WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain current status

  1. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchino, Sabrina; Abdouh, Mohamed [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Bernier, Gilbert, E-mail: gbernier.hmr@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2011-03-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  2. [Brain-machine interface--current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiba, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    Recent advances in brain activity analysis and computational algorithms have enabled people with severe motor disorders to control external devices via brain activity. Brain-machine interface (BMI)/brain-computer interface has gained importance as the ultimate strategy for functional compensation because it improves impaired neuromuscular systems. Invasive BMI performed using needle arrays can best control robotic arms or computer cursors because it records neural activity in the primary motor cortex in detail. The extensive and validated physiological background of recorded signals enables researchers to develop highly accurate BMI systems with needle electrodes. Less invasive neural recording with an electrocorticogram (ECoG)-electrode array provides good temporal and spatial information for use in prosthetic control. ECoG electrodes have wide clinical applications in pain control and epilepsy; therefore, techniques for electrode implantation are well established compared to those for needle arrays. These electrodes may find wide clinical applications if their accuracy level reaches that suitable for practical use. Noninvasive BMI involving neural recording by electroencephalography (EEG) is the most widely used technique because of a convenient experimental setup, although it provides a limited range of decodable motor outputs. In EEG, arc-shaped mu rhythms of 8-12 Hz appear around the sensorimotor area in the resting state and diminish in amplitude during motor imagery. Thus, the mu rhythm amplitude may correlate with cortical excitability of the sensorimotor area, and EEG-BMI may be useful in the neurorehabilitation of patients with stroke-induced hemiplegia. Research on BMI as a therapeutic tool though emergent, may widen the scope of conventional BMI.

  3. Current status of fluid biomarkers in mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbe, Jacqueline R.; Geddes, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects millions of people annually and is difficult to diagnose. Mild injury is insensitive to conventional imaging techniques and diagnoses are often made using subjective criteria such as self-reported symptoms. Many people who sustain a mTBI develop persistent post-concussive symptoms. Athletes and military personnel are at great risk for repeat injury which can result in second impact syndrome or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. An objective and quantifiable measure, such as a serum biomarker, is needed to aid in mTBI diagnosis, prognosis, return to play/duty assessments, and would further elucidate mTBI pathophysiology. The majority of TBI biomarker research focuses on severe TBI with few studies specific to mild injury. Most studies use a hypothesis-driven approach, screening biofluids for markers known to be associated with TBI pathophysiology. This approach has yielded limited success in identifying markers that can be used clinically, additional candidate biomarkers are needed. Innovative and unbiased methods such as proteomics, microRNA arrays, urinary screens, autoantibody identification and phage display would complement more traditional approaches to aid in the discovery of novel mTBI biomarkers. PMID:25981889

  4. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: current status and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle A; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Nazzaro, Jules M

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition secondary to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Surgical therapy serves as an adjunct when unwanted medication side effects become apparent or additional therapy is needed. Deep brain stimulation emerged into the forefront in the 1990s. Studies have demonstrated improvement in all of the cardinal parkinsonian signs with stimulation. Frameless and 'mini-frame' stereotactic systems, improved MRI for anatomic visualization, and intraoperative MRI-guided placement are a few of the surgical advances in deep brain stimulation. Other advances include rechargeable pulse generators, voltage- or current-based stimulation, and enhanced abilities to 'steer' stimulation. Work is ongoing investigating closed-loop 'smart' stimulation in which stimulation is predicated on neuronal feedback.

  5. Targeting brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease: rationale and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, Ana Sofía; Borroni, María Virginia; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the α7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-β-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the α7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target α7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, α7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades-together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties-to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors.

  6. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Drzezga, A. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  7. Social brain development in williams syndrome: the current status and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W; Reiss, Allan L

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental condition that occurs as a result of a contiguous deletion of ∼26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is often associated with a distinctive social phenotype characterized by an increased affinity toward processing faces, reduced sensitivity to fear related social stimuli and a reduced ability to form concrete social relationships. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie the social phenotype in WS may elucidate genetic and neural factors influencing the typical development of the social brain. In this article, we review available studies investigating the social phenotype of WS throughout development and neuroimaging studies investigating brain structure and function as related to social and emotional functioning in this condition. This review makes an important contribution by highlighting several neuro-behavioral mechanisms that may be a cause or a consequence of atypical social development in WS. In particular, we discuss how distinctive social behaviors in WS may be associated with alterations or delays in the cortical representation of faces, connectivity within the ventral stream, structure and function of the amygdala and how long- and short-range connections develop within the brain. We integrate research on typical brain development and from existing behavioral and neuroimaging research on WS. We conclude with a discussion of how genetic and environmental factors might interact to influence social brain development in WS and how future neuroimaging and behavioral research can further elucidate social brain development in WS. Lastly, we describe how ongoing studies may translate to improved social developmental outcomes for individuals with WS.

  8. The Current Status of Somatostatin-Interneurons in Inhibitory Control of Brain Function and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyltjens, Isabelle; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian neocortex contains many distinct inhibitory neuronal populations to balance excitatory neurotransmission. A correct excitation/inhibition equilibrium is crucial for normal brain development, functioning, and controlling lifelong cortical plasticity. Knowledge about how the inhibitory network contributes to brain plasticity however remains incomplete. Somatostatin- (SST-) interneurons constitute a large neocortical subpopulation of interneurons, next to parvalbumin- (PV-) and vasoactive intestinal peptide- (VIP-) interneurons. Unlike the extensively studied PV-interneurons, acknowledged as key components in guiding ocular dominance plasticity, the contribution of SST-interneurons is less understood. Nevertheless, SST-interneurons are ideally situated within cortical networks to integrate unimodal or cross-modal sensory information processing and therefore likely to be important mediators of experience-dependent plasticity. The lack of knowledge on SST-interneurons partially relates to the wide variety of distinct subpopulations present in the sensory neocortex. This review informs on those SST-subpopulations hitherto described based on anatomical, molecular, or electrophysiological characteristics and whose functional roles can be attributed based on specific cortical wiring patterns. A possible role for these subpopulations in experience-dependent plasticity will be discussed, emphasizing on learning-induced plasticity and on unimodal and cross-modal plasticity upon sensory loss. This knowledge will ultimately contribute to guide brain plasticity into well-defined directions to restore sensory function and promote lifelong learning.

  9. Current status of deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical review of different targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, Pelle P.; Figee, Martijn; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P. Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that affects 2% of the general population. Despite optimal cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, approximately 10% of patients remain treatment resistant. Currently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being investigated as

  10. Status and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V Utevsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social hierarchy is a fact of life for many animals. Navigating social hierarchy requires understanding one's own status relative to others and behaving accordingly, while achieving higher status may call upon cunning and strategic thinking. The neural mechanisms mediating social status have become increasingly well understood in invertebrates and model organisms like fish and mice but until recently have remained more opaque in humans and other primates. In a new study in this issue, Noonan and colleagues explore the neural correlates of social rank in macaques. Using both structural and functional brain imaging, they found neural changes associated with individual monkeys' social status, including alterations in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and brainstem--areas previously implicated in dominance-related behavior in other vertebrates. A separate but related network in the temporal and prefrontal cortex appears to mediate more cognitive aspects of strategic social behavior. These findings begin to delineate the neural circuits that enable us to navigate our own social worlds. A major remaining challenge is identifying how these networks contribute functionally to our social lives, which may open new avenues for developing innovative treatments for social disorders.

  11. PANIC: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, M. C.; Rodríguez Gómez, J.

    2011-11-01

    PANIC, the PAnoramic Near Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA) is a wide-field infraredimager for the CAHA 2.2 m and 3.5 m telescopes. The optics is a folded single optical train, pure lens optics, with a pixel scale of 0.45 arcsec/pixel (18 microns) at the 2.2 m telescope and 0.23 arcsec/pixel at the 3.5 m. A mosaic of four Hawaii-2RG detectorsprovides a field of view (FOV) of 0.5x0.5 degrees and 0.25x0.25 degrees, respectively. It will cover the photometric bandsfrom Z to K_s (0.8 to 2.5 microns) with a low thermal background due to cold stops. Here we present the current status of the project.

  12. Enhanced therapeutic agent delivery through magnetic resonance imaging-monitored focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier disruption for brain tumor treatment: an overview of the current preclinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Yang, Hung-Wei; Hua, Mu-Yi; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a severe primary CNS cancer with a high recurrence and mortality rate. The current strategy of surgical debulking combined with radiation therapy or chemotherapy does not provide good prognosis, tumor progression control, or improved patient survival. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) acts as a major obstacle to chemotherapeutic treatment of brain tumors by severely restricting drug delivery into the brain. Because of their high toxicity, chemotherapeutic drugs cannot be administered at sufficient concentrations by conventional delivery methods to significantly improve long-term survival of patients with brain tumors. Temporal disruption of the BBB by microbubble-enhanced focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure can increase CNS-blood permeability, providing a promising new direction to increase the concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain tumor and improve disease control. Under the guidance and monitoring of MR imaging, a brain drug-delivery platform can be developed to control and monitor therapeutic agent distribution and kinetics. The success of FUS BBB disruption in delivering a variety of therapeutic molecules into brain tumors has recently been demonstrated in an animal model. In this paper the authors review a number of critical studies that have demonstrated successful outcomes, including enhancement of the delivery of traditional clinically used chemotherapeutic agents or application of novel nanocarrier designs for actively transporting drugs or extending drug half-lives to significantly improve treatment efficacy in preclinical animal models.

  13. Treatment of persistent post-concussion syndrome due to mild traumatic brain injury: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2016-08-01

    Persistent post-concussion syndrome caused by mild traumatic brain injury has become a major cause of morbidity and poor quality of life. Unlike the acute care of concussion, there is no consensus for treatment of chronic symptoms. Moreover, most of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments have failed to demonstrate significant efficacy on both the clinical symptoms as well as the pathophysiologic cascade responsible for the permanent brain injury. This article reviews the pathophysiology of PCS, the diagnostic tools and criteria, the current available treatments including pharmacotherapy and different cognitive rehabilitation programs, and promising new treatment directions. A most promising new direction is the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which targets the basic pathological processes responsible for post-concussion symptoms; it is discussed here in depth.

  14. Current status of deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical review of different targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Pelle P; Figee, Martijn; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2011-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that affects 2% of the general population. Despite optimal cognitive-behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, approximately 10% of patients remain treatment resistant. Currently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being investigated as an experimental therapy for treatment-refractory OCD. This review focuses on the efficacy and adverse events of all published DBS targets for OCD: anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral striatum/ventral capsule, nucleus accumbens, nucleus subthalamicus, and inferior thalamic peduncle. Small studies with various designs indicate an overall average Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score decrease ranging from 6.8 to 31 points. The average overall responder rate is ±50%. The frequency of adverse events seems to be limited. Larger prospective studies including neuroimaging are needed to estimate adequately the true potential of DBS in treatment of OCD and to elucidate its underlying mechanism of action and optimal brain target. We conclude that DBS may be a promising and safe therapy for treatment-resistant OCD.

  15. The Current Status of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Il Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing prevalence in Korea. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a safe and effective surgical treatment option for this disease. The aim of this review was to provide an update regarding current DBS practices with respect to the treatment of PD in the Republic of Korea. The first DBS in Korea was performed in 2000; approximately 2,000 patients have undergone DBS for a variety of neurological disorders, the majority of whom were patients with PD. Approximately 150 new patients with PD receive DBS annually, and more than 20 centers perform DBS. However, DBS remains underutilized for many reasons, and the clinical case burden at many institutions is below the level presumed adequate for qualified practice. With a rapidly aging population and an evolving socioeconomic environment, the need for surgical intervention for PD is likely to increase significantly in the future. Many issues such as finances, education, and quality assurance must be resolved to cope with this need.

  16. [Malignant melanoma : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J K; Buder-Bakhaya, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Enk, A; Hassel, J C

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2‑year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial.

  17. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  18. Wilson's disease: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarze, J C; Martin, P; Muñoz, S J; Friedman, L S

    1992-06-01

    To review current concepts about the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of Wilson's disease, with an emphasis on recent developments. Published information was identified using MEDLINE and through extensive manual searching of bibliographies in identified sources. The basic biochemical alteration responsible for deranged hepatobiliary copper homeostasis in Wilson's disease has yet to be identified. The gene for Wilson's disease has been mapped to chromosome 13, but the function of its gene product has not yet been determined. The clinical manifestations of Wilson's disease are varied and often nonspecific and include a range of hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric findings. Penicillamine remains the drug of choice for the treatment of Wilson's disease, but recent experience suggests that trientine and zinc may be safe, effective alternatives. All three drugs are probably safe for use in pregnant patients with Wilson's disease. Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for Wilsonian fulminant hepatic failure and corrects the underlying metabolic defect. Wilson's disease is a disorder of hepatobiliary copper excretion manifested predominantly by hepatic and neurologic copper toxicosis and inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although the specific underlying biochemical defect remains to be defined, specific therapy is available and usually successful. Maintaining a high index of suspicion is critical in diagnosing this readily treatable inherited disease.

  19. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  20. Current status of converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasialasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of modern converter steelmaking and related with the evaluation of converter technology applied during the last decades and further to the future. The history of steelmaking has been briefly reviewed from bloomeries and early-steelmaking processes to the progress of modern converter process. The pneumatic converter processes were developed in the 1850`s and thereafter the basis for the rapid growth of steel industries was established for the next 100 years. The world production of steel has not continuously grown but fluctuating quite much. It reached 723 Mt in 1994. The production is believed to grow the forecast for the year 2003 being approximately 800 Mt. Electric arc furnace production is estimated to reach 280 Mt by 2003, and BOFIOH will reach 520 Mt by 2003. The current status of the converter steelmaking process is briefly described both on its theoretical bases and practical technological progresses. Developments which significantly improve the process are briefly discussed. Several more recent developments such as combined oxygen blowing process, increased scrap melting, post combustion and hot metal pretreatment are discussed. The future progress will be in further development of these process characteristics as well as in eventual emerging of the continuous converter process. (author)

  1. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    During the past decade, zirconia-based ceramics have been successfully introduced into the clinic to fabricate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), along with a dental computer-aided/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. In this article (1) development of dental ceramics, (2) the current status of dental CAD/CAM systems, (3) CAD/CAM and zirconia restoration, (4) bond between zirconia and veneering ceramics, (5) bond of zirconia with resin-based luting agents, (6) surface finish of zirconia restoration and antagonist enamel wear, and (7) clinical evaluation of zirconia restoration are reviewed. Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) showed better mechanical properties and superior resistance to fracture than other conventional dental ceramics. Furthermore, ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and alumina nanocomposites (Ce-TZP/A) had the highest fracture toughness and had resistance to low-temperature aging degradation. Both zirconia-based ceramics have been clinically available as an alternative to the metal framework for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Marginal adaptation of zirconia-based FDPs is acceptable for clinical application. The most frequent clinical complication with zirconia-based FDPs was chipping of the veneering porcelain that was affected by many factors. The mechanism for the bonding between zirconia and veneering ceramics remains unknown. There was no clear evidence of chemical bonding and the bond strength between zirconia and porcelain was lower than that between metal and porcelain. There were two alternatives proposed that might avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. One was hybrid-structured FDPs comprising CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain parts adhering to a CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia framework. Another option was full-contour zirconia FDPs using high translucent zirconia. Combined application of silica coating and/or silane coupler, and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate is

  2. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  3. Current status of lupus nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryal, Ajay; Vikrant, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic disease of unknown aetiology with variable course and prognosis. Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the important disease manifestations of SLE with considerable influence on patient outcomes. Immunosuppression therapy has made it possible to control the disease with improved life expectancy and quality of life. In the last few decades, various studies across the globe have clarified the role, dose and duration of immunosuppression currently in use and also provided evidence for new agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, calcineurin inhibitors and rituximab. However, there is still a need to develop new and specific therapy with less adverse effects. In this review, the current evidence of the treatment of LN and its evolution, and new classification criteria for SLE have been discussed. Also, rationale for low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide as induction agent followed by azathioprine as maintenance agent has been provided with emphasis on individualized and holistic approach. PMID:28639592

  4. Current status of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Min; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-11-01

    Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  5. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  6. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...... of international providers of ATM in Europe are presented....

  7. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 63; Issue 4. The current status of observational cosmology. Jeremiah P ... The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by ...

  8. Neurotoxic profiles of HIV, psychostimulant drugs of abuse, and their concerted effect on the brain: current status of dopamine system vulnerability in NeuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Mark J; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2008-07-01

    There are roughly 30-40 million HIV-infected individuals in the world as of December 2007, and drug abuse directly contributes to one-third of all HIV infections in the United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the lifespan of HIV-seropositives, but CNS function often remains diminished, effectively decreasing quality of life. A modest proportion may develop HIV-associated dementia, the severity and progression of which is increased with drug abuse. HIV and drugs of abuse in the CNS target subcortical brain structures and DA systems in particular. This toxicity is mediated by a number of neurotoxic mechanisms, including but not limited to, aberrant immune response and oxidative stress. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies must be developed that can address a wide variety of disparate neurotoxic mechanisms and apoptotic cascades. This paper reviews the research pertaining to the where, what, and how of HIV and cocaine/methamphetamine toxicity in the CNS. Specifically, where these toxins most affect the brain, what aspects of the virus are neurotoxic, and how these toxins mediate neurotoxicity.

  9. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  10. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  11. The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; D'Souza, Roshan; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2013-06-01

    Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates with the brain via the gut-brain axis to modulate brain development and behavioral phenotypes. These recent findings on the new role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis implicate that gut microbiota could associate with brain functions as well as neurological diseases via the gut-brain axis. To elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis, precise identification of the composition of microbes constituting gut microbiota is an essential step. However, identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota has been the main technological challenge currently due to massive amount of intestinal microbes and the difficulties in culture of gut microbes. Current methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota are dependent on omics analysis methods by using advanced high tech equipment. Here, we review the association of gut microbiota with the gut-brain axis, including the pros and cons of the current high throughput methods for identification of microbes constituting gut microbiota to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis.

  12. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  13. Colletotrichum – current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, P.F.; Damm, U.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. PMID:23136460

  14. MGEX data analysis at CODE - current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Lars; Dach, Rolf; Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is contributing as an analysis center to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. The processing of GPS and GLONASS data is well established in CODE's ultra-rapid, rapid, and final product lines. In 2012 the IGS started its "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX). Meanwhile (status end of 2012) about 50 new or upgraded MGEX tracking stations offer their data to the user community meeting the IGS standards (e.g., correct equipment information, calibrated antennas, RINEX data format). MGEX supports the RINEX3 data format, new signal types for the established GNSS (e.g., L5 for GPS), and new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass, and QZSS. It is therefore well suited as a testbed for future developments in GNSS processing. CODE supports MGEX by providing a three-system orbit solution (GPS+GLONASS+Galileo) on a non-operational basis. The CODE MGEX products are freely available at ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gnss/products/mgex (solution ID "com" stands for CODE-MGEX). The current status of the MGEX processing at CODE will be presented focusing on the consistency of GNSS-derived results based on different frequencies/signals. An outlook about CODE's future multi-GNSS activities will be given.

  15. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  16. Current status of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann-Godo, M. [Physics Institute 4, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The ANTARES collaboration is currently installing a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea close to the French coast at Toulon. The complete detector will consist of 900 photomultipliers arranged on 12 detector lines in 2500 m depth, thus instrumenting a volume of 0.01 km{sup 3} sea water as target material. The incident neutrinos are detected by collecting the Cherenkov light from charged secondary particles, which are emitted by neutrino interactions with the sea water or the rock of the sea bed beneath. By reconstructing the Cherenkov cone and therewith the direction of the incident neutrinos with high accuracy, the principal objective of ANTARES is the search for point sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos and dark matter. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on the operation of the detector in the hostile deep sea environment and on the status of the project. Results of the first complete detector line will be shown.

  17. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2003-04-01

    After an effort of nearly a half century the CTBT was approved by the U.N. on September 10, 1996. Out of 185 member nations (at the time), 158 voted in favor, 3 against, and the remaining either abstained or were diplomatically absent. In spite of such an overwhelming support of the international community, the CTBT may well remain on paper. The reason being that one of the opposing nations, India, is considered a "threshold Nuclear Nation" and must approve the treaty to enter into force according to the rules of Conference of Disarmament (CD). India's U.N. representative said that her country would "never sign this unequal treaty, not now, not later." "Unequal" because it does not provide a time table for elimination of the existing nuclear weapons, testing of weapons, etc., which favor nuclear states. This paper will provide details of the above issues and the current status of the CTBT.

  18. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  19. MDSplus integration at TCABR tokamak: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, W.P. de, E-mail: pires@if.usp.br; Ronchi, G., E-mail: gronchi@if.usp.br

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The implementation of MDSplus in TCABR tokamak, current status. • Interfaces between the system already installed and the MDSplus. • Web MDSplus interface. - Abstract: Experimental data for the TCABR tokamak is currently stored in MDSplus (Model Driven System Plus) database. The access to the data recorded during the experiments is performed using tools and libraries available by MDSplus system. The MDSplus system is widely used in different physics experiments, especially in plasmas physics and nuclear fusion. This standardized environment enables easy interaction among scientists of different experiments in different countries without the need to understand the particular characteristics of control, data acquisition and analysis, and remote access (CODAS) customized in each laboratory. In the first phase of implementation, intermediate interfaces had been developed between the legacy proprietary system and the MDSplus. In a second phase, the new diagnostic systems had been directly included in the created MDSplus system in the laboratory. After three years of use, the system installed on TCABR proved extremely efficient and significantly increased productivity in data analysis by involved scientists, regardless of whether they are locally at the TCABR, or accessing the system remotely from their home laboratories. The third phase, and subject of this article, are the development and implementation of the following systems: (i) web tools for the visualization of data, integrated with the experiment logbook, (ii) integration of MDSplus with applications (LabVIEW + MDSplus) and newer data acquisition hardware.

  20. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  1. Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderholm, KM; Bierle, CJ; Schleiss, MR

    2017-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can result in in severe and permanent neurological injury in newborns, and vaccine development is accordingly a major public health priority. HCMV can also cause disease in solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, and a vaccine would be valuable in prevention of viremia and end-organ disease in these populations. Currently there is no licensed HCMV vaccine, but progress toward this goal has been made in recent clinical trials. A recombinant HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) vaccine has been shown to have some efficacy in prevention of infection in young women and adolescents, and provided benefit to HCMV-seronegative SOT recipients. Similarly, DNA vaccines based on gB and the immunodominant T-cell target, pp65 (ppUL83), have been shown to reduce viremia in HSCT patients. This review provides an overview of HCMV vaccine candidates in various stages of development, as well as an update on the current status of ongoing clinical trials. Protective correlates of vaccine-induced immunity may be different for pregnant woman and transplant patients. As more knowledge emerges about correlates of protection, the ultimate licensure of HCMV vaccines may reflect the uniqueness of the target populations being immunized. PMID:27882457

  2. Current Status of Yongbyon Nuclear Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The DPRK has developed Yongbyon Nuclear Complex in Figure 1 since 1960's. Currently it is composed of the reactor facility, fuel fabrication facility including the enrichment center, and the radiochemistry center. Even though many facilities are not modern and economic in the western standards, Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is fully equipped with the entire life cycle of the nuclear installation. The key facilities have been added step by step. For example, the DPRK's nuclear reactor fleet started with the 2 MW IRT-2000 reactor in the middle of 80's. It started with a small scale radioactive isotope separation center nearby. But nowadays the DPRK is constructing a much more larger isotope separation center in the vicinity of its enrichment center along with a potential new UF6 conversion center. The general description over Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is given in this paper. More detailed context of the current status of the center will be discussed in the main symposium purely based on the open source information study.

  3. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  4. Current status of art mobilization in Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevindik, Omur Gokmen; Korkmaz, Serdal; Altuntas, Fevzi

    2017-12-01

    Multiple myeloma is the leading indication of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) worldwide. Hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization (HPCM) is the first step of a successful AHCT. A minimum of 2×10 6 CD34 + cells/kg are needed for successful engraftment. Growth factors have been used both alone or in combination with chemotherapy for HPCM of patients with myeloma. Mobilization failures result in delays in AHCT and increased cost and resource utility. Strategies to mobilize progenitor cells were mainly chemotherapy and growth factor or growth factor-only mobilization until the advent of plerixafor. Plerixafor is successfully integrated into both growth factor-only and cyclophosphamide and growth factor mobilization strategies with significantly reducing the mobilization failure rate in myeloma patients. The best strategy to mobilize progenitor cells with the highest yield and lowest toxicity and cost in patients with multiple myeloma has not yet been determined. This review aims to summarize the current status of art mobilization in myeloma comparing the pros and cons of different mobilization strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  6. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanoy, S.; Avvakumov, K.; Fedosseev, V.; Bark, R.; Blazczak, Z.; Janas, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the "north-east" region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as 136Xe on 208Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  7. Academic drug discovery: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    The contraction in pharmaceutical drug discovery operations in the past decade has been counter-balanced by a significant rise in the number of academic drug discovery groups. In addition, pharmaceutical companies that used to operate in completely independent, vertically integrated operations for drug discovery, are now collaborating more with each other, and with academic groups. We are in a new era of drug discovery. This review provides an overview of the current status of academic drug discovery groups, their achievements and the challenges they face, together with perspectives on ways to achieve improved outcomes. Academic groups have made important contributions to drug discovery, from its earliest days and continue to do so today. However, modern drug discovery and development is exceedingly complex, and has high failure rates, principally because human biology is complex and poorly understood. Academic drug discovery groups need to play to their strengths and not just copy what has gone before. However, there are lessons to be learnt from the experiences of the industrial drug discoverers and four areas are highlighted for attention: i) increased validation of targets; ii) elimination of false hits from high throughput screening (HTS); iii) increasing the quality of molecular probes; and iv) investing in a high-quality informatics infrastructure.

  8. Genetic cancer vaccines: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2012-08-01

    The recent approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine by the US Regulatory Agency represents a breakthrough event in the history of cancer treatment. The past scepticism towards this type of therapeutic intervention is now replaced by great expectations. The field is now moving towards the development of alternative vaccination technologies, which are capable of generating stronger, more durable and efficient immune responses against specific tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in combination with cheaper and more standardised manufacturing. In this context, genetic vaccines are emerging among the most promising methodologies. Several evidences point to combinations of different genetic immunisation modalities (heterologous prime/boost) as a powerful approach to induce superior immune responses and achieve greater clinical efficacy. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of development of genetic cancer vaccines with particular emphasis on adenoviral vector prime/DNA boost vaccination schedules. We believe that therapeutic genetic cancer vaccines have the strong potential to become an established therapeutic modality for cancer in next coming years, in a manner similar to what have now become monoclonal antibodies.

  9. Current status and prospects of HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, Tomas; Fordyce, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Current antiviral treatments can reduce HIV-associated morbidity, prolong survival, and prevent HIV transmission. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing preferably three active drugs from two or more classes is required for durable virologic suppression. Regimen selection is based on virologic efficacy, potential for adverse effects, pill burden and dosing frequency, drug-drug interaction potential, resistance test results, comorbid conditions, social status, and cost. With prolonged virologic suppression, improved clinical outcomes, and longer survival, patients will be exposed to antiretroviral agents for decades. Therefore, maximizing the safety and tolerability of cART is a high priority. Emergence of resistance and/or lack of tolerability in individual patients require availability of a range of treatment options. Development of new drugs is focused on improving safety (e.g. tenofovir alafenamide) and/or resistance profile (e.g. doravirine) within the existing drug classes, combination therapies with improved adherence (e.g. single-tablet regimens), novel mechanisms of action (e.g. attachment inhibitors, maturation inhibitors, broadly neutralizing antibodies), and treatment simplification with infrequent dosing (e.g. long-acting injectables). In parallel with cART innovations, research and development efforts focused on agents that target persistent HIV reservoirs may lead to prolonged drug-free remission and HIV cure. Copyright © 2016 Gilead Sciences, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  11. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  12. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  13. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  14. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  15. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  16. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  17. Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Dilek Yelda

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

  18. P300 brain computer interface: current challenges and emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza eFazel-Rezai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI enables communication without movement based on brain signals measured with electroencephalography (EEG. BCIs usually rely on one of three types of signals: the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP, steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, or event related desynchronization (ERD. Although P300 BCIs were introduced over twenty years ago, the past few years have seen a strong increase in P300 BCI research. This closed-loop BCI approach relies on the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP, based on an oddball paradigm presented to the subject. In this paper, we overview the current status of P300 BCI technology, and then discuss new directions: paradigms for eliciting P300s; signal processing methods; applications; and hybrid BCIs. We conclude that P300 BCIs are quite promising, as several emerging directions have not yet been fully explored and could lead to improvements in bit rate, reliability, usability, and flexibility.

  19. P300 brain computer interface: current challenges and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Allison, Brendan Z.; Guger, Christoph; Sellers, Eric W.; Kleih, Sonja C.; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables communication without movement based on brain signals measured with electroencephalography (EEG). BCIs usually rely on one of three types of signals: the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP), steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), or event related desynchronization (ERD). Although P300 BCIs were introduced over twenty years ago, the past few years have seen a strong increase in P300 BCI research. This closed-loop BCI approach relies on the P300 and other components of the ERP, based on an oddball paradigm presented to the subject. In this paper, we overview the current status of P300 BCI technology, and then discuss new directions: paradigms for eliciting P300s; signal processing methods; applications; and hybrid BCIs. We conclude that P300 BCIs are quite promising, as several emerging directions have not yet been fully explored and could lead to improvements in bit rate, reliability, usability, and flexibility. PMID:22822397

  20. [Biology of brain metastases: current concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrli, P

    1999-12-01

    Brain metastasis results from complex interactions between host cells and primitive tumor cells. An analysis of the molecular pathways at the cellular level is provided in this review of the literature. The principal new therapeutic modalities are directly based on our comprehension of those molecular biology hypothesis.

  1. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The emergent concordance cosmological model does face challenges from future observations. For example, the detection of the inflationary gravity wave in B- mode of CMB polarization would be needed to clinch the case for inflation. The current observations have also revealed potential cracks in the cosmological model.

