduction; P<0.05). Dexamethasone (1mg/kg) also markedly (P<0.001) reduced venom-induced edema. The bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.6mg/kg) reduced by 30% (P<0.05) the venom induced edema, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (300microg/paw) potentiated by 42% (P<0.05) the edema. Bothrops lanceolatus antivenon (anti-BLV) reduced by 28% (P<0.05) the venom-induced edema while intravenous administration of antivenom failed to affect the edema. In conclusion, BLV-induced rat paw edema involves mast cell degranulation causing local release of histamine and serotonin, a phenomenon mediated mainly by kinins and lipoxygenase metabolites. Additionally, the use of a specific Bothrops lanceolatus antivenom, given subplantarily or intravenously, revealed to be little effective to prevent BLV-induced edema. PMID:11137542

  11. Windows to the Brain (WttB): Transparent Nanocrystalline Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Cranial Implants for Non-Invasive, Chronic Access to the Brain for Optical Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Damestani, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Windows to the Brain (WttB) platform can improve patient care by enabling the delivery and/or collection of light into/from the brain, on demand, over large areas, and on a chronically-recurring basis without the need for repeated craniotomies. WttB holds the transformative potential for facilitating diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of brain pathologies and neurological disorders including cerebral edema, traumatic brain injury, stroke, glioma, and neurodegenerative diseases.We have ...

  12. Ascorbic acid repletion: A possible therapy for diabetic macular edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, James M

    2016-05-01

    Macular edema poses a significant risk for visual loss in persons with diabetic retinopathy. It occurs when plasma constituents and fluid leak out of damaged retinal microvasculature in the area of the macula, causing loss of central vision. Apoptotic loss of pericytes surrounding capillaries is perhaps the earliest feature of diabetic vascular damage in the macula, which is also associated with dysfunction of the endothelium and loss of the otherwise very tight endothelial permeability barrier. Increased oxidative stress is a key feature of damage to both cell types, mediated by excess superoxide from glucose-induced increases in mitochondrial metabolism, as well as by activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The latter in turn activates multiple pathways, some of which lead to increased oxidative stress, such as those involving NF-ĸB, NADPH oxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Such cellular oxidative stress is associated with low cellular and plasma ascorbic acid levels in many subjects with diabetes in poor glycemic control. Whether repletion of low ascorbate in retinal endothelium and pericytes might help to prevent diabetic macular edema is unknown. However, cell culture studies show that the vitamin prevents high-glucose and RAGE-induced apoptosis in both cell types, that it preserves nitric oxide generated by endothelial cells, and that it tightens the leaky endothelial permeability barrier. Although these findings need to be confirmed in pre-clinical animal studies, it is worth considering clinical trials to determine whether adequate ascorbate repletion is possible and whether it might help to delay or even reverse early diabetic macular edema. PMID:26898503

  13. Pulmonary edema following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an incident of development of acute pulmonary edema after the device closure of a secundum atrial septal defect in a 52-year-old lady, which was treated with inotropes, diuretics and artificial ventilation. Possibility of acute left ventricular dysfunction should be considered after the defect closure in the middle-aged patients as the left ventricular compliance may be reduced due to increased elastic stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. Baseline left atrial pressure may be > 10 mmHg in these patients. Associated risk factors for the left ventricular dysfunction are a large Qp:Qs ratio, systemic hypertension, severe pulmonary hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

  14. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by passive immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Thomsen, L.K.;

    2000-01-01

    The effect of treatment with verotoxin 2e (VT2e) specific antiserum was evaluated in 3 Danish pig herds with edema disease (ED). The antiserum was prepared by immunizing horses with a VT2e toroid. The study was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and control groups...... control groups was statistically significant (P <0.0001). It was not possible to establish an effect of dose (2, 4, or 6 mt) of anti-VT2e serum, because only one pig died of ED in the treatment groups. It was concluded that passive immunization by intramuscular injection of a VT2e-specific antiserum can...

  15. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema After Extubation in Appendectomy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Purtuloglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE is a rare complication that can occur after acute upper airway obstruction or secondary to relax chronic upper airway obstruction and a life-threatening fatal condition. The first cause in the etiology of NPPE is developed laryngospasm after intubation or extubation, while the other causes are epiglottitis, croup, hiccups, foreign body aspiration, pharyngeal hematoma and oropharyngeal tumors. Supportive therapy is usually the only treatment. The fundamental principle of treatment is early diagnosis and to provide adequate oxygenation. Application of positive airway pressure is often provided with CPAP in most of patients, but sometimes re-intubation and mechanical ventilation may be required.

  16. Echocardiographic changes during acute pulmonary edema subsequent to scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema (APE occurring after scorpion sting is the leading cause of death of the victims of scorpion envenomation. The APE origin is still questioned by physicians treating these patients. Based on echocardiographic study of 20 patients with severe envenomation treated in Ouargla Hospital resuscitation ward during the last four years, the APE etiology seems more likely cardiogenic, referring to cardiac symptoms confirmed by echocardiography although other mechanisms may also be involved. This hypothesis is further confirmed by the positive response of patients to the administration of dobutamine.

  17. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugel PU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pravin U Dugel,1,2 Francesco Bandello,3 Anat Loewenstein4 1Retinal Consultants of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: Diabetic macular edema (DME resembles a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction, and is characterized by blood–retinal barrier (BRB breakdown and retinal capillary leakage. Corticosteroids are of therapeutic benefit because of their anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and BRB-stabilizing properties. Delivery modes include periocular and intravitreal (via pars plana injection. To offset the short intravitreal half-life of corticosteroid solutions (~3 hours and the need for frequent intravitreal injections, sustained-release intravitreal corticosteroid implants have been developed. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant provides retinal drug delivery for ≤6 months and recently has been approved for use in the treatment of DME. Pooled findings (n=1,048 from two large-scale, randomized Phase III trials indicated that dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.35 mg and 0.7 mg administered at ≥6-month intervals produced sustained improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and macular edema. Significantly more patients showed a ≥15-letter gain in BCVA at 3 years with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.35 mg and 0.7 mg than with sham injection (18.4% and 22.2% vs 12.0%. Anatomical assessments showed rapid and sustained reductions in macular edema and slowing of retinopathy progression. Phase II study findings suggest that dexamethasone intravitreal implant is effective in focal, cystoid, and diffuse DME, in vitrectomized eyes, and in combination with laser therapy. Ocular complications of

  18. Bevacizumab for the management of diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in the working-age population and is relatedto 1%-5% of cases of blindness worldwide. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most frequent cause of DR vision loss and is an important public health problem. Recent studies have implicated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in DR and DME pathogenesis, as well as provided evidence of the benefits of anti-VEGF agents for the management of such conditions. Despite the benefits of intra...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  2. Studies on astrocyte function : potential roles in brain water homeostasis and neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yutong

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are essential in brain homeostasis and function, including maintenance of water and ion balance. Astrocytes express the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), implicated in both physiological functions and injury processes associated with brain edema, a common consequence of brain diseases. As part of the tripartite synapse astrocytes are tightly coupled to normal brain function via neuron-astrocyte interactions and by providing metabolic support to neurons as well as con...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty cases diagnosed as diffuse brain injury (DBI) were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within 3 days after injury. These cases were divided into two groups, which were the concussion group and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) group established by Gennarelli. There were no findings on computerized tomography (CT) in the concussion group except for two cases which had a brain edema or subarachnoid hemorrhage. But on MRI, high intensity areas on T2 weighted imaging were demonstrated in the cerebral white matter in this group. Many lesions in this group were thought to be edemas of the cerebral white matter, because of the fact that on serial MRI, they were isointense. In mild types of DAI, the lesions on MRI were located only in the cerebral white matter, whereas, in the severe types of DAI, lesions were located in the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum, the dorsal part of the brain stem as well as in the cerebral white matter. As for CT findings, parenchymal lesions were not visualized especially in mild DAI. Our results suggested that the lesions in cerebral concussion were edemas in cerebral white matter. In mild DAI they were non-hemorrhagic contusion; and in severe DAI they were hemorrhagic contusions in the cerebral white matter, the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum or the dorsal part of the brain stem. (author)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Henmi, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Toshibumi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Nakazawa, Shozo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    Forty cases diagnosed as diffuse brain injury (DBI) were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within 3 days after injury. These cases were divided into two groups, which were the concussion group and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) group established by Gennarelli. There were no findings on computerized tomography (CT) in the concussion group except for two cases which had a brain edema or subarachnoid hemorrhage. But on MRI, high intensity areas on T2 weighted imaging were demonstrated in the cerebral white matter in this group. Many lesions in this group were thought to be edemas of the cerebral white matter, because of the fact that on serial MRI, they were isointense. In mild types of DAI, the lesions on MRI were located only in the cerebral white matter, whereas, in the severe types of DAI, lesions were located in the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum, the dorsal part of the brain stem as well as in the cerebral white matter. As for CT findings, parenchymal lesions were not visualized especially in mild DAI. Our results suggested that the lesions in cerebral concussion were edemas in cerebral white matter. In mild DAI they were non-hemorrhagic contusion; and in severe DAI they were hemorrhagic contusions in the cerebral white matter, the basal ganglia, the corpus callosum or the dorsal part of the brain stem. (author).

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess. (author)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Akihiro; Kagawa, Mizuo; Yatoh, Seiji; Izawa, Masahiro; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Jun; Onda, Hideaki; Kitamura, Kohichi

    1988-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess.

  7. Comparison of the effectiveness of different postoperative edema control methods in below knee amputees

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The classical elastic bandage (EB) application is a common method used in edema control in amputees. In recent years, however, complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) is found to be an effective approach in the treatment of edema. This study was planned to compare effectiveness of EB and CDP technique on the edema control and the period of transition to permanent prosthesis in below knee amputees. Methods: Twenty unilateral below knee amputees were included in the study. Ten amputee...

  8. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Romero; T. J. M. Hernández

    2005-01-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, wh...

  9. Resuscitation-induced intestinal edema and related dysfunction: State of the science

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Shinil K.; Uray, Karen S.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Cox, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    High volume resuscitation and damage control surgical methods, while responsible for significantly decreasing morbidity and mortality from traumatic injuries, are associated with pathophysiological derangements that lead to subsequent end organ edema and dysfunction. Alterations in hydrostatic and oncotic pressures frequently result in intestinal edema and subsequent dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to examine the principles involved in the development of intestinal edema, current a...

  10. Stasis Dermatitis as a Complication of Recurrent Levofloxacin-Associated Bilateral Leg Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Daniel A.; Cohen, Philip R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Several drugs have been associated with the development of peripheral edema. Leg edema can result in dermatitis of the lower extremities.  We describe levofloxacin-induced peripheral leg edema, which progressed to stasis dermatitis. Methods: A 76-year-old man with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma was administered intravenous vancomycin and a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam by injection for treatment of aspiration pneumonia.  Prior to discharge, the pat...

  11. Transient Pulmonary Edema Following Adrenal Infarction in a Patient with Primary Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, K; Tazawa, K.; D. Kishida; Fukushima, K.; Matsuda, M.; Ikeda, S

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) who developed pulmonary edema following sudden-onset pain in the left, lower back of the chest. Radiological examinations demonstrated fresh infarction of the left adrenal gland but no obvious thrombi in pulmonary arteries. The patient quickly recovered from pulmonary edema with anti-coagulation therapy alone. Primary APS may have caused adrenal infarction in the patient, leading to transient pulmonary edema via microthrombosis...

  12. Transoral CO2 Laser Resection for Post-Radiation Arytenoid Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyoung Shin; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Kang Dae

    2010-01-01

    Arytenoid edema following radiation therapy of laryngeal cancer may persist and make careful inspection and evaluation of the larynx difficult. Moreover, it may have serious impacts on functions such as breathing, swallowing, speech and voice. Conservative management such as antibiotics and steroid may be attempted but may be ineffective in progressive and severe cases of edema. We present four cases of persistent postradiation arytenoid edema successfully treated with partial resection of th...

  13. Pulmonary Edema Assessed by Ultrasound: Impact in Cardiology and Intensive Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo A; Cianciulli, Tomás F

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary edema is a frequent condition found in adult patients hospitalized in cardiology wards and intensive care units. Ultrasonography is a diagnostic modality with a high sensitivity for the detection of extravascular lung water, visualized as B lines, and usually caused by cardiogenic or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. This paper highlights a simple method for the assessment of patients with pulmonary edema, which allows for a differential diagnosis of its possible mechanism and contributes to therapeutic intervention guiding and monitoring. PMID:26841270

  14. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Cruz; Sónia Menezes; Maria Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the in...

  15. Modeling tumor-associated edema in gliomas during anti-angiogenic therapy and its impact on imageable tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eHawkins-Daarud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically-driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor-cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR for tumors with lower proliferation rates.

  16. Updates in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has multiple effects on different end-organs, including the retina. In this paper, we discuss updates on diabetic macular edema (DME and the management options. The underlying pathology of DME is the leakage of exudates from retinal microaneurysms, which trigger subsequent inflammatory reactions. Both clinical and imaging techniques are useful in diagnosing, classifying, and gauging the severity of DME. We performed a comprehensive literature search using the keywords “diabetes,” “macula edema,” “epidemiology,” “pathogenesis,” “optical coherence tomography,” “intravitreal injections,” “systemic treatment,” “hypertension,” “hyperlipidemia,” “anemia,” and “renal disease” and collated a total of 47 relevant articles published in English language. The main modalities of treatment currently in use comprise laser photocoagulation, intravitreal pharmacological and selected systemic pharmacological options. In addition, we mention some novel therapies that show promise in treating DME. We also review systemic factors associated with exacerbation or improvement in DME.