  2. Nutritional status, brain network organization, and general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Talukdar, M Tanveer; Zwilling, Chris E; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-11-01

    The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood. This study therefore examined the relationship between the intrinsic connectivity networks supporting general intelligence and nutritional status, focusing on nutrients known to impact the metabolic processes that drive brain function. We measured general intelligence, favorable connective architecture of seven intrinsic connectivity networks, and seventeen plasma phospholipid monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in a sample of 99 healthy, older adults. A mediation analysis was implemented to investigate the relationship between empirically derived patterns of fatty acids, general intelligence, and underlying intrinsic connectivity networks. The mediation analysis revealed that small world propensity within one intrinsic connectivity network supporting general intelligence, the dorsal attention network, was promoted by a pattern of monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that the efficiency of functional organization within a core network underlying general intelligence is influenced by nutritional status. This report provides a novel connection between nutritional status and functional network efficiency, and further supports the promise and utility of functional connectivity metrics in studying the impact of nutrition on cognitive and brain health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Current status of islet cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Hirohito; Ricordi, Camillo

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in islet isolation methods and immunosuppressive protocol, pancreatic islet cell transplantation remains an experimental procedure currently limited to the most severe cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this treatment are to prevent severe hypoglycemic episodes in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness and to achieve a more physiological metabolic control. Insulin independence and long term-graft function with improvement of quality of life have been obtained in several international islet transplant centers. However, experimental trials of islet transplantation clearly highlighted several obstacles that remain to be overcome before the procedure could be proposed to a much larger patient population. This review provides a brief historical perspective of islet transplantation, islet isolation techniques, the transplant procedure, immunosuppressive therapy, and outlines current challenges and future directions in clinical islet transplantation.

  4. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2017-10-06

    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Brain metastasis in gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma and HER2 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Dror; Gal, Omer; Gordon, Noa; Katz, Lior; Perl, Gali; Purim, Ofer; Amit, Limor; Stemmer, Salomon M; Kundel, Yulia; Ben-Aharon, Irit; Brenner, Baruch; Siegal, Tali; Yust-Katz, Shlomit

    2018-02-10

    The increased survival of patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GAD) following improvements in treatment has been accompanied by a rising incidence of secondary brain metastasis. HER2 amplification/overexpression, which has been associated with an increased risk of brain metastasis in breast cancer, is found in about 20% of patients with GAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HER2 status on brain metastasis in GAD. The database of a tertiary cancer center was searched for patients with GAD diagnosed in 2011-2015, and data were collected on clinical characteristics, brain metastasis, HER2 status, and outcome. We identified 404 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of GAD. HER2 results were available for 298: 69 (23.2%) positive and 227 negative. Brain metastasis developed in 15 patients with GAD (3.7%); HER2 results, available in 13, were positive in 6, negative in 6, and equivocal in 1. The brain metastasis rate was significantly higher in HER2-positive than HER2-negative patients with GAD (6/69, 8.7% vs. 6/227, 2.6%; RR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.9, p = 0.034). Median overall survival from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 2.3 months, with no significant difference by HER2 status. HER2 positive GAD patients may be at increased risk to develop BM. Clinicians should maintain a lower threshold for performing brain imaging in patients with HER2-positive GAD given their increased risk of brain metastasis. The role of anti-HER2 agents in the development and treatment of brain metastasis in GAD warrants further study.

  6. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  7. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  8. RICH upgrade: Current status and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The second long shutdown of the LHC is currently scheduled to begin in 2018. During this period the LHCb experiment with all its sub-detectors will be upgraded in order to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2×10$^{33}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ and to read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) system will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream detector. Tests of the prototype of the smallest constituent of the new RICH system have been performed during testbeam sessions at the Test Beam Facility SPS North Area (CERN) in Autumn 2014.

  9. Textile allergic contact dermatitis: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Blattner, Collin M; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Andersen, Rosa; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a thorough review of Pubmed search results for "textile percutaneous penetration" and "textile absorption". We also determined relevant articles that discussed percutaneous penetration of textiles into the skin and their associated disease states. Due to limitations in current and past publications, we are uncertain of the extent of the clinical problem; however, for patients allergic to textile dye, it is of practical importance, both clinically and in their everyday life. There are many challenges to correctly identifying the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis. Different populations may exhibit varying degrees of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but more studies must be done to draw further conclusions. This is further complicated when counseling the patient on how to avoid the textile products most likely to cause a recurrence of ACD skin lesions.

  10. Current status of automated breast ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Shin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection Epub ahead of print and characterization of breast lesions. However, conventional handheld US (HHUS has several limitations such as operator dependence and the requirement of a considerable amount of radiologist time for whole-breast US. Automated breast US (ABUS, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for screening purposes, has several advantages over HHUS, such as higher reproducibility, less operator dependence, and less required physician time for image acquisition. In addition, ABUS provides both a coronal view and a relatively large field of view. Recent studies have reported that ABUS is promising in US screening for women with dense breasts and can potentially replace handheld second-look US in a preoperative setting.

  11. Molecular Imaging: Current Status and Emerging Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific therapeutic treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use PET- or SPECT-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multimodality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and ultrasound imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies since they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and ultrasound modalities involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with ultrasound. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation such as endoscopes and microcatheters suggest that these molecular imaging modalities have numerous clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future. PMID:20541650

  12. ILRS: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bianco, G.; Merkowitz, S.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Shargorodsky, V.; Zhongping, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is expanding its ground tracking capability with new stations and upgrades to current stations. Our Russian colleagues have installed new stations in Brasilia and South Africa, and have several other sites in process or in planning. The NASA Space Geodesy Program is preparing equipment for U.S. sites (McDonald and Haleakala) and with the Norwegian National Mapping Agency in Ny Ålesund; further deployments are planned. Upgrades continue at sites in China, and new sites are underway or planned in Europe and India. Stations are moving to higher repetition rates and more efficient detection to enhance satellite interleaving capability; some stations have already implemented automated processes that could lead to around-the-clock operation to increase temporal coverage and to make more efficient use of personnel. The ILRS roster of supported satellites continues to grow with the addition of the LARES satellite to augment tracking for the improvement of the ITRF. New GNSS constellations and geosynchronous satellites now bring the total roster to over 80 satellites - so much so, that new tracking strategies and time and location multiplexing are under consideration. There continues to be strong interest in Lunar Ranging. New applications of one-way and two-way laser ranging include ps-accurate time transfer, laser transponders for interplanetary ranging, and tracking of space debris. New laser ranging data products are being developed, including satellite orbit products, satellite orientation, gravity field products, and products to characterize the quality of data and station performance. This talk will give a brief summary of recent progress, current challenges and a view of the path ahead.

  13. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    interventional methods. Few would challenge neurologists over the responsibility for emergency evaluation and triage of stroke victims for intra intravenous fibrinolysis, even though emergency physicians are most commonly the first to evaluate these patients. There are many unanswered questions about the role of imaging in defining best treatment. Perfusion imaging with CT or MRI appears to have relevance even though its role remains undefined and is the subject of ongoing research. Meanwhile, investigators are exploring new, and perhaps more specific,imaging methods with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cellular acid-base imbalance. There are currently 6 ongoing trials of stroke intervention, many with proprietary technologies and private funding, competing for the same patient population as multicenter trials funded by the NIH. At the same time, much of the interventional stroke treatment currently occurs outside of trials in the community and academic settings without the collection of much-needed data. Market forces will certainly shape future stroke therapy, but it is unclear whether the current combination of private and public funding for these endeavors is the best method of development.

  14. [Current status of congenital myasthenic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestue-Cardiel, M; Natera-de Benito, D

    2017-08-16

    Since Engel reported the first case of congenital myasthenia in 1977 and the first pathogenic gene was found in 1995, knowledge about congenital myasthenic syndromes has continued to grow. Over the years, the pathogenic basis, its clinical features, the phenotype-genotype correlations that have been established and its therapeutic management have all been described. In this group of diseases the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is altered by different mechanisms: in the synthesis or storage of acetylcholine quanta in the synaptic vesicles, in the calcium-mediated release of acetylcholine in the nerve terminal or in the efficiency of the quantum released to generate a post-synaptic depolarisation. Increased knowledge about them has enabled a number of different therapeutic strategies to be established. In this review the main updates on these syndromes are reported, including: the genes described as classifying 50% of cases, their current classification based on the localisation of the proteins that alter neuromuscular transmission, including a new group of congenital myasthenias, glycosylation disorders, the main key diagnoses and the therapeutic management of this group of under-diagnosed patients.

  15. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  16. [Cellular phones and cancer: current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Anne

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of the impact of new technologies on the human body is essential in order to impose regulations to limit health risks. The appearance and evolution of cellular phones have been one of the fastest in the history of innovation. Research reported worldwide has tried to evaluate any potential link between adverse health effects and the mobile phone and its broadcasting stations. This article gives an overview of current research knowledge on the impact of radiofrequency waves on health. Epidemiologic, cellular and animal studies have been carried out, but none of them have reached definitive conclusions. Although some biological effects on cell culture have been observed, their link with human cancer development is far from established. Most of the animal studies show negative results. Epidemiologic studies lack a sufficient perspective to be able to evaluate the effect of evolving technologies used today. High levels of concern by the public have urged mobile phone operators, manufacturers and governmental authorities to finance a number of scientific projects aimed at defining adapted and effective regulations.

  17. Current status of robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ada T L; Tam, P C

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery, and specifically the da Vinci Surgical System, is one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anaesthesia, and represents the most significant advancement in minimally invasive surgery of this decade. One of the first surgical uses of the robot was in orthopaedics, neurosurgery, and cardiac surgery. However, it was the use in urology, and particularly in prostate surgery, that led to its widespread popularity. Robotic surgery, is also widely used in other surgical specialties including general surgery, gynaecology, and head and neck surgery. In this article, we reviewed the current applications of robot-assisted surgery in different surgical specialties with an emphasis on urology. Clinical results as compared with traditional open and/or laparoscopic surgery and a glimpse into the future development of robotics were also discussed. A short introduction of the emerging areas of robotic surgery were also briefly reviewed. Despite the increasing popularity of robotic surgery, except in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, there is no unequivocal evidence to show its superiority over traditional laparoscopic surgery in other surgical procedures. Further trials are eagerly awaited to ascertain the long-term results and potential benefits of robotic surgery.

  18. [Current status of noninvasive hemodynamics in hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, G

    Hypertension is a haemodynamic disorder resulting from a persistent mismatch between cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Hypertension undergoes haemodynamic progression during its natural history. Impedance cardiography is a method of evaluating the cardiovascular system that obtains haemodynamic information from beat to beat through the analysis of variations in the impedance of the thorax on the passage of an electric current. Impedance cardiography unmasks the haemodynamic deterioration underlying the increase in blood pressure as age and systolic blood pressure increases. This method may help to improve blood pressure control through individualized treatment with reduction of peripheral resistance, maintenance of cardiac output or its increase, improvement of arterial compliance and preservation of organ-tissue perfusion. It is useful in the management of patients with resistant hypertension, since a greater percentage of patients controlled with changes in the treatment in relation to the haemodynamic measurements are obtained. Impedance cardiography is important and has prognostic utility in relation to a haemodynamic deterioration pattern and increased cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  20. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  1. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-11-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction 48Ca+242Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  2. Current status of MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanda G. Garcia

    2003-03-24

    This paper reviews the current status of the Fermilab mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE). The experiment began taking beam data in late August 2002. We describe the experiment, status of the beamline and detector, and show the first neutrino candidate events.

  3. On the Relationship Between First Occupation and Current Occupational Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, E. M.; Madans, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three alternative models are presented to represent the decreased importance of the status of first job on current occupational status overtime; there is evidence that the effects of first job erode with time. Models not explicitly incorporating labor force experience may suffer a serious specification error. (Author/AJ)

  4. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  5. [Current status of ISO 15189 accreditation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kiyoaki; Kubono, Katsuo; Shimoda, Katsuji

    2012-07-01

    The Japan Accreditation Board (JAB) mainly involves the ISO 15189 accreditation system with support from the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS). The currently available procedure to obtain accreditation is as below. Firstly, it is necessary for applicants to prepare ISO 15189 and related documents in each laboratory. Then a JAB assessor will conduct a preliminary assessment to check if the applicant is ready to be accredited. Subsequently, a team consisting of one to five JAB assessors and/or technical experts will conduct the initial assessment, usually for two days. Finally, the team will make a recommendation to the JAB Accreditation Committee for Medical Laboratory on its evaluation for accreditation. If the Accreditation Committee approves the recommendation of the assessment team, the applicant will be granted accreditation and issued with a certificate of accreditation. According to EU data in February 2011, about 1,300 medical laboratories obtained the ISO 15189 accreditation. The numbers of accredited laboratories are 482 in Germany, 276 in England, 209 in France, 100 in Czechoslovakia etc. Similarly, the data for the Asia-Pacific region in June 2011 showed that the numbers of accredited laboratories are 638 in Australia, 287 in India, 220 in Canada, 160 in Taiwan etc. Although 59 laboratories are accredited in Japan, the ISO 15189 accreditation is not so widespread compared with other countries. It is now expected that the government and/or related bodies will have sufficient understanding of this accreditation system to further its development in Japan. [Rinsho Byori 60: 653-659, 2012

  6. Current status of sea turtle protection in Lamu Seascape, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of sea turtle protection in Lamu Seascape, Kenya: Trends in nesting, nest predation and stranding levels. Mike Olendo, Cosmas Nzaka Munga, Gladys Moragwa Okemwa, Harrison Ong'anda, Lilian Mulupi, Lily Mwasi, Hassan Mohamed ...

  7. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; de León, Julia; Morate, David; de Prá, Mario; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto; Ali-Lagoa, Victor

    2017-10-01

    in the inner and outer belt.In this work, we present the current state of the PRIMASS survey, and we include major results from the data already analyzed. Finally, we will draft the plans for the future.

  8. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  9. Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

    Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes m

  10. Neural Correlates of Socioeconomic Status in the Developing Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…

  11. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.

  12. In vivo mapping of current density distribution in brain tissues during deep brain stimulation (DBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-01-01

    New methods for in vivo mapping of brain responses during deep brain stimulation (DBS) are indispensable to secure clinical applications. Assessment of current density distribution, induced by internally injected currents, may provide an alternative method for understanding the therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation. The current flow and pathway are affected by internal conductivity, and can be imaged using magnetic resonance-based conductivity imaging methods. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an imaging method that can enable highly resolved mapping of electromagnetic tissue properties such as current density and conductivity of living tissues. In the current study, we experimentally imaged current density distribution of in vivo canine brains by applying MREIT to electrical stimulation. The current density maps of three canine brains were calculated from the measured magnetic flux density data. The absolute current density values of brain tissues, including gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid were compared to assess the active regions during DBS. The resulting current density in different tissue types may provide useful information about current pathways and volume activation for adjusting surgical planning and understanding the therapeutic effects of DBS.

  13. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  14. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  15. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  16. The Current Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current status of teachers and the teaching sector in Tanzania. It draws on experiences of teachers, parents, and students in Dar es Salaam, Iringa and Mbeya regions. Informed by the qualitative inquiry, the paper is largely empirical in character. Data was sought through interviews and document ...

  17. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  18. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  19. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  20. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  1. Current status of transrectal ultrasound techniques in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenge, Martijn; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Present the current status of transrectal ultrasound imaging in prostate cancer (PCa) and discuss the latest techniques now under preclinical evaluation. Recent findings Three-dimensional ultrasound and quantification techniques are superior to two-dimensional ultrasound in

  2. Wave energy in Europe: current status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Alain [Exole Centrale de Nantes, Nantes, (France); McCullen, Pat [ESBI (Ireland); Falcao, Antonio [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Firoentino, Antonio [Ponte di Archimede nello Streto di Messina, Messina (Italy); Gardner, Fred [Teamwork Technology (Netherlands); Hammarlund, Karin [Hammarlund A., Konsult (Sweden); Lemonis, George [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Attika (Greece); Lewis, Tony [University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2002-10-01

    The progress in wave energy conversion in Europe during the past ten years is reviewed, and current activities and initiatives in the wave energy sector at National and Union level are described. Other important activities worldwide are summarized. The technical and economic status in wave energy conversion is outlined, and important wave energy developments are presented.

  3. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  4. Syncing your brain: electric currents to enhance cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary studies in cognitive neuroscience demonstrate that cognitive performance can be enhanced by applying exogenous low-intensity electric currents to the brain. These findings have resulted in a widespread interest from both scientists and popular media, particularly, regarding the host of

  5. The role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis: current challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao; D’Souza, Roshan; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2013-01-01

    Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates w...

  6. Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodan Wu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Yuhuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  8. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  9. Smoothed nonparametric estimation for current status competing risks data

    OpenAIRE

    Chenxi Li; Jason P. Fine

    2013-01-01

    We study the nonparametric estimation of the cumulative incidence function and the cause-specific hazard function for current status data with competing risks via kernel smoothing. A smoothed naive nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator and a smoothed full nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator are shown to have pointwise asymptotic normality and faster convergence rates than the corresponding unsmoothed nonparametric likelihood estimators. Using the smoothed estimators and the plug-i...

  10. The Effects of smoking status and smoking history on patients with brain metastases from lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Rachel F; McTyre, Emory R; Ruiz, Jimmy; Weaver, Kathryn E; Cramer, Christina; Alphonse-Sullivan, Natalie K; Farris, Michael; Petty, William J; Bonomi, Marcelo R; Watabe, Kounosuke; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; Warren, Graham W; Chan, Michael D

    2017-05-01

    There is limited data on the effects of smoking on lung cancer patients with brain metastases. This single institution retrospective study of patients with brain metastases from lung cancer who received stereotactic radiosurgery assessed whether smoking history is associated with overall survival, local control, rate of new brain metastases (brain metastasis velocity), and likelihood of neurologic death after brain metastases. Patients were stratified by adenocarcinoma versus nonadenocarcinoma histologies. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for survival endpoints. Competing risk analysis was performed for neurologic death analysis to account for risk of nonneurologic death. Separate linear regression and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the brain metastasis velocity. Of 366 patients included in the analysis, the median age was 63, 54% were male and, 60% were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Current smoking was reported by 37% and 91% had a smoking history. Current smoking status and pack-year history of smoking had no effect on overall survival. There was a trend for an increased risk of neurologic death in nonadenocarcinoma patients who continued to smoke (14%, 35%, and 46% at 6/12/24 months) compared with patients who did not smoke (12%, 23%, and 30%, P = 0.053). Cumulative pack years smoking was associated with an increase in neurologic death for nonadenocarcinoma patients (HR = 1.01, CI: 1.00-1.02, P = 0.046). Increased pack-year history increased brain metastasis velocity in multivariate analysis for overall patients (P = 0.026). Current smokers with nonadenocarcinoma lung cancers had a trend toward greater neurologic death than nonsmokers. Cumulative pack years smoking is associated with a greater brain metastasis velocity. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel.

  12. [The current state of the brain-computer interface problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhay, V A; Aleksandrova, E V; Potapov, A A; Goryainov, S A

    2015-01-01

    It was only 40 years ago that the first PC appeared. Over this period, rather short in historical terms, we have witnessed the revolutionary changes in lives of individuals and the entire society. Computer technologies are tightly connected with any field, either directly or indirectly. We can currently claim that computers are manifold superior to a human mind in terms of a number of parameters; however, machines lack the key feature: they are incapable of independent thinking (like a human). However, the key to successful development of humankind is collaboration between the brain and the computer rather than competition. Such collaboration when a computer broadens, supplements, or replaces some brain functions is known as the brain-computer interface. Our review focuses on real-life implementation of this collaboration.

  13. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  14. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources.

  15. Current status of endoscopic simulation in gastroenterology fellowship training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Thompson, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Recent guidelines have encouraged gastroenterology and surgical training programs to integrate simulation into their core endoscopic curricula. However, the role that simulation currently has within training programs is unknown. This study aims to assess the current status of simulation among gastroenterology fellowship programs. This questionnaire study consisted of 38 fields divided into two sections. The first section queried program directors' experience on simulation and assessed the current status of simulation at their institution. The second portion surveyed their opinion on the potential role of simulation on the training curriculum. The study was conducted at the 2013 American Gastroenterological Association Training Directors' Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona. The participants were program directors from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited gastroenterology training programs, who attended the workshop. The questionnaire was returned by 69 of 97 program directors (response rate of 71%). 42% of programs had an endoscopic simulator. Computerized simulators (61.5%) were the most common, followed by mechanical (30.8%) and animal tissue (7.7%) simulators, respectively. Eleven programs (15%) required fellows to use simulation prior to clinical cases. Only one program has a minimum number of hours fellows have to participate in simulation training. Current simulators are deemed as easy to use (76%) and good educational tools (65%). Problems are cost (72%) and accessibility (69%). The majority of program directors believe that there is a need for endoscopic simulator training, with only 8% disagreeing. Additionally, a majority believe there is a role for simulation prior to initiation of clinical cases with 15% disagreeing. Gastroenterology fellowship program directors widely recognize the importance of simulation. Nevertheless, simulation is used by only 42% of programs and only 15% of programs require that trainees use simulation prior to

  16. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  17. Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiushi; Keates, Richard H.; Hill, Richard A.; Berns, Michael W.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of corneal refractive surgery is to modify the anterior surface of the cornea for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The air-tear film interface is a powerful refractive surface. Small changes in the curvature can induce large shifts in refractive power. The exquisite nature of laser-tissue interaction with corneal tissue allows successful application of lasers for refractive surgery. Numerous systems have been developed for clinical applications. An overview is provided of the current clinical and research status of laser refractive surgery.

  18. Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2014-11-06

    Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years.

  19. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  20. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...... expectations for, the technique. The experts reached agreement on a number of statements and recommendations, which will support surgeons in adopting the technique. The panel agreed that the single-incision technique may offer a number of benefits to patients; however, further clinical data need...

  1. Current Status of Operation and Management of Dental School Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, John W

    2017-08-01

    This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  2. MicroRNAs of parasites: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.

  3. Indirect dark matter searches: current status and perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many theoretical ideas for the particle nature of dark matter exist. The  most popular models often predict that dark matter particles self-annihilate or decay, giving rise to potentially detectable signatures in astronomical observations.  I will summarize the current status of searches for such signatures and critically reassess recent claims for dark matter signals.  I will further provide an outlook on anticipated developments in the next 10 years, and discuss new methods to facilitate strategy development.

  4. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua B. Kilonzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  5. Brain transcranial direct current stimulation modulates motor excitability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Velikova, Svetla; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier J; Cursi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Leocani, Letizia

    2010-02-01

    Shortly after the application of weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the animal and human brain, changes in corticospinal excitability, which mainly depend on polarity, duration and current density of the stimulation protocol, have been reported. In humans, anodal tDCS has been reported to enhance motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial brain stimulation while cathodal tDCS has been shown to decrease them. Here we investigated the effects produced by tDCS on mice motor cortex. MEPs evoked by transcranial electric stimulation were recorded from forelimbs of 12 C57BL/6 mice, under sevofluorane anaesthesia, before and after (0, 5 and 10 min) anodal and cathodal tDCS (tDCS duration 10 min). With respect to sham condition stimulation (anaesthesia), MEP size was significantly increased immediately after anodal tDCS, and was reduced after cathodal tDCS (approximately 20% vs. sham). Both effects declined towards basal levels in the following 10 min. Although the site and mechanisms of action of tDCS need to be more clearly identified, the directionality of effects of tDCS on mice MEPs is consistent with previous findings in humans. The feasibility of tDCS in mice suggests the potential applicability of this technique to assess the potential therapeutic options of brain polarization in animal models of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  6. Current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanie Mayer Hope

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Joanie Mayer Hope, Stephanie V BlankNew York University School of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, New York NY, USAAbstract: Even after countered with and responding to maximal surgical and chemotherapy efforts, advanced ovarian cancer usually ultimately recurs. One strategy employed to forestall recurrence is maintenance chemotherapy, an extension of treatment following a complete response to conventional measures. Many agents have been studied and many more are currently under investigation in maintenance regimens. While phase III data suggest that taxane maintenance prolongs progression-free survival, no overall survival benefit has been established. This article reviews the current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer, including phase III evidence and new and upcoming trials.Keywords: maintenance therapy, consolidation therapy, advanced ovarian cancer

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed.

  9. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  10. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  11. Generic Medicine Pricing Policies in Europe: Current Status and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dylst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of originator and generic medicines, but may also remove incentives for additional price reductions beyond those imposed by regulation. To date, little is known about the current status and impact of tendering procedures for medicines in ambulatory care. In conclusion, the European experience suggests that there is not a single approach towards developing generic medicine pricing policies in Europe.

  12. Current status, crisis and trends in Chinese dental technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoyi, Ma; Liwei, Zheng; Li, Yue; Min, Zhou; Haiyang, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Chinese dental technicians play a significant role in the globalised market of dental prosthesis fabrication, but this subject has not been investigated in detail. The demand for dental prostheses increases as individuals pay increasing attention to their oral health. Therefore, it is important to investigate the status of Chinese dental technicians. To evaluate the current status of Chinese dental technicians. Dental technicians' resumés, which reveal information regarding dental technician manpower, degrees, working age and salary, etc., were analysed and compared with those abroad. We also estimated the future demands of dental technician manpower, and discussed some potential solutions. There are fewer dental technicians in China than in other developed countries; they are also of a lower standard. Male technicians outnumber females. The education level of technicians is insufficient, and the education programme is still in its exploratory stage. The development of dental technician teams in China represents both an opportunity and a challenge. It is important to move forward from the current situation to yield long-term development. This article provides information on the Chinese dental technology industry, identifies the problems and offers solutions for its development. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  14. Head size and intelligence, learning, nutritional status and brain development. Head, IQ, learning, nutrition and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Olivares, Manuel G; Díaz, Nora S; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Miller, Patricio T; Bosch, Enrique O; Larraín, Cristián G

    2004-01-01

    This multifactorial study investigates the interrelationships between head circumference (HC) and intellectual quotient (IQ), learning, nutritional status and brain development in Chilean school-age children graduating from high school, of both sexes and with high and low IQ and socio-economic strata (SES). The sample consisted of 96 right-handed healthy students (mean age 18.0 +/- 0.9 years) born at term. HC was measured both in the children and their parents and was expressed as Z-score (Z-HC). In children, IQ was determined by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R), scholastic achievement (SA) through the standard Spanish language and mathematics tests and the academic aptitude test (AAT) score, nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric indicators, brain development was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SES applying the Graffar modified method. Results showed that microcephalic children (Z-HC 2S.D.). Multiple regression analysis revealed that BV, parental Z-HC and BL were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child's Z-HC variance (r(2) = 0.727). These findings confirm the hypothesis formulated in this study: (1) independently of age, sex and SES, brain parameters, parental HC and prenatal nutritional indicators are the most important independent variables that determine HC and (2) microcephalic children present multiple disorders not only related to BV but also to IQ, SA and nutritional background.

  15. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  16. Current status of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Alexis; Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and benchmark the current clinical and dosimetric practices in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the UK. A detailed questionnaire was sent to 70 radiotherapy centres in the UK. 97% (68/70) of centres replied between June and December 2014. 21 centres stated that they are practising SRS, and a further 12 centres plan to start SRS by the end of 2016. The most commonly treated indications are brain metastases and acoustic neuromas. A large range of prescription isodoses that range from 45% to 100% between different radiotherapy centres was seen. Ionization chambers and solid-water phantoms are used by the majority of centres for patient-specific quality assurance, and thermoplastic masks for patient immobilization are more commonly used than fixed stereotactic frames. The majority of centres perform orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays for localization before and during delivery. The acceptable setup accuracy reported ranges from 0.1 to 2 mm with a mean of 0.8 mm. SRS has been increasing in use in the UK and will continue to increase in the next 2 years. There is no current consensus between SRS centres as a whole, or even between SRS centres with the same equipment, on the practices followed. This indicates the need for benchmarking and standardization in SRS practices within the UK. This article outlines the current practices in SRS and provides a benchmark for reference and comparison with future research in this technique.

  17. Smart wearable systems: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marie; Estève, Daniel; Fourniols, Jean-Yves; Escriba, Christophe; Campo, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Extensive efforts have been made in both academia and industry in the research and development of smart wearable systems (SWS) for health monitoring (HM). Primarily influenced by skyrocketing healthcare costs and supported by recent technological advances in micro- and nanotechnologies, miniaturisation of sensors, and smart fabrics, the continuous advances in SWS will progressively change the landscape of healthcare by allowing individual management and continuous monitoring of a patient's health status. Consisting of various components and devices, ranging from sensors and actuators to multimedia devices, these systems support complex healthcare applications and enable low-cost wearable, non-invasive alternatives for continuous 24-h monitoring of health, activity, mobility, and mental status, both indoors and outdoors. Our objective has been to examine the current research in wearable to serve as references for researchers and provide perspectives for future research. Herein, we review the current research and development of and the challenges facing SWS for HM, focusing on multi-parameter physiological sensor systems and activity and mobility measurement system designs that reliably measure mobility or vital signs and integrate real-time decision support processing for disease prevention, symptom detection, and diagnosis. For this literature review, we have chosen specific selection criteria to include papers in which wearable systems or devices are covered. We describe the state of the art in SWS and provide a survey of recent implementations of wearable health-care systems. We describe current issues, challenges, and prospects of SWS. We conclude by identifying the future challenges facing SWS for HM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstates in resting-state EEG: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Arjun; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Michel, Christoph M; Farzan, Faranak

    2015-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful method of studying the electrophysiology of the brain with high temporal resolution. Several analytical approaches to extract information from the EEG signal have been proposed. One method, termed microstate analysis, considers the multichannel EEG recording as a series of quasi-stable "microstates" that are each characterized by a unique topography of electric potentials over the entire channel array. Because this technique simultaneously considers signals recorded from all areas of the cortex, it is capable of assessing the function of large-scale brain networks whose disruption is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we first introduce the method of EEG microstate analysis. We then review studies that have discovered significant changes in the resting-state microstate series in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral states. We discuss the potential utility of this method in detecting neurophysiological impairments in disease and monitoring neurophysiological changes in response to an intervention. Finally, we discuss how the resting-state microstate series may reflect rapid switching among neural networks while the brain is at rest, which could represent activity of resting-state networks described by other neuroimaging modalities. We conclude by commenting on the current and future status of microstate analysis, and suggest that EEG microstates represent a promising neurophysiological tool for understanding and assessing brain network dynamics on a millisecond timescale in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current Status and Future Perspectives of the COBRA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ebert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the COBRA experiment is to prove the existence of neutrinoless double-beta-decay (0νββ-decay and to measure its half-life. For this purpose a detector array made of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CdZnTe semiconductor detectors is operated at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS in Italy. This setup is used to investigate the experimental issues of operating CdZnTe detectors in low-background mode and to identify potential background components, whilst additional studies are proceeding in surface laboratories. The experiment currently consists of monolithic, calorimetric detectors of coplanar grid design (CPG detectors. These detectors are 1 × 1 × 1 cm3 and are arranged in 4 × 4 detector layers. Ultimately four layers will be installed by the end of 2013, of which two are currently operating. To date 82.3 kg·days of data have been collected. In the region of interest for 116Cd around 2.8 MeV, the median energy resolution is 1.5% FWHM, and a background level near 1 counts/keV/kg/y has been reached. This paper gives an overview of the current status of the experiment and future perspectives.