  17. Intravitreal gas injection for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McHugh D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dominic McHugh, Bhaskar Gupta, Manzar Saeed King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, England, UK Purpose: This study investigates the efficacy of an intravitreal gas injection in inducing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema refractory to laser therapy. Methods: A local ethics committee-approved technique of an intravitreal injection of pure perfluoropropane gas (C3F8 was performed for all participants. After a period of prone positioning, the patients underwent regular and detailed clinical review. Main outcome measures: The induction of a PVD, change in macular thickness, change in visual acuity. Results: A PVD was induced in all five eyes with subsequent signs of reduction in macular thickness and resolution of exudates. Mean visual improvement was 11 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (range 4–21. Apart from a transient vitreous hemorrhage in one eye, there were no significant treatment-related complications. Conclusion: The induction of a PVD by pneumatic retinopexy appears to have a significant influence on diabetic macular edema in eyes which have not successfully responded to macular laser therapy. A randomized clinical trial is justified on the basis of the initial promising data. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, OCT, posterior vitreous detachment, perfluoropropane

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor:an attractive target in the treatment of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Guo; Hui Zhou; Jie Lu; Yi Qu; Dan Yu; Yu Tong

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia or ischemia results in cell death and cerebral edema, as well as other cellular reactions such as angiogenesis and the reestablishment of functional microvasculature to promote recovery from brain injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in the central nervous system after hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and is involved in the process of brain repairvia the regulation of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and cerebral edema, which all require vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. In this review, we focus on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway in the response to hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and discuss potential therapeutic interventions.

  19. Diagnostic usefulness of periIesional edema around intracerebral hemorrhage in predicting underlying causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Nam Yeol; Seo, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Chung, Tae Woong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    We attempted to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of the degree of perilesional edema around intracerebral hematoma in predicting the underlying cause. This study included 54 patients with intracerebral hematoma for whom the underlying cause was confirmed by biopsy, radiological or clinical methods. Cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, hemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction and intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. The lesion size was defined as the average value of the longest axis and the axis perpendicular to this. The size of the perilesional edema was defined as the longest width of the edema. In all cases, the sizes of the lesion and edema were measured on the T2 weighted image. We defined the edema ratio as the edema size divided by the lesion size. 23 cases were diagnosed as intracerebral hemorrhage due to neoplastic conditions, such as metastasis (n=17), glioblastoma (n=5), hemangioblastoma (n=1). 31 cases were caused by non-neoplastic conditions, such as spontaneous hypertensive hemorrhage (n=23), arteriovenous malformation (n=4), cavernous angioma (n=3), and moya-moya disease (n=1). In fourteen cases, which were confirmed as malignant intracerebral hemorrhage, the edema ratio was more than 100%. Of the other cases, only 8 were confirmed as malignant intracerebral hemorrhage. It was found that the larger the edema ratio, the more malignant the intracerebral hemorrhage, and this result was statistically significant (p<0.001). Measurement of perilesional edema and the intracerebral hematoma ratio may be useful in predicting the underlying causes.

  20. [Distal post-traumatic edema--symptom of a sympathetic reflex dystrophy (Sudeck's disease)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, H; Griesser, H J; Hornyak, M

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes various mechanisms, possibly being involved in the development of the posttraumatic, distally generalized edema. New ideas point to a special importance of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system for this clinical phenomenon, since this system could induce an enhanced venoconstriction at the exit of the capillary bed, which would result in an edema producing diminished venous return. Since the distally generalized edema is an initially and very commonly occurring symptom of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (M. Sudeck), the observation of such an edema should lead one to look for further symptoms of this disorder, especially for the typical triad of autonomic (sympathetic), motor, and sensory disturbances. PMID:1372460

  1. In vivo photoacoustic tomography of mouse cerebral edema induced by cold injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhun; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-06-01

    For the first time, we have implemented photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to image the water content of an edema in vivo. We produced and imaged a cold-induced cerebral edema transcranially, then obtained blood vessel and water accumulation images at 610 and 975 nm, respectively. We tracked the changes at 12, 24, and 36 h after the cold injury. The blood volume decreased after the cold injury, and the maximum area of edema was observed 24 h after the cold injury. We validated PAT of the water content of the edema through magnetic Resonance Imaging and the water spectrum from the spectrophotometric measurement.

  2. Lymphographic criteria of lymphatic edema of the limbs in terms of microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the assessment of the results of 126 lymphographic studies, performed on patients with lymphatic edema of the limbs of various genesis, an important role has been assigned to lymphography as the criterion for establishing indications and contra-indications for microsurgical lymphovenous anastomosis. A special technique of pre-operation lymphophlebographic examination of patients with lymphatic edema of the limbds has been developed. A working scheme of primary lymphatic edemas, as well as the detailed interpretation of lymphographic appearance of primary and secondary lymphatic edemas are also provided

  3. Massive vulval edema with severe preeclampsia. Case report Edema vulvar masivo con preeclampsia grave. Presentación de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gómez Miranda.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Massive vulval edema with severe preeclampsia is presented as one of the consequences that may appear on patients with hypertension disorders during pregnancy, therefore the attention in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Service must be systematical and permanent. On women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, although edemas may not be constant, they may either appear at minor, barely perceptible extents, or even in the most severe ways, such as anasarca. A very peculiar manifestation of edema on preeclampsia is massive vulval edema, which appears as a highly rare complication, in whose basis there is a complex, systemic pathological process involved. We present a case of a pregnant woman who was admitted with high blood pressure values and excessive weight gain, plus very noticeable general edemas, and during her stay developed massive vulval edema. No data on this complication were found in the bibliography reviewed. Very few experienced professionals recall having dealt with similar cases in the last fifteen years, hence the decision to publish it.El edema vulvar masivo con preeclampsia grave se presenta como una de las consecuencias que pueden aparecer en pacientes con trastornos de hipertensión en el embarazo, por lo que la atención en el Servicio de Obstetricia debe ser sistemática y permanente. En las mujeres con trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo, los edemas, aunque no son constantes, se manifiestan desde las formas más leves, apenas perceptibles, hasta las más severas, como la anasarca. Una manifestación particular del edema en la preeclampsia, es el edema vulvar masivo, que se presenta como una complicación sumamente rara, en cuya base hay un proceso patológico sistémico y complejo. Se presenta el caso de una embarazada que ingresó con cifras elevadas de presión arterial y aumento de peso exagerado, con edemas generalizados muy acentuados, que durante su estancia desarrolló un edema vulvar masivo. En la bibliograf

  4. CT findings of the brain post cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects were 88 cases of non-traumatic CPA excluding those with primary brain disease. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the duration of cardiac arrest: Group A (less than 15 minutes, 2 cases), Group B (15-30 minutes, 11 cases), Group C (more than 30 minutes, 40 cases), Group D (no resuscitation after cardiac arrest, 35 cases). All cases in Group A were observed to be clear consciousness after resuscitation. Not only the functional outcome but also the survivals rates were poorer as the duration of cardiac arrest increased in Groups B and C compared to Group A. The mortality rate was 85% or higher for cardiac arrest of 15 minutes or longer. Brain edema after resuscitation was examined by head CT in the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions, and in the corticomedullary junction of the cerebrum. In the cases of short duration of cardiac arrest, the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions, and the corticomedullary junction were clearly visible on CT. On the other hand, these areas were poorly or not visible (marked brain edema) in the cases of longer duration of cardiac arrest. The borders of the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions, and the corticomedullary junction were not obscured in any of the cases in Group A. However, the borders of these regions were poorly visible or not visible more frequently as the duration of cardiac arrest increased. In particular, the corticomedullary junction was not visible more frequently after cardiac arrest of long duration. Brain edema is caused and intensified by prolongation of hypoxia, but it is also reported to be caused by external cardiac massage, which increases the intracranial pressure. This was also suggested by the more notable brain edema in the corticomedullary junction than in the basal-ganglia and thalamus regions. These findings of brain edema appeared on head CT within 4 hours after CPR. Findings suggestive of vascular occlusion were also obtained. (K.H.)

  5. Clinical Studies of Cerebral Edema Recanalization After Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction%急性脑梗死动脉溶栓血管再通后的脑水肿临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜春; 马冲; 张健莉; 于杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨急性缺血性脑卒中动脉溶栓血管再通后脑水肿的临床研究,旨在为此类疾病患者的下一步临床工作提供借鉴。方法选择通过动脉溶栓血管再通的患者40例。将患者分为1~3 h组(A组)、>3~6h组(B组)。头颅CT监测、随访脑水肿情况。记录溶栓前、术后1周及1年NIHSS评分、MRS评分及BI指数。结果动脉溶栓血管再通后脑水肿发生率为100%,随访发现脑水肿局部有明显软化灶。两组患者脑水肿及临床结局比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论动脉溶栓血管再通后脑水肿的及其脑组织缺失发生率极高,脑水肿局部有明显软化灶,良好的脑内局部循环和全身状况是改善此类脑水肿的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the acute arterial ischemic stroke thrombolytic recanalization clinical studies of cerebral edema, designed to provide a reference for the next clinical disease in these patients.Methods arterial thrombolysis recanalization by 40 patients. Patients were divided into 1 ~ 3h group (A),> 3 ~ 6h group (group B). Cranial CT monitoring, follow-up of brain edema. Recorded before thrombolysis, after 1 week and 1 year NIHSS score, MRS score and BI index.Results arterial thrombolysis recanalization rate was 97.5% of cerebral edema, cerebral edema partial follow-up found a significant malacia. Two groups of patients and clinical outcomes of cerebral edema was no significant difference (P> 0.05).Conclusion The arterial thrombolysis recanalization of cerebral edema and high incidence of brain tissue loss, good local circulation in the brain and body condition is such an important factor in improving brain edema.

  6. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: Updated Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, David

    2016-01-01

    The challenges posed by acute brain injury (ABI) involve the management of the initial insult in addition to downstream inflammation, edema, and ischemia that can result in secondary brain injury (SBI). SBI is often subclinical, but can be detected through physiologic changes. These changes serve as a surrogate for tissue injury/cell death and are captured by parameters measured by various monitors that measure intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2), cerebral metabolism, and electrocortical activity. In the ideal setting, multimodality monitoring (MMM) integrates these neurological monitoring parameters with traditional hemodynamic monitoring and the physical exam, presenting the information needed to clinicians who can intervene before irreversible damage occurs. There are now consensus guidelines on the utilization of MMM, and there continue to be new advances and questions regarding its use. In this review, we examine these recommendations, recent evidence for MMM, and future directions for MMM. PMID:27095434

  7. Unilateral Optic Disc Edema in a Paediatric Patient: Diagnostic Dilemmas and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Kanonidou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a case of unilateral optic disc edema in a paediatric patient and discuss the concerns involved in diagnosis and management of similar cases. Materials and Methods. Female aged 10 years was referred to our clinic due to progressive visual loss of the LE over a few days. Her visual acuities (VA were RE 10/10, LE 3/10, and she had a relative afferent pupillary defect and decreased colour vision in her LE and normal and painless eye movements. Fundoscopy showed a remarkably swollen disc of the LE, and visual field (VF examination revealed enlargement of the blind spot and presence of horizontal inferior papillomacular scotoma. Neurological examination, CT of brain and orbits and blood tests were normal. Visual evoked potentials revealed an obstacle in the myelin substance before the optic chiasma of the LE. Results. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednoslone for 3 days and with oral methylprednizole for 15 days in progressively diminished daily doses. This led to gradual improvement of VA, colour vision, and visual field and resolution of optic disc oedema. Discussion. Concerns that have to be taken into account regarding diagnosis and management of similar cases are related to lumbar puncture indications, treatment with corticosteroids, and appropriate followup.

  8. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  9. Perihematomal edema in acute intracerebral hemorrhage treated with hyperbaric oxygen%高压氧治疗对急性脑出血周围水肿影响的影像学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永; 朱向阳; 董政协; 龚沈初; 胡军; 李嘉; 黄怀宇

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on perihematomal edema in acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Sixty-three consecutive hospitalized patients with supraten-torial intracerebral hemorrhage were allocated to an HBO group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 33) at random. Routine therapies were used with both groups. The treatment group received in addition twenty consecutive daily ses-sions of HBO therapy beginning 3~5 d after onset. MRI brain scans were performed on the 5~7th and 25th day. Absolute edema volumes and relative edema volumes were measured from T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion co-efficients (ADCs) of the edematous regions were calculated on diffusion-weighted images (DWI). Results There were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, blood pressure, NIHSS, hematoma posi-tion or volume. At the 5th~7th d, both absolute and relative edema volumes in the HBO group were smaller than in the controls (P≤0.05). Brain edema was still prominent at the 25th d. Absolute edema volumes, relative edema volumes and ADC values were all smaller in the HBO group at the 25th day compared with the controls (P≤0.05). Conclusion HBO therapy soon after intracerebral hemorrhage can lessen the severity and range of brain edema. E-dema persists after the onset of the disease, and HBO can reduce such delayed brain edema. HBO may benefit func-tional recovery from intracerebral hemorrhage by reducing perihematomal edema.%目的 应用MRI检测观察高压氧(HBO)治疗对急性脑出血灶周围脑水肿的影响.方法 63例幕上脑出血住院患者,随机分为HBO治疗组(n=30,HBO组)和对照组(n=33),2组均给予常规治疗,HBO组于发病后3~5 d开始同时给予HBO治疗,每日1次,连续20 d.病程第5~7天和第25天进行头颅MRI检查,T2WI图像观测脑水肿的范围,计算脑水肿绝对体积和相对体积,弥散加权成像(DWI)测定血肿周围水肿区域表观扩

  10. Recirculation usually precedes malignant edema in middle cerebral artery infarcts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Ståhl, N; Schalén, W;

    2012-01-01

    In patients with large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts, maximum brain swelling leading to cerebral herniation and death usually occurs 2-5 days after onset of stroke. The study aimed at exploring the pattern of compounds related to cerebral energy metabolism in infarcted brain tissue....

  11. Massive vulval edema with severe preeclampsia. Case report Edema vulvar masivo con preeclampsia grave. Presentación de un caso.

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Gómez Miranda; José Luis Durán Páez; Nelson Pérez Rumbaut

    2009-01-01

    Massive vulval edema with severe preeclampsia is presented as one of the consequences that may appear on patients with hypertension disorders during pregnancy, therefore the attention in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Service must be systematical and permanent. On women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, although edemas may not be constant, they may either appear at minor, barely perceptible extents, or even in the most severe ways, such as anasarca. A very peculiar manifestation of...

  12. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Iacopo; Tacconi, Danilo; Grotti, Simone; Brandini, Rossella; Salvadori, Claudia; Caremani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2011-05-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug. Its long-term use may, however, lead to several adverse effects, with pulmonary toxicity being the most serious. The article presents the case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgery, who after 2 years of amiodarone therapy for prophylactic treatment of atrial fibrillation developed amiodarone pneumonitis mimicking an acute pulmonary edema. The patient failed to respond to diuretic therapy and several courses of anti-infective therapy. Differential diagnosis of different causes of pulmonary infiltrates did not demonstrate any other abnormality. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of amiodarone pneumonitis. Given the widespread use of amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic agent, pneumologists and cardiologists should consider this important adverse effect as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary distress refractory to therapy in all patients treated with amiodarone who present with respiratory symptoms and pneumonia-like illness. PMID:19924000

  13. Transient Macular Edema after Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Zheng Wang; Guofu Huang; Xing Liu; Yunlan Ling; Xiaoping Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the macular changes induced by laser in situ keratomileusisc(LASIK) procedure.Methods: Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) was used to examine 27 eyes of 15LASIK patients before surgery, and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month after surgery.Results: The mean thick iness of neuroepithelial layer of macula was (195±24)microns, ( 178 ± 16) microns 1 day and 1 month after surgery, respectively, while thebaseline was (174 ± 12)microns. The increase in macular neuroepithelial thickness wascorrelated with the degree of myopia, but not with the duration of suction or thepostoperative BCVA.Conclusion: Mild macular edema is common in the first month following LASIK,especially in high myopia. However, no association with loss of BCVA has beenestablished.

  14. Atropine may prevent the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2009), s. 42-44. ISSN 0306-9877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; EC FP6 RESCUE(FR) LSHB-CT-2005-518233; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0021620803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : central nervous system * neurogenic pulmonary edema Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2009

  15. Pulmonary edema and lung injury after severe laryngospasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young male with no pre-operative medical illness underwent corrective surgery for a deviated nasal septum under general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, patient was extubated but went into severe laryngospasm that did not improve with gentle Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) and small dose of Suxamethonium. As the situation worsened and patient developed severe bradycardia and de-saturation, re-intubation was done that revealed pink froth in the endotracheal tube. His portable chest X-ray was suggestive of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. With an overnight supportive treatment, using mechanical ventilation with Positive End- Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), morphine infusion and frusemide, patient improved and was subsequently weaned off from ventilator. (author)

  16. Cystoid macular edema in a patient with Danon disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G Mack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a patient with Danon retinopathy with cystoid macular edema treated with topical dorzolamide 2% eye drops and oral acetazolamide. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with Danon disease treated with topical and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors participated in the study. Examinations performed before and during treatment included visual acuity (VA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. Following total 48 weeks of treatment, VA decreased from 20/30 OD, 20/200 OS, to 20/40 OD, CF OS. The mean central retinal thickness was unchanged from baseline 263 μm OD , 226 μm OS, after treatment 283 μm OD and 202 μm OS. In our case, carbonic anydrase inhibitors were not effective. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on a single case.

  17. The clinical utility of aflibercept for diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart MW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael W StewartDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: The treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME has improved because of the proven efficacy of drugs that inhibit the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The newest anti-VEGF drug, aflibercept, has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of center-involving DME and for diabetic retinopathy in eyes with DME. In the pivotal Phase III VISTA and VIVID trials, intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg injections every 4 or 8 weeks (after 5 monthly loading doses produced superior gains in BCVA compared to laser/sham injections. In the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Protocol T trial, which featured monthly anti-VEGF monotherapy for 6 months, followed by monthly pro re nata anti-VEGF injections with laser rescue therapy from months 6 through 12, aflibercept 2 mg monthly was superior to bevacizumab 1.25 mg and ranibizumab 0.5 mg in eyes with BCVA of 20/50 or worse (aflibercept versus bevacizumab: P<0.001; aflibercept versus ranibizumab: P=0.003, but the three regimens were comparable for eyes with VA of 20/40 or better. Only in the 20/50 or worse subgroup did aflibercept achieve clinical superiority (>5 letter difference to bevacizumab. Each treatment regimen led to significant macular thinning, with aflibercept being superior to bevacizumab in both visual acuity subgroups (P<0.001 for each, but it was not statistically superior to ranibizumab in either group. In diabetic patients, aflibercept has an excellent safety profile that does not appear to differ from laser/sham or other VEGF inhibitory drugs.Keywords: aflibercept, bevacizumab, diabetic macular edema, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factor

  18. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability as a cause of re-expansion edema in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the mechanism(s) underlying re-expansion edema, we measured the concentration of labeled albumin (RISA) in the extravascular, extracellular water (EVECW) of the lung as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Re-expansion edema was first induced by rapid re-expansion of rabbit lungs that had been collapsed for 1 wk by pneumothorax. The RISA in EVECW was expressed as a fraction of its plasma concentration: (RISA)L/(RISA)PL. The volume of EVECW (ml/gm dry lung) was measured using a 24Na indicator. Results in re-expansion edema were compared with normal control lungs and with oleic acid edema as a model of permeability edema. In re-expanded lungs, EVECW (3.41 +/- SD 1.24 ml/g) and (RISA)L/(RISA)PL 0.84 +/- SD 0.15) were significantly increased when compared with normal control lungs (2.25 +/- 0.41 ml/g and 0.51 +/- 0.20, respectively). Results in oleic acid edema (5.66 +/- 2.23 ml/g and 0.84 +/- 0.23) were similar to re-expansion edema. This suggested that re-expansion edema is due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by mechanical stresses applied to the lung during re-expansion

  19. Necrosis de médula espinal, edema cerebral y glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1987-01-01

    Cinco imágenes de una necrosis de la médula espinal, un edema cerebral y un glioblastoma en una paciente de 76 años. Five pictures of a spinal cord necrosis, a cerebral edema and a glioblastoma in a 76-year-old female patient.

  20. Mechanisms of edema formation in myxedema--increased protein extravasation and relatively slow lymphatic drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Hansen, J M; Nielsen, S L;

    1979-01-01

    states of generalized edema (P less than 0.05). All variables returned to normal during l-thyroxine treatment. The extravascular accumulation of albumin, and presumably of all other plasma proteins, is important in the generalized edema typically found in myxedema. Inadequate lymphatic drainage may also...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism ...

  2. One day wonder: Fast resolution of macular edema following intravitreal ranibizumab in retinal venous occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema is a significant cause of vision loss in patients with central retinal vein occlusions and branch retinal vein occlusions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF appears to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. Anti-VEGF therapy, such as intravitreal ranibizumab provides an effective treatment against vision-threatening macular edema. We report three patients of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema who demonstrated overnight resolution of macular edema following treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg. 3D optical coherence tomography (Optovue was used as a tool for comparison of the macular thickness before and after treatment. The significant reductions in the central foveal thickness demonstrated in these patients one night after intravitreal injections could have significant influence on modifying current treatment protocols. Early treatment of macular edema related to retinal venous occlusive disease with anti-VEGF injections could result in faster visual rehabilitation in these patients.

  3. Role of dietary polyphenols in attenuating brain edema and cell swelling in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are enriched in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. Recent interest...

  4. Posterior Lumbar Subcutaneous Edema on Spine Magnetic Resonance Images: What Is the Cause?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, In Sook; Han, In Ho; Lee, Jung Sub [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Tae Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jong Woon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Posterior lumbar subcutaneous (PLS) edema on spine magnetic resonance (MR) images is a common incidental, though neglected finding. This study was undertaken to investigate the relations between PLS edema and pathologic conditions. Between January and December 2009, 138 patients with PLS edema, but without a spinal tumor or a history of recent surgery or trauma, and 80 infectious spondylitis patients without PLS edema were enrolled in this retrospective study. Available medical records and lumbar spine MR images were evaluated. The degree of edema was quantified using an arbitrary scoring system. Further, the correlations between the degree of edema and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), degeneration of posterior spinal structures (PSS) and infectious spondylitis were analyzed. Of the 93 cases with a calculable BMI, 61 (66%) had a BMI of > 23 kg/m2. Correlations between the degree of edema and sex, age and BMI grade were all statistically non-significant. Thirty-three cases (24%) had an underlying disease, such as heart problem, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, extra-spinal tumor or connective tissue disorder. The numbers of cases with infectious spondylitis and an idiopathic condition was 61 (44%) and 44 (32%), respectively. The grade of infectious spondylitis was not found to be significantly associated with the degree of edema (p = 0.084). In cases with an idiopathic condition, the correlation between the degree of edema and PSS degeneration was statistically significant (p = 0.042). Radiologists should not disregard PLS edema, because it is related to an underlying disease and thus may be of clinical significance.

  5. Posterior Lumbar Subcutaneous Edema on Spine Magnetic Resonance Images: What Is the Cause?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posterior lumbar subcutaneous (PLS) edema on spine magnetic resonance (MR) images is a common incidental, though neglected finding. This study was undertaken to investigate the relations between PLS edema and pathologic conditions. Between January and December 2009, 138 patients with PLS edema, but without a spinal tumor or a history of recent surgery or trauma, and 80 infectious spondylitis patients without PLS edema were enrolled in this retrospective study. Available medical records and lumbar spine MR images were evaluated. The degree of edema was quantified using an arbitrary scoring system. Further, the correlations between the degree of edema and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), degeneration of posterior spinal structures (PSS) and infectious spondylitis were analyzed. Of the 93 cases with a calculable BMI, 61 (66%) had a BMI of > 23 kg/m2. Correlations between the degree of edema and sex, age and BMI grade were all statistically non-significant. Thirty-three cases (24%) had an underlying disease, such as heart problem, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, extra-spinal tumor or connective tissue disorder. The numbers of cases with infectious spondylitis and an idiopathic condition was 61 (44%) and 44 (32%), respectively. The grade of infectious spondylitis was not found to be significantly associated with the degree of edema (p = 0.084). In cases with an idiopathic condition, the correlation between the degree of edema and PSS degeneration was statistically significant (p = 0.042). Radiologists should not disregard PLS edema, because it is related to an underlying disease and thus may be of clinical significance.

  6. Aquaporin 9 in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9 in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: Brain water content (BWC, tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC, immunofluorescence (IF, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS: The BWC reached the first and second (highest peaks at 6 and 72 hours, and the blood brain barrier (BBB was severely destroyed at six hours after the TBI. The worst brain ischemia occurred at 72 hours after TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes and neurons in the hypothalamus were detected by means of IHC and IF after TBI. The abundance of AQP9 and its mRNA increased after TBI and reached two peaks at 6 and 72 hours, respectively, after TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Increased AQP9 might contribute to clearance of excess water and lactate in the early stage of TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes might help lactate move into neurons and result in cellular brain edema in the later stage of TBI. AQP9-positive neurons suggest that AQP9 plays a role in energy balance after TBI.

  7. Can bone marrow edema be seen on STIR images of the ankle and foot after 1 week of running?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappeniers, L.; Maeseneer, M. de E-mail: midema@village.uunet.be; Ridder, F. de; Machiels, F.; Shahabpour, M.; Tebache, C.; Verhellen, R.; Osteaux, M

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether initiation of running in sedentary individuals would lead to bone marrow edema on MR images, within the time span of 1 week. Materials and methods: The feet of 10 healthy volunteers were imaged by MR imaging before and after running during 30 min a day for 1 week. The images were evaluated by consensus of 2 musculoskeletal radiologists who graded the presence of bone marrow edema on a 4-point scale. Edema scores and number of bones involved before and after running were compared statistically. Results: Edema was present on the baseline images in 3 subjects. After running edema showed an increase or was present in 5 subjects. The changes after running were statistically significant. Bones involved were the talus, calcaneus, navicular bone, cuboid bone, and 5th metatarsal. Conclusion: Edema patterns can be seen in the feet of asymptomatic individuals. During initiation of running an increase of edema or development of new edema areas can be seen.

  8. Can bone marrow edema be seen on STIR images of the ankle and foot after 1 week of running?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether initiation of running in sedentary individuals would lead to bone marrow edema on MR images, within the time span of 1 week. Materials and methods: The feet of 10 healthy volunteers were imaged by MR imaging before and after running during 30 min a day for 1 week. The images were evaluated by consensus of 2 musculoskeletal radiologists who graded the presence of bone marrow edema on a 4-point scale. Edema scores and number of bones involved before and after running were compared statistically. Results: Edema was present on the baseline images in 3 subjects. After running edema showed an increase or was present in 5 subjects. The changes after running were statistically significant. Bones involved were the talus, calcaneus, navicular bone, cuboid bone, and 5th metatarsal. Conclusion: Edema patterns can be seen in the feet of asymptomatic individuals. During initiation of running an increase of edema or development of new edema areas can be seen

  9. Morphine blocks the Mesobuthus tamulus venom-induced augmentation of phenyldiguanide reflex and pulmonary edema in anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Akella

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results reveal that morphine prevents the MBT venom-induced augmentation of PDG reflex response and pulmonary edema. Thus, morphine can be useful in scorpion envenomation syndrome associated with pulmonary edema.

  10. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jindou Jiang; Xingyao Bu; Meng Liu; Peixun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Results from the present study demonstrated that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the lesion site in rat brain significantly ameliorated brain tissue pathological changes and brain edema, attenuated glial cell proliferation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. In addition, the number of cells double-labeled for 5-bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein and cells expressing nestin increased. Finally, blood vessels were newly generated, and the rats exhibited improved motor and cognitive functions. These results suggested that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promoted brain remodeling and improved neurological functions following traumatic brain injury.

  11. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaou Marinos; Stamenković Srđan; Stergiou Christos; Skarleas Christos; Torrens Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Case Outline. A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan during the work-up...

  12. Unusual Presentations of Focal Periphyseal Edema Zones: A Report of Bilateral Symmetric Presentation and Partial Physeal Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Beckmann; Susanna Spence

    2015-01-01

    Focal periphyseal edema (FOPE) zones are areas of periphyseal edema seen near the time of physeal closure which are believed to be a physiologic phenomenon related to changes in distribution of forces around the physis as it closes. Since the original case series describing these areas of periphyseal edema, there has been little published in regard to FOPE zone outside of review articles. We present a set of three patients identified with focal periphyseal edema zones around the knee and comp...