  20. Current status of Procapra gutturosa (Bovidae in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Kirilyuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dzeren, or Mongolian Gazelle (Procapra gutturosa: Bovidae, is included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. In this paper we present its current status in Russia, the legitimacy of attributing it to the IUCN Red List. We describe the restoration process of this species after its complete disappearance in the 1970s. The material is presented in the form of the main sections of the detailed article in the Red Data Book. It contains mainly original data on abundance dynamics, distribution, biotopical confinement, features of biology, limiting factors, accepted and proposed protection measures. A significant part of the information and proposals on protection measures for the Dzeren was included in the project «Strategy on conservation of the Mongolian gazelle in the Russian Federation». The Mongolian Gazelle has successfully established itself in Russia. In 2016, the extent of occurrence of local sedentary Procapra gutturosa groups was 5400 km2 with the population abundance of 8000 individuals. In addition, from several to 45,000-70,000 individuals annually migrate for wintering from Mongolia. According to the IUCN Categories and Criteria, the conservation status of the Mongolian Gazelle in the Russian part of its range corresponds to the category 1 (endangered species of the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation.

  1. Current Status and Perspectives of Forestry Entrepreneurship in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Šporčić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The relevance and importance of forestry entrepreneurship is constantly increasing, especially in countries with high transition dynamics in forestry sector. In Croatia, forestry entrepreneurs have in short time become an indispensable part in the performing of harvesting and other types of forestry operations. This paper presents the current status and perspectives of forestry entrepreneurship in Croatia. Materials and Methods: Based on the analysis of the available data from various sources (normative state acts, Forestry Chamber’s official registries, databases and documents, state forestry company business reports etc., this paper provides an overview of the legal and institutional framework for the activities of private entrepreneurs in Croatian forestry with particular attention to licensing forestry contractors and the role of the Croatian Chamber of Forest and Wood Technology Engineers (Forestry Chamber. Results and Conclusions: The paper explains the activities, tasks, organization structure and formal bodies of the Forestry Chamber. The licensing model is also presented together with the formal criteria and minimum conditions which forestry entrepreneurs have to fulfill in order to acquire a license for forest work operations. Structural characteristics and the profile of forestry entrepreneurs is given by the number, size and type of business, the type of forest operations for which they are licensed, and the volume of work that they are performing for Croatian Forests Ltd, the state forest company. Finally, the paper includes some reflections on the perspectives and possibilities for improving the status of entrepreneurship in Croatian forestry.

  2. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  3. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  4. Current status of cochlear implants in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossone, E

    1995-03-01

    In recent years there has been sufficient clinical evidence gathered to show that cochlear implants can benefit a large number of postlingually and prelingually profoundly deaf patients who could not be helped with conventional hearing aids. The number of implanted patients is increasing rapidly around the world in spite of the diverse difficulties in diagnostic, surgical, and rehabilitation procedures involved in this new technology and the controversy among some otologists. Cochlear implant programs started in Latin America more than 10 years ago, and lately the number of cochlear implant teams and implanted patients have increased rapidly. It is the aim of this report to present the results of a recently completed survey regarding the current status of cochlear implant surgery and rehabilitation in Latin America.

  5. Current status of truffle cultivation: recent results and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zambonelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review the current status of truffle cultivation in Europe and outside Europe is reported. While the cultivation of Tuber melanosporum (Périgord black truffle, Tuber aestivum (summer or Burgundy truffle and Tuber borchii (bianchetto truffle gave good results, only the Italian white truffle (Tuber magnatum, which is the most expensive, has yet to be successfully cultivated. In future a revolutionary approach to truffle cultivation would be the application of mycelial inoculation techniques for producing Tuber infected plants which will allow to select the fungal strains adapted to specific climatic, edaphic conditions and hosts. The new insights which will be gained by the extensive Tuber genome sequencing programme will also help to improve truffle cultivation techniques.

  6. Current status of robotic partial nephrectomy in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Hinata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN has been reported in Western countries. However, there are no similar reported studies of RAPN in Japan. Although common medical services are covered by public health insurance in Japan, RAPN had not been approved as a listed treatment for public insurance. We conducted a prospective clinical trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of RAPN in Japan. The aim of the present review article is to describe current status of RAPN in Japan and to introduce a part of clinical results obtained from the clinical trial. Based on the favorable results obtained in this clinical trial, RAPN was approved in April 2016 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare to be covered by public health insurance. This change allows access to RAPN to everyone in Japan, regardless of wealth. The RAPN techniques used in Japan are also reviewed.

  7. Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.

  8. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  9. FLITECAM: current status and results from observatory verification flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ian S.; Smith, Erin C.; Becklin, E. E.; Dunham, E. W.; Milburn, Jennifer W.; Savage, Maureen L.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the current status of FLITECAM, the near-infrared (1 - 5 μm) camera and spectrometer for NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Due to a change in schedule FLITECAM's delivery was advanced, allowing it to be co-mounted with the HIPO instrument and used on four flights in October 2011 for observatory verification. Although not part of FLITECAM's commissioning time, some preliminary performance characteristics were determined. Image size as a function of wavelength was measured prior to the installation of active mass dampers on the telescope. Preliminary grism spectroscopy was also obtained. In addition, FLITECAM was used to measure the emissivity of the telescope and warm optics in the co-mounted configuration. New narrow band filters were added to the instrument, including a Paschen alpha filter for line emission. Results are illustrated.

  10. Current status of research on emergency response measures at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kensuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    If an accident occurs at a nuclear power plant and if it affects, or is anticipated to affect, the environment by radioactive material release, it is important to minimize consequences to the public by conducting appropriate protective measures, in evaluating source terms (an amount of fission products released to the environment), environmental radiological consequences, effects of the protective measures, and so on. It is also important to give necessary information on the protective measures to the public so as to conduct the measures effectively. In order to support radiological emergency response measures and to contribute to improve emergency plans, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing a computerized support system for the Emergency Technical Advisory Body and a computerized system for optimizing off-site emergency protective measures, and is studying appropriate information transmission methods in an emergency. This report describes current status of research on emergency response measures performed at JAERI. (author)

  11. Penalized estimation for proportional hazards models with current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minggen; Li, Chin-Shang

    2017-12-30

    We provide a simple and practical, yet flexible, penalized estimation method for a Cox proportional hazards model with current status data. We approximate the baseline cumulative hazard function by monotone B-splines and use a hybrid approach based on the Fisher-scoring algorithm and the isotonic regression to compute the penalized estimates. We show that the penalized estimator of the nonparametric component achieves the optimal rate of convergence under some smooth conditions and that the estimators of the regression parameters are asymptotically normal and efficient. Moreover, a simple variance estimation method is considered for inference on the regression parameters. We perform 2 extensive Monte Carlo studies to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the penalized approach and compare it with the 3 competing R packages: C1.coxph, intcox, and ICsurv. A goodness-of-fit test and model diagnostics are also discussed. The methodology is illustrated with 2 real applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  13. The current status of the Korean student health examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Jung

    2013-08-01

    Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect, maintain, and promote students' health. School health care is a program that integrates health care services, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student health examination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must be available to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts in both school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legal basis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveys from the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed for the improvement of SHE and school health care.

  14. Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, K

    2000-01-01

    Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN is presented with an emphasis on technical aspects. This experiment is aimed to search for nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillation with a designed sensitivity of sin/sup 2/(2 theta )~2*10/sup -4/ at large delta m/sup 2/. Accumulation of neutrino interactions in the emulsion target with a data taking of electronic counters were performed from 1994 to 1997 at the CERN neutrino beam. Reading out track informations recorded in the emulsion target is then started using the Track Selector (a dedicated system which automatically reads out tracks recorded in emulsion). Successful development of the Track Selector enabled this experiment end opened a possibility for future experiments. (4 refs).

  15. The Dortmund low background facility. Current status and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian [Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility (DLB) is a low-background gamma ray spectrometry system with an artificial overburden. The overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, in combination with a multi-layer lead castle and an active muon veto are shielding a high-purity germanium detector of 60 % relative efficiency. The background level is remarkably low compared to a conventional spectrometer system without special shielding and enables sensitivities well below 1 Bq/kg. Thus, material screening measurements as well as environmental monitoring measurements are possible on an easy-accessible location above ground at the campus of the Technische Universitaet Dortmund. The integral background count rate between 40 keV and 2700 keV is 2.528±0.004 counts/kg/min, which is comparable to systems that are situated below ground. In the talk, an overview of the current status of the DLB is given and recent developments are presented.

  16. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Muñoz, Daniel; Markl, Michael; Moya Mur, José Luis; Barker, Alex; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Zamorano Gómez, José Luis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging initially focused on heart structures, allowing the visualization of their motion and inferring its functional status from it. Colour-Doppler and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) have allowed a visual approach to intracardiac flow behaviour, as well as measuring its velocity at single selected spots. Recently, the application of new technologies to medical use and, particularly, to cardiology has allowed, through different algorithms in CMR and applications of ultrasound-related techniques, the description and analysis of flow behaviour in all points and directions of the selected region, creating the opportunity to incorporate new data reflecting cardiac performance to cardiovascular imaging. The following review provides an overview of the currently available imaging techniques that enable flow visualization, as well as its present and future applications based on the available literature and on-going works.

  17. Current Status of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) to date and the current development status of the system. NORS is an element of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) used to resupply the ISS with Nitrogen and Oxygen following the impending retirement of the Space Shuttle. The paper will discuss why NASA is developing NORS, including a summary of other concepts considered, and other related concepts currently being developed by NASA. The current system architecture will be described, along with a summary of the current design of the NORS. The overall programmatic schedule of the NORS in the context of the upcoming shuttle retirement and future launch vehicle development will also be presented. Finally, the paper will examine the significant technical challenges encountered during the requirements and preliminary design phase of NORS development. A key challenge to the development of NORS is the international shipment - and associated regulations - of pressurized Oxygen, which is necessary due to the use of launch vehicles based in Japan and French Guiana to send NORS gasses to the ISS. The storage and use of relatively large quantities of high pressure (41,000 kPa) Oxygen and Nitrogen within the ISS, which is unprecedented both on the ISS and other space vehicles, has had a significant impact on the design and architecture of the system. The high pressure of the system also poses unique thermal considerations, which has led to the development of a heater system for thermal conditioning of high pressure gas to avoid thermal impacts on downstream hardware. The on-orbit envelope allocated to the NORS has changed (gotten smaller) and has impacted both the design and architecture of the system. Finally, the balance of safety considerations associated with these high pressure gasses, particularly high pressure Oxygen, with the functionality of the system has profoundly impacted the form

  18. Current Status of the Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Chang, Dae-Sik; Hwang, Churl-Kew; Lee, Seok-Kwan; Jin, Jeong-Tae; Oh, Byung-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Daejeon ion accelerator complex (DIAC) is being constructed at Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI) in order to fulfill an increasing demand for heavy ion beam facilities for various purposes including structural material study, biological research and nanomaterial treatment. The accelerators in the DIAC are designed to produce heavy ion beams with energies up to 1 MeV/u and beam currents up to 300 μA. [1–4] In this article, current status of the DIAC construction is presented and discussed. The DIAC facilities are designed to handle stable non-radioactive beams. According to user demand, the separated two ECR sources (i.e., an 18 GHz KEK – the high energy accelerator research organization ECR ion source with a metal oven and a 14.5 GHz KAERI ECR ion source) together with low energy beam transport line (LEBT) can supply linacs with both metal and non-metal ions. From the successful full-power test results, we confirmed that the IH and RFQ linacs work properly and then they are ready to accelerate heavy ions up to 1.09 MeV/nucleon. Since all tests and reorganization of the integrated control system were successful, it is supposed that the DIAC is now ready for beam tuning. Presently, construction of radiation shielded walls and radiation safety licensing are now in progress.

  19. Current Status of Postdoctoral and Graduate Programs in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Leon

    2017-08-01

    Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions. Those seeking graduate dental education today are smaller in number and include more international dental graduates than in the past. Graduate dental education in general dentistry and in the nine recognized dental specialties now includes Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) recognition of training standards as part of its accreditation process and a CODA accreditation process for areas of clinical education not recognized as specialties by the American Dental Association. Current types of programs include fellowship training for students in recognized specialties. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  20. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  1. Status report on Corsica modeling for current drive scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, T. A.; Crotinger, J.; Moller, J.M.; Pearlstein, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    This milestone report covers the progress and status of Corsica modeling for DIII-D experiments over the past year, since our previous report in September, 1995. During this time, we have concentrated on improvements to the code in support of our ability to do self-consistent, predictive modeling of DIII-D discharges. Our interest is in obtaining a tool, benchmarked with experimental data, for developing advanced tokamak operations scenarios including simulation and analysis of high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges and control of the current profile evolution. Our major focus has been on installing and improving the neutral beam current drive mode in Corsica; this element is critical to modeling the evolution of DIII-D discharges. The NFREYA neutral beam deposition code was installed (starting with a version consistent with GA`s ONETWO code) and the capability for following particle orbits, including the effects of drifts, was added for determining the current driven by neutral beam -injection. In addition, improved methods for more easily integrating experimental profile measurements into the code operation and for calculating Z{sub eff} either from models or from impurity density measurements have been added. We have recently begun to turn on various transport models in our simulation of discharge evolution. We have concentrated on the NCS configuration and have simulated the evolution of two different high neutron reactivity discharges; an NCS discharge with L-mode edge and a single- null, weak NCS discharge from the JET/ITER/DIII-D equivalent shape experiments. Corsica simulation results for these discharges were presented at the EPS meeting in Kiev, Ukraine in June, 1996.

  2. Pediatric neurology training in Canada: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif

    2012-05-01

    Child neurology training in Canada has changed considerably over time, with increasing requirements for standardized teaching of the fundamentals of child neurology and the CanMEDS competencies. We sought to determine the current status of child neurology training in Canada as well future directions for training. A web-based survey was sent to program directors (PD's) of active pediatric neurology training programs. General questions about the programs were asked, as well as about success at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) exam, breakdown of rotations, views on CanMEDS roles and questions on the future of pediatric neurology. 9/9 PD's completed the survey. 96.5% of all trainees successfully passed their RCPSC exam from 2001-2006. Breakdowns of the number and type of rotations for each year of training were provided. All CanMEDS roles were deemed to be important by PD's and programs have developed unique strategies to teach and assess these roles.92.6% of trainees chose to go into academic practice, with the most popular subspecialty being epilepsy. All PD's favour joint training sessions particularly for neurogenetics and neuromuscular disease. Overall, PD's suggest recruitment for future child neurologists at the medical student level but are divided as to whether we are currently training too few or too many child neurologists. This survey provides a view of the current state of pediatric neurology training in Canada and suggestions for further development of post-graduate training. In particular, attention should be given to joint educational programs as well as urgently assessing the manpower needs of child neurologists.

  3. Current challenges in the management of breast cancer brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ciara C; Davarpanah, Nicole N; Abraham, Jame; Bates, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) ultimately develop breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM), which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The advent of HER2-directed therapy resulted in greatly improved survival outcomes, but unfortunately at the price of an increased cumulative incidence of BCBM. We review challenges in the management of BCBM, and potential treatment strategies, including novel agents such as poly-adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib, veliparib), cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors (palbociclib, abemaciclib), and taxane derivatives (eg, ANG1005 and TPI-287). The utility of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-directed therapies-lapatinib, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), neratinib and tucatinib-is also being studied in this setting. We address the need for improved imaging techniques and innovation in clinical trial design. For example, the current practice is to initially administer whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as treatment for patients with multiple BCBM. However, in selected circumstances, first-line systemic treatment may be more appropriate in order to avoid neurocognitive toxicities, and potential options should be evaluated in window of opportunity trials. Other strategies that may aid development of more effective clinical trials and expedite the development of promising agents include the use of different clinical endpoints and different imaging tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a global catalog of instrumental seismicity: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.; Engdahl, E.; Donnelly, M.

    2008-12-01

    We report the current status of our efforts to create a global catalog of instrumental seismicity that can be used as an authoritative source of earthquake locations, magnitudes and other associated parameters (source mechanisms, rupture areas, casualties, references, etc) in a wide range of geoscience and social science investigations. These efforts can be summarized in three main tasks. First, we are systematically relocating all the instrumental seismicity before 1964 as reported in the bulletins of the International Seismological Summary using the same methodology as with more recent data (Engdahl et al., Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88, 722-743, 1998). The relocations for 1960-1963 were recently completed, and we present here our results for 1959. Second, we are compiling seismic moment estimates, and rupture zone geometries for the largest instrumentally recorded earthquakes. For earthquakes occurring after 1976 the main source of seismic moments is the catalog of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor project, while for earlier events we obtain them from modeling studies found in the scientific literature. Similarly, rupture zones for recent large earthquakes (Mw > 8) are obtained from finite fault inversions of the USGS, aftershock distributions, and other quantitative modeling results, while for earlier events we use information obtained from macroseismic investigations and/or field observations and paleoseismology. Finally, we are organizing all this information in a digital, searchable database that will be accessible through a web interface and/or client-server applications. The schema of this database is based on that adopted by IASPEI and the International Seismological Centre, with extensions for other information not currently included (e.g. rupture areas, surface rupture, slip distribution, detailed information on casualties and damage, etc).

  5. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  6. Current Status of Barrett’s Esophagus Research in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, CY; Cook, Michael B.; Lee, Yi-Chia; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ando, Takafumi; Bhatia, Shobna; Chow, Wong-Ho; El-Omar, Emad M.; Goto, Hidemi; Li, Yang-Qing; McColl, Kenneth; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sharma, Prateek; Sung, Joseph Jao-Yiu; Wong, Jennie Yiik-Yieng; Wu, Justin Che-Yuen; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In Western countries, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer has changed markedly over the past several decades with squamous cell carcinoma undergoing a rapid decline and adenocarcinoma progressively increasing. Although the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux is increasing in Asia, the prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have so far remained low in most Asian countries for which data are available. This provides a unique opportunity for research into the initiating factors of BE and EAC. The Asian Barrett’s Consortium recently conducted a review of published studies on BE from Asia to assess the current status of BE research in Asia, and to recommend potential areas for future BE research in the region. Differences in study design, enrolled population, and endoscopic biopsy protocols used have led to substantial variability in the reported BE prevalence (0.06% to 19.9%) across Asia. As has been observed in Western countries, increased age, male sex, tobacco smoking, reflux symptoms, and erosive esophagitis have been found to be risk factors for BE in several case-control studies from Asia. The Prague C and M criteria, developed to provide better interobserver reliability in diagnosis and grading of BE, are currently under extensive evaluation of their applicability in the Asian population. The Asian Barrett’s Consortium believes that only after adequate reliability in endoscopic and histological diagnosis has been demonstrated will Asian clinicians initiate collaborative projects to identify etiologic determinants of BE and its ensuing malignant transformation. At present, data regarding the management and long-term outcome of BE are extremely limited in Asia. More studies of BE in this geographic area are warranted. PMID:21155883

  7. Current status of Barrett's esophagus research in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Cook, Michael B; Lee, Yi-Chia; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ando, Takafumi; Bhatia, Shobna; Chow, Wong-Ho; El-Omar, Emad M; Goto, Hidemi; Li, Yang-Qing; McColl, Kenneth; Reddy, Nageshwar; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sharma, Prateek; Sung, Joseph J-Y; Ghoshal, Uday; Wong, Jennie Y-Y; Wu, Justin C-Y; Zhang, Jun; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2011-02-01

    In Western countries, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer has changed considerably over the past decades with a rise in the ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. Although the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux is increasing in Asia, the prevalences of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have remained low in most Asian countries. The Asian Barrett's Consortium recently conducted a review of published studies on BE from Asia to assess the current status of BE research in Asia, and to recommend potential areas for future BE research in the region. Differences in study design, enrolled population, and endoscopic biopsy protocols used have led to substantial variability in the reported BE prevalence (0.06% to 19.9%) across Asia. In particular, some Japanese studies used diagnostic criteria that differed considerably from what was used in most Asian studies. As in Western countries, increased age, male sex, tobacco smoking, reflux symptoms, and erosive esophagitis have been found to be risk factors for BE in several case-control studies from Asia. The Prague C and M criteria, developed to provide better interobserver reliability in diagnosis and grading of BE, are currently under extensive evaluation in the Asian population. There is a need for standardized protocols for endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis before initiating collaborative projects to identify etiologic determinants of BE and its ensuing malignant transformation. At present, data regarding the management and long-term outcome of BE are extremely limited in Asia. More studies of BE in this geographic area are warranted. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Interventional nephrology: current status and clinical impact in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Eiichiro; Furuya, Maiko; Tanno, Yudo; Nakao, Masatsugu; Maruyama, Yukio; Maeda, Masutaka; Higuchi, Chieko; Sakurada, Tsutomu; Kaneko, Tomohiro; Io, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Koji; Ueda, Atsushi; Hirano, Keita; Washida, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiraku; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Taniyama, Yoshihiro; Harada, Kenji; Matsuo, Nanae; Okido, Ichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2017-08-02

    Current status and clinical significance of interventional nephrology has not been reported from Japan. Questionnaires were mailed twice to the directors of all 534 Japanese certificated nephrology training institutions in 2014. The main questions were current performance, categorized annual procedure volume and managers of peritoneal dialysis (PD) access, vascular access (VA) surgery, endovascular intervention, and kidney biopsy. Frequencies of nephrologist involvement between high volume center and low volume center and association between the level of nephrologists' involvement to each procedure and annual procedure volume were examined. 332 (62.2%) institutions answered performance of all procedures and 328 (61.4%) institutions answered all procedure volume. Kidney biopsy, VA surgery, endovascular intervention and PD access surgery were performed by any doctors in 94.2, 96.3, 88.4, and 76.2% and each involvement of nephrologist was 93.9, 54.1, 53.1 and 47.6%, respectively. Cochran-Armitage analyses demonstrated significant increases in all 4 procedure volume with greater management by nephrologists (p < 0.01). Nephrologists involvement to VA surgery associated with procedure volume increase in not only VA surgery, but also PD catheter insertion (p < 0.01) and kidney biopsy (p < 0.05). And nephrologists involvement to PD catheter insertion also associated with surgical volume increase in both VA surgery (p < 0.01) and endovascular intervention (p < 0.05). Main manager of all 4 procedures was nephrologist in Japan. Each procedure volume increased as nephrologists become more involved. Acquisition of one specific procedure by nephrologist associated with increase not only in this specific procedure volume, but also the other procedure volume.

  9. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F., E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  10. Current status of anti-inflammatory therapy for posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, H; Marintschev, I; Salzmann, G M

    2016-09-01

    Although there is ample evidence that intra-articular injuries are associated with the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the success of anti-inflammatory, disease-modifying treatments to prevent posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remain uncertain. To summarize the current status of anti-inflammatory therapy for PTOA, we conducted a systematic review. 9 clinical studies in humans were identified applying anti-inflammatory agents to prevent or treat PTOA. A total of 347 patients aged an average 41 ± 14 years were included in this review. 5 studies had comparable designs with randomized allocation. Those studies of course had a statistically significant higher Coleman Methodology Score (65 ± 6) than the case-control studies (39 ± 13, p = 0.013). The most frequently reported main outcome parameter was pain assessed by different scales (n = 7), the most examined joint the knee (n = 7). The majority of the analyses (n = 6) focused on the intra-articular (IA) application of hyaluronic acid (HA) reporting mainly positive effects. One study stated positive results following IA administration of Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in -patients presenting rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Platelet-rich plasma was also used to relieve symptoms following acute injury, but the study quality was too low to conclude any effects. Although the initial data, especially regarding IA HA injection, are encouraging, study designs differ substantially. Therefore, current data does not allow us to conclude that anti-inflammatory therapy following acute injuries has beneficial effects on short- or long-term outcomes.

  11. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  12. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Fu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a clinically feasible technology to prevent the transmission of monogenic inherited disorders in families afflicted the diseases to the future offsprings. The major technical hurdle is it does not have a general formula for all mutations, thus different gene locus needs individualized, customized design to make the diagnosis accurate enough to be applied on PGD, in which the quantity of DNA is scarce, whereas timely result is sometimes requested if fresh embryo transfer is desired. On the other hand, preimplantation genetic screening (PGS screens embryo with aneuploidy and was also known as PGD-A (A denotes aneuploidy in order to enhance the implantation rates as well as livebirth rates. In contrasts to PGD, PGS is still under ferocious debate, especially recent reports found that euploid babies were born after transferring the aneuploid embryos diagnosed by PGS back to the womb and only very few randomized trials of PGS are available in the literature. We have been doing PGD and/or PGS for more than 10 years as one of the core PGD/PGS laboratories in Taiwan. Here we provide a concise review of PGD/PGS regarding its current status, both domestically and globally, as well as its future challenges.

  13. Current status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturaka Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ′South Asia′ plus ′HIV′ , ′AIDS′, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language. Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS. Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context.

  14. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  15. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  16. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  17. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  18. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  19. Robot-assisted urological surgery: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse; Jeong, Wooju; Dabaja, Ali; Menon, Mani

    2012-03-01

    To discuss the current status of robot-assisted urological surgery. We searched PubMed for articles published from 2008 using the search terms 'advances', 'robotic surgery equipment' and 'instrumentation'. We also searched PubMed for articles describing the latest developments in reconstructive techniques for lower and upper urinary tract procedures. Finally, we searched PubMed for original articles containing the terms 'robotic surgery training' and 'credentialing'. With each release of hardware or ancillary instrumentation, the reconstructive abilities of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) improve. Recent developments in reconstructive capabilities of robotic urological surgery include posterior reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, barbed sutures for urethrovesical anastomosis, sliding-clip renorrhaphy for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and repair of pelvic organ prolapse. The safe implementation of robotic surgery is aided by new guidelines in credentialing and proctoring, and the introduction of virtual reality simulators for training. Robotic urological surgery is rapidly developing and expanding globally. To achieve the highest levels of safety for patients, surgeons must ensure that the implementation of robotic surgery is an integrative and effective process.

  20. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  2. Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Fani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs. Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr, other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors.

  3. The current status of theory evaluation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-10-01

    To identify the current status of theory evaluation in nursing and provide directions for theory evaluation for future development of theoretical bases of nursing discipline. Theory evaluation is an essential component in development of nursing knowledge, which is a critical element in development of nursing discipline. Despite earlier significant efforts for theory evaluation in nursing, a recent decline in the number of theory evaluation articles was noted and there have been few updates on theory evaluation in nursing. Discussion paper. A total of 58 articles published from 2003-2014 were retrieved through searches using the PUBMED, PsyInfo and CINAHL. The articles were sorted by the area of evaluation and analysed to identify themes reflecting the theory evaluation process. Diverse ways of theory evaluation need to be continuously used in future theory evaluation efforts. Six themes reflecting the theory evaluation process were identified: (a) rarely using existing theory evaluation criteria; (b) evaluating specifics; (c) using various statistical analysis methods; (d) developing instruments; (e) adopting in practice and education; and (f) evaluating mainly middle-range theories and situation-specific theories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  5. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung

    2018-01-01

    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  6. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kitagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  7. Current status and progress of pancreatic cancer in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Quan-Jun; Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is currently one of the most important public health problems in the world. Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. As in most other countries, the health burden of pancreatic cancer in China is increasing, with annual mortality rates almost equal to incidence rates. The increasing trend of pancreatic cancer incidence is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Annual diagnoses and deaths of pancreatic cancer in China are now beyond the number of cases in the United States. GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that cases in China account for 19.45% (65727/337872) of all newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 19.27% (63662/330391) of all deaths from pancreatic cancer worldwide. The population’s growing socioeconomic status contributes to the rapid increase of China’s proportional contribution to global rates. Here, we present an overview of control programs for pancreatic cancer in China focusing on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe key epidemiological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences between China and developed countries. Facts including no nationwide screening program for pancreatic cancer, delay in early detection resulting in a late stage at presentation, lack of awareness of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population, and low investment compared with other cancer types by government have led to backwardness in China’s pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we suggest measures to improve health outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients in China. PMID:26185370

  8. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  9. Immunotherapy in the management of melanoma: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alston D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dylan Alston,1 Jerry D Brewer21Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: As the rate of melanoma continues to increase, so does the need for more effective and durable therapies. Despite considerable research, the management of advanced disease remains challenging. Numerous therapies are being investigated, many of which aim at upregulating the immune system's innate ability to attack the tumor. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies are immune stimulants that act as negative regulators of the immune system by modifying an antitumor T-cell response. Ipilimumab, one such cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF competitive inhibitor, were approved as first-line therapies in 2011 due to improved survival rates versus standard chemotherapy. Allovectin-7 is a lipid plasmid that encodes for major histone compatibility complex DNA sequences. It has led to increases in cytotoxic T-cell production, which subsequently attacks the tumor. OncoVEX, an oncolytic herpes virus, and PV-10, a chemoablative agent, have yielded promising results in metastatic lesions and have demonstrated a unique "bystandarder" phenomenon. In this paper we review the basics of melanoma from the pathophysiology, risk factors, signs, diagnostic approaches, and current status of immunologic management of melanoma.Keywords: melanoma, immunotherapy, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, OncoVEX, Allovectin-7

  10. [Current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Koichi; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Robotic surgery was launched in Japan in 2000.In particular, the development of the da Vinci S Surgical System was a major breakthrough. It was introduced in Japan for the first time through our hospital in January 2009. Since then, the number of surgical robots used has been dramatically increasing, with up to approximately 160 robots all over the country. To date, we have performed more than 500 robotic surgeries, including 180 gastrectomies, at our hospital. Our data suggest that compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the use of the da Vinci Surgical System in minimally invasive gastrectomy for gastric cancer might improve short-term outcomes, particularly in terms of preventing postoperative local complications. Thus, we believe that use of surgical robots become increasingly beneficial for more extensive resections and operations that require more advanced skills, even though a couple of issues remain to be solved, such as long operative time, high cost, and limited experience and evidence. In this article, the current status and future perspectives regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer are presented based on our experience and a review of the literature.