  13. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Kelli; Murphy, Thomas; Tung, Tina; Davila, David; Binder, Devin K; Fiacco, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular edema (cell swelling) is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we report that one of the first effects of osmotic edema on excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is the generation of slow inward currents (SICs), which initiate after approximately 1 min. Frequency of SICs increased as osmolarity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging of real-time volume changes in astrocytes revealed that neuronal SICs occurred while astrocytes were still in the process of swelling. SICs evoked by cell swelling were mainly nonsynaptic in origin and NMDA receptor-dependent. To better understand the relationship between SICs and changes in neuronal excitability, recordings were performed in increasingly physiological conditions. In the absence of any added pharmacological reagents or imposed voltage clamp, osmotic edema induced excitatory postsynaptic potentials and burst firing over the same timecourse as SICs. Like SICs, action potentials were blocked by NMDAR antagonists. Effects were more pronounced in adult (8-20 weeks old) compared with juvenile (P15-P21) mice. Together, our results indicate that cell swelling triggered by reduced osmolarity rapidly increases neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors. Our findings have important implications for understanding nonsynaptic mechanisms of epilepsy in relation to cell swelling and reduction of the extracellular space. PMID:26489684

  14. Fundus autofluorescence characteristics in patients with diabetic macular edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yinchen; Xu Xun; Liu Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the major causes of visual impairment in patients with diabetes mellitus.DME shows a variety of clinical characteristics with unpredictable results to treatment.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in DME,which is a rapid,noninvasive technique for fundus diseases.Methods A total of 18 patients (30 eyes) with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were enrolled.FAF imaging was performed with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope.Other ophthalmic examinations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),MP-1 microperimetry,and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Main outcome measurements included BCVA,macular sensitivity (MS),central retinal thickness (CRT),central retinal volume (CRV),the integrity of the inner segment-outer segment junction (IS/OS),and the integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM).Results Among the 30 eyes,four eyes (13.3%) had normal foveal FAF and 26 eyes (86.7%) had abnormal FAF.Abnormal FAF was mainly divided into three types:cystoid increased FAF (iFAF) 16 eyes (53.3%),spot iFAF six eyes (20%),irregular decreased FAF (dFAF) four eyes (13.3%).According to the FAF morphology,patients were categorized into four groups:normal,cystoid iFAF,spot iFAF,and irregular dFAF.There was a significant difference in BCVA (P <0.001) and MS (P <0.05) among the four groups.The visual function of patients with spot iFAF and irregular dFAF was relatively poor.However,there was no difference in CRT (P=-0.186) and CRV (P=0.191) among the four groups.In the normal FAF group,the photoreceptor layers were mostly intact.Regarding the cystoid iFAF group,the photoreceptor layers were relatively intact,while in the other two groups,IS/OS and ELM were disrupted in most patients.No one had intact IS/OS or ELM layer.Conclusions FAF might reflect the damage of the retina and had a relationship with visual function as

  15. The effect of TIP on pneumovirus-induced pulmonary edema in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary edema plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-induced respiratory failure. In this study we determined whether treatment with TIP (AP301, a synthetic cyclic peptide that mimics the lectin-like domain of human TNF, decreases pulmonary edema in a mouse model of severe human RSV infection. TIP is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for pulmonary permeability edema and has been shown to decrease pulmonary edema in different lung injury models. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM and received TIP or saline (control group by intratracheal instillation on day five (early administration or day seven (late administration after infection. In a separate set of experiments the effect of multiple dose administration of TIP versus saline was tested. Pulmonary edema was determined by the lung wet-to-dry (W/D weight ratio and was assessed at different time-points after the administration of TIP. Secondary outcomes included clinical scores and lung cellular response. RESULTS: TIP did not have an effect on pulmonary edema in different dose regimens at different time points during PVM infection. In addition, TIP administration did not affect clinical severity scores or lung cellular response. CONCLUSION: In this murine model of severe RSV infection TIP did not affect pulmonary edema nor course of disease.

  16. Myocardial edema and compromised left ventricular function attributable to dirofilariasis and cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D A; Davis, K L; Mehlhorn, U; Allen, S J; Laine, G A

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (tau) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:7717590

  17. Pharmacological characterization of rat paw edema induced by Naja haje arabica venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Al-Asmari

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed in order to assess the inflammatory response induced by Naja haje arabica venom (NhaV in rat hind paw. The inflammatory response was estimated by measuring the edema with a Plethysmometer. The venom (0.625-10mug/paw produced a dose and time-dependent increase in non-hemorrhagic paw edema. The response to NhaV was maximal within 15 min and disappeared in 24 h. Five mug/paw of NhaV was chosen to test the effect of various drugs on the edema induced by this venom. Quinacrine (QNC, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2 inhibitor, and dipyridamole (DPM, an adenosine transport inhibitor, attenuated venom-induced edema in rat paw (P<0.001. Commercially available antivenom was ineffective when administered intravenously, whereas its local administration with NhaV attenuated the edema formation (P<0.001. In conclusion, NhaV-induced edema in rat paw involves PLA2 and adenosine mechanisms. Additionally, the use of polyspecific antivenom, intravenously, was ineffective in preventing NhaV-induced edema.

  18. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential.

  19. Environmental enrichment promotes neural remodeling in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjun Liu; Yankui Guo; Yalu Li; Zhenying Yang

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and treatment with early environmental enrichment intervention on development of newborn rats, as evaluated by light and electron microscopy and morphometry. Early intervention with environmental enrichment intelligence training attenuated brain edema and neuronal injury, promoted neuronal repair, and increased neuronal plasticity in the frontal lobe cortex of the newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  20. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint; Differenzialdiagnosen des Knochenmarkoedems am Kniegelenk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, M.J. [Waldviertelklinikum Horn (Austria). Institut fuer Radiologie; Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Wien (Austria). Abteilung Osteologie; Kramer, J. [Institut fuer CT- und MRT-Diagnostik, Linz (Austria); Mayerhoefer, M.E. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Wien (Austria). Abteilung Osteologie; Aigner, N. [Orthopaedisches Krankenhaus Speising, Erste Orthopaedische Abteilung, Wien (Austria); Hofmann, S. [LKH Stolzalpe (Austria). Orthopaedische Abteilung

    2006-01-01

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.) [German] Das Knochenmarkoedem des Kniegelenks ist ein haeufiges Erscheinungsbild in der MR-Diagnostik. Es kann mit Symptomen und Schmerzen des Gelenks einhergehen. Erkrankungen, die mit einem Knochenmarkoedem vergesellschaftet sind, koennen in verschiedene Gruppen eingeteilt werden. Zur 1. Gruppe gehoeren das vaskulaer-ischaemische Knochenmarkoedem mit Osteonekrose (Synonyme SONK oder Morbus Ahlbaeck), die Osteochondrosis dissecans und das Knochenmarkoedemsyndrom, zur 2. Gruppe das traumatologische oder mechanische Knochenmarkoedem. In der 3. Gruppe werden reaktive Knochenmarkoedeme zusammengefasst wie bei Gonarthrose, postoperative Knochenmarkoedeme und reaktive Oedeme bei Tumor oder tumoraehnlichen Erkrankungen. Der Nachweis eines Knochenmarkoedems gelingt mit der MRT sehr sensitiv, die rein morphologische MR-Information ist jedoch oft unspezifisch, sodass anamnestische und klinische Informationen fuer die sichere Zuordnung einer Erkrankung in den meisten Faellen notwendig sind. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral and simultaneous cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost use: report of two cases Edema macular cistóide bilateral e simultâneo associado com o uso de latanoprost: relato de dois casos

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Ferreira Moura Brasil; Maria Vitoria Moura Brasil; Marcelo Palis Ventura; Hugo Soares Maia

    2010-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema is an uncommon, but well known, side effect of latanoprost. Two cases of bilateral and simultaneous cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost use are described, which complete resolution of the edema is observed upon drug discontinuation.O edema macular cistóide é um efeito colateral incomum, porém bem conhecido, do latanoprost. São descritos dois casos de edema macular cistóide bilateral e simultâneo associado ao uso de latanoprost, em que foi observada completa...

  2. Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Following use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Bayraktar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE following upper airway obstruction is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The first cause in the etiology of NPPE is developed laryngospasm after intubation or extubation, while the other causes are epiglotitis, croup, hiccups, foreign body aspiration, pharyngeal hematoma and oropharyngeal tumors.The Late diagnosis and treatment causes high morbidity and mortality. The protection of the airway and maintainance of arterial oxygenation will be life saving.In this article we aimed to report  a case of negative pressure pulmonary edema, resolved succesfully after treatment, following use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA.

  3. Darapladib, a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor, in diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staurenghi, Giovanni; Ye, Li; Magee, Mindy H;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibition as a novel mechanism to reduce edema and improve vision in center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase IIa study...... (AEs) and nonocular AEs were similar between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily oral darapladib administered for 3 months demonstrated modest improvements in vision and macular edema that warrant additional investigation of this novel lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitory mechanism...

  4. Diagnosis and quantitative estimation of pulmonary congestion or edema by pulmonary CT numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) was performed in 25 patients with left heart failure and 10 healthy persons to diagnose pulmonary congestion or edema associated with left heart failure. In an analysis of histogram for pulmonary CT numbers obtained from CT scans, CT numbers indicating pulmonary edema were defined as -650 to -750 H.U. This allowed pulmonary edema to be quantitatively estimated early when abnormal findings were not available on chest X-ray film or pulmonary circulation studies. Histograms for CT numbers could be displayed by colors on CT scans. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Diffuse vertebral body edema due to calcified intraspongious disk herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Ecomax-Diagnostico por Imagem, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Tiradentes, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Castro, C.E.S.; Castro, D.S. [Ecomax-Diagnostico por Imagem, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient with a recent history of high back pain, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showing intervertebral disk herniation into the spongious bone of the vertebral body of T9 that might have caused diffuse, low signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery T1-weighted (FLAIR-T1W) images, high signal intensity magnetic resonance (MR) on T2-weighted (T2W) images and T2-weighted fat-suppressed images (T2W-FSIs) and marked enhancement on the vertebral body of T9 with gadolinium on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (T1W-FSIs) images. Those findings suggested diffuse edema and might be indistinguishable from tumoral or inflammatory diseases, but the plain films and the reformatted sagittal computed tomography scans of the thoracic spine were helpful to show a calcified part of the intervertebral disk migrating into the vertebral body of T9. The patient made full recovery from the symptoms after conservative treatment and at the follow-up MRI showed normalization of the bone marrow signal intensity of the vertebral body of T9. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary Edema in Healthy Subjects in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Garbella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several pieces of evidence showing occurrence of pulmonary edema (PE in healthy subjects in extreme conditions consisting of extreme psychophysical demand in normal environment and psychophysical performances in extreme environment. A combination of different mechanisms, such as mechanical, hemodynamic, biochemical, and hypoxemic ones, may underlie PE leading to an increase in lung vascular hydrostatic pressure and lung vascular permeability and/or a downregulation of the alveolar fluid reabsorption pathways. PE can be functionally detected by closing volume measurement and lung diffusing capacity test to different gases or directly visualized by multiple imaging techniques. Among them chest ultrasonography can detect and quantify the extravascular lung water, creating “comet-tail” ultrasound artefacts (ULCs from water-thickened pulmonary interlobular septa. In this paper the physiopathological mechanisms of PE, the functional and imaging techniques applied to detect and quantify the phenomenon, and three models of extreme conditions, that is, ironman athletes, climbers and breath-hold divers, are described.

  7. Hospitalized cardiovascular events in patients with diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Khoa Bao-Anh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes stem from chronic hyperglycemia and are thought to have overlapping pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of hospitalized myocardial infarctions (MI and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME compared with diabetic patients without retinal diseases. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of a commercially insured population in an administrative claims database. DME subjects (n = 3519 and diabetes controls without retinal disease (n = 10557 were matched by age and gender. Healthcare claims were analyzed for the study period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2005. Incidence and adjusted rate ratios of hospitalized MI and CVA events were then calculated. Results The adjusted rate ratio for MI was 2.50 (95% CI: 1.83-3.41, p  Conclusion Event rates of MI or CVA were higher in patients with DME than in diabetes controls. This study is one of few with sufficient sample size to accurately estimate the relationship between DME and cardiovascular outcomes.

  8. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  9. Microcystic macular edema detection in retina OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Emily K.; Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Howard S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging tool that is particularly useful for exploring retinal abnormalities in ophthalmological diseases. Recently, it has been used to track changes in the eye associated with neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) where certain tissue layer thicknesses have been associated with disease progression. A small percentage of MS patients also exhibit what has been called microcystic macular edema (MME), where uid collections that are thought to be pseudocysts appear in the inner nuclear layer. Very little is known about the cause of this condition so it is important to be able to identify precisely where these pseudocysts occur within the retina. This identi cation would be an important rst step towards furthering our understanding. In this work, we present a detection algorithm to nd these pseudocysts and to report on their spatial distribution. Our approach uses a random forest classi er trained on manual segmentation data to classify each voxel as pseudocyst or not. Despite having a small sample size of ve subjects, the algorithm correctly identi es 84.6% of pseudocysts as compared to manual delineation. Finally, using our method, we show that the spatial distribution of pseudocysts within the macula are generally contained within an annulus around the fovea.

  10. Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from high altitude pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To differentiate the high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) from pulmonary embolism (PE) by clinical probability model of PE, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and D-dimer assays at high altitude. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive 40 patients evacuated from height > 3000 meters with symptoms of PE or HAPE were included. Clinical pretest probabilities scores of PE, Minutex D-dimer assay (Biopool international) and cardiac enzymes estimation by IFCC approved methods, were used for diagnosis. Mann-Whitney U test was applied by using SPSS and level of significance was taken at (p 500 ng/ml. Plasma D-dimer of 500 ng/ml was considered as cut-off value; 6(66.7%) patients of PE could be diagnosed and 30 (96.7%) cases of HAPE excluded indicating very good negative predictive value. Serum LDH, AST and CK were raised above the reference ranges in 8 (89%), 7 (78%) and 3 (33%) patients of PE as compared to 11 (35%), 6 (19%) and 9 (29%) of HAPE respectively. Conclusion: Clinical assessment in combination with D-dimer assay, LDH and AST can be used for timely differentiation of PE from HAPE at high altitude where diagnostic imaging procedures are not available. (author)

  11. Intravitreal Diclofenac for Refractory Uveitic Cystoid Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ramezani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of intravitreal diclofenac on bestcorrected visual acuity (BCVA and central macular thickness (CMT in patients with refractory uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME. Methods: In this prospective non-comparative case series, 8 eyes of 8 patients with refractory CME secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis received a single intravitreal injection of diclofenac (500 μg/0.1ml in addition to other systemic (oral prednisolone and methotraxate and topical (betamethasone remission maintaining drugs. Outcome measures were changes in BCVA and CMT after treatment. Results: Mean BCVA remained relatively unchanged at 12, 24 and 36 weeks (0.69, 0.70 and 0.64 LogMAR, respectively as compared to baseline (0.71 LogMAR. Mean CMT, however, decreased from 488 μm at baseline to 416 and 456 μm at 24 and 36 weeks, respectively. None of the changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: In eyes with refractory uveitic CME, intravitreal injection of diclofenac insignificantly reduced CMT but this was not associated with visual improvement.

  12. Updates on the clinical trials in diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Demirel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this era of evidence.based medicine, significant progress has been made in the field of pharmacotherapeutics for the management of diabetic macular edema. (DME. A. number of landmark clinical trials have provided strong evidence of the safety and efficacy of agents such as anti.vascular endothelial growth factors for the treatment of DME. Decades of clinical research, ranging from the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study to the present.day randomized clinical trials. (RCTs testing novel agents, have shifted the goal of therapy from preventing vision loss to ensuring a maximum visual gain. Systematic study designs have provided robust data with an attempt to optimize the treatment regimens including the choice of the agent and timing of therapy. However, due to a number of challenges in the management of DME with approved agents, further studies are needed. For the purpose of this review, an extensive database search in English language was performed to identify prospective, RCTs testing pharmacological agents for DME. In order to acquaint the reader with the most relevant data from these clinical trials, this review focuses on pharmacological agents that are currently approved or have widespread applications in the management of DME. An update on clinical trials presently underway for DME has also been provided.

  13. Anti-VEGF for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Stefanini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is an important cause of vision loss around the world, being the leading cause in the population between 20 and 60 years old. Among patients with DR, diabetic macular edema (DME is the most frequent cause of vision impairment and represents a significant public health issue. Macular photocoagulation has been the standard treatment for this condition reducing the risk of moderate visual loss by approximately 50%. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in DR and DME pathogenesis has been demonstrated in recent studies. This review addresses and summarizes data from the clinical trials that investigated anti-VEGF for the management of DME and evaluates their impact on clinical practice. The literature searches were conducted between August and October 2013 in PubMed and Cochrane Library with no date restrictions and went through the most relevant studies on pegaptanib, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept for the management of DME. The efficacy and safety of intravitreal anti-VEGF as therapy for DME have recently been proved by various clinical trials providing significantly positive visual and anatomical results. Regarding clinical practice, those outcomes have placed intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF as an option that must be considered for the treatment of DME.

  14. Acute Pulmonary Edema in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Niafar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDyspnea refers to difficulty in breathing, and short and shallow breaths. This sign is seen in numerous diseases due to pulmonary, cardiac, metabolic and neurological causes. Among cardiac causes, heart failure is considered the main cause of dyspnea.Cardiac failure is a clinical syndrome associated with a set of symptoms (dyspnea, and fatigue and signs (edema and rales. Common causes of cardiac failure include: myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathy. Among uncommon causes of heart failure, endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome can be cited. Cushing’s syndrome can present itself in less common forms such as dyspnea due to heart failure. Cushing’s syndrome’s cardiovascular complications usually occur due to hypertension, end organ damage such as left ventricular heart failure, diastolic and ischemic myocardial heart failure, which are rather seen in chronic cases of the disease and are often irreversible.Transient heart failure in patients with Cushing’s syndrome, due to adrenal adenoma, has been reported in a number of patients. In this case report, a patient is introduced who presented to emergency department with severe dyspnea (FC III, and was ultimately diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome after work up. Three months after treatment of Cushing’s syndrome, dramatic improvement was observed in this patient’s cardiac function.

  15. Treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Roomasa Channa, Michael Smith, Peter A CampochiaroDepartments of Ophthalmology and Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a prevalent retinal vascular disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy. Previously there was no treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and patients were simply observed for the development of severe complications, generally resulting in poor visual outcomes. The only treatment for branch vein occlusion (BRVO was grid laser photocoagulation, which reduces edema very slowly and provides benefit in some, but not all patients. Within the past year, clinical trials have demonstrated the effects of three new pharmacologic treatments, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and dexamethasone implants. The benefit/risk ratio is best for intraocular injections of ranibizumab, making this first-line therapy for most patients with CRVO or BRVO, while intraocular steroids are likely to play adjunctive roles. Standard care for patients with RVO has changed and will continue to evolve as results with other new agents are revealed.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethosone implant, sustained release, vascular leakage, ischemia

  16. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  18. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  19. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  20. Relationship between AQP4 expression and structural damage to the blood-brain barrier at early stages of traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; LEI Xiao-yan; HU Hui; HE Zhan-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Although some studies have reported that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the brain edema after traumatic brain injury (TBI),little is known about the AQP4 expression in the early stage of TBI,or about the correlation between the structural damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and angioedema.The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship between AQP4 expression and damage to the BBB at early stages of TBI.Methods One hundred and twenty healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two greups:sham operation group (SO) and TBI group.The TBI group was divided into five sub-groups according to the different time intervals:1,3,6,12,and 24 hours.The brains of the animals were taken out at different time points after TBI to measure brain water content.The cerebral edema and BBB changes in structure were examined with an optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and the IgG content and AQP4 protein expression in traumatic brain tissue were determined by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.The data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0statistical software.Results In the SO greup,tissue was negative for IgG,and there were no abnormalities in brain water content or AQP4 expression.In the TBI group,brain water content significantly increased at 6 hours and peaked at 24 hours following injury.IgG expression significantly increased from 1 to 6 hours following injury,and remained at a high level at 24 hours.Pathological observation revealed BBB damage at 1 hour following injury.Angioedema appeared at 1 hour,was gradually aggravated,and became obvious at 6 hours.Intracellular edema occurred at 3 hours,with the presence of large glial cell bodies and mitochondrial swelling.These phenomena were aggravated with time and became obvious at 12 hours.In addition,microglial proliferation was visible at 24 hours.AQP4 protein expression were reduced at 1 hour,lowest at 6 hours,and began to increase at 12 hours

  1. Costs and Quality of Life in Diabetic Macular Edema: Canadian Burden of Diabetic Macular Edema Observational Study (C-REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Gonder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To characterize the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic macular edema (DME in Canadian patients. Patients and Methods. 145 patients with DME were followed for 6 months with monthly telephone interviews and medical chart reviews at months 0, 3, and 6. Visual acuity in the worst-seeing eye was assessed at months 0 and 6. DME-related healthcare costs were determined over 6 months, and vision-related (National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire and generic (EQ-5D quality of life was assessed at months 0, 3, and 6. Results. Mean age of patients was 63.7 years: 52% were male and 72% had bilateral DME. At baseline, visual acuity was categorized as normal/mild loss for 63.4% of patients, moderate loss for 10.4%, and severe loss/nearly blind for 26.2%. Mean 6-month DME-related costs/patient were as follows: all patients (n=135, $2,092; normal/mild loss (n=88, $1,776; moderate loss (n=13, $1,845; and severe loss/nearly blind (n=34, $3,007. Composite scores for vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity loss; generic quality of life scores were highest for moderate loss and lowest for severe loss/nearly blind. Conclusions. DME-related costs in the Canadian healthcare system are substantial. Costs increased and vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity severity.

  2. Directional character of spreading of vasogenic cerebral edema after radiation damage in rhesus monkeys, and effects of removal of the primary lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five pubescent rhesus monkeys were exposed to 35 Gy of orthovoltage x-irradiation in a single dose to the right visual cortex. Twenty to 36 weeks later the irradiated region broke down rather abruptly. Steep rise of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) indicated disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) and tissue breakdown. Visual evoked response (VER), funduscopic and clinical findings suggested disfunction of neural tissues and increased intracranial pressure. Extraordinary brain swelling and distortion were observed at the time of sacrifice. The most striking finding was that the ipsilateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, where radiation did not affect directly, were selectively swollen and edematous sparing the superior temporal gyrus. Corticocortical neuronal connections between visual cortex and inferior convexity of the temporal lobe has been demonstrated by Kuypers et al. Our previous studies also disclosed selective swelling of other remote visual association areas, i. e., ipsilateral lateral geniculate body and uncinate fasciculus. Thus, edema fluid might propagate from the site of the lesion through the anatomic pathways. In the group of monkeys, which received surgical removals of damaged right occipital lobes where BBB was disrupted, CSF protein and LDH drastically returned to the normal base line values after the surgery. Furthermore, no swelling of ipsilateral middle and inferior temporal gyri was observed in this group at the time of sacrifice, indicating that spreaded vasogenic edema could be subdued by removing the primary lesion. (author)

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... helps Sarah to better cope with her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists ... the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  9. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  14. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  15. Magnetic resonance analysis of the effects of acute ammonia intoxication on rat brain. Role of NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Cerdán, Sebastián; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-11-01

    Acute ammonia intoxication leads to rapid death, which is prevented by blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The subsequent mechanisms leading to death remain unclear. Brain edema seems an important step. The aim of this work was to study the effects of acute ammonia intoxication on different cerebral parameters in vivo using magnetic resonance and to assess which effects are mediated by NMDA receptors activation. To assess edema induction, we injected rats with ammonium acetate and measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 16 brain areas. We also analyzed the effects on T1, T2, and T2* maps and whether these effects are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. The effects of acute ammonia intoxication are different in different brain areas. T1 relaxation time is reduced in eight areas. T2 relaxation time is reduced only in ventral thalamus and globus pallidus. ADC values increased in hippocampus, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and cerebellar cortex, reflecting vasogenic edema. ADC decreased in hypothalamus, reflecting cytotoxic edema. Myo-inositol increased in cerebellum and substantia nigra, reflecting vasogenic edema. N-acetyl-aspartate decreased in cerebellum, reflecting neuronal damage. Changes in N-acetyl-aspartate, T1 and T2 are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 while changes in ADC or myo-inositol (induction of edema) are not. PMID:17727627

  16. Edema pulmonar hidrostático: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: high-resolution computed tomography aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Maria Cunha Ribeiro; Edson Marchiori; Rosana Rodrigues; Emerson Gasparetto; Arthur Soares de Souza Júnior; Dante Escuissato; Luiz Felipe Nobre; Gláucia Zanetti; César de Araujo Neto; Klaus Irion

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi caracterizar por meio de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax as principais alterações pulmonares do edema pulmonar hidrostático. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, as tomografias de quinze pacientes com quadro clínico de edema pulmonar hidrostático, divididos em cinco principais grupos etiológicos: insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, valvulopatia mitral aguda, infarto agudo do miocárdio, miocardite e mediastinite fibrosante, t...

  17. Edema pulmonar por presión negativa: a propósito de 3 casos Negative pressure pulmonary edema: 3 cases report

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Ortiz-Gómez; I. Plaja-Marti; F. Sos-Ortigosa; J.J. Pérez-Cajaraville; M. A. Arteche-Andrés; Bengoechea, C.; J. Lobo-Palanco; M. Ahmad-Al-Ghool

    2006-01-01

    El edema agudo pulmonar por presión negativa es una complicación descrita desde 1977 tras la obstrucción de la vía aérea respiratoria, tanto en niños como en adultos. Aunque su etiopatogenia es multifactorial, destaca especialmente la excesiva presión intratorácica negativa causada por la inspiración forzada espontánea de un paciente con la glotis cerrada, que resulta en trasudación de líquido de los capilares pulmonares hacia el espacio alveolointersticial. El edema pulmonar resultante puede...

  18. Clinical significance of peritoneal and retroperitoneal edema in patients with de-compensated cirrhosis as demonstrated by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of peritoneal and retroperitoneal edema in patients with de-compensated cirrhosis (DCC). Methods: Forty-four patients, were identified with DCC on the basis of clinic and laboratory examinations, except the cases with mesenteric, omental and retroperitoneal edema caused by inflammatory and malignant diseases. The diagnosis of edema depended upon hyper-density in peritoneal and retroperitoneal. The degree of edema was divided into minor, middle, and sever types based on the extent of edema. Ascites, varices, serum albumin (ALB) levels, and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels were also documented. Correlations between the laboratory and CT findings were analyzed. Results: The severity of peritoneal edema was correlated with decreasing serum ALB (rs = 0.7088, P s = 0.5294, P s = 0.5440, P s = 0.1335, P > 0.05). Conclusion: CT findings of the edema in peritoneal and retroperitoneal may indicate the severity of the liver cirrhosis

  19. Longitudinal stress fracture: patterns of edema and the importance of the nutrient foramen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Joseph G.; Widman, David; Holsbeeck, Marnix van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the MR appearances of six cases of longitudinal stress fracture of the lower extremity.Results. One fracture was in the femur and five were in the tibia. Four of the tibial fractures showed edema starting in the mid-tibia at the level of the nutrient foramen with the fracture on the anteromedial cortex. The other tibial fracture started at the nutrient foramen. Three fractures (two tibial and the femur fracture) showed eccentric marrow edema; all fractures showed either eccentric periosteal reaction or soft tissue edema.Conclusion. Primary diagnosis of longitudinal stress fracture is made by finding a vertical cleft on one or more axial images. Secondary signs of position of the nutrient foramen and patterns of edema may be useful. (orig.)

  20. Longitudinal stress fracture: patterns of edema and the importance of the nutrient foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the MR appearances of six cases of longitudinal stress fracture of the lower extremity.Results. One fracture was in the femur and five were in the tibia. Four of the tibial fractures showed edema starting in the mid-tibia at the level of the nutrient foramen with the fracture on the anteromedial cortex. The other tibial fracture started at the nutrient foramen. Three fractures (two tibial and the femur fracture) showed eccentric marrow edema; all fractures showed either eccentric periosteal reaction or soft tissue edema.Conclusion. Primary diagnosis of longitudinal stress fracture is made by finding a vertical cleft on one or more axial images. Secondary signs of position of the nutrient foramen and patterns of edema may be useful. (orig.)

  1. Gabapentin induces edema, hyperesthesia and scaling in a depressed patient; a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bidaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a common drug used as analgesic and anticonvulsant and also is prescribed for insomnia, depression, obsessive - compulsive disorder and panic attack. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who is prescribed gabapentin because of insomnia, headache, and depressed mood. In the first period of using the drug no complication has been seen. However in the next period, side-effects such as hyperesthesia, scaling and severe localized edema has been observed. After several laboratory tests and imaging, no reason was found for his edema. And after discontinuing gabapentin the pain and edema was quite relieved. We found out the brand of the drug has been switched in the second stage. The point which makes our study special is the incidence of side-effects such as severe edema, scaling and hyperesthesia for the first time because of using gabapentin and changing the drug combination.