  11. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  12. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the UK: current status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Distefano, G; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J; Hatton, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has developed from the principles and techniques used in the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain metastases. Advances in computer technology, imaging, planning and treatment delivery and evidence from retrospective analysis of single- and multi-institutional early-phase studies have established SABR in the treatment of medically inoperable early lung cancer. Effective multidisciplinary team working is crucial to safe delivery of SABR. The variation in patient selection, radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques has led to a collective approach to SABR implementation across the UK. Centres developing the technique are represented in the UK SABR Consortium, which is supported by the relevant UK professional bodies and represents a platform to develop extracranial SABR across the UK. The uptake of SABR in the UK has been slowed by workforce issues, but at least 15 centres are currently delivering treatment with over 500 patients treated using UK SABR Consortium guidance. A mentoring program is being piloted helping new centres to develop their programs, and over 30 UK centres are expected to be offering SABR treatment by the end of 2014. The use of consistent guidance for patient selection, treatment planning and delivery in the UK gives the opportunity to collect and audit toxicity and outcome across the centres, contributing to the internationally reported SABR experience. Having established this service in the UK, the development of SABR through clinical research is a priority, and with input from the Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, the UK is developing a national study program that includes participation in international trials. PMID:23873906

  13. Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M

    2017-09-19

    Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while

  14. Education attenuates the negative impact of traumatic brain injury on cognitive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Krch, Denise; Paxton, Jessica; Deluca, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether the cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain differential cognitive impairment among survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), whereby survivors with greater intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) are less vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study. Medical rehabilitation research center. Survivors of moderate or severe TBI (n=44) and healthy controls (n=36). Not applicable. Intellectual enrichment was estimated with educational attainment. Group was defined as TBI or healthy control. Current cognitive status (processing speed, working memory, episodic memory) was evaluated with neuropsychological tasks. TBI survivors exhibited worse cognitive status than healthy persons (Peducation was positively correlated with cognitive status in TBI survivors (r=.54, Peducation (R(2) change=.036, P=.004), whereas higher education attenuated the negative impact of TBI on cognitive status. TBI survivors with lower education performed much worse than matched healthy persons, but this TBI-related performance discrepancy was attenuated at higher levels of education. Higher intellectual enrichment (estimated with education) reduces the negative effect of TBI on cognitive outcomes, thereby supporting the cognitive reserve hypothesis in persons with TBI. Future work is necessary to investigate whether intellectual enrichment can build cognitive reserve as a rehabilitative intervention in survivors of TBI. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

  16. Assessing the nutritional status of beef cattle: current practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Accurate determination of nutritional and health status of animals is invaluable in modern animal agriculture. Body weights and body condition scoring are the commonly used methods of assessing nutritional status of animals. This paper discusses drawbacks these methods have and highlights the benefits ...

  17. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mazzoleni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.

  18. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Duret, Christophe; Grosmaire, Anne Gaëlle; Battini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections), modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation), and enhance motivation (virtual reality) in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.

  19. Combining Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation with Other Therapeutic Approaches after Stroke: Current Status, Rationale, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosmaire, Anne Gaëlle; Battini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections), modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation), and enhance motivation (virtual reality) in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them. PMID:29057269

  20. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Current status of the laser diode array projector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, D. Brett; Saylor, Daniel A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments and the current status of the Laser Diode Array Projector (LDAP) Technology. The LDAP is a state-of-the-art dynamic infrared scene projector system capable of generating high resolution in-band infrared imagery at high frame rates. Three LDAPs are now operational at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC). These projectors have been used to support multiple Hardware-in-the-Loop test entries of various seeker configurations. Seeker configurations tested include an InSb 256 X $256 focal-plane array (FPA), an InSb 512 X 512 FPA, a PtSi 640 X 480 FPA, a PtSi 256 X 256 FPA, an uncooled 320 X 240 microbolometer FPA, and two dual field- of-view (FOV) seekers. Several improvements in the projector technology have been made since we last reported in 1997. The format size has been increased to 544 X 544, and 672 X 512, and it has been proven that the LDAP can be synchronized without a signal from the unit-under test (UUT). The control software has been enhanced to provide 'point and click' control for setup, calibration, image display, image capture, and data analysis. In addition, the first long-wave infrared (LWIR) LDAP is now operational, as well as a dual field of view LDAP which can change its FOV within 0.25 seconds. The projector is interfaced to a Silicon Graphics scene generation computer which is capable of real-time 3-D scene generation. Sample images generated with the projector and captured by an InSb FPA sensor are included in the text.

  2. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants.

  3. Current status of non-invasive prenatal testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Osamu; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Aiko; Wada, Seiji; Hamanoue, Haruka; Hirahara, Fumiki; Sawai, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Yamada, Takahiro; Miura, Kiyonori; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Nakayama, Setsuko; Okai, Takashi; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Namba, Akira; Murotsuki, Jun; Tanemoto, Tomohiro; Fukushima, Akimune; Haino, Kazufumi; Tairaku, Shinya; Matsubara, Keiichi; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Kaji, Takashi; Ogawa, Masanobu; Osada, Hisao; Nishizawa, Haruki; Okamoto, Yoko; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kakigano, Aiko; Kitagawa, Michihiro; Ogawa, Masaki; Izumi, Shunichiro; Katagiri, Yukiko; Takeshita, Naoki; Kasai, Yasuyo; Naruse, Katsuhiko; Neki, Reiko; Masuyama, Hisashi; Hyodo, Maki; Kawano, Yukie; Ohba, Takashi; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Kido, Yasuhiro; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Miharu, Norio; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Hamajima, Naoki; Hirose, Masaya; Sanui, Ayako; Shirato, Nahoko; Yotsumoto, Junko; Nishiyama, Miyuki; Hirose, Tatsuko; Sago, Haruhiko

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the 3-year experience of a nationwide demonstration project to introduce non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of maternal plasma for aneuploidy, and review the current status of NIPT in Japan. Tests were conducted to detect aneuploidy in high-risk pregnant women, and adequate genetic counseling was provided. The clinical data, test results, and pregnancy outcomes were recorded. We discuss the problems of NIPT on the basis of published reports and meta-analyses. From April 2013 to March 2016, 30 613 tests were conducted at 55 medical sites participating in a multicenter clinical study. Among the 30 613 women tested, 554 were positive (1.81%) and 30 021 were negative (98.1%) for aneuploidy. Of the 289, 128, and 44 women who tested positive for trisomies 21, 18, and 13, respectively, and underwent definitive testing, 279 (96.5%), 106 (82.8%), and 28 (63.6%) were determined to have a true-positive result. For the 13 481 women with negative result and whose progress could be traced, two had a false-negative result (0.02%). The tests were performed on the condition that a standard level of genetic counseling be provided at hospitals. Here, we report on the 3-year nationwide experience with NIPT in Japan. It is important to establish a genetic counseling system to enable women to make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. Moreover, a welfare system is warranted to support women who decide to give birth to and raise children with chromosomal diseases. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses.

  5. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. Methods A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Conclusions Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses. PMID:27200224

  6. Current status of leptospirosis in Japan and Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Yasutake; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki

    2007-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness with a wide variety of clinical manifestations and is encountered throughout the world, prominently in tropical areas with high rainfall. In this paper, we review the current status of leptospirosis in two Asian countries, Japan and Philippines, which have quite different situations in terms of economy, environment, infrastructures and prevailing infectious diseases. In Japan, until 1960, more than 200 deaths due to leptospirosis had been reported yearly. After 1960, the number of reported cases had rapidly decreased. Now, leptospirosis cases notified every year were less than 20. After the early 1960s, modernization of agriculture was introduced, at the same time, inactivated vaccine against Leptospira was applied for humans and there was good maintenance of infrastructures such as water works and sewage systems. In Philippines, on the other hand, leptospirosis patients tend to be frequently found in flood-prone areas of urban setting such as Metro Manila, which was found to be the endemic foci of leptospirosis. Morbidity in a rural area (Cabatuan, Iloilo) was 147 cases per 100,000 populations. From 1998 to 2001, about 70% of 1200 suspected leptospirosis patients in Philippines were serologically positive. The average age of patients was 32 years old where 87% of the cases were males and 70% were outdoor workers. Case fatality rate was found to be 12-14%. The estimated major serovars in Metro Manila and neighboring provinces were Manilae, Losbanos, Tarassovi, Poi and an unknown serovar. Outbreaks of leptospirosis in the Philippines are thought to be associated with heavy rainfall, rapid urbanization (dramatic increase in populations), deforestation, increasing number of flood-prone areas, poor infrastructures and many others.

  7. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  8. The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

    Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

  9. Current status of the HIBMC and results of representative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Arimura, Takeshi; Mima, Masayuki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuya; Baba, Masashi; Akagi, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2009-07-01

    The proton radiotherapy (PRT) has been spreading, since 1990 when 250 MeV proton beams with rotation gantry was developed for medical use. On the other hand, carbon-ion radiotherapy (CRT) that has both physical and biological features is available at 4 facilities in the world. HIBMC is the only facility to be able to use both particles. From Apr 2001 to Dec 2008, 2486 patients were treated with PRT in 2030 patients or with CRT in 456. Treatment to the Head and Neck (H&N: in 405 patients), the lung (245), the liver (371), and the prostatic carcinoma (1059) was a major subject. The 2-year local control rates is 72% in H&N (n = 163, T1:9, T2:18, T3:36, T4:79, malignant melanoma 48, adenoid cystic carcinoma 35, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 32, adenocarcinoma 14, others 34), 88% in lung (n = 116, T1:59, T2:42, T3:4, T4:6, SCC 30, adenocarcinoma 59, others 27), and 89% in liver cancer (n = 153, Proton: 130, carbon: 23). Biochemical disease free 3-year survival of 291 prostate cancer is 100% in 9 patients with initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 20 ng/ml. These results are excellent comparable or superior to those of surgery. Thus, particle therapy is sophisticated radiotherapy, however the only problem to prohibit the progress is high costs for construction and maintenance. Facilities at which both proton and carbon ion beams can be used, including the HIBMC, have to investigate the differential use. We started clinical randomized trial to compare both ion beams, and started biological examinations in a project aiming at the development of a laser driven proton radiotherapy. We stated about the current status of the HIBMC and the results of representative diseases.

  10. Epilepsy misconceptions and stigma reduction: Current status in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn K; Welter, Elisabeth; Berg, Anne T; Perzynski, Adam T; Van Doren, Jamie R; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-07-01

    This systematized literature review identified reports describing epilepsy misconceptions in the developed Western countries and research interventions focused on reducing these misconceptions. English language publications from January 2004 to January 2015 that described original research conducted in Europe, North/Central/South America, or Australia on misconceptions about epilepsy among the general public were used for this review. Eighty-one publications were selected. Most studies were conducted in the Americas (N=30) and Europe (N=31). Misconceptions and attitudes about epilepsy were assessed among clinical providers (N=9), family members of people with epilepsy (PWE) (N=5), teachers (N=11), students (N=22), and the general public (N=25). Most studies used structured questionnaires, sometimes adding open-ended questions. Misconceptions reflected socially exclusionary attitudes directed at PWE, ignorance about treatment, and overgeneralizations that are stigmatizing when applied to all PWE. Misconceptions were more prevalent in those with less education, lower socioeconomic status, and no exposure to PWE. There were only 12 intervention studies. While intervention studies were generally effective in improving attitudes, many were targeted to healthcare and education settings, were time-intensive, and impractical for broad general population implementation. None incorporated newer technology-based strategies regarding effective health communication approaches. Types of epilepsy misconceptions were similar in reports published over the last decade, although most referred to misconceptions that have already been previously described. Existing questionnaires may fail to identify more subtle forms of current misconceptions and negative attitudes. Few interventional studies specifically target epilepsy stigma. Practical and broad scalable approaches to destigmatize epilepsy may help reduce misconceptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

    2013-06-01

    provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics).

  12. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  13. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  14. Review of mercury pollution in South Africa: current status

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a review on the status of mercury (Hg) as a pollutant in South African aquatic ecosystems. Spatial patterns of Hg distribution and bioaccumulation in water resources were investigated by collecting and analyzing multimedia...

  15. Current status of organ transplant in Islamic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2015-04-01

    The Organization of Islamic Cooperation consists of 57 member states whose people are mainly followers of the Islamic religion. During the past several decades, organ transplants have been increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage organ failures worldwide. This study is to investigate the current status of organ transplant in Islamic countries. For data collection a literature, review was carried out. Information from international registries was used and key persons from some countries were contacted. In all 5 Islamic countries of North Africa, living-donor kidney transplant was performed. Tunisia was the only country with deceased-donor organ transplant in North Africa. In 22 Islamic countries of sub-Saharan Africa, living-donor kidney transplant was performed only in Sudan and Nigeria. Deceased-donor organ transplant was illegal and nonexistent in this region. In all 14 Islamic countries of the Middle East, living-donor kidney transplant was an established practice. Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia had the highest rates of organ transplant activity. In 2013, Turkey performed the highest rate of living-donor kidney and liver transplants, and Iran performed the highest rate of deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants. For 7 Islamic countries of Central Asia, organ transplant was nonexistent in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan; in the other 5 countries, a limited number of living-donor kidney or liver transplants were performed. In all 6 countries located in South and Southeast Asia, living-donor kidney transplant was performed. Only Malaysia had a limited-scale deceased-donor transplant program. Albania in the Balkans, and 2 countries (Suriname and Guyana) in South America, were also member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation; in these countries, only few living-donor kidney transplants were performed. The organ transplant rates, especially for deceased-donor transplant, in most Islamic countries were less than expected. Some of the causes of low

  16. Current status of the New Antiepileptic drugs in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Sidhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various Non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder

  17. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma-current status and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Soumen; Moore, Kevin R; Vats, Tribh S; Kestle, John R W

    2011-09-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas which constitute 15% of all childhood brain tumors are inoperable and response to radiation and chemotherapy has not improved long-term survival. Due to lack of newer effective therapies, mean survival after diagnosis has remained less than 12 months. Trials investigating chemotherapy and/or radiation have proven disappointing. As biopsy of these tumors are rarely performed due to the high eloquence of the brain stem, information about the pathology and biology remains elusive hindering development of novel biologic agents. Poor access of most chemotherapeutic agents to these tumors due to the blood-brain barrier continues to undermine therapeutic efficacy. Thus, to date, we remain at a virtual standstill in our attempts to improve the prognosis of children with these tumors. An extensive review of the literature was performed concerning children with diffuse brain stem gliomas including clinical trials, evolving molecular biology, and newer therapeutic endeavors. A pivotal approach in improving the prognosis of these tumors should include the initiation of biopsy and encouraging families to consider autopsy to study the molecular biology. This will help in redefining this tumor by its molecular signature and profiling targeted therapy. Continued advances should be pursued in neuroimaging technology including identifying surrogate markers of early disease progression. Defining strategies to enhance local delivery of drugs into tumors with the help of newer surgical techniques are important. Exhaustive research in all these aspects as a multidisciplinary approach could provide hope to children with these fatal tumors.

  18. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  19. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations...

  20. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  1. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  2. Curriculum leadership in the postgraduate: Gap between current and optimal status

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Avizhgan; Ebrahim Mirshah Jafari; Ahmad Reza Nasr; Tahereh Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying the strengths and weakness points is one of the effective methods to analyze current status, and prioritizing actions based on the gap between current and optimal status is necessary for short-term and long-term planning in departments and colleges. The aim of this study was to determine the gap between current and optimal status of curriculum leadership in the postgraduate courses in two Iranian universities. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a sam...

  3. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    and drug regimens for anti-TB chemotherapy. There are a number of difficulties in drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with increased potential for antimycobacterial effects, excellent pharmacokinetics, and tolerability. It should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of chemotherapy of TB and MAC infections, especially that associated with HIV infection, is to develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized countries but also in developing countries, since the incidences of AIDS-associated intractable TB and MAC infections are rapidly increasing in the latter. We strongly wish a great advance of fundametal and practical studies in developing such kinds of new anti-TB drugs in the near future. 1. Prospects for non-clinical or clinical development of new antituberculous drugs in relation to corporate strategy: Kenji NAMBA (New Product Research Laboratories I, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest threats to public health. No new anti-TB drugs have been brought into the clinic in the past 40 years. Current non-clinical works with progressed technology and Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, a non-profit organization established in 2000, accelerate research and development of faster-acting anti-TB compounds. We reviewed the status of new types of compounds which are being developed as anti-TB drug, such as diarylquinoline (TMC 207), nitroimidazole (PA-824 and OPC-67683), and moxifloxacin (MFLX). We also discussed the best clinical development plans for new-TB drugs in relation to corporate strategy. 2. Exploring novel drug targets through the chemical genomics approach and its possible application to the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs: Yorimasa SUWA (Reverse Proteomics Research Institute Co., Ltd.), Yohji SUZUKI (Teijin Ltd.) Recently, chemical genomics approach has been focused as an emerging technology for the drug discovery. In advance to a very large scale

  4. Water diffusion closely reveals neural activity status in rat brain loci affected by anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Abe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI. Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs, especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status. Electrical stimulation of the central medial thalamus nucleus (CM exhibiting this anesthesia-induced ADC increase led the animals to transiently wake up. Infusion in the CM of furosemide, a specific neuronal swelling blocker, led the ADC to increase further locally, although LFP activity remained unchanged, and increased the current threshold awakening the animals under CM electrical stimulation. Oppositely, induction of cell swelling in the CM through infusion of a hypotonic solution (-80 milliosmole [mOsm] artificial cerebrospinal fluid [aCSF] led to a local ADC decrease and a lower current threshold to wake up the animals. Strikingly, the local ADC changes produced by blocking or enhancing cell swelling in the CM were also mirrored remotely in areas functionally connected to the CM, such as the cingulate and somatosensory cortex. Together, those results strongly suggest that neuronal swelling is a significant mechanism underlying DfMRI.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. Current status of fertility control methods in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    **Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7090,. Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA ...... Update 3 325–334. Ahmed F, Bamji M S and Iyengar L 1975 Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin nutrition status; Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28 606–615. Ahsan R K, Kapur M M, Farooq A and ...

  7. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Han; Qifa Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Rice ( L.) is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. Current status and perspectives of synchrotron radiation in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1996-11-01

    The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x-ray source for many medical applications. The present status of synchrotron angiography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy at laboratories around the world is reviewed and some future projections for these applications are addressed.

  17. Current status of the AMS program at the TANDAR Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, J.; Alvarez, D.E.; Liberman, R.G. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The status of the AMS program at the TANDAR laboratory is briefly overviewed and recent improvements on the tandem accelerator are summarized. {sup 36} Cl measurements have been extensively performed and studies with nickel beams have been started. Their results are presented and evaluated in the context of future activities. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs.; marti at tandar.cnea.edu.ar

  18. Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a biological assessment of Toro Game Reserve, the status of Uganda kob Kobus kob Thomasi Newmann, was studied. A survey of traditional mating grounds, foot transects and opportunistic sightings was used to determine population size and structure. The influences of habitat, predation and poaching intensity ...

  19. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben

    Dabbling ducks (Anas ssp.) are cornerstone species in wetland bird communities and yet in many cases we lack sufficient data to judge the conservation status of the flyway population. In a first step to remedy this we here compile all available data on Mallard in the Nordic countries. We find...

  20. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  1. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  17. New horizons in predictive toxicology: current status and application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, A. G. E

    2012-01-01

    "In this comprehensive discussion of predictive toxicology and its applications, leading experts express their views on the technologies currently available and the potential for future developments...

  18. Tiagabine: efficacy and safety in partial seizures – current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Bauer, Déirdre Cooper-MahkornDepartment of Epileptology, Bonn University Hospital, GermanyAbstract: Tiagabine hydrochloride (TGB is a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA reuptake inhibitor. TGB is effective as an add-on medication in adults and children 12 years and older in the treatment of partial seizures. Results of nonrandomized add-on trials with TGB show treatment success with seizure reduction of at least 50% in 33% to 46% of patients. In newly diagnosed patients with partial epilepsy, TGB monotherapy was as effective as carbamazepine. Comedication with TGB elevates the risk of nonconvulsive status (7.8% vs 2.7% without TGB. The most common side effects include dizziness/lightheadedness, asthenia/lack of energy and somnolence. TGB has no negative effects on cognition; it does not increase the risk of fractures or rash. TGB may interfere with color perception. TGB presents an intermediate risk for depression in patients with epilepsy (approximately 4%. Regarding the risk of overdose, 96–680 mg TGB (mean 224 mg caused seizures or coma. TGB is an antiepileptic drug exhibiting a specific anticonvulsive mechanism of action, the efficacy of which is relatively low when used in comedication. Critical side effects, such as the induction of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, further limit its use.Keywords: epilepsy, tiagabine, antiepileptic drugs, status epilepticus, pharmacotherapy

  19. What limits the performance of current invasive brain machine interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Gytis

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a brain-machine interface (BMI) or a computer-brain interface is simple: BMI creates a communication pathway for a direct control by brain of an external device. In reality BMIs are very complex devices and only recently the increase in computing power of microprocessors enabled a boom in BMI research that continues almost unabated to this date, the high point being the insertion of electrode arrays into the brains of 5 human patients in a clinical trial run by Cyberkinetics with few other clinical tests still in progress. Meanwhile several EEG-based BMI devices (non-invasive BMIs) were launched commercially. Modern electronics and dry electrode technology made possible to drive the cost of some of these devices below few hundred dollars. However, the initial excitement of the direct control by brain waves of a computer or other equipment is dampened by large efforts required for learning, high error rates and slow response speed. All these problems are directly related to low information transfer rates typical for such EEG-based BMIs. In invasive BMIs employing multiple electrodes inserted into the brain one may expect much higher information transfer rates than in EEG-based BMIs because, in theory, each electrode provides an independent information channel. However, although invasive BMIs require more expensive equipment and have ethical problems related to the need to insert electrodes in the live brain, such financial and ethical costs are often not offset by a dramatic improvement in the information transfer rate. Thus the main topic of this review is why in invasive BMIs an apparently much larger information content obtained with multiple extracellular electrodes does not translate into much higher rates of information transfer? This paper explores possible answers to this question by concluding that more research on what movement parameters are encoded by neurons in motor cortex is needed before we can enjoy the next generation BMIs.

  20. What limits the performance of current invasive Brain Machine Interfaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis eBaranauskas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a brain-machine interface (BMI or a computer-brain interface is simple: BMI creates a communication pathway for a direct control by brain of an external device. In reality BMIs are very complex devices and only recently the increase in computing power of microprocessors enabled a boom in BMI research that continues almost unabated to this date, the high point being the insertion of electrode arrays into the brains of 5 human patients in a clinical trial run by Cyberkinetics with few other clinical tests still in progress. Meanwhile several EEG-based BMI devices (non-invasive BMIs were launched commercially. Modern electronics and dry electrode technology made possible to drive the cost of some of these devices below few hundred dollars. However, the initial excitement of the direct control by brain waves of a computer or other equipment is dampened by large efforts required for learning, high error rates and slow response speed. All these problems are directly related to low information transfer rates typical for such EEG-based BMIs. In invasive BMIs employing multiple electrodes inserted into the brain one may expect much higher information transfer rates than in EEG-based BMIs because, in theory, each electrode provides an independent information channel. However, although invasive BMIs require more expensive equipment and have ethical problems related to the need to insert electrodes in the live brain, such financial and ethical costs are often not offset by a dramatic improvement in the information transfer rate. Thus the main topic of this review is why in invasive BMIs an apparently much larger information content obtained with multiple extracellular electrodes does not translate into much higher rates of information transfer? This paper explores possible answers to this question by concluding that more research on what movement parameters are encoded by neurons in motor cortex is needed before we can enjoy the next

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  2. Single dose treatment of malaria - current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischlinger, Johannes; Agnandji, Selidji T; Ramharter, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased international efforts for control and ultimate elimination, malaria remains a major health problem. Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapies are the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria exhibiting high efficacy in clinical trial settings in sub-Saharan Africa. However, their administration over a three-day period is associated with important problems of treatment adherence resulting in markedly reduced effectiveness of currently recommended antimalarials under real world settings. Antimalarial drug candidates and antimalarial drug combinations currently under advanced clinical development for the indication as single dose antimalarial therapy. Expert commentary: Several new drug candidates and combinations are currently undergoing pivotal proof-of-concept studies or clinical development programmes. The development of a single dose combination therapy would constitute a breakthrough in the control of malaria. Such an innovative treatment approach would simultaneously close the effectiveness gap of current three-day therapies and revolutionize population based interventions in the context of malaria elimination campaigns.

  3. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Alingh, Rolinde A.; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. METHODS: The current implementation status of a sports and

  4. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  5. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Fermilab’s Accelerator Complex: Current Status, Upgrades and Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, M. E. [Fermilab

    2016-10-31

    We report on the status of the Fermilab accelerator complex, including recent performance, upgrades in progress, and plans for the future. Beam delivery to the neutrino experiments surpassed our goals for the past year. The Proton Improvement Plan is well underway with successful 15 Hz beam operation. Beam power of 700 kW to the NOvA experiment was demonstrated and will be routine in the next year. We are also preparing the Muon Campus to commission beam to the g-2 experiment.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II

  8. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  9. Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences...

  10. Review: Capripoxvirus Diseases: Current Status and Opportunities for Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tuppurainen, E. S. M.; E.H. Venter; Shisler, J. L.; Gari, G.; Mekonnen, G. A.; Juleff, N.; Lyons, N. A.; De Clercq, K.; Upton, C.; Bowden, T. R.; Babiuk, S.; Babiuk, L A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lumpy skin disease, sheeppox and goatpox are high?impact diseases of domestic ruminants with a devastating effect on cattle, sheep and goat farming industries in endemic regions. In this article, we review the current geographical distribution, economic impact of an outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and immunity of capripoxvirus. The special focus of the article is to scrutinize the use of currently available vaccines to investigate the resource needs and challenges that will have ...

  11. Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (..omega..2..pi.. )approximately) GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (..cap omega../sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies ()approxreverse arrowlt) 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma ()approxreverse arrowgt) 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ..omega.. )approximately) ..cap omega../sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Current status of intraoperative real-time vibrography in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, M; Lorenz, A; Pesavento, A; Brendel, B; Khaled, W; Engelhardt, M; Pechlivanis, I; Noack, V; Harders, A; Schmieder, K

    2007-10-01

    Intracranial lesions are often characterized by different elasticities. The aim of the present study was to test the application of vibrography during brain tumor surgery. The real-time vibrography system consisted of a conventional ultrasound system (Siemens Sonoline Omnia) with a custom-designed RF interface and a 6.5-MHz endocavity curved array (Siemens 6.5EC10). The RF data were digitized using a 50-MHz, 12-bit PCI analog/digital (A/D) converter for real-time or offline processing. Static compression was replaced by low-frequency axial vibration of the probe. A special applicator equipped with a stepping motor moved the ultrasonic probe and produced a low frequency mechanical vibration of 5-10 Hz with a vibration amplitude of 0.3 mm and slight preliminary compression (totalcontrol resection. In other cortical and subcortical tumors (e. g. metastases), it can provide an impression of the intratumoral elasticities.

  13. Development of speech prostheses: current status and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Guenther, Frank H

    2010-09-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed over the past decade to restore communication to persons with severe paralysis. In the most severe cases of paralysis, known as locked-in syndrome, patients retain cognition and sensation, but are capable of only slight voluntary eye movements. For these patients, no standard communication method is available, although some can use BCIs to communicate by selecting letters or words on a computer. Recent research has sought to improve on existing techniques by using BCIs to create a direct prediction of speech utterances rather than to simply control a spelling device. Such methods are the first steps towards speech prostheses as they are intended to entirely replace the vocal apparatus of paralyzed users. This article outlines many well known methods for restoration of communication by BCI and illustrates the difference between spelling devices and direct speech prediction or speech prosthesis.

  14. Bacterial Wilt in China: History, Current Status, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt caused by plant pathogenic Ralstonia spp. is one of the most important diseases affecting the production of many important crops worldwide. In China, a large scientific community has been dedicated to studying bacterial wilt and its causative agent, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and R. solanacearum. Most of their work was published in Chinese, which has hindered international communication and collaboration in this field. In this review, we summarize the status of knowledge on geographical distribution, diversity, and host range of Ralstonia spp., as well as, the impact of bacterial wilt on important crops and disease control approaches, in China. We present areas of research and publications by Chinese scientists and propose the promotion of collaborative research within China and with the international community.

  15. Current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume...... for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, it is important to know the typical indications for surgery, re-operation rates, details of surgical technique, and status of surgical training on a national level in order to rationalize interventions to improve outcome. METHODS: Data from the National Hernia Database...... for the last 8 years regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were used in combination with questionnaire data obtained from all surgical units in Denmark. The questionnaire included issues such as the number of operating surgeons in the department, number of residents training in the laparoscopic...

  16. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  17. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  18. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    , aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current......This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided...

  19. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  20. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  1. Current status of chestnut in eastern US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWiliams; Tonya W. Lister; Elizabeth B. LaPoint; Anita K. Rose; John S. Vissage

    2006-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides the opportunity to assess the current distribution of American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh) and prospective trends. Assessing chestnut using the FIA data was challenging because of the coarse nature of the FIA sample and chestnut's rarity in natural...

  2. Current status of multimodel superensemble and operational NWP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last thirty years great strides have been made by large-scale operational numerical weather prediction models towards improving skills for the medium range time-scale of 7 days.This paper illustrates the use of these current forecasts towards the construction of a consensus multimodel forecast product called the ...

  3. Current Status in the Therapy of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Uhl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and Wilson’s disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(tide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials, adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects, while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

  4. Current status and new directions in conceptual aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, George H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: systems analysis branch questions; systems analysis; historical perspective; background technology; conceptual design/evaluation program organization; system integration/vehicle closure; conceptual design synthesis programs; numerical optimization/mathematical programming; and current R&D interests. The discussion is presented in viewgraph format.

  5. Systematics of key phytopathogenic fusaria: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief review is intended to provide plant pathologists and other scientists, especially ones in Japan, with a current overview of the most important fusarial phytopathogens and mycotoxin producers. Knowledge of Fusarium species diversity and their evolutionary relationships has increased dramat...

  6. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M.; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J.

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged…

  7. CURRENT STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF TACTILE CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Poshivailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief survey of the current state and prospects of tactile cartography development. Some types of adaptive cognitive aids for blind people are considered. The authors share their experience in developing innovative form of cartographic products – tactile audiovisual device.

  8. Current status of HPV screening | Lombaard | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 3 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  9. EMDR and the anxiety disorders: exploring the current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical

  10. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  11. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  12. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, a...

  13. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critical review of the available renewable energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. It examines the current energy situation in the country and equally discusses the various energy policy documents developed by the government. Using the scenario-based ...

  14. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection: review of current status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is endemic in Nigeria. Efforts to curtail the spread by way of prevention, diagnosis and treatment, have been inadequate and the disease has continued to pose great challenge to the third world as evidenced by its endemicity in Nigeria. The current review highlights the clinical ...

  15. Current status of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the current distribution of the larger grain borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus, in five states of South-western Nigeria; Ogun, Oyo, Lagos, Ondo and Osun by visual observation of maize stored in cribs and using the synthetic aggregation pheromone of LGB as baits in survey traps for twenty days.

  16. Current status of the tardigrada: evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane R

    2002-07-01

    The Tardigrada are bilaterally symmetrical micrometazoans with four pairs of lobopod legs terminating in claws or sucking disks. They occupy a diversity of niches in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments throughout the world. Some have a cosmopolitan distribution, while others are endemic. About 900 species have been described thus far, but many more species are expected as additional habitats are investigated. Most are less than 1 mm in body length and are opaque or translucent, exhibiting colors such as brown, green, orange, yellow, red, or pink in the cuticle and/or gut. Marine species are more variable in body shape and overall appearance and generally exhibit low population density with high species diversity. Reproductive modes include sexual reproduction and parthenogenesis, but much remains to be known about development. Tardigrades have a hemocoel-type of fluid-filled body cavity, a complete digestive tract, and a lobed dorsal brain with a ventral nerve cord with fused ganglia. Recent molecular analyses and additional morphological studies of the nervous system have confirmed the phylogenetic position of tardigrades as a sister group of the arthropods. The ability of tardigrades to undergo cryptobiosis has long intrigued scientists. Although tardigrades are active only when surrounded by a film of water, they can enter latent states in response to desiccation (anhydrobiosis), temperature (cryobiosis), low oxygen (anoxybiosis), and salinity changes (osmobiosis). Cryptobiotic states aid in dispersal.

  17. The channel hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Bruce L; Hirakura, Yutaka; Azimov, Rustam; Azimova, Rushana; Lin, Meng-Chin

    2002-07-01

    The channel hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes that the beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides which accumulate in plaques in the brain actually damage and/or kill neurons by forming ion channels. Evidence from a number of laboratories has demonstrated that Abeta peptides can form ion channels in lipid bilayers, liposomes, neurons, oocyctes, and endothelial cells. These channels possess distinct physiologic characteristics that would be consistent with their toxic properties. Abeta channels are heterogeneous in size, selectivity, blockade, and gating. They are generally large, voltage-independent, and relatively poorly selective amongst physiologic ions, admitting calcium ion (Ca(2+)), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), Li(+), and possibly Cl(-). They are reversibly blocked by zinc ion (Zn(2+)), and tromethamine (tris), and irreversibly by aluminum ion (Al(3+)). Congo red inhibits channel formation, but does not block inserted channels. Although much evidence implicates Abeta peptides in the neurotoxicity of AD, no other toxic mechanism has been demonstrated to be the underlying etiology of AD. Channel formation by several other amyloid peptides lends credence to the notion that this is a critical mechanism of cytotoxicity.

  18. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios [King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), Camberwell, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading ''Huntington Disease'' combined with text and key words ''Huntington Disease'', ''Neuroimaging'' and ''PET''. Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O), presynaptic ([{sup 18}F]fluorodopa, [{sup 11}C]β-CIT and [{sup 11}C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([{sup 11}C]SCH22390, [{sup 11}C]FLB457 and [{sup 11}C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([{sup 18}F]JNJ42259152, [{sup 18}F]MNI-659 and [{sup 11}C]IMA107), and adenosine ([{sup 18}F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([{sup 18}F]MK-9470), opioid ([{sup 11}C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([{sup 11}C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed

  19. Brain-computer interfaces current trends and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The success of a BCI system depends as much on the system itself as on the user’s ability to produce distinctive EEG activity. BCI systems can be divided into two groups according to the placement of the electrodes used to detect and measure neurons firing in the brain. These groups are: invasive systems, electrodes are inserted directly into the cortex are used for single cell or multi unit recording, and electrocorticography (EcoG), electrodes are placed on the surface of the cortex (or dura); noninvasive systems, they are placed on the scalp and use electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) to detect neuron activity. The book is basically divided into three parts. The first part of the book covers the basic concepts and overviews of Brain Computer Interface. The second part describes new theoretical developments of BCI systems. The third part covers views on real applications of BCI systems.

  20. Status of the brain antioxidant system at different growing periods after prenatal stress and N -acetyl cysteine administration

    OpenAIRE

    Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt; Sampath Madhyastha; Lakshminarayana Bairy; Anoop Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioral deficits observed in offspring are multifactorial, including oxidative stress in the developing brain. The time by which the developing brain acquires self-defense against oxidative stress is not clear. Hence in the present study we aimed to evaluate the brain antioxidant status during different developing periods. Further the study also evaluates the role of the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the brain antioxidant status. Pregnant ra...

  1. Review: Capripoxvirus Diseases: Current Status and Opportunities for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Shisler, J L; Gari, G; Mekonnen, G A; Juleff, N; Lyons, N A; De Clercq, K; Upton, C; Bowden, T R; Babiuk, S; Babiuk, L A

    2017-06-01

    Lumpy skin disease, sheeppox and goatpox are high-impact diseases of domestic ruminants with a devastating effect on cattle, sheep and goat farming industries in endemic regions. In this article, we review the current geographical distribution, economic impact of an outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and immunity of capripoxvirus. The special focus of the article is to scrutinize the use of currently available vaccines to investigate the resource needs and challenges that will have to be overcome to improve disease control and eradication, and progress on the development of safer and more effective vaccines. In addition, field evaluation of the efficacy of the vaccines and the genomic database available for poxviruses are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Hodgkin Lymphoma: Current Status and Clinical Trial Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Catherine S; Connors, Joseph M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Leonard, John P; Kahl, Brad S; Little, Richard F; Baizer, Lawrence; Evens, Andrew M; Hoppe, Richard T; Kelly, Kara M; Persky, Daniel O; Younes, Anas; Kostakaglu, Lale; Bartlett, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    The National Clinical Trials Network lymphoid malignancies Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) occurred in November of 2014. The scope of the CTPM was to prioritize across the lymphoid tumors clinically significant questions and to foster strategies leading to biologically informed and potentially practice changing clinical trials. This review from the Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) subcommittee of the CTPM discusses the ongoing clinical challenges in HL, outlines the current standard of care for HL patients from early to advanced stage, and surveys the current science with respect to biomarkers and the landscape of ongoing clinical trials. Finally, we suggest areas of unmet need in HL and elucidate promising therapeutic strategies to guide future HL clinical trials planning across the NCTN. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Anti-EGFR Agents: Current Status, Forecasts and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Pawlak, Sebastian D; Adamkiewicz, Karolina

    2016-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most important and attractive targets for specific anticancer therapies. It is a robust regulator of pathways involved in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Thus far, clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of monoclonal antibodies and synthetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors in targeting this receptor; however, novel strategies are still being developed. This article reviews the current state of efforts in targeting the EGFR in cancer therapy. Following a brief characterization of EGFR, we will present a complete list of anti-EGFR agents that are already approved, and available in clinical practice. Aside from the indications, we will present the sales forecasts and expiry dates of product patents for the selected agents. Finally, we discuss the novel anti-EGFR strategies that are currently in preclinical development.

  4. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Submillimeter Array – current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    The current SMA receiver systems were designed in the mid-1990s and have been operating for more than fifteen years. With regular upgrades to receivers, deployment of the SWARM correlator, expansion of the IF signal transport bandwidth via improvements to the analog IF signal processing hardware, and many other enhancements, the SMA currently greatly outperforms its original specifications in terms of sensitivity, instantaneous bandwidth, and availability of observing modes such as full-Stokes polarization and dual frequency operation.We have recently started to implement a three-year instrument upgrade plan, which we are calling the wSMA. The wSMA will offer even wider bandwidth operation than the current SMA and improved sensitivity. The major subsystems that will form the wSMA include significantly improved, dual polarization receiver cartridges housed in a new cryostat; local oscillator units incorporating modern mm-wave technology; an upgraded signal transmission system; and a further expansion of the SWARM correlator. The cryostat will be cooled by a low-maintenance pulse-tube cryocooler. Two dual-polarization receiver cartridges will cover approximately the same sky frequencies as the current receiver sets; the low-band receiver will be fed by an LO unit covering 210-270 GHz, and the high-band receiver will be fed by an LO covering 280-360 GHz. With a receiver IF band of 4-20 GHz, this will enable continuous sky frequency coverage from 190 GHz to 380 GHz.Details of the upgrade plans will be presented together with a discussion of scientific opportunities afforded by this upgrade, which, once implemented, will enable the SMA to continue to produce the highest quality science throughout the next decade.

  6. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic...... outlines nanomedicine characteristics central to improved targeting of renal cells and highlights the prospects, challenges, and opportunities of nanotechnology-mediated therapies for renal diseases....

  7. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.METHODS: The literature on therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids was assessed with respect to type of study design, quality and variability of data, independent replications by the same or other investigators, magnitude of effects, comparison with other available treatme...

  8. Current Status Of The GRACE Follow-On Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechtner, Frank; Webb, Frank; Watkins, Michael; Landerer, Felix; Dahle, Christoph; Bettadpur, Srinivas

    2017-04-01

    As of the time of this abstract submission, the GRACE Follow-On satellites have been constructed and transferred to Ottobrunn near Munich for several months of operational testing in the IABG test centre. The Russian/Ukraine Dnepr launcher had to be exchanged and a corresponding new contract has been signed by GFZ and Iridium Satellite LLC. This includes a "Rideshare" between GRACE-FO and 5 Iridium-Next satellites on a Space-X Falcon-9 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California within the launch period December 2017 till February 2018. The project team is conducting tests of satellite and instrument operation and performance and evaluating updated simulations of expected performance on-orbit, including the assessment of inter-satellite ranging (for both microwave and laser instruments), accelerometer, thermal variability and deformation, and other instrument and measurement errors. In addition, all required ground analysis software of the Science Data System is in development and being tested at JPL, UTCSR, and GFZ, in preparation for fully integrated end-to-end (international) testing from Level-1 through Level-3 data within 2017. In this presentation, we will provide the detailed status of project integration and test, the latest simulations of science performance, and a revised schedule for remaining project milestones.

  9. Phytochemical based nanomedicines against cancer: Current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwanullah, Md; Amin, Saima; Mir, Showkat Rasool; Fakhri, Khalid Umar; Rizvi, Mohd Moshahid Alam

    2017-11-21

    Cancer continues to be one in all the leading reasons for death worldwide. The mean cancer survival through standard therapeutic strategies has not been significantly improved over the past few decades. Hence, alternate remedies are needed to treat this terrible disease. Recently, natural compounds present in the plants, i.e. phytochemicals have been widely exploited for their anticancer potential. Phytochemicals may exhibit their anticancer activity through targeting different cancer cell signaling pathways, promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, regulating antioxidant status and detoxification. Despite their excellent anticancer activity, the phytochemicals are limited by their low aqueous solubility, poor bioavailability, and poor penetration into cells, hepatic disposition, narrow therapeutic index, and rapid uptake by normal tissues. Therefore, to address these challenges, the scientific community has shifted its significant interests towards nanocarriers based delivery of phytochemicals due to their ability to enhance aqueous solubility, and bioavailability, specific tumor cell/tissue targeting, improved cellular uptake, reducing doses of phytochemicals and achieving steady-state therapeutic levels of the phytochemicals over an extended period of time. Additional advantages include excellent blood stability, multifunctional design of nanocarriers and improvement in anticancer activities. This review aims to summarize recent progress in phytochemical based nanomedicines for effective treatment of cancer.

  10. Current status of training for medical radiation inspector in NIPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In Japan, the prefectural government is performing medical inspection based on the Medical Service Law. The purpose of medical inspection is making it sure that medical procedures in a hospital being scientific, under suitable safety control and proper. Medical inspection is the only system where a governmental agency can go into medical institutions systematically. On the other hand, the Purpose of National Institute of Public Health is to improve public health through training public health personnel and performing research works on public health as is school of public health. In National Institute of Public Health, NIPH, it has many training courses. One of them is training course for medical radiation inspector. The purpose of this course is providing the knowledge and technology about medical radiation inspection by giving lectures and exercises on the knowledge about the radiation safety. Holding of this course is 1 time every year. A period of this course is about four weeks. The half of the contents is lectures about the foundation of radiation hygienics to the radiation safety control corresponding to new medical technology. Exercises, discussions, field training, visits to related institutes are also performed so that it can use for medical radiation inspection directly. In this presentation, the present status of education for medical radiation inspectors in Japan and the analysis of this educational course will be described.

  11. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  12. Current Status of The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartez, Louis; Creighton, Teviet; Jenet, Fredrick; Dolch, Timothy; Boehler, Keith; Bres, Luis; Cole, Brent; Luo, Jing; Miller, Rossina; Murray, James; Reyes, Alex; Rivera, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a distributed array of cross-dipole antennas that are sensitive to radio frequencies from 10 to 88 MHz. LoFASM consists of antennas and front end electronics that were originally developed for the Long Wavelength Array by the U.S. Naval Research Lab, the University of New Mexico, Virginia Tech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. LoFASM, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, will initially consist of 4 stations, each consisting of 12 dual- polarization dipole antenna stands. The primary science goals of LoFASM will be the detection and study of low-frequency radio transients, a high priority science goal as deemed by the National Research Council’s ASTRO2010 decadal survey. The data acquisition system for the LoFASM antenna array uses Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to implement a real time full Stokes spectrometer and data recorder. This poster presents an overview of the LoFASM Radio Telescope as well as the status of data analysis of initial commissioning observations.

  13. Mental status in pregnant women with brain injury sequels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Volynkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473. 

  14. Current status of General Pathology training in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casademont, J; Porcel, J M; Vargas Núñez, J A; González Macías, J

    2013-12-01

    One of the core subjects in university training of the physicians has been General Pathology. Responsibility for this has historically fallen on Internal Medicine specialists. However, we are unaware if this situation is currently maintained. A questionnaire was sent to the coordinators of the subject of the 39 Spanish medical schools to know, among other things, the current denomination of the subjects (traditionally known as «General Pathology»), number of credits, teaching activities included in the subject and number and specialty of the professors responsible for it. Some data from the medical schools that did not respond were obtained from their web pages. A total of 28 of the 39 (72%) medical schools existing in Spain answered the survey. The current denomination of the subject «General Pathology» varied greatly. The mean number of credits (one credit=20-25 h) was 11.2 (range 3 to 29). In 22 of 34 schools (65%), the subject was taught in the third year of the studies, but in 21% of the schools, it was partially and in 15% of the schools, totally, taught in the second year. More than half of the professors (54%) who taught the subject were Internal Medicine specialists, although this responsibility was shared with other specialists in a large proportion. Teaching of General Pathology shows a marked heterogeneity that does not seem to be due to teaching or pedagogic criteria among the different schools of Spain. These facts may be due to less presence in the university setting of Internal Medicine compared to other specialties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Status of Simulation in Otolaryngology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musbahi, Omar; Aydin, Abdullatif; Al Omran, Yasser; Skilbeck, Christopher James; Ahmed, Kamran

    Otolaryngology is a highly technical and demanding specialty and the requirements for surgical trainees to acquire proficiency remains challenging. Simulation has been purported to be an effective tool in assisting with this. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the available otolaryngology simulators, their status of validation, and evaluation the level of evidence behind each training model and thereby establish a level of recommendation. PubMed, ERIC, and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles that described otolaryngology simulators or training models between 1980 and April 2016. Any validation studies for simulators were also retrieved. Titles and abstracts were screened for relevance using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Level of evidence (LoE) and Level of recommendation (LoR) was awarded to each study and model, respectively. A total of 70 studies were identified describing 64 simulators. Out of these, at least 54 simulators had 1 validation study. Simulators for the ear and temporal bone surgery were the most common (n = 32), followed by laryngeal and throat (n = 20) and endoscopic sinus surgery (n = 12). Face validity was evaluated by 29 studies, 20 attempted to show construct, 20 assessed content, 20 transfer, and only 2 assessed concurrent validity. Of the validation assessments, 2 were classified as Level 1b, 10 Level 2a, and 48 Level 2b. No simulators received the highest LoR, but 8 simulators received a LoR of 2. Despite the lack of evidence in outcome studies and limited number of high-validity otolaryngology simulators, the role of simulation continues to grow across surgical specialties Hence, it is imperative that the simulators are of high validity and construct for trainees to practice and rehearse surgical skills to develop confidence. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High drug-loading nanomedicines: progress, current status, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shihong; Wu, Youshen; Liu, Yongchun; Wu, Daocheng

    2017-01-01

    Drug molecules transformed into nanoparticles or endowed with nanostructures with or without the aid of carrier materials are referred to as "nanomedicines" and can overcome some inherent drawbacks of free drugs, such as poor water solubility, high drug dosage, and short drug half-life in vivo. However, most of the existing nanomedicines possess the drawback of low drug-loading (generally less than 10%) associated with more carrier materials. For intravenous administration, the extensive use of carrier materials might cause systemic toxicity and impose an extra burden of degradation, metabolism, and excretion of the materials for patients. Therefore, on the premise of guaranteeing therapeutic effect and function, reducing or avoiding the use of carrier materials is a promising alternative approach to solve these problems. Recently, high drug-loading nanomedicines, which have a drug-loading content higher than 10%, are attracting increasing interest. According to the fabrication strategies of nanomedicines, high drug-loading nanomedicines are divided into four main classes: nanomedicines with inert porous material as carrier, nanomedicines with drug as part of carrier, carrier-free nanomedicines, and nanomedicines following niche and complex strategies. To date, most of the existing high drug-loading nanomedicines belong to the first class, and few research studies have focused on other classes. In this review, we investigate the research status of high drug-loading nanomedicines and discuss the features of their fabrication strategies and optimum proposal in detail. We also point out deficiencies and developing direction of high drug-loading nanomedicines. We envision that high drug-loading nanomedicines will occupy an important position in the field of drug-delivery systems, and hope that novel perspectives will be proposed for the development of high drug-loading nanomedicines.

  17. Institutionalisation of Bulgarian ethics committees: history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Yordanka

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the institutionalisation of the ethics review process in Bulgaria in accordance with the worldwide trend in establishment of ethics committees. Historical and current politico-legal changes influencing the work of ethics committees are analysed. The paper focuses on ethics committees which review biomedical research involving humans, with an emphasis on their composition, functions, training of members, and decision-making processes. Recent positive changes addressing insufficient training of ethics committees'members are highlighted. Recommendations are made for enhancement of the ethics review process and improved transparency.

  18. Innovation in biological microscopy: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedlow, Jason R

    2012-05-01

    The current revolution in biological microscopy stems from the realisation that advances in optics and computational tools and automation make the modern microscope an instrument that can access all scales relevant to modern biology - from individual molecules all the way to whole tissues and organisms and from single snapshots to time-lapse recordings sampling from milliseconds to days. As these and more new technologies appear, the challenges of delivering them to the community grows as well. I discuss some of these challenges, and the examples where openly shared technology have made an impact on the field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  20. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Grace M; Coleman, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy); suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent); reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation); and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent). The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. PMID:26869753

  1. Malignant melanoma. Current status; Malignes Melanom. Aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.K.; Buder-Bakhaya, K.; Enk, A.; Hassel, J.C. [Universitaetshautklinik, Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2-year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial. (orig.) [German] Die Inzidenz des Melanoms steigt stetig an. Die Prognose bei metastasierter Erkrankung ist weiterhin limitiert. Bis vor wenigen Jahren war eine palliative Chemotherapie mit begrenzten Ansprechraten Standardtherapie des metastasierten Melanoms. Immuntherapie und zielgerichtete Therapien stellen neue Behandlungsoptionen dar. Insbesondere Immuncheckpointinhibitoren haben die Prognose verbessert. Routinemaessig werden die

  2. Thymoquinone attenuates brain injury via an antioxidative pathway in a status epilepticus rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yi-ye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE. Thymoquinone (TQ is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway.

  3. Current status in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a practical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Francisco Javier; Julián-Jiménez, Agustin; González-Del Castillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs are a current and widely spread trend in clinical practice because of it's a cost-effective option, it's associated with a greater comfort for the patient, a lower risk of nosocomial complications and an important cost saving for the health care system. OPAT is used for treating a wide range of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, osteoarticular infections, bacteraemia, endocarditis and complex intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, even in presence of multiresistant microorganisms. Correct choice of antimicrobial agent and adequate patient selection are crucial for reaching therapeutic success and avoiding readmissions, treatment prolongation or treatment-related toxicity. The optimal antimicrobial for OPAT must be highly effective, have a long half-life and an adequate spectrum of action. Ceftriaxone and teicoplanin are currently the most prescribed antibiotics for OPAT, though daptomycin and ertapenem are also on the rise, due to their high efficiency, safety and wide spectrum of action. Antibiotics that are stable at room temperature can be administered through a continuous perfusion, though self-administration is preferable although it requires training of the patient or the caregiver. Factors that are most frequently associated with OPAT failure include advanced age, recent hospitalization and isolation of multiresistant microorganisms.

  4. Drug treatment of obesity: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Dahiya, Neha

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic and a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Obesity strains the healthcare systems and has profound economic and psychosocial consequences. Historically, pharmacotherapy for obesity has witnessed the rise and fall of several promising drug candidates that had to be eventually withdrawn due to unacceptable safety concerns. Currently four drugs are approved for chronic weight management in obese adults: orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate extended release and naltrexone/bupropion extended release. While lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate were approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012, after a gap of 13 years following the licensing of orlistat, naltrexone/bupropion has been recently approved in 2014. This review provides a brief overview of these current therapeutic interventions available for management of obesity along with the evidence of their safety and efficacy. Additionally, several novel monotherapies as well as combination products are undergoing evaluation in various stages of clinical development. These therapies if proven successful will strengthen the existing armamentarium of antiobesity drugs and will be critical to combat the global public health crisis of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human papillomavirus: current status and issues of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Heena; Khan, Fahim H; Ahsan, Haseeb

    2014-02-01

    An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially suggested over 30 years ago, and today there is clear evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of such malignancies. Papillomaviruses make up a vast family that comprises hundreds of different viruses. These viruses infect epithelia in humans and animals and cause benign hyperproliferative lesions, commonly called warts or papillomas, which can occasionally progress to squamous cell cancer. HPV infections are considered the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. One of the most prevalent cancer types induced by HPV (mostly types 16 and 18) is cervical cancer. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing this infectious disease. These prophylactic vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs), are extremely effective in providing protection from infection in almost 100 % of cases. VLP vaccines of HPV are subunit vaccines consisting only of the major viral capsid protein of HPV. There are two types of vaccine available: bivalent vaccine (against HPV-16/18) and quadrivalent vaccine (against HPV-6/11/16/18). Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, currently in clinical trials, may hold several merits over the current bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, such as protection against additional oncogenic HPV types, less dependence on cold-chain storage and distribution, and non-invasive methods of delivery.

  6. The Current Status of Research on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Kenneth; Helcer, Jacqueline; Tsiouris, Apostolos John; Pisapia, David J; Stieg, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) evolved from the term dementia pugilistica describing the dementia found in many boxers to its current use in describing the dementia and depression sometimes found in athletes subjected to multiple concussions or subconcussive blows to the head. Concurrently, the neuropathology evolved to specify a unique type of tauopathy found in perivascular spaces at the depth of sulci and other features not typically seen in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Four stages of CTE have been proposed, with 4 corresponding clinical syndromes of traumatic encephalopathy syndrome. However, it remains unclear whether this is a syndrome unique to repetitive head trauma, especially in contact sports, because the epidemiology has been difficult to establish. In particular, research to date has had a denominator problem in not establishing the total number of potential cases at risk for developing CTE. The current review examines the evidence to date for these syndromes and contributing or complicating factors affecting the neuropathology, neuroimaging, and clinical presentations associated with them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed.

  9. Current status and future direction of cryopreservation of camelid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrid, M; Vajta, G; Skidmore, J A

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, and similar to the horse industry, fresh embryo transfer has been widely practiced on large commercial scales in different camelid species, especially the dromedary camel and alpaca. However, the inability to cryopreserve embryos significantly reduces its broader application, and as such limits the capacity to utilize elite genetic resources internationally. In addition, cryopreservation of the semen of camelids is also difficult, suggesting an extreme sensitivity of the germplasm to cooling and freezing. As a result, genetic resources of camelids must continue to be maintained as living collections of animals. Due to concerns over disease outbreaks such as that of the highly pathogenic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in the Middle East and Asia, there is an urgent need to establish an effective gene banking system for camelid species, especially the camel. The current review compares and summarizes recent progress in the field of camelid embryo cryopreservation, identifying four possible reasons for the slow development of an effective protocol and describing eight future directions to improve the current protocols. At the same time, the results of a recent dromedary camel embryo transfer study which produced a high morphologic integrity and survival rate of Open Pulled Straw-vitrified embryos are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is current brain injury rehabilitation enhancing the biopsychosocial model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Chalotte; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Thomsen, Ane Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the impact of non-surgical interventions on persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Data sources: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001–2012) with terms including ‘rehabilitation’. Inclusion criteria were...... of 30 MTBI cases and assess non-surgical interventions using clinically-relevant outcomes such as self-rated recovery. Data extraction: Eligible studies were critically appraised using a modification of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. Two reviewers independently reviewed...

  11. Current status of sperm banking for young cancer patients in Japanese nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumura, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Okada, Hiroshi; Ota, Kuniaki; Kitazawa, Masahumi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kakinuma, Tosiyuki; Takae, Seido; Suzuki, Nao; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2018-02-02

    This study aimed to ascertain the current status of Japanese sperm banking for young cancer patients. During 2015, we mailed the directors of 695 institutes where sperm cryopreservation might be performed with questionnaires requesting information on the number of patients, age, precryopreservation chemotherapy, semen analyses results and diagnoses, cryopreservation success rate, and causes of unsuccessful cryopreservation. Of these 695 institutes, 92 had cryopreserved sperm before chemotherapy within the study period. In all, 820 cancer patients (237 testicular, 383 hematological, 46 bone and soft tissue, 20 brain, and 134 other malignancy) consulted the responding institutes for sperm cryopreservation. Except for testicular tumor, the number of patients whose sperm was preserved before cancer treatment was low compared to that of young cancer patients. Approximately 20% of patients with malignancies other than testicular tumor underwent chemotherapy before cryopreservation. The success rate of cryopreservation in hematological malignancy was 82.5%, significantly lower than that of both the testicular cancer (93.6%) and other malignancy groups (95.6%) (P banking prior to cancer treatment appears to be lacking. Information regarding sperm preservation before chemotherapy should be provided to all Japanese oncologists.

  12. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physicochemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review outlines nanomedicine characteristics central to improved targeting of renal cells and highlights the prospects, challenges, and opportunities of nanotechnology-mediated therapies for renal diseases. PMID:27795549

  13. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  14. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential: A current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphrodisiac is the word derived from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  16. Current status of robotic single-port colonic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Uk; Jeong, Woon Kyung; Baek, Seong Kyu

    2017-03-01

    The present paper reviews evidence and examines updates in single-port robotic surgery for colonic diseases reported in contemporary studies. A comprehensive online systematic search of PubMed databases was carried out in June 2015, identifying studies conducted on robotic single-port colectomy from 2008 to 2015. The advantages and disadvantages of several available port-access systems, techniques for configuring robotic arms, and robotic surgical platforms, were presented. Current studies show that single-port robotic colectomy is a safe and feasible procedure despite the lack of supporting evidence. Although significant advancements in the development and modification of single-access ports, configuration of robotic arms, and robotic surgical platforms have been achieved in the field of single-port robotic surgery for colonic disease, significant improvements to surgical platforms for single-port robotic surgery are needed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Environmental application of biochar: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernanda R; Patel, Anil K; Jaisi, Deb P; Adhikari, Sushil; Lu, Hui; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant interest on biochar for various environmental applications, e.g., pollutants removal, carbon sequestration, and soil amelioration. Biochar has several unique properties, which makes it an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly material for diverse contaminants removal. The variability in physicochemical properties (e.g., surface area, microporosity, and pH) provides an avenue for biochar to maximize its efficacy to targeted applications. This review aims to highlight the vital role of surface architecture of biochar in different environmental applications. Particularly, it provides a critical review of current research updates related to the pollutants interaction with surface functional groups of biochars and the effect of the parameters variability on biochar attributes pertinent to specific pollutants removal, involved mechanisms, and competence for these removals. Moreover, future research directions of biochar research are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  19. Current status and future developments of endohedral metallofullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing; Feng, Lai; Akasaka, Takeshi; Nagase, Shigeru

    2012-12-07

    Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), a new class of hybrid molecules formed by encapsulation of metallic species inside fullerene cages, exhibit unique properties that differ distinctly from those of empty fullerenes because of the presence of metals and their hybridization effects via electron transfer. This critical review provides a balanced but not an exhaustive summary regarding almost all aspects of EMFs, including the history, the classification, current progress in the synthesis, extraction, isolation, and characterization of EMFs, as well as their physiochemical properties and applications in fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, biomedicine, and materials science. Emphasis is assigned to experimentally obtained results, especially the X-ray crystallographic characterizations of EMFs and their derivatives, rather than theoretical calculations, although the latter has indeed enhanced our knowledge of metal-cage interactions. Finally, perspectives related to future developments and challenges in the research of EMFs are proposed. (381 references).