  2. Gabapentin induces edema, hyperesthesia and scaling in a depressed patient; a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaki, Reza; Sadeghi, Zahra; Shafizadegan, Safiye; Sadeghi, Ali; Khalili, Behrang; Haghshenas, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy

    2016-01-01

    Gabapentin is a common drug used as analgesic and anticonvulsant and also is prescribed for insomnia, depression, obsessive - compulsive disorder and panic attack. We report a case of a 48-year-old man who is prescribed gabapentin because of insomnia, headache, and depressed mood. In the first period of using the drug no complication has been seen. However in the next period, side-effects such as hyperesthesia, scaling and severe localized edema has been observed. After several laboratory tests and imaging, no reason was found for his edema. And after discontinuing gabapentin the pain and edema was quite relieved. We found out the brand of the drug has been switched in the second stage. The point which makes our study special is the incidence of side-effects such as severe edema, scaling and hyperesthesia for the first time because of using gabapentin and changing the drug combination. PMID:26955622

  3. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, which progressed to a fatal outcome; and the other case developed mild cerebral edema with a satisfactory evolution. The pathophysiology of this complication is not well known and probably is the consequence of hypoxia, secondary to respiratory failure, laryngospasm and seizures that are manifestations of envenomation by scorpion sting.

  4. Cystoid macular edema diagnosed with optical coherent tomography in patients operated on from cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refers frequency of cystoid macular edema diagnosed with optical coherence tomography in patients operated on from senile cataract at 'Ramon Pando Ferrer' Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in the period from December 2006 to February 2007

  5. One-year progression of diabetic subclinical macular edema in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the 1-year progression of retinal thickness (RT) increase occurring in eyes with subclinical macular edema in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-eight type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR; levels 20 and 35 in the Early Treatment...... Diabetic Retinopathy Study) classified as presenting subclinical macular edema at baseline completed the 1-year follow-up period, from a sample of 194 followed in a 12-month observational and prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145599). Automated segmentation of the retinal layers in...... these eyes was performed, followed by verification and correction by a human grader. RESULTS: The highest increase in RT over the 1-year follow-up period for the 48 eyes/patients with subclinical macular edema was found in the inner nuclear layer (INL). Progression to clinical macular edema was also...

  6. Subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema:A clinical observation of 12 cases in Yushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuzhi; Zheng Bihai; Wu Tianyi; Chen Huixing; Zhang Ming

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a high incidence of acute high altitude illness was observed in the mountain rescuers,and 0.73 % of these patients suffered from high altitude pulmonary edema,of which 12 patients developed subclinical pulmonary edema and concomitantly contracted acute mountain sickness.Symptoms and signs were atypically high heart rate with high respiratory rate,striking cyanosis,and significantly low oxygen saturation,whereas no moist rates were heard on auscultation,and Chest X-ray showed peripheral with a patchy distribution of mottled infiltrations in one or both lung fields.We believe that subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema is an earliest stage of pulmonary edema at high altitude.The possible pathogenesis and the diagnosis were discussed.

  7. 神经源性肺水肿%Neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙若鹏; 赵翠芬

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a type of pulmonary edema that occurs secondary to central nervous sytem (CNS) damage, namely centrogenic pulmonary edema or cerebrogenic pulmonary edema[1,2] NPE is clinically characterized by acute dyspnea and progressive hypoxemia, while tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea are only nonspecific symptoms in early phase. Early diagnosis of NPE is difficult since chest X-ray shows no remarkable sign or only increased hazy lung markings in early stage[3]. Diagnosis can be made definitely in the late stage of NPE according to the following manifestation : paleness, clamminess, feeling of impending death, rales, frothy pink sputum, hypoxemia and bilateral widespread infiltration on chest roentgenography. However, successful rescue rate is very low and mortality rate could reach as high as 90% at this stage[4-6].

  8. A Case of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema after Rapid Pleural Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Shahbazi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pulmonary edema after chest tube insertion is a rare complication and is associated with high mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is not clear, although causes such as decrease in surfactant and inflammatory process have been defined. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the mortality. This study introduces a case of re-expansion pulmonary edema after rapid pleural evacuation. Case: The case is a 4.5 y/o boy, a case of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed respiratory distress after surgery (Total Correction in ICU of Namazi Hospital in 1385. Chest X ray showed pneumothorax of left lung. For the patient, chest tube was inserted and the symptoms improved. After few hours the patient developed tachypnea, tachycardia, and CXR showed pulmonary edema of left lung. Appropriate treatment was done for the patient and his condition improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema after sudden evacuation of pleura is a rare phenomenon and early diagnosis decreases the mortality.

  9. X-ray diagnosis of predisposition to pulmonary nephrotic edema in patients with glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop criteria for determining predisposition to pulmonary edema in patients with glomerulonephritis, clinical, laboratory and X-ray examinations were made in 697 patients with glomerulonephritis at different stages of its development. X-ray examination included chest tele X-ray and its densitometric analysis. Twenty two patients underwent computerized tomography with gistographic analysis. In 106 patients, X-ray findings were compared with the volume of circulating blood, cardiac and stroke indices. CHanges in the lungs and pleural cavities were found in 22,7%, pulmonary edema was revealed in 15,7% of the patients. The prognostically unfavourable criteria for the development of pulmonary edema were found to be Stage 2 pulmonary venous hypertension with hypervolemia and peripheral edemas

  10. Albumin and Furosemide Combination for Management of Edema in Nephrotic Syndrome: A Review of Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Duffy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of edema in patients with nephrotic syndrome is generally managed by dietary sodium restriction and loop diuretics. However, edema does not improve in some patients despite adequate sodium restriction and maximal dose of diuretics. In such patients, combination of albumin and a loop diuretic may improve edema by diuresis and natriuresis. The response to this combination of albumin and a diuretic has not been observed in all studies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the physiology of diuresis and natriuresis of this combination therapy, and provide a brief summary of various studies that have used albumin and a loop diuretic to improve diuretic-resistant edema. Also, the review suggests various reasons for not observing similar results by various investigators.

  11. Brain mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-01-01

    Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping") aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1) acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2) transformation of data into a common reference, (3) visualization and interpretation of results, and (4) databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prere...

  12. Is intra-articular pathology associated with MCL edema on MR imaging of the non-traumatic knee?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edema surrounding the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is seen on MR imaging in patients with MCL injuries and in patients with radiographic osteoarthritis in the non-traumatic knee. Because we noted MCL edema in patients without prior trauma or osteoarthritis, we studied the association between intra-articular pathology and MCL edema in patients without knee trauma. We evaluated the MR examinations of 247 consecutive patients (121 male, 126 female with a mean age of 44 years) without recent trauma for the presence of edema surrounding the MCL, meniscal and ACL tears, medial meniscal extrusion, medial compartment chondromalacia, and osteoarthritis. The percentages of patients illustrating MCL edema with and without each type of pathology were compared using Fisher's exact test to determine if there was a statistically significant association. We found MCL edema in 60% of 247 patients. MCL edema was present in 67% of patients with medial meniscal tears, 35% with lateral meniscal tears, 100% with meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or more, 78% with femoral chondromalacia, 82% with tibial chondromalacia, and 50% with osteoarthritis. The percentage of patients with edema increased with the severity of the chondromalacia. These associations were all statistically significant (p <0.02). The mean age of those with MCL edema was 49.7 years compared with 34.9 years without MCL edema (p <0.001). Patient gender and ACL tear did not correlate with MCL edema. Nine (4%) of the 247 patients had MCL edema without intra-articular pathology. None of these 9 patients had MCL tenderness or joint laxity on physical examination. We confirmed that MCL edema is associated with osteoarthritis, but is also associated with meniscal tears, meniscal extrusion, and chondromalacia. In addition, MCL edema can be seen in patients without intra-articular pathology, recent trauma or MCL abnormality on physical examination. (orig.)

  13. Is intra-articular pathology associated with MCL edema on MR imaging of the non-traumatic knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbaker, Donna G.; De Smet, Arthur A. [University of Wisconsin Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Madison (United States); Fine, Jason P. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Statistics, Madison (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Madison (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Edema surrounding the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is seen on MR imaging in patients with MCL injuries and in patients with radiographic osteoarthritis in the non-traumatic knee. Because we noted MCL edema in patients without prior trauma or osteoarthritis, we studied the association between intra-articular pathology and MCL edema in patients without knee trauma. We evaluated the MR examinations of 247 consecutive patients (121 male, 126 female with a mean age of 44 years) without recent trauma for the presence of edema surrounding the MCL, meniscal and ACL tears, medial meniscal extrusion, medial compartment chondromalacia, and osteoarthritis. The percentages of patients illustrating MCL edema with and without each type of pathology were compared using Fisher's exact test to determine if there was a statistically significant association. We found MCL edema in 60% of 247 patients. MCL edema was present in 67% of patients with medial meniscal tears, 35% with lateral meniscal tears, 100% with meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or more, 78% with femoral chondromalacia, 82% with tibial chondromalacia, and 50% with osteoarthritis. The percentage of patients with edema increased with the severity of the chondromalacia. These associations were all statistically significant (p <0.02). The mean age of those with MCL edema was 49.7 years compared with 34.9 years without MCL edema (p <0.001). Patient gender and ACL tear did not correlate with MCL edema. Nine (4%) of the 247 patients had MCL edema without intra-articular pathology. None of these 9 patients had MCL tenderness or joint laxity on physical examination. We confirmed that MCL edema is associated with osteoarthritis, but is also associated with meniscal tears, meniscal extrusion, and chondromalacia. In addition, MCL edema can be seen in patients without intra-articular pathology, recent trauma or MCL abnormality on physical examination. (orig.)

  14. Severe Macular Edema in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Related Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paroli

    2013-01-01

    unilateral macular edema. OCT revealed massive macular thickening (range from 550 μm to 1214 μm. Conclusions. Macular edema appeared in female adolescent patients in eyes with long-dating CAU submitted to cataract surgery. In such patients, in presence of age-related microvascular changes due to the enhancer effect of sex hormones, cataract extraction should be a factor triggering the retinal complication.

  15. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography documented rapid resolution of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema with topical difluprednate

    OpenAIRE

    Chalam KV; Khetpal V; CJ Patel

    2012-01-01

    KV Chalam, Vijay Khetpal, Chirag J PatelDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida Jacksonville, FL, USAIntroduction: Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema is a common cause of poor vision after cataract surgery, and topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for its treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of difluprednate (Durezol®, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) in the treatment of cystoid macular edema, assisted wi...

  16. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema in an Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Atul; Sinha Subijay

    2007-01-01

    Background: To report the anatomic and visual acuity response after intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema. Design: Prospective, interventional case series study. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 eyes of metabolically stable diabetes mellitus with diffuse diabetic macular edema with a mean age of 59 years who were treated with two intravitreal injections of bevacizumab 1.25 mg in 0.05 ml six weeks apart. Main outcome measures were ...

  17. Ipsilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema after drainage of a spontaneous pneumothorax: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Conen Anna; Joos Ladina; Bingisser Roland

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of ipsilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema occurring after the insertion of a chest tube in a patient with spontaneous pneumothorax. The patient received supplemental oxygen via a non-rebreather face mask to compensate for hypoxemia. 24 hours after the acute event, the patient recovered completely without residual hypoxemia. Reexpansion pulmonary edema after the insertion of a thoracic drainage for pneumothorax or pleural effusion is a rare complication with a high m...

  18. Flash pulmonary edema in patients with renal artery stenosis--the Pickering Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelta, Anna; Andersen, Ulrik B; Just, Sven;

    2010-01-01

    We report the prevalence of flash pulmonary edema in patients consecutively referred for balloon angioplasty of uni- or bilateral renal artery stenosis (PTRA), and describe the characteristics of this special fraction of the patients. We further report two unusual cases.......We report the prevalence of flash pulmonary edema in patients consecutively referred for balloon angioplasty of uni- or bilateral renal artery stenosis (PTRA), and describe the characteristics of this special fraction of the patients. We further report two unusual cases....

  19. Longstanding refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema resolved using intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Troels; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Halborg, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    Refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following cataract surgery has long posed a challenge to clinicians, but intravitreal injections with a sustained delivery 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant has emerged as a promising therapy for this condition.......Refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following cataract surgery has long posed a challenge to clinicians, but intravitreal injections with a sustained delivery 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant has emerged as a promising therapy for this condition....

  20. Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema after Amlodipine Overdose without Refractory Hypotension and Bradycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hedaiaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine overdose can be life-threatening when manifesting as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment remains challenging. We describe a case of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema without refractory hypotension and bradycardia after ingestion of 500 milligram amlodipine with suicidal intent. Mechanical ventilation, dexamethasone, atrovent HFA (ipratropium, pulmicort inhalation, and antibiotic therapy were used for the management. Length of hospital stay was 11 days. The patient was discharged with full recovery.

  1. Negative pressure pulmonary edema with laryngeal mask airway use: Recognition, pathophysiology and treatment modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vandse, Rashmi; Kothari, Deven S; Tripathi, Ravi S; Lopez, Luis; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.A.; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) following the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an uncommon and under-reported event. We present a case of a 58-year-old male, who developed NPPE following LMA use. After biting vigorously on his LMA, the patient developed stridor upon emergence, with concurrent appearance of blood-tinged, frothy sputum and pulmonary edema. He subsequently required three days of mechanical ventilation. After discontinuation of mechanical ventilation the patient...

  2. Efficacy of various schemes of therapy of patients with radiation limb edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of various therapeutic schemes: medicinal (basic therapy - BT), acupuncture (AP) and laser therapy (LT) against a background of basic therapy - was assessed and compared in 36 patients with radiation limb edema. It was established that a degree of a decrease in edemas, the improvement of indices of rheovasography grew in the following order: BT → AP → LT. The recovery of the lymph flow and immunological indices were the same in all therapeutic schemes

  3. The morphometric peculiarities of the eyes with tractional macular edema after age-related cataract phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Rudenko; E. L. Sorokin; Egorov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose. To study the morphometric peculiarities of eyes with tractional macular edema after phacoemulsification of age-related cataract. Material and methods. There were examined 72 patients (72 eyes) with macular edema (ME) developed after phacoemulsification of age-related cataract. The control group included 72 eyes of 72 patients without ME after phacoemulsification for age-related cataract in the follow-up of 1.5-2 years. The measurement of the axial length and h...