  20. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ∼1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R&D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications.

  1. Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, B.S.; Cotta, M.A. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL (United States); Jeffries, T.W. [Inst. for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., USDA, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of industrially suitable microorganisms for converting biomass into fuel ethanol has traditionally been cited as a major technical roadblock to developing a bioethanol industry. In the last two decades, numerous microorganisms have been engineered to selectively produce ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass contains complex carbohydrates that necessitate utilizing microorganisms capable of fermenting sugars not fermentable by brewers' yeast. The most significant of these is xylose. The greatest successes have been in the engineering of gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Zymomonas mobilis. E. coli and K. oxytoca are naturally able to use a wide spectrum of sugars, and work has concentrated on engineering these strains to selectively produce ethanol. Z. mobilis produces ethanol at high yields, but ferments only glucose and fructose. Work on this organism has concentrated on introducing pathways for the fermentation of arabinose and xylose. The history of constructing these strains and current progress in refining them are detailed in this review. (orig.)

  2. Transformational leadership in sport: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Calum A; Bastardoz, Nicolas; Eklund, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used cross-sectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has been a fuzzy construct, current theoretical and methodological issues impede understanding of whether transformational leadership matters for sport outcomes. To make a difference to applied practice and policy, the transformational leadership construct requires a refined definition and stronger empirical tests allowing for robust causal inference. We highlight avenues for advancing research on transformational leadership in the sport context. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-02-03

    While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

  4. Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With recent improvement in hardware and software techniques, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has undergone significant changes in technique and approach. The advent of 3.0 T magnets has allowed reduction in exogenous contrast dose without compromising overall image quality. The use of novel intravascular contrast agents substantially increases the image windows and decreases contrast dose. Additionally, the lower risk and cost in non-contrast enhanced (NCE) MRA has sparked renewed interest in these methods. This article discusses the current state of both contrast-enhanced (CE) and NCE-MRA. New CE-MRA methods take advantage of dose reduction at 3.0 T, novel contrast agents, and parallel imaging methods. The risks of gadolinium-based contrast media, and the NCE-MRA methods of time-of-flight, steady-state free precession, and phase contrast are discussed. PMID:21388544

  5. Aptamer Microarrays—Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Martin; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Stahl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Microarray technologies are state of the art in biological research, which requires fast genome, proteome and transcriptome analysis technologies. Often antibodies are applied in protein microarrays as proteomic tools. Since the generation of antibodies against toxic targets or small molecules including organic compounds remains challenging the use of antibodies may be limited in this context. In contrast to this, aptamer microarrays provide alternative techniques to circumvent these limitations. In this article we review the latest developments in aptamer microarray technology. We discuss similarities and differences between DNA and aptamer microarrays and shed light on the post synthesis immobilization of aptamers including corresponding effects on the microarray performance. Finally, we highlight current limitations and future prospects of aptamer microarray technology. PMID:27600216

  6. Current status of ethnobotany research on palms from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Albán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.

  7. Molecular Testing of Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.

  8. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  9. Molecular Testing of Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Sun Och; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Young A; Shin, Bong Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Kim, Ji Eun; Huh, Jooryung; Ko, Young-Hyeh

    2017-05-01

    Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.

  10. Current status of plasma emission electronics: II. Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaev, A. S.; Vizir, A. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Burachevsky, Yu. A.; Burdovitsin, V. A.; Osipov, I. V.; Rempe, N. G.

    2003-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the engineering embodiment of the modern methods for producing charged ion and electron beams by extracting them from the plasma of a discharge. Electron beams use to execute electron-beam welding, annealing, and surface heating of materials and to realize plasmochemical reactions stimulated by fast electrons. Ion beams allow realization of technologies of ion implantation or ion-assisted deposition of coatings thereby opening new prospects for the creation of compounds and alloys by the method that makes it possible to obtain desired parameters and functional properties of the surface. A detailed description is given to the performance and design of devices producing beams of this type: the ion and electron sources being developed at the laboratory of plasma sources of the Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the laboratory of plasma electronics of Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics.

  11. [Current status and prospect of translational medicine in nanotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang-yu; Chen, Mei-ling; Li, Ming-yuan; Yang, Zhen-bo; Li, Zhi-ping; Mei, Xing-guo

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, nanotechnologies have shown wide application foreground in the biomedical field of medicine laboratory tests, drug delivery, gene therapy and bioremediation. However, in recent years, nanomaterials have been labeled poisonous, because of the disputes and misunderstandings of mainstream views on their safety. Besides, for the barriers of technical issues in preparation like: (1) low efficacy (poor PK & PD and low drug loading), (2) high cost (irreproducibility and difficulty in scale up), little of that research has been successfully translated into commercial products. Currently, along with the new theory of "physical damage is the origin of nanotoxicity", biodegradability and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are listed as the basic principle of safe application of nanomaterials. Combining scientific design based on molecular level with precision control of process engineering will provide a new strategy to overcome the core technical challenges. New turning point of translational medicine in nanotechnology may emerge.

  12. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  13. Honey and Cancer: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcza, Laura M.; Simms, Claire; Chopra, Mridula

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and poses a challenge to treatment. With overwhelming evidence of the role played by diet and lifestyle in cancer risk and prevention, there is a growing interest into the search for chemopreventative or chemotherapeutic agents derived from natural products. Honey is an important source of bioactive compounds derived from plants and recent years have seen an increased interest in its anticancer properties. This review examines the role of honey in targeting key hallmarks of carcinogenesis, including uncontrolled proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, growth factor signalling, invasion, and inflammation. The evidence for honey as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapy is also presented. The review also highlights gaps in the current understanding and concludes that, before translation of evidence from cell culture and animal studies into the clinical setting, further studies are warranted to examine the effects of honey at a molecular level, as well as on cells in the tumour environment. PMID:28933410

  14. [Rabies vaccines: Current status and prospects for development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, E S; Preobrazhenskaia, O V; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Yarygina, E I; Karpov, V L

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an infectious disease among humans and animals that remains incurable, despite its longstanding research history. The only way to prevent the disease is prompt treatment, including vaccination as an obligatory component and administration of antirabies immunoglobulin as a supplement. Since the first antirabies vaccination performed in the 19th century, a large number of different rabies vaccines have been developed. Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology enabled the development of effective and safe technologies of vaccine production. Currently, new-generation vaccines are being developed based on recombinant rabies virus strains or on the production of an individual recombinant rabies antigen-glycoprotein (G protein), either as a component of nonpathogenic viruses, or in plants, or in the form of DNA vaccines. In this review, the main modern trends in the development of rabies vaccines have been discussed.

  15. Current Status of Antiplatelet Agents to Prevent Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability; most are due to atherothrombotic mechanisms. About one third of ischemic strokes are preceded by other stroke or transient ischemic attacks. Stroke survivors are at high risk for vascular events (i.e., cerebrovascular and cardiovascular). Prevention of recurrent stroke and other major vascular events can be accomplished by control of risk factors. Nonetheless, the use of antiplatelet agents remains the fundamental component of secondary stroke prevention strategy in patients with noncardioembolic disease. Currently, the uses of aspirin, clopidogrel, or aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole are valid alternatives for stroke or transient ischemic attack patients. To maximize the beneficial effects of these agents, the treatment should be initiated as early as possible and continue on a lifelong basis. PMID:21104164

  16. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C; Ausiello, Dennis A; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2016-12-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review outlines nanomedicine characteristics central to improved targeting of renal cells and highlights the prospects, challenges, and opportunities of nanotechnology-mediated therapies for renal diseases.

  17. [Anticonvulsive therapy in eclampsia--its current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, S

    1998-01-01

    Conflicting opinions on the adequate and appropriate anticonvulsive therapy for eclampsia stems from the fact that a lot of unclarity still exists as per the reasons for eclamptic seizures. The authors reviews current data from literature on the problem of anticonvulsive therapy for eclampsia and tries to clarify the uncertainties on the optimal approach for eclamptic seizures. Despite the fact that many neurologists in the U.S. as well as a great number of obstetricians in Europe are now sceptical about the anticonvulsive effect of magnesium sulphate and prefer other anticonvulsive agents, the parenteral application of magnesium is still the principal approach for eclampsia. There is a need however for a new strategy for prophylaxis and therapy of eclampsia. Which will lead to a significant reduction of the fatality rate in cases of grave preeclampsia-eclampsia.

  18. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  19. Current Status of Obstetric Anaesthesia: Improving Satisfaction and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sudharma Ranasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reported in 2003 that although the maternal mortal-ity rate has decreased by 99% since 1900, there has been no further decrease in the last two decades [1] . A more recent report indicates a rate of 11.8 per 100,000 live births [2] , although anaesthesia-related maternal mortality and morbidity has considerably decreased over the lastfew decades. Despite the growing complexity of problems and increasing challenges such as pre-existing maternal disease, obesity, and the increasing age of pregnant mothers, anaesthesia related maternal mortality is extremely rare in the developed world. The current safety has been achievedthrough changes in training, service, technical advances and multidisciplinary approach to care. The rates of general anaesthesia for cesarean delivery have decreased and neuraxial anaesthetics have become the most commonly used techniques. Neuraxial techniques are largely safe and effective, but potential complications, though rare, can be severe.

  20. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  1. Current status on prevention and treatment of canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Rosa M; Morán, Miguel; Pérez-Pertejo, Yolanda; García-Estrada, Carlos; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2016-08-30

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a parasite-borne disease mainly induced by Leishmania infantum in the Old World and Leishmania chagasi (infantum) in the New World. CanL is a zoonosis transmitted by the bite of infected Phlebotominae flies that act as vectors. CanL is a very serious disease that usually produces death when remains untreated and can be a focus of transmission to other dogs or humans. Infected dogs and other domestic and wild animals act as reservoirs and are a real threat to uninfected/healthy dogs and humans in endemic areas where the sand flies are present. Prevention of new infections in dogs can help to stop the current increase of the disease in humans, reinforcing the concept of "One Health" approach. The management of CanL is being performed using prophylactic measures in healthy dogs - insecticides impregnated in collars or immunostimulants applied by spot-on devices - and chemotherapy in animals that suffer from the disease. Antimonials as first-line monotherapy have proven efficacy in reducing most of the clinical signs of CanL, but they need to be administered during several days, and no complete parasite clearance is achieved, favouring the presence of relapses among treated dogs. Therefore, new drugs, such as miltefosine, or combinations of this drug or antimonials with allopurinol are in the pipeline of clinical treatment of CanL. Recently, there has been an emergence of protective - prophylactic - and curative - autogenous vaccines - immunotherapy tools to face CanL, whose results are still under study. This review highlights the current use of preventive and eradicative weapons to fight against this disease, which is a scourge for dogs and a continuous threat to human beings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H K H; Szeto, G P Y; Cheng, A S K; Siu, H; Chan, C C H

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong, both in terms of the science as well as the service for injured workers. Besides, it also reviews the existing Employees' Compensation Ordinance for work injury to illustrate how the policy could influence the success and development of the discipline. Five experienced occupational rehabilitation providers, including 1 occupational medicine specialist, 3 occupational therapists, and 1 physiotherapist critically reviewed the past and current development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong as well as the local contextual factors, which could influence its future development. Since the enactment of the Employees' Compensation Ordinance in the 1950s, there have been progressive improvements in the field of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong. Services in the early years were mostly based on the biomedical model, where doctors and patients tended to focus on clinical symptoms and physical pathology when making clinical decisions. Since then, remarkable academic achievements have been made in the field locally, from the validation of clinical instruments for assessment of work capacity, assessment of employment readiness to the evaluation of efficacy of interventional programs for injured workers focusing on work related outcomes. However, there has been a relatively lack of progress in the development of related policies and implementation of related programs for occupational rehabilitation. There is no built in linkage between rehabilitation, compensation and prevention in the current system in Hong Kong, and there is no rehabilitation policy specific to those workers with occupational diseases and injuries. There are still deficiencies in the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Hong Kong. Incorporation of requirements for occupational rehabilitation at the legislation and policy levels should be seriously considered in the future. Besides, the

  3. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets.

  4. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  5. General health status measures for people with cognitive impairment: learning disability and acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemsma, R P; Forbes, C A; Glanville, J M; Eastwood, A J; Kleijnen, J

    2001-01-01

    Currently there is a wide range of health status measures that aim to assess general health status in people with cognitive impairment. However, the validity and/or applicability to this patient group are largely unknown. This has implications for the assessment of treatment outcomes and rehabilitation, for prognostic purposes, for planning services, and for determining the benefits and adverse effects of health technologies targeted at these patient groups. (1) To identify the general health status measures that have been validated in patients with cognitive impairment. (2) To assess the extent to which these measures have been validated. (3) To draw out the implications of the findings for the use of existing measures and for future primary research in this area. METHODS. Studies that assessed general health status in people with cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury (traumatic brain injury, cerebro-vascular accident or multiple sclerosis (MS)) or learning disability (LD) were included in the review. Studies that used general health status instruments measuring only one general health dimension, and studies that only featured participants with cognitive impairment due to dementia were excluded. METHODS. A wide range of relevant databases were searched for studies on cognitive impairment, general health status measures, and validation of health status measures. A handsearch of general health status bibliographies was also conducted. Data were collected on the general health status measure used, the population characteristics, aims of the study, validity details, and conclusions. The review includes data from 71 studies, reported in 83 separate publications. In total 34 different general health status measures were described in the 83 publications, with the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) the most frequently used measures (20 and 19 studies, respectively). These studies included a total of 98 instrument validations, 52 of

  6. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ALVAREZ COBELAS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The current ecosystem paradigm in limnology is represented by the cold temperate, stratifying lake and the single-channelled river. However, the variety of inland water ecosystems is much higher, and so is the ecological complexity of many of them. Most Mediterranean limnosystems are quite distinct from the contemporary limnological paradigm. This overview will deal with the striking and exciting differences between Mediterranean and other temperate limnosystems. For example, most are very small, their catchment area is much larger than their size, and they experience both a longer vegetation period and a strong seasonality in water supply which occurs outside the hot season, often from groundwater sources. In addition, we encourage research on the often poorly known limnological processes taking place in Mediterranean regions by pointing at insufficiently covered research fields. Furthermore, competition for water among different users, arising from population increase in fertile and/or tourist areas, is certainly limiting the ability of many Mediterranean limnosystems to survive at present and in the near future, particularly in the face of the harsher environmental conditions that climatic change is triggering. A new paradigm on Mediterranean limnology is thus necessary. This will enable us to predict and mitigate more accurately the unstoppable effects of man-made change in these beautiful and still largely ignored ecosystems.

  7. "The current status of work on the origin of life"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Work on the Origin of Life is poised to converge onto a fourth phase and, many of us hope, success. The first phase concerned prebiotic synthesis of the small molecules, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids and others, essential for life and spanned some forty years. The second overlapping phase was inspired by the symmetric of the DNA or RNA double helix, presumed that life must necessarily be based on some form of template replication of one strand by ligation of free nucleotides to create the second strand, melting of the two strands and cycling again. Spearheaded by L. Orgel, but with many others, this effort has, to date, failed. The third phase begins with the discovery that RNA molecules can act as enzymes, and posited the RNA world, in which RNA molecules dominated. This has led to slightly successful efforts to evolve an RNA sequence able to template replicate itself. Current success is an evolved ribozyme able to do so for 14 nucleotides. The forth phase is converging around four ideas: 1) liposomes, h...

  8. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  9. Clinical proteomics: Current status, challenges, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Horng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This account will give an overview and evaluation of the current advances in mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics platforms and technology. A general review of some background information concerning the application of these methods in the characterization of molecular sizes and related protein expression profiles associated with different types of cells under varied experimental conditions will be presented. It is intended to provide a concise and succinct overview to those clinical researchers first exposed to this foremost powerful methodology in modern life sciences of postgenomic era. Proteomic characterization using highly sophisticated and expensive instrumentation of MS has been used to characterize biological samples of complex protein mixtures with vastly different protein structure and composition. These systems are then used to highlight the versatility and potential of the MS-based proteomic strategies for facilitating protein expression analysis of various disease-related organisms or tissues of interest. Major MS-based strategies reviewed herein include (1 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-MS and electron-spray ionization proteomics; (2 one-dimensional or two-dimensional gel-based proteomics; (3 gel-free shotgun proteomics in conjunction with liquid chromatography/tandem MS; (4 Multiple reaction monitoring coupled tandem MS quantitative proteomics and; (5 Phosphoproteomics based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-MS/MS.

  10. Current status and future of high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, T.

    1977-03-01

    With respect to the present knowledge of the internal structure of matter, nothing is known about the structure of leptons or photons, and just a little about the structure of hadrons. Some of the most important questions to be answered in high-energy physics are the following: how many kinds of quarks are there and how can they be isolated; how are quarks bound to form hadrons; can weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions all be described by a single unified theory; are there new types of leptons; and are there new phenomena not conceived of yet. New particles may be discovered by large accelerators scheduled for completion in West Germany, the United States, and the Soviet Union about 1980. The factors vital to China's long-range development of high-energy physics are personnel well-versed in Marxism--Leninism and Mao Tse-tung's thought, particle accelerators with high energies, strong currents, and many kinds of particle beams, and an advanced particle detection and data processing technology.

  11. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  12. Drugs from the seas - current status and microbiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, P; Edrada, R A; Ebel, R

    2002-07-01

    The oceans are the source of a large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, and molluscs. Several of these compounds (especially the tunicate metabolite ET-743) show pronounced pharmacological activities and are interesting candidates for new drugs primarily in the area of cancer treatment. Other compounds are currently being developed as an analgesic (ziconotide from the mollusc Conus magus) or to treat inflammation. Numerous natural products from marine invertebrates show striking structural similarities to known metabolites of microbial origin, suggesting that microorganisms (bacteria, microalgae) are at least involved in their biosynthesis or are in fact the true sources of these respective metabolites. This assumption is corroborated by several studies on natural products from sponges that proved these compounds to be localized in symbiotic bacteria or cyanobacteria. Recently, molecular methods have successfully been applied to study the microbial diversity in marine sponges and to gain evidence for an involvement of bacteria in the biosynthesis of the bryostatins in the bryozoan Bugula neritina.

  13. Medical models of teleoncology: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Sabe

    2014-09-01

    Teleoncology has been adopted by many centers to provide cancer care closer to home for rural, remote, Indigenous and other disadvantaged people of our communities. A variety of medical models of teleoncology exist to provide various medical oncology services. While most centers use teleoncology to complement their face-to-face outreach services, some centers have replaced face-to-face with teleoncology models. Selection of patients and scheduling of clinics would depend on various factors including experience of the clinicians, complexity of treatment provided, capabilities and workforce of rural sites, and patient preferences. Many small studies reported high satisfaction rates of these models among patients and health professionals including Indigenous populations. One single center study reports that it is safe to supervise chemotherapy delivery remotely and many studies report cost savings to the health systems. Further studies on safety aspects of teleoncology are needed to further improve the current models. Future teleoncology models would need to include Web-based models, mobile technologies and remote chemotherapy supervision models so that patients from most rural towns could have at least some of their cancer care closer to home. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  15. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  16. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  17. The industrial applications of cassava: current status, opportunities and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Cui, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan; Luo, Zhiting; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries and is also extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g. feed, medicine, cosmetics and biopolymers). These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing great potential for conversion into value-added products through biorefinery. However, the community of cassava researchers is relatively small and there is very limited information on cassava. Therefore this review summarizes current knowledge on the system biology, economic value, nutritional quality and industrial applications of cassava and its wastes in an attempt to accelerate understanding of the basic biology of cassava. The review also discusses future perspectives with respect to integrating and utilizing cassava information resources for increasing the economic and environmental sustainability of cassava industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  19. Mid-urethral slings in female incontinence: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Krlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the mid-urethral sling (MUS 15 years ago has drastically changed the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Both retropubic and transobturator MUS can be placed in the ambulatory setting with excellent results. The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT sling has the most robust and long-term data, but more recent literature suggests that the transobturator tape sling may offer comparable efficacy in appropriately selected patients. Single incision sling (SIS is the newest addition to the MUS group and was developed in an attempt to minimize morbidity and create an anti-incontinence procedure that could be performed in the office. The efficacy of SIS remains unknown as the current literature regarding SIS lacks long-term results and comparative trials. The suprapubic arc sling appears to have equally effective outcomes in at least the short-term when compared with TVT. Although evolution of the SIS has led to a less invasive procedure with decreased post-op pain and reduced recovery time, durability of efficacy could be the endpoint we are sacrificing. Until longer-term data and more quality comparison trials are available, tailoring one′s choice of MUS to the individual patient and her unique clinical parameters remains the best option.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  1. In vivo small animal imaging: Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagadis, George C., E-mail: gkagad@gmail.com, E-mail: george.kagadis@med.upatras.gr [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, P.O. BOX 132 73, GR 265 04 Rion, Greece and Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Loudos, George [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 28 Ag. Spyridonos Street, GR 122 10 Egaleo (Greece); Katsanos, Konstantinos [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); Langer, Steve G. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Nikiforidis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    The use of small animal models in basic and preclinical sciences constitutes an integral part of testing new pharmaceutical agents prior to commercial translation to clinical practice. Whole-body small animal imaging is a particularly elegant and cost-effective experimental platform for the timely validation and commercialization of novel agents from the bench to the bedside. Biomedical imaging is now listed along with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics as an integral part of biological and medical sciences. Miniaturized versions of clinical diagnostic modalities, including but not limited to microcomputed tomography, micromagnetic resonance tomography, microsingle-photon-emission tomography, micropositron-emission tomography, optical imaging, digital angiography, and ultrasound, have all greatly improved our investigative abilities to longitudinally study various experimental models of human disease in mice and rodents. After an exhaustive literature search, the authors present a concise and critical review of in vivo small animal imaging, focusing on currently available modalities as well as emerging imaging technologies on one side and molecularly targeted contrast agents on the other. Aforementioned scientific topics are analyzed in the context of cancer angiogenesis and innovative antiangiogenic strategies under-the-way to the clinic. Proposed hybrid approaches for diagnosis and targeted site-specific therapy are highlighted to offer an intriguing glimpse of the future.

  2. Laccase applications in biofuels production: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudanga, Tukayi; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2014-08-01

    The desire to reduce dependence on the ever diminishing fossil fuel reserves coupled with the impetus towards green energy has seen increased research in biofuels as alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulose materials are one of the most promising feedstocks for advanced biofuels production. However, their utilisation is dependent on the efficient hydrolysis of polysaccharides, which in part is dependent on cost-effective and benign pretreatment of biomass to remove or modify lignin and release or expose sugars to hydrolytic enzymes. Laccase is one of the enzymes that are being investigated not only for potential use as pretreatment agents in biofuel production, mainly as a delignifying enzyme, but also as a biotechnological tool for removal of inhibitors (mainly phenolic) of subsequent enzymatic processes. The current review discusses the major advances in the application of laccase as a potential pretreatment strategy, the underlying principles as well as directions for future research in the search for better enzyme-based technologies for biofuel production. Future perspectives could include synergy between enzymes that may be required for optimal results and the adoption of the biorefinery concept in line with the move towards the global implementation of the bioeconomy strategy.

  3. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  4. Current status of the Gene-Tox Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, A E; Brown, M; Wassom, J S; Cimino, M C

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gene-Tox Program is a multiphased effort to review and evaluate the existing literature in assay systems available in the field of genetic toxicology. The first phase of the Gene-Tox Program selected assay systems for evaluation, generated expert panel reviews of the data from the scientific literature, and recommended testing protocols for the systems. Phase II established and evaluated the database of chemical genetic toxicity data for its relevance to identifying human health hazards. The ongoing phase III continues reviewing and updating chemical data in selected assay systems. Currently, data exist on over 4000 chemicals in 27 assay systems; two additional assay systems will be included in phase III. The review data are published in the scientific literature and are also publicly available through the National Library of Medicine TOXNET system. The review and analysis components of Gene-Tox comprise 45 published papers, and several others are in preparation. Differences that have been observed between Gene-Tox and National Toxicology Program databases relative to the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictivity of genetic toxicity data compared to carcinogenesis data are ascribable to differences between the two databases in chemical selection criteria, testing protocols, and chemical class distributions. PMID:1820273

  5. Current status of the Gene-Tox Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E.; Cimino, M.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)); Brown, M.; Wassom, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gene-Tox Program is a multiphased effort to review and evaluate the existing literature in many systems available in the field of genetic toxicology. The first phase of the Gene-Tox Program selected assay systems for evaluation, generated expert panel reviews of the data from the scientific literature, and recommended testing protocols for the systems. Phase II established and evaluated the database of chemical genetic toxicity data for its relevance to identifying human health hazards. The ongoing phase III continues reviewing and updating chemical data in selected assay systems. Currently, data exist on over 4000 chemicals in 27 assay systems; two additional assay systems will be included in phase III. The review data are published in the scientific literature and are also publicly available through the National Library of Medicine TOXNET system. The review and analysis components of Gene-Tox comprise 45 published papers, and several others are in preparation. Differences that have been observed between Gene-Tox and National Toxicology Program databases relative to the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictivity of genetic toxicity data compared to carcinogenesis data are ascribable to differences between the two databases in chemical selection criteria, testing protocols, and chemical class distributions. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Current status of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Villademoros, F; Calandre, E P; Slim, M

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of fibromyalgia requires pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. The pharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia is limited to a few drugs that have been demonstrated to be moderately effective in some but not all dimensions of the disease. Therefore, the search for new drugs to treat this condition is warranted. Atypical antipsychotics offered an attractive alternative because they had been shown to be active against several key symptoms of fibromyalgia. The results of open-label studies, however, appear to indicate that atypical antipsychotics are poorly tolerated in patients with fibromyalgia, and only quetiapine XR has been studied in randomized controlled trials. Quetiapine XR has demonstrated effectiveness in treating comorbid major depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance. However, in two randomized controlled trials, quetiapine XR was not differentiated from placebo and failed to demonstrate noninferiority to amitriptyline in terms of improving overall symptomatology. The effect of quetiapine XR on pain and its usefulness as part of a combination pharmacological regimen should be further evaluated. Overall, the use of quetiapine (initiated at a low dose and slowly titrated) in fibromyalgia should be limited to patients with comorbid major depression or patients who are currently receiving other treatments and have unresolved and disabling depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Current status of outcome measure development in vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Peter A; Aydin, Sibel Z; Boers, Maarten; Cornell, Christina; Direskeneli, Haner; Gebhart, Don; Hatemi, Gulen; Luqmani, Raashid; Matteson, Eric L; Milman, Nataliya; Robson, Joanna; Seo, Philip; Tomasson, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    The conduct of randomized controlled trials for vasculitis, especially for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides [AAV, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis], has been greatly advanced by the development, use, and acceptance of validated outcome measures. Trials have subsequently provided the opportunity to validate and refine reliable, valid outcome measures for these multisystemic and relapsing rare diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group was formed in 2004 to foster development of validated and widely accepted outcomes in vasculitis using data-driven analyses, a dedication to building consensus, and adherence to, and guidance by, the principles of the OMERACT approach. This work led to the endorsement by OMERACT of the core set of domains and associated outcome measures for AAV. Next steps for the study of existing outcome tools in AAV include better definition of response criteria through development of more data-driven weighting of the elements of activity and damage assessment. The Working Group is now also embarking on a series of linked projects to develop validated patient-reported outcomes for use in clinical research in vasculitis. Additionally, the Working Group is studying how current methods of disease assessment and plans for new outcomes can be informed by the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Function of the World Health Organization. The success of the Group's work in AAV has also led to a formal process for developing outcomes for the large vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis) and Behçet disease.

  8. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-07

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  9. Adrenal insufficiency and adrenal replacement therapy. Current status in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Anna; Casanueva, Felipe; Goñi, Fernando; Monereo, Susana; Moreno, Basilio; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Salvador, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J; Webb, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disease, associated to increased mortality if left untreated. It can be due to a primary failure of the adrenal glands (primary AI) or malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (secondary AI). The lack of data on incidence/prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in Spain complicates any evaluation of the magnitude of the problem in our country. Initial symptoms are non-specific, so often there is a delay in diagnosis. Current therapy with available glucocorticoids is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with treated AI, as well as with increased mortality and morbidity, probably related to both over-treatment and lack of hydrocortisone, associated with non-physiological peaks and troughs of the drug over the 24 hours. The availability of a new drug with a modified dual release (immediate and retarded), that requires one only daily dose, improves and simplifies the treatment, increases compliance as well as quality of life, morbidity and possibly mortality. This revision deals with the knowledge on the situation both globally and in Spain, prior to the availability of this new drug. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  12. Personalized medicine in CLL: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in the Western Hemisphere. Despite advances in research and the development of effective treatment regimens, CLL is still largely an incurable disease. Although several prognostic factors have been identified in recent years, most of the new prognostic factors are not utilized, and treatment decisions are still based on clinical staging and limited use of cytogenetic analysis. Patients with advanced disease are treated at diagnosis, whereas others, regardless of their prognostic indicators, are offered treatment only at disease progression. Furthermore, treatment guidelines for elderly or “unfit” patients are unavailable because most CLL trials have included mostly younger, healthier patients. Given the heterogeneity of the clinical manifestations and prognosis of CLL, patients are likely to benefit from a personalized therapeutic approach. Recent advances in CLL pathobiology research, the use of high-throughput technologies, and most importantly, the introduction of novel targeted therapies with high efficacy and low toxicity are currently transforming the treatment of CLL. A personalized approach that includes early intervention in selected patients with CLL is likely to bring physicians closer to the goal of attaining cures in most patients with CLL. PMID:23879961

  13. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  14. The acute hepatic porphyrias: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, Marko; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Anne-Moniek; Poblete-Gutiérrez, Pamela; Frank, Jorge

    2010-10-01

    The porphyrias are predominantly inherited metabolic disorders, which result from a specific deficiency of one of the eight enzymes along the pathway of haem biosynthesis. Historically, they have been classified into hepatic and erythropoietic forms, based on the primary site of expression of the prevailing dysfunctional enzyme. From a clinical point of view, however, it is more convenient to subdivide them into acute and non-acute porphyrias, thereby primarily considering the potential occurrence of life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. Unrecognised or untreated, such an acute porphyric attack is associated with a significant mortality of up to 10%. The acute hepatic porphyrias comprise acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Making a precise diagnosis may be difficult because the different types of porphyrias may show overlapping clinical and biochemical characteristics. To date, the therapeutic possibilities are limited and mainly symptomatic. In this overview we report on what is currently known about pathogenesis, clinic, diagnostics, and therapy of the acute hepatic porphyrias. We further point out actual and future challenges in the management of these diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BANK DEPOSIT CONTRACT: CURRENT STATUS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  16. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Barlati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses.