  4. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Ki

    2014-01-01

    Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All...

  5. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Oellers P; Grewal DS; Fekrat S

    2016-01-01

    Patrick Oellers,1,2 Dilraj S Grewal,1,2 Sharon Fekrat1,2 1Duke Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, 2Surgical Service, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular ede...

  6. Treatment of branch retinal vein occlusion induced macular edema with bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Barthelmes Daniel; Wolf-Schnurrbusch Ute; Tappeiner Christoph; Abegg Mathias; Wolf Sebastian; Fleischhauer Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Branch retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss with currently insufficient treatment options. We evaluate the effect of Bevacizumab (Avastin®) treatment in patients with macular edema induced by branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods Retrospective analysis of 32 eyes in 32 patients with fluorescein angiography proven branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema and Bevacizumab treatment. Outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity in logMAR and cen...

  7. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon S.; Lee WK

    2014-01-01

    Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All pat...

  8. Pharmacological intravitreal treatment for macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion: Three-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Karadžić Jelena; Kovačević Igor; Ljikar Jelena; Grgić Zorka; Devečerski Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Macular edema is the main cause of visual loss in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Macular edema is initially reversible, but over time, permanent loss of vision occurs from structural damage to the macula. For this reason, there is a need for more rapid and effective treatments than laser photocoagulation which has been established as a gold standard. There are several pharmacologic agents which have changed the management of macu...

  9. The Effects of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Infectious and Noninfectious Uveitic Macular Edema

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. To assess the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVBI) for the treatment of macular edema due to infectious and noninfectious uveitides. Design. Retrospective interventional case series. Methods. A chart review was performed on all the patients who were diagnosed with uveitic macular edema (UME) and received 1.25 mg of IVBI at two referral centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All included patients had their visual acuity and macular thickness analyzed at baseline and a...

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of combined intravitreal bevacizumab and grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin Akpolat; Ferhat Evliyaoğlu; Muhammed Mustafa Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of combined treatment of intravitreal bevacizumab injection followed by grid laser photocoagulation in patients with diabetic macular edemaMethods: Patients with diabetic macular edema received single dose intravitreal bevacizumab injection and followed by grid laser photocoagulation treatment four weeks later in the retrospectively conducted study. All eyes had underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including optical coherence tomography at baseline a...

  11. Outer retinal tubulation in diabetic macular edema following anti-VEGF treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Halafi, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To address the presence and features of outer retinal tubulation (ORT) found in diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) and to differentiate between ORT and cystoid DME, which have different plans of management. Methods This was a retrospective review of a total of 514 patients investigated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with anti-VEGF. ORT was seen in 12 e...

  12. MACULAR LASER GRID ALONE VERSUS COMBINED WITH INTRAVITREAL TRIAMCINOLONE PLUS BEVACIZUMAB FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Demir; Efe Can; Dilek Guven; Sonmez Cinar; Atilla Demir

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of working age in advanced societies, most of the vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema (DME). Macular laser photocoagulation or intravitreal tiamcinolone or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection are modalities of therapy for diabetic macular edema. This study aim was to present the clinical outcomes of 60 eyes of 41 patients with diffuse DME who treated with macular laser grid (MLG) alone or comb...

  13. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rony Carlos Preti; Lisa Mariel Vasquez Ramirez; Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel; Augusto Alves Lopes Motta; Cleide Guimarães Machado; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro; Walter Yukihiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contr...

  14. Src blockade stabilizes a Flk/cadherin complex, reducing edema and tissue injury following myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, Sara; Shintani, Satoshi; Weber, Alberto; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Wood, Malcolm; Cravens, Adrianna; McSharry, Heather; Iwakura, Atsushi; Yoon, Young-Sup; Himes, Nathan; Burstein, Deborah; Doukas, John; Soll, Richard; Losordo, Douglas; Cheresh, David

    2004-01-01

    Ischemia resulting from myocardial infarction (MI) promotes VEGF expression, leading to vascular permeability (VP) and edema, a process that we show here contributes to tissue injury throughout the ventricle. This permeability/edema can be assessed noninvasively by MRI and can be observed at the ultrastructural level as gaps between adjacent endothelial cells. Many of these gaps contain activated platelets adhering to exposed basement membrane, reducing vessel patency. Following MI, genetic o...

  15. Diabetic macular edema: it is more than just VEGF [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Singer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema is a serious visual complication of diabetic retinopathy. This article reviews the history of previous and current therapies, including laser therapy, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, and corticosteroids, that have been used to treat this condition. In addition, it proposes new ways to use them in combination in order to decrease treatment burden and potentially address other causes besides vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema.

  16. Histologic assessment of peritumoral edema in soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether satellite tumor cells can be identified histologically in the tissues surrounding a soft tissue sarcoma and whether their presence correlates with increased T2-weighted signal intensity on MRI. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with a high-grade extremity or truncal soft tissue sarcoma underwent preoperative MRI. The extent of high T2-weighted signal changes in the tissues surrounding tumor, thought to represent peritumoral edema/reactive changes, was determined. Twelve patients received i.v. gadolinium, and contrast enhancement was determined. All patients underwent surgical resection in the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The presence of tumor cells in the surrounding tissues was determined histologically in representative paraffin-embedded sections and correlated with the MRI findings. Results: The extent of peritumoral T2-weighted MRI signal changes ranged from 0 to 7.1 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); contrast enhancement ranged from 0 to 5.3 cm (mean, 1.1 cm). Sarcoma cells were identified histologically in the tissues beyond the tumor in 10 of 15 cases. In 6 cases, tumor cells were located within 1 cm of the tumor margin, and in 4 cases, malignant cells were found at a distance >1 cm and up to a maximum of 4 cm. The location of tumor cells beyond the margin did not correlate with tumor size nor did it correlate with the location or extent of peritumoral changes. Conclusion: The ability to identify tumor cells beyond the margin of a soft tissue sarcoma has important implications in planning appropriate targets for treatment. This could influence the use of new radiotherapy technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy that aim to minimize treatment volumes through conformal planning

  17. Edema na hanseníase: aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos Edema in leprosy: clinical and therapeutical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Valentini

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante o curso da hanseníase, o edema comumente descrito como um sintoma de estados reacionais, pode ocorrer. Tanto o diagnóstico como a terapêutica adequada são, freqüentemente, difíceis de conseguir e assim podem acarretar permanente dano aos membros inferiores. Em um ano de acompanhamento, pacientes hansenianos - 10 multibacilares e 1 paucibacilar -, que foram submetidos a um protocolo clínico para o diagnóstico e classificação histopatológica, apresentaram clinicamente edema, localizado ou sistêmico. Entre estes pacientes, cinco apresentaram simultaneamente outros sintomas de reação, 4 foram classificados como reação Tipo I e um como reação tipo II. Por outro lado, três pacientes não apresentaram reação no momento do diagnóstico, mas desenvolveram alguns aspectos de reação posteriormente (2 tiveram neurite e um teve reação tipo I. Os edemas observados precedendo ou associados a quadros reacionais apresentaram ótima resposta clínica às drogas de ação anti-inflamatória (corticóide, talidomida e pentoxifilina utilizadas para o tratamento dos estados reacionais, na ausência de qualquer outro tratamento normalmente usado para edema. Embora necessitem ser confirmados por estudos controlados, estes dados sugerem fortemente que mecanismos imunológicos estejam envolvidos na fisiopatologia dos edemas na hanseníase.Edema, which is commonly described as a symptom of reactional states, may occur during the course of leprosy. Both diagnosis and adequate treatment measures are often difficult to achieve and failure to do so may result in permanent damage to the lower limbs. In a one-year follow-up study of leprosy patients - ten multibacillary and one paucibacillary - who had been submitted to a clinical protocol for diagnosis and pathological classification, a clinical pattern of localized and/or systemic edema was observed. Among these patients, five simultaneously presented other symptoms related to reactional

  18. Lesões organofuncionais do tipo nódulos, pólipos e edema de Reinke Organic and functional lesions: nodules, polyps and Reinke's edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Cielo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: lesões organofuncionais são formações benignas decorrentes de comportamento vocal alterado e inadequado, sendo as mais comuns: nódulos, pólipos vocais e edema de Reinke. OBJETIVO: realizar um estudo comparativo dos dados descritos na literatura sobre prega vocal normal e afecções organofuncionais do tipo nódulos, pólipos e edema de Reinke. O estudo foi realizado por meio de um levantamento bibliográfico em periódicos indexados no Science Direct, periódicos Capes, LILACS, SciELO, MedLine e Scopus e livros, no período de 1999 a 2010. CONCLUSÃO: a distribuição dos constituintes da matriz extracelular da lâmina própria lw32da mucosa, fibras elásticas, colágenas, ácido hialurônico e fibronectina, encontra-se alterada nas três afecções. Ocorre modificação das características vibratórias de amplitude, propagação da onda de mucosa e simetria do padrão vibratório devido à presença do aumento de massa nas pregas vocais, ao contrário do que se observa nas pregas vocais sem afecção. O sinal perceptivo-auditivo da qualidade vocal encontrado nas três lesões é a rouquidão, seguida da soprosidade e da aspereza (exceção do edema de Reinke, sinalizando a presença de ruído acústico à emissão, estando presente também, no edema de Reinke, o agravamento considerável da frequência fundamental. Quanto à etiologia observou-se a predominância dos usos incorretos, e quanto à incidência, nódulos e edema de Reinke predominam no sexo feminino e pólipos no sexo masculino.BACKGROUND: vocal nodules, vocal polyps and Reinke's edema are the most common benign organic lesions resulting from vocal misuse or abuse. PURPOSE: to conduct a comparative study about the normal vocal folds and the benign organic lesions, nodules, polyps and Reinke's edema. The study was performed using a literature review in indexed journals at Science Direct, Capes, LILACS, SciELO, MedLine and Scopus and books from 1999 to 2010. CONCLUSION

  19. Strong topical steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor cocktail for treatment of cystoid macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asahi MG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Masumi G Asahi, Gabriela L Bobarnac Dogaru, Spencer M Onishi, Ron P GallemoreRetina Macula Institute, Torrance, CA, USA Purpose: To report the combination cocktail of strong steroid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops for treatment of cystoid macular edema. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients with cystoid macular edema managed with a topical combination of strong steroid (difluprednate, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops. The patients were followed with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Results: In our six cases, resolution of the cystic edema with improvement in visual acuity was achieved with the use of a combination cocktail of drops. Leakage on fluorescein angiography and cystic edema on optical coherence tomography both responded to treatment with the topical cocktail of drops. Conclusion: A topical cocktail of strong steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops are effective for managing cystoid macular edema. Further studies comparing this combination with more invasive treatments should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of this cocktail over other treatment options. Keywords: birdshot chorioretinopathy, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion

  20. Clinical correlates of the spectrum of lung microvascular injury in human noncardiac edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers measured the clearance from blood to pulmonary edema fluid of a small molecular researchersight hydrophilic radiotracer, Indium-111-DTPA (In-DTPA) and a larger molecular researchrsight radiotracer, Iodine-125-HSA (I-HSA), in patients with pulmonary edema on either a cardiac or noncardiac (permeability) basis. In previous investigations, researchers had noted an apparent relationship between the magnitude of clearance of I-HSA across the alveolocapillary membrane and the severity of noncardiac pulmonary edema. In this study, researchers were able to distinguish at least 2 distinct groups of patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema. Patients with the greatest damage to the alveolo-capillary exchanging membrane, defined by the flux of I-HSA from blood to edema fluid, were significantly differentiated from those with a lesser microvascular injury on the basis of higher mean heart rate (HR), temperature, cardiac index (CI), pulmonary artery pressures, right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), and a lower mean total white blood cell count (WBC), among others. Therefore, noncardiac pulmonary edema is characterized by a spectrum of permeability injury to the pulmonary microvasculature which seems to parallel other measurable indices of the severity of the systemic response to the illness

  1. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography documented rapid resolution of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema with topical difluprednate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalam KV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available KV Chalam, Vijay Khetpal, Chirag J PatelDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida Jacksonville, FL, USAIntroduction: Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema is a common cause of poor vision after cataract surgery, and topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for its treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of difluprednate (Durezol®, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the treatment of cystoid macular edema, assisted with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.Case report: A 63-year-old African-American woman presented 6 weeks after uneventful cataract surgery in her left eye with decreased vision and associated distortion of the central visual field. Fluorescein angiogram and SD-OCT confirmed pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Difluprednate was topically administered twice daily and monitored with serial imaging. Resolution was noted after 1 month of topical therapy, with improvement in visual acuity and resolution of distortion.Conclusion: Difluprednate is an effective treatment for patients with severe pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. SD-OCT allows the physician to monitor resolution of the macular edema easily.Keywords: cystoid macular edema, difluprednate, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, pseudophakic

  2. Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot: one year follow-up with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR findings of bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) of the foot and its evolution at 1 year follow-up.Design and patients Twenty-five of 32 patients with disabling foot and ankle pain unrelated to trauma diagnosed as BMES when MR imaging demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern in one or more bones without any radiological or underlying clinical cause, were re-evaluated by MR imaging 1 year later. On the initial MR examinations an average of 4.7 individual bones were involved by bone marrow edema. Soft tissue edema was present in every patient and joint effusion in 10 patients. MR imaging at 1 year showed resolution of bone edema in 18 patients (72%), partial improvement in five (20%) and no improvement in two (8%). Six patients (24%) developed similar symptoms in the other foot during follow-up. Ten of 17 available plain radiographs showed some loss of radiodensity. Further bone marrow edema developed in bones of the same foot that were initially normal, or in uninvolved distant bone marrow areas in the same affected bone, in six of seven patients on follow-up MR imaging. The evolution of the MR findings of BMES of the foot is to complete resolution or partial improvement at 1 year in the majority of cases. Migration to the other foot occurs in up to a quarter of patients. (orig.)