  17. In vivo small animal imaging: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagadis, George C; Loudos, George; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Langer, Steve G; Nikiforidis, George C

    2010-12-01

    The use of small animal models in basic and preclinical sciences constitutes an integral part of testing new pharmaceutical agents prior to commercial translation to clinical practice. Whole-body small animal imaging is a particularly elegant and cost-effective experimental platform for the timely validation and commercialization of novel agents from the bench to the bedside. Biomedical imaging is now listed along with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics as an integral part of biological and medical sciences. Miniaturized versions of clinical diagnostic modalities, including but not limited to microcomputed tomography, micromagnetic resonance tomography, microsingle-photon-emission tomography, micropositron-emission tomography, optical imaging, digital angiography, and ultrasound, have all greatly improved our investigative abilities to longitudinally study various experimental models of human disease in mice and rodents. After an exhaustive literature search, the authors present a concise and critical review of in vivo small animal imaging, focusing on currently available modalities as well as emerging imaging technologies on one side and molecularly targeted contrast agents on the other. Aforementioned scientific topics are analyzed in the context of cancer angiogenesis and innovative antiangiogenic strategies under-the-way to the clinic. Proposed hybrid approaches for diagnosis and targeted site-specific therapy are highlighted to offer an intriguing glimpse of the future.

  18. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter GM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grace M Richter,1,2 Anne L Coleman11UCLA Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy; suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent; reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation; and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent. The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. Keywords: MIGS, microincisional glaucoma surgery, trabecular stent, Schlemm’s canal, suprachoroidal shunt, ab interno

  19. Genetics of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, H.; Pawlikowska, L.; Lawton, M. T.; Kim, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions which affect up to 0.5% of the general population, predisposing to headaches, seizures, cerebral hemorrhages and focal neurological deficits. CCM occurs in both sporadic and familial forms; familial cases follow an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance and are caused by mutations in CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), or CCM3 (PDCD10). Somatic mutations within the three CCM genes have been identified in CCM lesions from both sporadic and familial patients. We reviewed articles published in PubMed in English prior to March 2015 and provide an update on CCM mutations and the screening strategies used to identify them. Further, we summarize the specific clinical features related to CCM genotypes. As 5 to 15% of familial CCM cases remain genetically unexplained, we also discuss future approaches to expand understanding of the genetic architecture of CCM. Finally, we discuss possible genetic modifiers of CCM disease severity and progression. Understanding the genetic architecture of CCM is essential for an earlier diagnosis of the disease, predictive testing of at-risk patients, and design of targeted medical therapies of which there are currently none available. PMID:25900426

  20. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  1. Current status in remnant gastric cancer after distal gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masaichi; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Remnant gastric cancer (RGC) and gastric stump cancer after distal gastrectomy (DG) are recognized as the same clinical entity. In this review, the current knowledges as well as the non-settled issues of RGC are presented. Duodenogastric reflux and denervation of the gastric mucosa are considered as the two main factors responsible for the development of RGC after benign disease. On the other hand, some precancerous circumstances which already have existed at the time of initial surgery, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, are the main factors associated with RGC after gastric cancer. Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in remnant stomach is promising, it is still uncertain whether it can reduce the risk of carcinogenesis. Periodic endoscopic surveillance after DG was reported useful in detecting RGC at an early stage, which offers a chance to undergo minimally invasive endoscopic treatment or laparoscopic surgery and leads to an improved prognosis in RGC patients. Future challenges may be expected to elucidate the benefit of eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach if it could reduce the risk for RGC, to build an optimal endoscopic surveillance strategy after DG by stratifying the risk for development of RGC, and to develop a specific staging system for RGC for the standardization of the treatment by prospecting the prognosis. PMID:26937131

  2. Personalized medicine in CLL: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovski, Uri; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-09-28

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in the Western Hemisphere. Despite advances in research and the development of effective treatment regimens, CLL is still largely an incurable disease. Although several prognostic factors have been identified in recent years, most of the new prognostic factors are not utilized, and treatment decisions are still based on clinical staging and limited use of cytogenetic analysis. Patients with advanced disease are treated at diagnosis, whereas others, regardless of their prognostic indicators, are offered treatment only at disease progression. Furthermore, treatment guidelines for elderly or "unfit" patients are unavailable because most CLL trials have included mostly younger, healthier patients. Given theheterogeneity of the clinical manifestations and prognosis of CLL, patients are likely to benefit from a personalized therapeutic approach. Recent advances in CLL pathobiology research, the use of high-throughput technologies, and most importantly, the introduction of novel targeted therapies with high efficacy and low toxicity are currently transforming the treatment of CLL. A personalized approach that includes early intervention in selected patients with CLL is likely to bring physicians closer to the goal of attaining cures in most patients with CLL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Blood transfusion safety; current status and challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneke, John C.; Okocha, Chide E.

    2017-01-01

    The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation) and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance. PMID:28316432

  5. Current Status of Atomic Spectroscopy Databases at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramida, Alexander; Ralchenko, Yuri; Reader, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center maintains several online databases on atomic spectroscopy. These databases can be accessed via the http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData web page. Our main database, Atomic Spectra Database (ASD), recently upgraded to v. 5.3, now contains critically evaluated data for about 250,000 spectral lines and 109,000 energy levels of almost all elements in the periodic table. This new version has added several thousand spectral lines and energy levels of Sn II, Mo V, W VIII, and Th I-III. Most of these additions contain critically evaluated transition probabilities important for astrophysics, technology, and fusion research. A new feature of ASD is providing line-ratio data for diagnostics of electron temperature and density in plasmas. Saha-Boltzmann plots have been modified by adding an experimental feature allowing the user to specify a multi-element mixture. We continue regularly updating our bibliography databases, ensuring comprehensive coverage of current literature on atomic spectra for energy levels, spectral lines, transition rates, hyperfine structure, isotope shifts, Zeeman and Stark effects. Our other popular databases, such as the Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopy Data, searchable atlases of spectra of Pt-Ne and Th-Ne lamps, and non-LTE plasma-kinetics code comparisons, continue to be maintained.

  6. Current Status of Interventional Radiology Treatment of Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, T., E-mail: thomas.rand@wienkav.at [General Hospital Hietzing, Department of Radiology (Austria); Uberoi, R. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Treatment of infrapopliteal arteries has developed to a standard technique during the past two decades. With the introduction of innovative devices, a variety of techniques has been created and is still under investigation. Treatment options range from plain balloon angioplasty (POBA), all sorts of stent applications, such as bare metal, balloon expanding, self-expanding, coated and drug-eluting stents, and bio-absorbable stents, to latest developments, such as drug-eluting balloons. Regarding the scientific background, several prospective, randomized studies with relevant numbers of patients have been (or will be) published that are Level I evidence. In contrast to older studies, which primarily were based mostly on numeric parameters, such as diameters or residual stenoses, more recent study concepts focus increasingly on clinical features, such as amputation rate improvement or changes of clinical stages and quality of life standards. Although it is still not decided, which of the individual techniques might be the best one, we can definitely conclude that whatever treatment of infrapopliteal arteries will be used it is of substantial benefit for the patient. Therefore, the goal of this review is to give an overview about the current developments and techniques for the treatment of infrapopliteal arteries, to present clinical and technical results, to weigh individual techniques, and to discuss the recent developments.

  7. 77 FR 22333 - Agency Information Collection Activities: USCIS Case Status Online, Extension of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Status Online, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review: USCIS case status online. The Department of Homeland... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  8. Redox proteomics in aging rat brain: involvement of mitochondrial reduced glutathione status and mitochondrial protein oxidation in the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perluigi, M; Di Domenico, F; Giorgi, A; Schininà, M E; Coccia, R; Cini, C; Bellia, F; Cambria, M T; Cornelius, C; Butterfield, D A; Calabrese, V

    2010-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the notion that increased oxidative stress is a fundamental cause in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases. As a result, a decline in cognitive function is generally associated with brain aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive intermediates, which can modify proteins, nucleic acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to neuronal damage. Because proteins are major components of biological systems and play key roles in a variety of cellular functions, oxidative damage to proteins represents a primary event observed in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, with a redox proteomics approach, we identified mitochondrial oxidatively modified proteins as a function of brain aging, specifically in those brain regions, such as cortex and hippocampus, that are commonly affected by the aging process. In all brain regions examined, many of the identified proteins were energy-related, such as pyruvate kinase, ATP synthase, aldolase, creatine kinase, and α-enolase. These alterations were associated with significant changes in both cytosolic and mitochondrial redox status in all brain regions analyzed. Our finding is in line with current literature postulating that free radical damage and decreased energy production are characteristic hallmarks of the aging process. In additon, our results further contribute to identifying common pathological pathways involved both in aging and in neurodegenerative disease development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Androgen receptor status predicts development of brain metastases in ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Senetta, Rebecca; Scotto, Giulia; Aglietta, Massimo; Maggiorotto, Furio; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Genta, Sofia; Boldorini, Renzo; Manini, Claudia; Morra, Isabella; Buosi, Roberta; Sapino, Anna; Cassoni, Paola; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2017-06-20

    Brain metastases are uncommon localizations in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), their reported incidence is increasing and no predictive biomarkers have been identified yet. Goals of this study were: i) to define a possible association between Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR), Androgen Receptor (AR),human EGF receptor 2 (HER2) and brain progression in EOC patients, and ii) to identify differences in ER, PR, AR and HER2 protein expression from primary EOC and its matched resected brain metastasis. A retrospective series of 11 EOC with matched brain metastasis surgically removed was collected. For comparison, a "Control dataset" of 22 patients, without evidence of brain involvement after an adequate follow up was matched. ER, PR, AR and HER2 status were analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry forCases (both primary and metastatic lesions) and Controls.Univariate analysis showed that AR status was significantly associated with brain localization, both considered as discrete variable (cut-off: 10%, p=0.013) and as continuous one (p=0.035). Multivariate analysis confirmed this trend (p=0.053). When considered as continuous variables, ER and AR showed greater expression in primary tumors in comparison with brain metastases (p=0.013 and p=0.032, respectively).In our series, AR predicts brain involvement, with a 9.5 times higher propensity for AR-negative EOC. Moreover, brain dissemination is probably the result of progressive dedifferentiation of primary tumor, shown by reduction of ER and AR expression in metastases. Further studies are required, in order to anticipate and improve multimodal treatment of brain metastases.

  10. Mercury in the National Parks: Current Status and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, C.; Blett, T. F.; Morris, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed contaminant that can harm human and wildlife health, and threaten resources the National Park Service (NPS) is charged with protecting. Due in part to emissions and long-range transport from coal burning power plants, even remote national park environments receive mercury deposition from the atmosphere. Given the concern regarding mercury, there are and have been many mercury monitoring initiatives in national parks to determine the risk from mercury contamination. This includes the study of litter fall at Acadia National Park (Maine), snow at Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), heron eggs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana), bat hair at Mammoth Cave National Park (Kentucky), and panthers at Everglades National Park (Florida). Wet deposition is also measured at 16 national parks as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Network / Mercury Deposition Network. Results from these studies indicate that mercury deposition is increasing or is elevated in many national parks, and fish and other biota have been found to contain levels of mercury above toxicity thresholds for impacts to both humans and wildlife. Current research coordinated by the NPS Air Resources Division (ARD) in Denver, Colorado, on the effects of mercury includes broad-scale assessments of mercury in fish, dragonfly larvae, and songbirds across 30+ national parks. Fish provide the trophic link to human and wildlife health, dragonfly larvae can describe fine-scale differences in mercury levels, and songbirds shed light on the risk to terrestrial ecosystems. External project partners include the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Maine, and the Biodiversity Research Institute. In addition, the dragonfly project engages citizen scientists in the collection of dragonfly larvae, supporting the NPS Centennial Initiative by connecting people to parks and advancing the educational mission, and increasing public awareness about mercury impacts. Much of

  11. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunicardi, F.C.; Rosman, P.M.; Lesser, K.L.; Andersen, D.K.

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors.

  12. Anion Exchange Membranes: Current Status and Moving Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickner, MA; Herring, AM; Coughlin, EB

    2013-10-29

    This short review is meant to provide the reader with highlights in anion exchange membrane research, describe current needs in the field, and point out promising directions for future work. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) provide one possible route to low platinum or platinum-free fuel cells with the potential for facile oxidation of complex fuels beyond hydrogen and methanol. AEMs and related stable cationic polymers also have applications in energy storage and other electrochemical technologies such as water electrolyzers and redox flow batteries. While anion exchange membranes have been known for a long time in water treatment applications, materials for electrochemical technology with robust mechanical properties in thin film format have only recently become more widely available. High hydroxide and bicarbonate anion conductivity have been demonstrated in a range of AEM formats, but intrinsic stability of the polymers and demonstration of long device lifetime remain major roadblocks. Novel approaches to stable materials have focused on new types of cations that employ delocalization and steric shielding of the positive center to mitigate nucleophilic attack by hydroxide. A number of promising polymer backbones and membrane architectures have been identified, but limited device testing and a lack of understanding of the degradation mechanisms in operating devices is slowing progress on engineered systems with alkaline fuel cell technology. Our objective is to spur more research in this area to develop fuel cell systems that approach the costs of inexpensive batteries for large-scale applications. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1727-1735, 2013

  13. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W.; Wilson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the edematous reaction in acute myocardial infarct (AMI) is not stable and warranted the use of edematous area in evaluating therapies. On the other hand, cine MRI demonstrated reproducible data on LV function in healthy volunteers and LV remodeling in patients. Noninvasive first pass perfusion, using exogenous tracer (gadolinium-based contrast media) and arterial spin labeling MRI, using endogenous tracer (water), are sensitive and useful techniques for evaluating myocardial perfusion and angiogenesis. Recently, new strategies have been developed to quantify myocardial viability using T1-mapping and equilibrium contrast enhanced MR techniques because existing delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) sequences are limited in detecting patchy microinfarct and diffuse fibrosis. These new techniques were successfully used for characterizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis associated with myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis heart failure, aortic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension). Diffusion MRI provides information regarding microscopic tissue structure, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) helps to characterize the myocardium and monitor the process of LV remodeling after AMI. Novel trends in hybrid imaging, such as cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI and optical imaging/MRI, are recently under intensive investigation. With the promise of higher spatial

  14. Value of biomarkers in osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, M; Martel-Pelletier, J; Christiansen, C; Brandi, M-L; Bruyère, O; Chapurlat, R; Collette, J; Cooper, C; Giacovelli, G; Kanis, J A; Karsdal, M A; Kraus, V; Lems, W F; Meulenbelt, I; Pelletier, J-P; Raynauld, J-P; Reiter-Niesert, S; Rizzoli, R; Sandell, L J; Van Spil, W E; Reginster, J-Y

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis affects the whole joint structure with progressive changes in cartilage, menisci, ligaments and subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Biomarkers are being developed to quantify joint remodelling and disease progression. This article was prepared following a working meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis convened to discuss the value of biochemical markers of matrix metabolism in drug development in osteoarthritis. The best candidates are generally molecules or molecular fragments present in cartilage, bone or synovium and may be specific to one type of joint tissue or common to them all. Many currently investigated biomarkers are associated with collagen metabolism in cartilage or bone, or aggrecan metabolism in cartilage. Other biomarkers are related to non-collagenous proteins, inflammation and/or fibrosis. Biomarkers in osteoarthritis can be categorised using the burden of disease, investigative, prognostic, efficacy of intervention, diagnostic and safety classification. There are a number of promising candidates, notably urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II and serum cartilage oligomeric protein, although none is sufficiently discriminating to differentiate between individual patients and controls (diagnostic) or between patients with different disease severities (burden of disease), predict prognosis in individuals with or without osteoarthritis (prognostic) or perform so consistently that it could function as a surrogate outcome in clinical trials (efficacy of intervention). Future avenues for research include exploration of underlying mechanisms of disease and development of new biomarkers; technological development; the ‘omics’ (genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and lipidomics); design of aggregate scores combining a panel of biomarkers and/or imaging markers into single diagnostic algorithms; and investigation into the relationship between biomarkers and

  15. Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q H; Yang, W N; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Jin, P K; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Yang, S J; Wang, Q; Wang, X C; Ao, D

    2016-01-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and effluent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment capacity of 1.48×10(8)m(3)/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and oxidation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efficiencies of COD and NH3-N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efficiency of NH3-N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefficiently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1×10(4)m(3)/d-5×10(4)m(3)/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac MR imaging: current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maythem; Van, Tu Anh; Krug, Roland; Hetts, Steven W; Wilson, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is currently a worldwide epidemic with increasing impact on healthcare systems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences give complementary information on LV function, regional perfusion, angiogenesis, myocardial viability and orientations of myocytes. T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), fat suppression and black blood sequences have been frequently used for detecting edematous area at risk (AAR) of infarction. T2 mapping, however, indicated that the edematous reaction in acute myocardial infarct (AMI) is not stable and warranted the use of edematous area in evaluating therapies. On the other hand, cine MRI demonstrated reproducible data on LV function in healthy volunteers and LV remodeling in patients. Noninvasive first pass perfusion, using exogenous tracer (gadolinium-based contrast media) and arterial spin labeling MRI, using endogenous tracer (water), are sensitive and useful techniques for evaluating myocardial perfusion and angiogenesis. Recently, new strategies have been developed to quantify myocardial viability using T1-mapping and equilibrium contrast enhanced MR techniques because existing delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) sequences are limited in detecting patchy microinfarct and diffuse fibrosis. These new techniques were successfully used for characterizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis associated with myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis heart failure, aortic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension). Diffusion MRI provides information regarding microscopic tissue structure, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) helps to characterize the myocardium and monitor the process of LV remodeling after AMI. Novel trends in hybrid imaging, such as cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI and optical imaging/MRI, are recently under intensive investigation. With the promise of higher spatial

  17. Current status on performance of CT colonography and clinical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laghi, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.laghi@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Polo Pontino, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Via Franco Faggiana 43, 04100 Latina (Italy); Rengo, Marco [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Polo Pontino, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Via Franco Faggiana 43, 04100 Latina (Italy); Graser, Anno [InstitutfürKlinische Radiologie, Klinikumder Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Campus Großhadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 München (Germany); Iafrate, Franco [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology Sapienza – Università di Roma, Policlinico Umberto I, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    CT colonography (CTC) is a robust and reliable imaging test of the colon. Accuracy for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is as high as conventional colonoscopy (CC). Identification of polyp is size dependent, with large lesions (≥10 mm) accurately detected and small lesions (6–9 mm) identified with moderate to good sensitivity. Recent studies show good sensitivity for the identification of nonpolypoid (flat) lesions as well. Current CTC indications include the evaluation of patients who had undergone a previous incomplete CC or those who are unfit for CC (elderly and frail individuals, patients with underlying severe clinical conditions, or with contraindication to sedation). CTC can also be efficiently used in the assessment of diverticular disease (excluding patients with acute diverticulitis, where the exam should be postponed), before laparoscopic surgery for CRC (to have an accurate localization of the lesion), in the evaluation of colonic involvement in the case of deep pelvic endometriosis (replacing barium enema). CTC is also a safe procedure in patients with colostomy. For CRC screening, CTC should be considered an opportunistic screening test (not available for population, or mass screening) to be offered to asymptomatic average-risk individuals, of both genders, starting at age 50. The use in individuals with positive family history should be discussed with the patient first. Absolute contraindication is to propose CTC for surveillance of genetic syndromes and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (in particular, ulcerative colitis). The use of CTC in the follow-up after surgery for CRC is achieving interesting evidences despite the fact that literature data are still relatively weak in terms of numerosity of the studied populations. In patients who underwent previous polypectomy CTC cannot be recommended as first test because debate is still open. It is desirable that in the future CTC would be the first-line and only diagnostic test for

  18. Current status of the science and technology of vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, R.E.; Simko, T.M. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of the science and technology of vacuum glazing. The construction of vacuum glazing, and its method of manufacture in the laboratory, is described. Experimental data are presented on the magnitude of heat flows through vacuum glazing. Gaseous heat transfer is negligible, and the internal vacuum is shown to be stable over many years, in well-manufactured glazing. Values of air-to-air, centre-of-glazing thermal conductance have been achieved ranging from 3 W m {sup -2} K{sup -1} (for vacuum glazing with no internal low emittance coating) to 0.8 W m {sup -2} K {sup -1} (for samples with two internal low emittance coatings). The overall heat transport rate through 1 m x 1 m samples of vacuum glazing has been measured in accurately calibrated guarded hot box instruments. The results obtained agree to within experimental error ({+-} 6%) with those estimated on the basis of local measurements of heat transfer due to radiation, pillar conduction and lateral heat flow through the edge seal. Sources of mechanical tensile stress in vacuum glazing are identified. Stresses due to atmospheric pressure occur in the vicinity of the pillars, and (in poorly designed glazing) near the edge seal. Stresses due to temperature differences are influenced by many factors including the external heat transfer coefficients, level of insulation of the glazing, edge insulation, and edge constraints. Methods of estimating these stresses are discussed. It is shown that vacuum glazing can be designed with adequately low stresses, and low thermal conductance. (author)

  19. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  20. The Columbia River flood basalt province: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Peter R.

    The Columbia River flood basalt province is smaller by an order of magnitude than the Deccan, Karoo, Paraná, and Siberian continental flood basalt provinces. Its smaller size, relative youth (17-6 Ma), excellent exposure, and easy accessibility have allowed development of a flow-by-flow stratigraphy in which many flows can be traced across the Columbia Plateau, often linked directly to their strongly oriented feeder dikes in the southeast quadrant. The detailed stratigraphy provides a precise record of the changes in magma composition and volume with time and demonstrates more clearly here than in other provinces that single fissure eruptions had volumes in excess of 2,000 km3 and flowed across the plateau for distances up to 600 km with negligible changes in chemical or mineralogical composition. Current evidence suggests that the Columbia River flood basalts resulted from impingement of a small mantle plume, the Yellowstone hotspot, on the base of the lithosphere near the Nevada-Oregon-Idaho border at 16.5 Ma and that the main focus of eruption then moved rapidly north to the Washington-Oregon-Idaho border from where the main eruptions occurred. The rapid northerly translation of the main eruptive activity may have been controlled by weakened or thinned zones in the lithosphere. The few earliest flows have typical mantle plume compositions and the last, small-volume flows are contaminated by continental crust. In between, the great majority of flows carry a strong lithospheric signature, the source of which remains controversial—either an enriched continental lithospheric mantle or assimilated continental crust. The physical nature and rate of magma eruption are also controversial. Recent work suggests flows grew by internal injection rather than by turbulent surface flow and this has been used to imply significantly lower eruption rates than previously envisaged. However, the chemical and mineralogical homogeneity of single Columbia River basalt flows across

  1. Medicinal use of cannabis: history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, H

    2001-01-01

    To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids. The literature on therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids was assessed with respect to type of study design, quality and variability of data, independent replications by the same or other investigators, magnitude of effects, comparison with other available treatments and reported adverse effects. The results of this review were also compared with those of major international reviews of this topic in the past five years. Pure tetrahydrocannabinol and several analogues have shown significant therapeutic benefits in the relief of nausea and vomiting, and stimulation of appetite in patients with wasting syndrome. Recent evidence clearly demonstrates analgesic and anti-spasticity effects that will probably prove to be clinically useful. Reduction of intraocular pressure in glaucoma and bronchodilation in asthma are not sufficiently strong, long lasting or reliable to provide a valid basis for therapeutic use. The anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol is sufficiently promising to warrant further properly designed clinical trials. There is still a major lack of long term pharmacokinetic data and information on drug interactions. For all the present and probable future uses, pure cannabinoids, administered orally, rectally or parenterally, have been shown to be effective, and they are free of the risks of chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and upper respiratory cancer that are associated with the smoking of crude cannabis. Smoking might be justified on compassionate grounds in terminally ill patients who are already accustomed to using cannabis in this manner. Future research will probably yield new synthetic analogues with better separation of therapeutic effects from undesired psychoactivity and other side effects, and with solubility properties that

  2. Robotic surgery for gastric tumor: current status and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hae Min; Son, Taeil; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical techniques have evolved tremendously over this past century. To maximize the efficacy and minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery, researchers have sought to implement wider application of robotics. Nevertheless, both optimism without sound evidence and fear of new technology obscure the appropriate uses of robotic surgery. In the present review, we attempted to provide a balanced perspective on the current state of robotic gastrectomy, outlining evidence and opportunities for the use thereof. Although evidence is limited, the use of robotics is feasible for gastric cancer surgery, and less than 10 cases of robotic surgery are needed to become proficient therein. Compared to the clinical impact of laparoscopy on gastric cancer surgery, the additional benefits of robotic surgery to patients seem to be limited. Despite additional costs and longer surgeries, robotic surgery reportedly does not offer surgical outcomes superior to those for laparoscopic surgery, according to a recent multicenter study. Meanwhile, however, our in-depth review of retrospective and prospective reports revealed that robots could expand the indications of minimally invasive gastrectomy for patients requiring total gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Moreover, we found that robotic gastrectomy is associated with a higher number of retrieved lymph nodes, less bleeding, fewer complications, and shorter hospital stay, compared to laparoscopic gastrectomy. Accordingly, new surgical approaches using advanced technologies, such as near infrared detectors, the Tilepro® multi-input display, dual consoles, and the Single-Site® system, are under investigation. In conclusion, measuring the additional benefits of robotic over laparoscopic surgery would be difficult and clinically insignificant. Thus, developing new surgical procedures that extend the benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery to patients in whom minimally invasive surgery would not be possible is necessary

  3. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-04

    This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.

  4. Current Status of Observation by the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) on Board Akatsuki Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, T.; Taguchi, M.; Imamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Iwagami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Current status of observation by the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) on board Akatsuki spacecraft is reported. We advance the study by using the abundant LIR images, and various large stationary gravity waves have been identified in LIR images.

  5. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,

  6. In vivo assessment of human brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekadar, S.R.; Witkowski, M.; Garcia Cossio, E.; Birbaumer, N.; Robinson, S.E.; Cohen, L.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect pattern formation of cell assemblies’ activity, which is often disturbed in neurological and psychiatric diseases like depression, schizophrenia and stroke. In the neurobiological analysis and treatment of these conditions, transcranial electric currents applied to the

  7. The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon: history, current status, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, R G; Jobsis, C T; Onan, G; Day, B N

    2011-07-01

    The Animal Sciences Academic Quadrathlon (AQ) provides opportunities for teams of undergraduate animal and dairy science students to participate in regional American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)/American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) meetings and to collectively exhibit their knowledge and talents competitively in 4 categories: 1) solving practical, hands-on, laboratory-type problems; 2) providing written answers to essay-type questions about principles and concepts; 3) preparing and communicating orally and extemporaneously topics of current animal science interest; and 4) quickly responding to short-answer questions provided in the form of double-elimination quiz bowls. Each team is selected by winning the local AQ at their university. Overall and individual category winning teams are recognized, but team rankings are not emphasized. The ASAS/ADSA members provide leadership for organizing and conducting the AQ, and ASAS and each university provide travel expenses for students. The ultimate purpose is to stimulate academic excellence among undergraduate students and for the students to attend ASAS/ADSA regional scientific meetings to meet faculty and students and to attend scientific research presentations. The purpose of this document was to provide a history of the event and to make recommendations for its improvement. The AQ was conceived in 1967. During the next 10 yr, an ASAS committee developed procedures for a trial AQ held in 1980 at the ASAS Midwestern Section, Kansas State University-Manhattan, and in the next year the first official AQ was held at the ASAS Midwestern Section at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Starting in 1985, AQ programs were initiated at the other 3 ASAS sectional meetings, and an estimated 50,000 students representing 60 universities have participated in AQ programs since that time. If the AQ is to continue its improvement over time, it will greatly depend on sustained ASAS/ADSA faculty interest and support, as well as

  8. RCOF in European region: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, A.

    2010-09-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums are a key component of WMO WCASP/CLIPS activities. The RCOF process pioneered in Africa in late 1990s, since then it spread worldwide, and at present climate outlook forums are being conducted nearly in all regions all over the world. The RCOF brings together experts from a climatologically homogeneous region and provides consensus based climate prediction and information, which has critical socio-economic significance. This information has been applied to reducing climate-related risks and supporting sustainable development. The RCOF process has facilitated a better understanding of the links between the past, current and future evolution of the climate system and its consequences for Members' socio-economic activities. RCOFs have greatly enhanced interactions and exchange of information between providers and users of climate information. In addition, RCOFs contribute substantially to training and capacity building in the regions targeted at. In RA VI the RCOF process was launched in 2008. The South-East European Climate Outlook Forum (SEECOF) mechanism covers mainly countries of South East Europe and Caucasus. Two SEECOFs have been successfully conducted in 2008 and 2009: SEECOF-I took place in Zagreb/Croatia in June 2008 and SEECOF-II was hosted by Hungary, Budapest, in November 2009. SEECOF-III was held as an online COF. Nevertheless, the RCOF mechanism in RA VI still needs substantial support in order to strengthen the process, to better involve the participating countries and users, to sharpen the communication of the consensus forecasts to build trust amongst the user communities, and most importantly to achieve sustainability, which is one of the priority tasks of the RAVI Working Group on Climate and Hydrology (WG CH). Through the Task Team on Regional Climate Outlook Forums (TT RCOF) the WG CH has taken responsibility for the co-ordination of the RCOF process in RA VI, in order to extend it to other parts of RA VI region

  9. The Current Status of the Ketogenic Diet in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Emmanuelle C S; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Taylor, Bruce V M

    2017-01-01

    rigid diet in humans. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for the use of KD in mental disorders, and it is not a recommended treatment option. Future research should include long-term, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover dietary trials to examine the effect of KD in various mental disorders.