  3. Ranibizumab in the treatment of patients with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandello F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Bandello1, Umberto De Benedetto1, Karl Anders Knutsson1, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi1, Maria Lucia Cascavilla1, Pierluigi Iacono21Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-salute, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 2Fondazione G B Bietti per l’Oftalmologia, IRCCS, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Diabetic macular edema is the major cause of visual acuity impairment in diabetic patients. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown and, currently, grid/focal retinal laser photocoagulation represents the recommended treatment. It has been demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema by mediating vascular permeability and accumulation of intracellular and extracellular fluid, and thereby represents an appealing candidate as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The advent of intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs has opened up a new era for the management of diabetic macular edema. At present, three anti-VEGF substances are available for routine clinical use, ie, pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting the use of ranibizumab in clinical practice. Most of the studies analyzed in this review are prospective, controlled clinical trials that have focused on documenting the therapeutic effect of ranibizumab and its safety, providing encouraging results.Keywords: ranibizumab, diabetic macular edema, anti-VEGF, diabetic macular edema

  4. Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot: one year follow-up with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Canton, Guillermo; Casado, Oscar; Capelastegui, Ana; Astigarraga, Elena; Larena, Jose Alejandro; Merino, Amaya [OSATEK, Unidades de Resonancia Magnetica, Dr. Areilza 12-16, 48011, Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    To describe the MR findings of bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) of the foot and its evolution at 1 year follow-up.Design and patients Twenty-five of 32 patients with disabling foot and ankle pain unrelated to trauma diagnosed as BMES when MR imaging demonstrated a bone marrow edema pattern in one or more bones without any radiological or underlying clinical cause, were re-evaluated by MR imaging 1 year later. On the initial MR examinations an average of 4.7 individual bones were involved by bone marrow edema. Soft tissue edema was present in every patient and joint effusion in 10 patients. MR imaging at 1 year showed resolution of bone edema in 18 patients (72%), partial improvement in five (20%) and no improvement in two (8%). Six patients (24%) developed similar symptoms in the other foot during follow-up. Ten of 17 available plain radiographs showed some loss of radiodensity. Further bone marrow edema developed in bones of the same foot that were initially normal, or in uninvolved distant bone marrow areas in the same affected bone, in six of seven patients on follow-up MR imaging. The evolution of the MR findings of BMES of the foot is to complete resolution or partial improvement at 1 year in the majority of cases. Migration to the other foot occurs in up to a quarter of patients. (orig.)

  5. Mechanism of brain damaging by rapid evacuation decompression of epidural hematoma explored with dynamic brain SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of dynamic brain SPECT imaging in clarifying the major mechanism of obstinate brain edema following evacuation of epidural hematoma. Methods: The dynamic brain SPECT imaging was performed on New Zealand rabbit model of epidural hematoma. The changes of their intracellular [Ca2+], and brain tissue water content were measured, and the correlation between them was analyzed. Results: It is showed that the severe hypoperfusion occurred on compressing parietal lobe for 30 min and hyper-reperfusion occurred 10 min after decompression on dynamic brain SPECT imaging and on its time-radioactivity curve. [Ca2+] increased remarkably after being pressed. There was a short-term decreasing following decompression and then increased gradually reaching the peak at 24 h. The correlation between [Ca2+] and brain tissue water content was with magnificent value (r=0.469, P<0.01). Conclusions: These findings indicate there exists severe reperfusion injury, which is the major mechanism of obstinate brain edema after evacuation of epidural hematoma. The dynamic brain SPECT imaging can show the image evidence of reperfusion clearly and non-invasively. (authors)

  6. Dull Brains, Mountaineers, and Mosso: Hypoxic Words from on High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Harvey V

    2015-12-01

    Dull and hypoxic brains have been a frequent subject in the medical and mountaineering literature. Deterioration of cognitive and other neurological function occurs at high altitude, with or without high altitude cerebral edema. This historical essay explores a 2014 first-ever English translation of cerebral blood flow studies by nineteenth century physiologist Angelo Mosso. Some of the medical history and physiology of brain function is discussed, but much of the style focuses on quotations from the writings of mountaineers and mountaineering physicians to provide color commentary about dull brains at high altitude. PMID:26356476

  7. Fluid-percussion brain injury induces changes in aquaporin channel expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A A; Kang, Y; Truettner, J S; Sanchez-Molano, J; Furones, C; Yool, A J; Atkins, C M

    2011-04-28

    Edema, the accumulation of excess fluid, is a major pathological change in the brain that contributes significantly to pathology and mortality after moderate to severe brain injury. Edema is regulated by aquaporin (AQP) channels which transport water across cellular membranes. Six AQPs are found in the brain (1, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9), and previous studies have found that AQP4 is regulated after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To further understand how AQPs contribute to brain edema, we investigated whether expression of AQP1, 3, and 9 are also regulated after TBI. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (FPI) or sham surgery. After induction of FPI, the injured, ipsilateral parietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected and analyzed by Western blotting. We observed a small decrease in AQP3 and 4 levels at 7 days after FPI in the ipsilateral, parietal cortex. Both AQP1 and 9 significantly increased within 30 min post-injury and remained elevated for up to 6 h in the ipsilateral, parietal cortex. Aqp1 and 9 mRNA levels were also significantly increased at 30 min post-FPI. Administration of an AQP1 and 4 antagonist, AqB013, non-significantly increased brain water content in sham, non-injured animals, and did not prevent edema formation 24 h after trauma in either the parietal cortex or hippocampus. These results indicate that Aqp1 and 9 mRNA and protein levels increase after moderate parasagittal FPI and that an inhibitor of AQP1 and 4 does not decrease edema after moderate parasagittal FPI. PMID:21329742

  8. Atorvastatin ameliorates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage via inhibition of AQP4 expression in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Hui; Yang, Li-Kun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Yu-Hai; Wu, Yun; Jiang, Bing-Jie; Zhu, Jie; Li, Pei-Pei

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic effects of atorvastatin on early brain injury (EBI), cerebral edema and its association with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were studied in rabbits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using western blot analysis and the dry-wet method. Seventy-two healthy male New Zealand rabbits weighing between 2.5 and 3.2 kg were randomly divided into three groups: the SAH group (n=24), sham-operated group (n=24) and the SAH + atorvastatin group (n=24). A double SAH model was employed. The sham-operated group were injected with the same dose of saline solution, the SAH + atorvastatin group received atorvastatin 20 mg/kg/day after SAH. All rabbit brain samples were taken at 72 h after the SAH model was established successfully. Brain edema was detected using the dry-wet method after experimental SAH was induced; AQP4 and caspase-3 expression was measured by western blot analysis, and neuronal apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining at 72 h after SAH. The results indicated that brain edema and injury appeared soon after SAH, while brain edema and EBI were ameliorated and increased behavior scores were noted after prophylactic use of atorvastatin. Compared with the SAH group, the level of AQP4 and the cerebral content of water was significantly decreased (Patorvastatin, and TUNEL staining and studying the expression of caspase-3 showed that the apoptosis of neurons was reduced markedly both in the hippocampus and brain cortex by atorvastatin. The results suggest that atorvastatin ameliorated brain edema and EBI after SAH, which was related to its inhibition of AQP4 expression. Our findings provide evidence that atorvastatin is an effective and well-tolerated approach for treating SAH in various clinical settings. PMID:26935263

  9. Persistent bone marrow edema after osteochondral autograft transplantation in the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan Franz [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Lazarettgasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at; Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Lazarettgasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Background and objective: The assessment of bone marrow edema-like signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients after osteochondral autograft transplantation (OCT) in the knee joint is a parameter of yet indefinite value. This study determines the prevalence of persistent edema-like signal intensity in OCT patients and evaluates the correlation between edema and morphological imaging findings of the graft and clinical pain symptoms. Materials and methods: In this longitudinal observational study, 10 patients after OCT were followed by MRI prospectively 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months post-operatively. All MR examinations were performed on a 1.0 T MR unit with the same protocol using a modified scoring system (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue-MOCART) for evaluation. Edema-like signal intensity in and beneath the osteochondral graft was assessed in its prevalence and graded using a coronal short tau inversion recovery fast spin echo (STIR-FSE) sequence: grade 1, normal; grade 2, moderate (diameter <2 cm); grade 3, severe (diameter >2 cm). The finding of edema-like signal intensity was correlated with graded parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue assessed in a sagittal dual FSE sequence including: (a) surface of repair tissue: grade 1, intact; grade 2, damaged. (b) Cartilage interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, incomplete. (c) Bone interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, delamination. The finding of edema-like signal intensity was also correlated with the KOOS pain score assessing knee pain after 12 months. Results: Initially, after 1 month the prevalence of edema-like signal intensity was 70% (7/10 patients) and finally after 24 months 60% (6/10 patients). We found no significant relationship between the prevalence and degree of edema-like signal intensity and parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue. Also the clinical pain score did not show significant

  10. Persistent bone marrow edema after osteochondral autograft transplantation in the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: The assessment of bone marrow edema-like signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients after osteochondral autograft transplantation (OCT) in the knee joint is a parameter of yet indefinite value. This study determines the prevalence of persistent edema-like signal intensity in OCT patients and evaluates the correlation between edema and morphological imaging findings of the graft and clinical pain symptoms. Materials and methods: In this longitudinal observational study, 10 patients after OCT were followed by MRI prospectively 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months post-operatively. All MR examinations were performed on a 1.0 T MR unit with the same protocol using a modified scoring system (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue-MOCART) for evaluation. Edema-like signal intensity in and beneath the osteochondral graft was assessed in its prevalence and graded using a coronal short tau inversion recovery fast spin echo (STIR-FSE) sequence: grade 1, normal; grade 2, moderate (diameter 2 cm). The finding of edema-like signal intensity was correlated with graded parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue assessed in a sagittal dual FSE sequence including: (a) surface of repair tissue: grade 1, intact; grade 2, damaged. (b) Cartilage interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, incomplete. (c) Bone interface: grade 1, complete; grade 2, delamination. The finding of edema-like signal intensity was also correlated with the KOOS pain score assessing knee pain after 12 months. Results: Initially, after 1 month the prevalence of edema-like signal intensity was 70% (7/10 patients) and finally after 24 months 60% (6/10 patients). We found no significant relationship between the prevalence and degree of edema-like signal intensity and parameters describing the morphology of the repair tissue. Also the clinical pain score did not show significant correlation with edema. Conclusion

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  15. FCM Clustering Algorithms for Segmentation of Brain MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita K. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of brain disorders requires accurate tissue segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR brain images which is very important for detecting tumors, edema, and necrotic tissues. Segmentation of brain images, especially into three main tissue types: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Gray Matter (GM, and White Matter (WM, has important role in computer aided neurosurgery and diagnosis. Brain images mostly contain noise, intensity inhomogeneity, and weak boundaries. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is still a challenging area of research. This paper presents a review of fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithms for the segmentation of brain MR images. The review covers the detailed analysis of FCM based algorithms with intensity inhomogeneity correction and noise robustness. Different methods for the modification of standard fuzzy objective function with updating of membership and cluster centroid are also discussed.

  16. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days

  17. CT evaluation of choriocarcinoma with brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Choon Yul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Bahk, Young Whee; Kim, Seung Jo [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    It is well established that the computed tomography(CT) is an essential part not only in screening primary brain tumors, but also in staging known malignancy. This paper reports various CT findings demonstrated in 12 cases of choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. The CT findings such as the number, location and density of the metastatic lesions, the degree of brain edema, mass effect and effect of contrast enhancement are reviewed as well as the episode of stroke syndrome and survival duration after neurologic symptom attacks. The results were as follows: 1. The of these cases showed solitary metastatic lesion and remaining 2 cases were multiple lesions. 2. One was isodense density and the others were hemorrhagic increased density by CT. 3. All of these showed mass effect to the surrounding structures along with moderate to marked brain edema. 4. The position of the metastatic lesion were located at the supratentorially in all cases. Most of them were at the unilateral frontal or parietal area or both of them. One which noted multiple metastatic foci showed at the bilateral occipital regions. 5. Nine cases showed ring enhancement after contrast infusion. One which noted isodense density on the noninfusion scan showed also ring enhancement after contrast infusion. 6. Nine cases showed positive stroke syndrome. One of them was performed emergency craniotomy. The remaining 3 cases noted progressive neurologic symptoms. 7. Two cases were noted only brain metastasis but the others also had various degree of pulmonary metastasis and 2 of latter had hepatic metastasis, too. 8. Most of the cases were treated with CHAMOCA regimen, and one of them was taken whole brain irradiation (3000 rads/2 weeks). Another on case revealed marked regression of not only metastatic brain lesion but the pulmonary lesion after the 8th course of CHAMOCA regimen and still alive for over 460 days.

  18. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  19. The Frequency of Serous Macular Detachment in Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Yaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology and frequency of serous macular detachment (SMD in patients diagnosed with diabetic macular edema (DME. Materials and Methods: Hundred and forty-three eyes of 104 patients with DME were examined retrospectively. According to the results of OCT, the patients were separated into two groups; patients diagnosed with SMD and DME (group 1 and patients diagnosed with DME (group 2. They were assessed based on demographic characteristics, average age, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT history, best-corrected visual acuity, and diabetic retinopathy stages. Results: The average age of the patients was 61±8.7 years. Forty-three patients (41.3% were female and 61 patients (58.7% were male. Fifty-four of 104 patients (51.9% had DME with SMD. 21 (38.8% patients had bilateral SMD. In group 1, 31 patients were male (57.4% and 23 patients were female (42.6%. In group 2, 30 (60% patients were male and 20 (40% patients were female. In group 1, average age was 60.2±9.6 and the average duration of DM was 12.2±7.0 years, whereas the average age was 61.9±7.6 and the average duration of DM was 14.06±6.8 years in group 2. Forty-two patients in group 1 (77.8% and 30 patients (60% in group 2 had history of HT. Before the treatment, the average best-corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.30±0.24 in group 1 and 0.32±0.25 in group 2. Conclusion: Today, it is thought that diabetic maculopathy is the leading cause of SMD and it is a determining factor of treatment applications. In our study, we aimed at investigating the frequency of SMD in DME and the risk factors for the development of SMD. Although there were some differences between the factors, only the history of HT was found statistically higher in patients with SMD (p=0.04. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 92-96

  20. Brain mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.