  10. Current status of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penders J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE encompass subacute neurological degenerative diseases for which the prototypes are scrapie in sheep and some forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man. The emergence of a new form of TSE in cattle in United Kingdom (UK since 1986, namely bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, sharply increased the interest for these diseases, especially because of the epidemic nature of BSE in UK, its subsequent spread in continental Europe and the later discovery of its zoonotic character. The number of measures of veterinary public health taken to control the disease and to prevent its spread to animals and human beings increased in time and culminated by the total feed ban. Indeed, since the beginning of 2001, feed containing proteins of animal origin is prohibited for the feeding of production animals, including ruminants and monogastric species. The effect of this total ban of mammalian meat and bone meal needs to be evaluated. The incidence of BSE has a trend to decrease in UK and in most of the other European member states. However, as BSE is a rare event distributed in a large bovine population, it is difficult to state unambiguously whether this trend is significant. Furthermore, the evaluation of this measure will be only effective at least five years after its introduction, since this period is the mean incubation time of BSE. The main concern is currently the eradication of BSE in the infected countries. Additionally, the control of scrapie is also carried out due to the possible contamination of sheep with the BSE agent. These actions must take into account several new facts: the recent discovery of BSE cases in countries with a low geographical BSE risk level as Japan, Canada and the United States of America (USA; the growing incidence of chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy observed in deer in USA; the characterization of a new pattern of bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy in

  11. [Current status of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in urinary lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Arias, Jose Gregorio; Gamarra-Quintanilla, Mikel; Urdaneta-Salegui, Luis Felipe; Mora-Christian, Jorge Alberto; Sánchez-Vazquez, Andrea; Astobieta-Odriozola, Ander; Ibarluzea-González, Gaspar

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decade, urinary lithiasis' prevalence has dramatically increased due to diet and lifestyle changes, growing 10.6% and 7.1% in men and women respectively. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has lost relevance in current practice due to endoscopic device development and unpredictability of results. Instrument miniaturization is leading to an increase of the percutaneous approach of increasingly smaller stones, while most flexible ureteroscopes durability and digitalization has allowed urologists to address larger stones. So that, decision algorithm is now impossible to define, but what is clear is that ESWL has declined worldwide. Can it disappear as a urinary lithiasis treatment modality? If we don't improve appropriate candidate selection and optimize disintegration efficiency, guidelines are going to replace the more "boring" ESWL by popular and more attractive endoscopes. Shock wave technology has evolved in the last two decades, however lithotripsy fundamental principle has not changed. ESWL has passed the test of time and centers dedicated to stone treatment should have a lithotripter in order to offer an appropriate balance in different options for different clinical situations. New developments will be focused on improvements in location (in-line navigation systems; Vision track system) and automatic ultrasound location on a robotic arm; monitoring and stone fixation, implementation of different focal sizes with new acoustic lenses, multitask working stations that allow endourological approach, coupling control (avoiding microbubbles) and low cost devices for different applications. On the other hand, optimizing outcomes by: slower pulse rates, ramping strategies and patient selection with soft stones, short stone-skin distance, low BMI and favorable collecting system anatomy, allow us to achieve better outcomes in shock wave treatments. SWL still represents a unique non invasive method of stone disease treatment with no anesthesia and low

  12. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  13. The Change in Nutritional Status in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha'al, Dina A.

    There is a high prevalence in malnutrition among traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism which develop post injury. Traumatic brain injury patients are different, even among themselves, in their energy requirements and response to nutritional therapy. This implies that there are other factors that affect the energy intake of these patients and enhance the incidence of malnutrition. This dissertation study examines the nutritional status of TBI patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and during their hospital stay to describe baseline status, detect changes in nutritional status over 7 days, and identify the factors affecting the adequacy of energy intake and the change in nutritional status as a consequence. Anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements, measures of severity of illness, daily health status, level of brain injury severity, and other data were collected from the medical records of 50 patients, who were ≥ 18 years old, mechanically ventilated in the first 24 hours of ICU admission, and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3-12. These data were used to examine the previous relationships. Although there was no statistically significant change found in body mass index and weight, there was a significant change detected in other nutritional markers, including hemoglobin, albumin, and total lymphocyte levels over the 7 days of ICU and hospital stay. No significant relationship was found between the adequacy of energy intake and total prescribed energy, severity of illness, level of brain injury severity, daily health status, patient age, intracranial pressure, or time of feeding initiation. Findings may be used to develop and test interventions to improve nutritional status during the acute phase of TBI. This will lay a foundation for health care providers, including nurses, to establish standards for practice and nutrition protocols to assure optimal nutrition assessment and intervention in a

  14. Semiparametric probit models with univariate and bivariate current-status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Qin, Jing

    2017-04-24

    Multivariate current-status data are frequently encountered in biomedical and public health studies. Semiparametric regression models have been extensively studied for univariate current-status data, but most existing estimation procedures are computationally intensive, involving either penalization or smoothing techniques. It becomes more challenging for the analysis of multivariate current-status data. In this article, we study the maximum likelihood estimations for univariate and bivariate current-status data under the semiparametric probit regression models. We present a simple computational procedure combining the expectation-maximization algorithm with the pool-adjacent-violators algorithm for solving the monotone constraint on the baseline function. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators are investigated, including the calculation of the explicit information bound for univariate current-status data, as well as the asymptotic consistency and convergence rate for bivariate current-status data. Extensive simulation studies showed that the proposed computational procedures performed well under small or moderate sample sizes. We demonstrate the estimation procedure with two real data examples in the areas of diabetic and HIV research. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  15. Blood-brain barrier leakage after status epilepticus in rapamycin-treated rats II : Potential mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Erwin A; Otte, Wim M; Wadman, Wytse J; Aronica, Eleonora; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Gorter, Jan A

    OBJECTIVE: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage may play a pro-epileptogenic role after status epilepticus. In the accompanying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) study we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduced BBB leakage and seizure

  16. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  17. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the

  18. Integration of chemotherapy into current treatment strategies for brain metastases from solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamm Reinhard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with brain metastases represent a heterogeneous group where selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on many patient- and disease-related factors. Eventually, a considerable proportion of patients are treated with palliative approaches such as whole-brain radiotherapy. Whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has recently gained increasing attention and is hoped to augment the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy alone and to extend survival in certain subsets of patients with controlled extracranial disease and good performance status. The randomized trials of whole-brain radiotherapy vs. whole-brain radiotherapy plus chemotherapy suggest that this concept deserves further study, although they failed to improve survival. However, survival might not be the most relevant endpoint in a condition, where most patients die from extracranial progression. Sometimes, the question arises whether patients with newly detected brain metastases and the indication for systemic treatment of extracranial disease can undergo standard systemic chemotherapy with the option of deferred rather than immediate radiotherapy to the brain. The literature contains numerous small reports on this issue, mainly in malignant melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer, but very few sufficiently powered randomized trials. With chemotherapy alone, response rates were mostly in the order of 20–40%. The choice of chemotherapy regimen is often complicated by previous systemic treatment and takes into account the activity of the drugs in extracranial metastatic disease. Because the blood-brain barrier is partially disrupted in most macroscopic metastases, systemically administered agents can gain access to such tumor sites. Our systematic literature review suggests that both chemotherapy and radiochemotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases need further critical evaluation before standard clinical

  19. Current status of in-hospital donation coordinators in Japan: nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2013-05-01

    When the Japanese Organ Transplantation Act was issued, the Japanese Organ Transplantation Network (JOT) was established in 1997. JOT lists recipients, assesses and manages organ donors, and educates publics and headquarters for organ donations. JOT procurement transplant coordinators (PTC) play roles in obtaining consent from relatives for organ donation, donor evaluation and management, organ recovery management, organ transport, and care of donor families during and after donation. Every prefecture has at least one PTC who is mainly working in public education and hospital development. They also help the JOT PTC at the time of organ procurement. Most prefectures commission hospital staff in the procurement hospital to be an in-hospital PTC (In-Hp PTC), who make their hospital staff aware of organ donation and support organ procurement. Although the Act was revised in 2010 with brain-dead organ donation increased from 13 to 44 cases yearly, the number was still extremely smaller than other developed countries. In these circumstances, In-Hp PTC may play greater roles to increase donation and smooth procurement procedures Our primary aim was to describe the current status of In-Hp PTC in Japan. Between December 15, 2011, and January 31, 2012, we invited 1889 In-Hp PTC to complete a letter survey using a self-designed questionnaire. In all, 56 In-Hp PTC (40%) completed and returned it. The occupation of the respondents was nurse (66%), physician (18%), or other (16%). Although 52% of respondents belonged to the hospital, which was designated for brain-death organ donation by the government, only 46% had any experience with a cadaveric donor. Only 2% were full-time In-Hp PTC. They mainly played a role in preparing their own manual for organ procurement (57%), providing in-hospital lectures (44%) or their own simulation exercise (29%), as well as coordinating donation cases. Although 77% had attended seminar about organ donation provided by JOT or the prefecture PTC

  20. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-05-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders.

  1. Challenging the current paradigm of melanoma progression: brain metastasis as isolated first visceral site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Michelle W.; Qian, Meng; Lackaye, Daniel J.; Berman, Russell S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Golfinos, John G.; Parker, Erik C.; Darvishian, Farbod; Hernando, Eva; Shao, Yongzhao; Osman, Iman

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma brain metastasis that develops as the isolated first visceral site challenges the current paradigm of tumor progression in which brain metastasis is regarded as the final stage. Here we test the hypothesis that melanoma patients who develop brain metastasis as the isolated first visceral site have distinct clinicopathological features at the time of primary melanoma diagnosis. Cutaneous melanoma patients enrolled in 2 prospectively collected databases were studied (Cohort 1: 1972–1982, Cohort 2: 2002–2009). Patients who developed brain metastasis as isolated first visceral site were compared with (1) all other patients, (2) patients who developed visceral metastasis: extracranial only or extracranial and brain, and (3) patients who progressed to other isolated visceral sites first. Two hundred seven of 2280 (9.1%) patients developed brain metastasis (median follow–up, 5.2 y). Seventy–four of 207 (35.7%) brain metastasis patients progressed to brain metastasis as the isolated first visceral site. These patients presented with primaries that were thinner and had no mitosis compared with all other visceral metastasis patients (Fisher's combined P = .02, .05, respectively), and there was a significant difference in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution at initial melanoma diagnosis (combined P = .02). Post–visceral metastasis survival, however, was shorter in patients with brain metastasis as isolated first visceral site than in patients with visceral metastasis: extracranial and brain (combined P = .03). Brain metastasis as isolated first visceral site is a distinct clinicopathological entity. Studies are needed to better understand the biological factors driving this phenotype at the time of primary melanoma diagnosis and to determine its clinical implications. PMID:22561799

  2. Long-Term Efficacy of Constant Current Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Haddad, Ali; Samuel, Michael; Hulse, Natasha; Lin, Hsin-Ying; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2017-07-01

    Ventralis intermedius deep brain stimulation is an established intervention for medication-refractory essential tremor. Newer constant current stimulation technology offers theoretical advantage over the traditional constant voltage systems in terms of delivering a more biologically stable therapy. There are no previous reports on the outcomes of constant current deep brain stimulation in the treatment of essential tremor. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of ventralis intermedius constant current deep brain stimulation in patients diagnosed with essential tremor. Essential tremor patients implanted with constant current deep brain stimulation for a minimum of three years were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale at baseline and postoperatively at the time of evaluation. The quality of life in the patients was assessed using the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor questionnaire. Ten patients were evaluated with a median age at evaluation of 74 years (range 66-79) and a mean follow up time of 49.7 (range 36-78) months since starting stimulation. Constant current ventralis intermedius deep brain stimulation was well tolerated and effective in all patients with a mean score improvement from 50.7 ± 5.9 to 17.4 ± 5.7 (p = 0.0020) in the total Fahn-Tolosa-Marin rating scale score (65.6%). Furthermore, the total combined mean Quality of Life in Essential Tremor score was improved from 56.2 ± 4.9 to 16.8 ± 3.5 (p value = 0.0059) (70.1%). This report shows that long-term constant current ventralis intermedius deep brain stimulation is a safe and effective intervention for essential tremor patients. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Multiple brain metastases - current management and perspectives for treatment with electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Gehl, Julie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the advanced oncological treatments of cancer, an overall increase in cancer incidence, and better diagnostic tools, the incidence of brain metastases is on the rise. This review addresses the current treatment options for patients with multiple brain metastases, presenting...... electrochemotherapy (ECT) as one of the new experimental treatments for this group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neurosurgery, stereotactic surgery, and whole-brain radiotherapy are the evidence-based treatments that can be applied for patients with multiple brain metastases. Treatment with chemotherapy and molecularly...... targeted agents may also be warranted. Several experimental treatments are emerging, one of which is ECT, an effective cancer treatment comprising electric pulses given by electrodes in the tumor tissue, causing electroporation of the cell membrane, and thereby augmenting uptake and the cytotoxicity...

  4. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkilic, Cumali [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. (author)

  5. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  6. An overview of RDF processing systems: Current status, design features, and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, O.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Walter, D.K. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Waste Material Management Div.); Goodman, B.J. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent history of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing facilities in the United States. The current status of these facilities, including environmental, institutional, and economic considerations is discussed. The unit operations used to produce a desired RDF product are described, and the future potential of RDF processing systems is evaluated. Current research sponsored by the US Department of Energy is also presented. 6 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Syndrome of Electrical Status Epilepticus During Sleep: Epileptic Encephalopathy Related to Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Qiao; Zhang, Wei-Na; Hu, Lin-Yan; Liu, Meng-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep is an age-related and self-limited disorder. The present study analyzed the etiology, demographics, and pathogenesis of patients with electrical status epilepticus during sleep to provide information on the diagnosis and therapy of this syndrome. The etiologies of epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep in patients admitted in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into the genetic, structural-metabolic, and unknown groups according to the etiology. Demographics and clinical characteristics of all the patients were then analyzed and compared among groups. The etiologies of epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep in 75 patients mainly included benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, polymicrogyria, and migration disorders. Age at onset of epilepsy did not show a specific pattern, but age at onset of epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during sleep was concentrated at age 6-9 years. The mean age at onset of epilepsy in the genetic group was significantly older than that in the structural-metabolic group (P sleep did not significantly differ between the two groups. Electrical status epilepticus during sleep is an epileptic encephalopathy related to brain development and presents an age-dependent occurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  9. Current status data with competing risks : Limiting distribution of the MLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Maathuis, M.H.; Wellner, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study nonparametric estimation for current status data with competing risks. Our main interest is in the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), and for comparison we also consider a simpler “naive estimator.” Groeneboom, Maathuis and Wellner [Ann. Statist. (2008) 36 1031–1063] proved

  10. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  11. Low-dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the application of antibiotics for uses other than the treatment of patients and the association with such utilization with emerging drug resistance. This Research Topic “Low- dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future” in Frontiers in Microbiology: Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy...

  12. 75 FR 9232 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled Measuring Progress on Food...

  13. 75 FR 37752 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing that the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), the Food and Drug...

  14. Current status of neutrino oscillation hunting-CHORUS and NOMAD [detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, K

    1999-01-01

    A current status of CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at CERN-aiming to detect neutrino oscillations-is presented. To be about 10 times more sensitive to sin/sup 2/(2 theta ) than E531, there must be several breakthroughs in experimental techniques. Emphasis on a new emulsion technique developed and used in CHORUS is given. (4 refs).

  15. Maximum smoothed likelihood estimation and smoothed maximum likelihood estimation in the current status model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.; Witte, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the distribution function, the density and the hazard rate of the (unobservable) event time in the current status model. A well studied and natural nonparametric estimator for the distribution function in this model is the nonparametric maximum likelihood

  16. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  18. Current status and future trends in turbine application of thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Keith D.; Gupta, Dinesh K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current status and future trends in application of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to turbine components, and in particular to high turbine airfoils. Included are descriptions of the favorable results achieved to date with bill-of-material applications of plasma deposited TBC, and recent experience with developmental coatings applied by electron beam-physical vapor deposition.

  19. Current and emerging brain applications of MR-guided focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Suppiah, Suganth; Mithani, Karim; Solomon, Benjamin; Schwartz, Michael L; Lipsman, Nir

    2017-01-01

    MRI guided focused ultrasound is an emerging technique that uses acoustic energy to noninvasively treat intracranial disorders. At high frequencies, it can be used to raise tissue temperatures and ablate discrete brain targets with sub-millimeter accuracy. This application is currently under investigation for a broad range of clinical applications, including brain tumors, movement disorders, and psychiatric conditions. At low frequencies MRI guided focused ultrasound can be used to modulate neuronal activity and in conjunction with injected microbubbles, can open the blood-brain barrier to enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds. The last decade has seen dramatic advances in the science of MRI guided focused ultrasound, helping elucidate both its mechanisms and potential in pre-clinical models, and its translational promise across myriad clinical applications. This review provides an update of current and emerging MRI guided focused ultrasound applications for intracranial disorders and describes future directions and challenges for the field.

  20. Risk factors and global cognitive status related to brain arteriolosclerosis in elderly individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighodaro, Eseosa T; Abner, Erin L; Fardo, David W; Lin, Ai-Ling; Katsumata, Yuriko; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Neltner, Janna H; Monsell, Sarah E; Kukull, Walter A; Moser, Debra K; Appiah, Frank; Bachstetter, Adam D; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors and cognitive sequelae of brain arteriolosclerosis pathology are not fully understood. To address this, we used multimodal data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data sets. Previous studies showed evidence of distinct neurodegenerative disease outcomes and clinical-pathological correlations in the “oldest-old” compared to younger cohorts. Therefore, using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data set, we analyzed clinical and neuropathological data from two groups according to ages at death: age groups, severe brain arteriolosclerosis was associated with worse performances on global cognition tests. Hypertension (but not diabetes) was a brain arteriolosclerosis risk factor in the younger group. In the ≥ 80 years age at death group, an ABCC9 gene variant (rs704180), previously associated with aging-related hippocampal sclerosis, was also associated with brain arteriolosclerosis. A post-hoc arterial spin labeling neuroimaging experiment indicated that ABCC9 genotype is associated with cerebral blood flow impairment; in a convenience sample from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 15, homozygous individuals), non-risk genotype carriers showed higher global cerebral blood flow compared to risk genotype carriers. We conclude that brain arteriolosclerosis is associated with altered cognitive status and a novel vascular genetic risk factor. PMID:26738751

  1. 78 FR 9929 - Current Traumatic Brain Injury State Implementation Partnership Grantees; Non-Competitive One...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Current Traumatic Brain Injury State... State Departments of Health, Rehabilitation, Human Services, Education, Transportation, or Labor. This...,000 Oregon State Department of Education H21MC06769 OR 249,999 249,999 Texas Health & Human Services...

  2. Mapping entrained brain oscillations during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowski, M.; Garcia Cossio, E.; Chander, B.S.; Braun, C.; Birbaumer, N.; Robinson, S.E.; Soekadar, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a non-invasive and well-tolerated form of electric brain stimulation, can influence perception, memory, as well as motor and cognitive function. While the exact underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are unknown, the effects of tACS are mainly

  3. The rationale driving the evolution of deep brain stimulation to constant-current devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Jeff M; Tagliati, Michele; McIntyre, Cameron; Chen, Robert; Cheung, Tyler; Hargreaves, Eric L; Israel, Zvi; Moffitt, Michael; Montgomery, Erwin B; Stypulkowski, Paul; Shils, Jay; Denison, Timothy; Vitek, Jerrold; Volkman, Jens; Wertheimer, Jeffrey; Okun, Michael S

    2015-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for the treatment of a number of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. The effectiveness of DBS is dependent on the density and location of stimulation in a given brain area. Adjustments are made to optimize clinical benefits and minimize side effects. Until recently, clinicians would adjust DBS settings using a voltage mode, where the delivered voltage remained constant. More recently, a constant-current mode has become available where the programmer sets the current and the stimulator automatically adjusts the voltage as impedance changes. We held an expert consensus meeting to evaluate the current state of the literature and field on constant-current mode versus voltage mode in clinical brain-related applications. There has been little reporting of the use of constant-current DBS devices in movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, as impedance varies considerably between patients and over time, it makes sense that all new devices will likely use constant current. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. Nutritional status, assessment, requirements and adequacy of traumatic brain injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Subash, Selvaraju; Mahmood, Lubna; Kumar, Parvathy R

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been considered as a serious public health problem. Each year, traumatic brain injuries are contributing to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability and deaths and it can be classified according to the severity into penetrating and closed head injury. Symptoms, beside to be unconscious can be defined as vomiting, nausea, headache, dizziness, lack of motor coordination, difficulty in balancing, blurred vision and lightheadedness, bad taste in the mouth, ringing in the ears, fatigue and lethargy as well as changes in sleep patterns. The brain is known to be the functional regulator for all the metabolic activities inside the body and TBI patients mostly have a complex metabolic alterations including aberrant cellular metabolism, abnormal metabolic processes, changes in hormones functions and inflammatory cascade. The TBI patient's status needed to be assessed medically and nutritionally since the medical status of the patients can affect the nutrition part. Data from the four assessment tools are needed to be correctly used and interpreted in order to make a proper nutritional diagnosis, clinical assessment, biochemistry as well as anthropometric measurements. Regardless the methods used for assessing TBI patients, having adequate intake and medical care can lead to a reduction in hospital costs, numbers of day hospitalized, numbers of hours of mechanical ventilation and in the overall infection rates.

  5. Acute brain trauma, lung injury, and pneumonia: more than just altered mental status and decreased airway protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Parker J; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Bosarge, Patrick L; Wagener, Brant M

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even when patients survive the initial insult, there is significant morbidity and mortality secondary to subsequent pulmonary edema, acute lung injury (ALI), and nosocomial pneumonia. Whereas the relationship between TBI and secondary pulmonary complications is recognized, little is known about the mechanistic interplay of the two phenomena. Changes in mental status secondary to acute brain injury certainly impair airway- and lung-protective mechanisms. However, clinical and translational evidence suggests that more specific neuronal and cellular mechanisms contribute to impaired systemic and lung immunity that increases the risk of TBI-mediated lung injury and infection. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of that immune impairment, we review here the current clinical data that support TBI-induced impairment of systemic and lung immunity. Furthermore, we also review the animal models that attempt to reproduce human TBI. Additionally, we examine the possible role of damage-associated molecular patterns, the chlolinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and sex dimorphism in post-TBI ALI. In the last part of the review, we discuss current treatments and future pharmacological therapies, including fever control, tracheostomy, and corticosteroids, aimed to prevent and treat pulmonary edema, ALI, and nosocomial pneumonia after TBI. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The Emerging Role of Tractography in Deep Brain Stimulation: Basic Principles and Current Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is an MRI-based technique that delineates white matter tracts in the brain by tracking the diffusion of water in neural tissue. This methodology, known as “tractography”, has been extensively applied in clinical neuroscience to explore nervous system architecture and diseases. More recently, tractography has been used to assist with neurosurgical targeting in functional neurosurgery. This review provides an overview of DTI principles, and discusses current applications of tractography for improving and helping develop novel deep brain stimulation (DBS targets.

  7. Spreading depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and are associated with poor outcome in brain trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Watanabe, Tomas; Bullock, M Ross

    2011-01-01

    current shift of electrocorticographic recordings. In the focal ischaemic penumbra, peri-infarct depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and cause progressive recruitment of the penumbra into the core infarct. In traumatic brain injury, the effects of spreading depolarizations are unknown...... by negative direct current shifts, were associated with (i) isoelectricity or periodic epileptiform discharges; (ii) prolonged depression of spontaneous activity and (iii) occurrence in temporal clusters. Depolarizations with these characteristics are likely to reflect a worse prognosis.......Cortical spreading depolarizations occur spontaneously after ischaemic, haemorrhagic and traumatic brain injury. Their effects vary spatially and temporally as graded phenomena, from infarction to complete recovery, and are reflected in the duration of depolarization measured by the negative direct...

  8. Effects of transient unilateral functional brain disruption on global neural network status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem M Otte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent focal brain damage can have critical effects on the function of nearby as well as remote brain regions. However, the effects of transient disturbances on global brain function are largely unknown. Our goal was to develop an experimental in vivo model to map the impact of transient functional brain impairment on large-scale neural networks in the absence of structural damage.We describe a new rat model of transient functional hemispheric disruption using unilateral focal anesthesia by intracarotid pentobarbital injection. The brain’s functional status was assessed with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI and EEG. We performed network analysis to identify and quantify highly connected network hubs, i.e. ‘rich-club organization’, in pre- and postbarbital functional networks.Perfusion MRI data demonstrated that the catheterized carotid artery predominantly supplied the ipsilateral hemisphere, allowing for selective hemispheric brain silencing. The prebarbital baseline network displayed strong functional connectivity within and between hemispheres. Following pentobarbital injection, the disrupted hemisphere revealed increased intrahemispheric functional connectivity with concomitant decrease of interhemispheric connectivity. The bilateral functional network was characterized by a strong positive rich-club effect, which was not affected by ipsilateral disruption. Nevertheless, the rich-club value was significantly decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere and to a lesser extent contralaterally. Loss of interhemispheric EEG synchronization supported the rs-fMRI findings.Our data support the concept that densely connected rich-club regions play a central role in global brain communication, and show that network hub configurations can be significantly affected by focal temporary functional hemispheric disruption without structural neuronal damage. Further studies with this rat model will provide essential additional insights into network

  9. BRAF-V600 mutational status affects recurrence patterns of melanoma brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Russell; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Lipson, Evan J; Sharfman, William H; Bettegowda, Chetan; Redmond, Kristin J; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Ye, Xiaobu; Lim, Michael

    2017-06-15

    Brain metastasis is common and carries a poor prognosis in melanoma. A single institution, retrospective cohort of 225 melanoma patients was analyzed to determine if BRAF-V600 mutational status was associated with brain metastasis. Eighty-three of the 225 patients (37%) had BRAF-V600 mutations. At initial diagnosis, BRAF-V600 mutations were associated with younger age (p ≤ 0.001), higher proportion of females (p = 0.0037), higher AJCC stage (p = 0.030), regional lymph node involvement (p = 0.047), and family history of cancer (p = 0.044). Compared to BRAF-WT, BRAF-V600 patients had an increased risk of brain metastasis in multivariate analysis (OR = 2.24; 95% CL = 1.10-4.58; p = 0.027). However, BRAF-V600 patients treated with a selective BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) had a similar risk of brain metastasis compared to BRAF-WT patients (OR = 1.00; 95% CL = 0.37-2.65; p = 0.98). Moreover, treatment with BRAFi significantly prolonged the time from initial diagnosis to brain metastasis diagnosis (HR = 0.30; 95% CL = 0.11-0.79; p = 0.015). Compared to other tissues, the brain was the most frequent site of metastasis in BRAF-V600 patients without BRAFi (42% ± 7%). The frequency of brain metastasis was lower in BRAF-WT and BRAF-V600 patients with BRAFi (25% ± 4% and 25% ± 8%, respectively). The proportion of patients with brain metastasis as the only site was 40%, 60%, and 0% in the BRAF-WT, BRAF-V600 without BRAFi, and BRAF-V600 with BRAFi groups, respectively. This study provides evidence on the clinical importance of BRAF-V600 mutations and BRAF inhibition in the progression to melanoma brain metastasis. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Characterization of eddy current distortion effects on magnetic resonance axonography of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafiey, Ibrahim; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2002-05-01

    Axonography of human brain, based on diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), has recently gained popularity because of its potential in providing crucial information about intercommunication between different regions of brain. This technique exploits the sensitivity of MRI to random water diffusion in tissues in the presence of diffusion gradient pulses incorporated into the imaging sequence. Large diffusion weighting that is necessary for the generation of axonography with high SNR is achieved by increasing the magnitude of diffusion pulses. However large diffusion gradients induce strong eddy currents in the metallic structure of the cryostat that houses the superconducting coil of the scanner magnet, resulting in distortion of magnetic resonance images. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of eddy currents on images obtained using the DT-MRI of human brain. Characterization of eddy current effects is essential for optimizing the scanning parameters and improving image quality. All MRI studies were performed on 1.5-T GE scanner, using single shot diffusion weighed echo planar imaging sequence. All acquisitions were cardiac gated for minimizing the pulsation effect of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the images. Diffusion gradient- or b-space was explored using a set of 62 directions along the two poles, and 60 other directions. Total scan time was less than three minutes. The exploration of the b-space helps quantify the relationship between the orientation of diffusion gradients and eddy current levels. Experimental results demonstrate that certain directions are more prone to eddy current-induced image distortions. Determining the optimum gradient directions should present a powerful technique for reducing eddy current distortion, and thus enhance the use of MRI axonography for a noninvasive assessment of human brain.

  11. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  12. The treatment of Parkinson′s disease with deep brain stimulation: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia-Sabine Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson′s disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor complications, positive effects on patients′ mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues, i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  13. Current challenges to the clinical translation of brain machine interface technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Charles W; Patil, Parag G; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    Development of neural prostheses over the past few decades has produced a number of clinically relevant brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), such as the cochlear prostheses and deep brain stimulators. Current research pursues the restoration of communication or motor function to individuals with neurological disorders. Efforts in the field, such as the BrainGate trials, have already demonstrated that such interfaces can enable humans to effectively control external devices with neural signals. However, a number of significant issues regarding BMI performance, device capabilities, and surgery must be resolved before clinical use of BMI technology can become widespread. This chapter reviews challenges to clinical translation and discusses potential solutions that have been reported in recent literature, with focuses on hardware reliability, state-of-the-art decoding algorithms, and surgical considerations during implantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved Brain Tumor Classification by Sodium MR Imaging: Prediction of IDH Mutation Status and Tumor Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, A; Badde, S; Nagel, A; Neumann, J-O; Wick, W; Hertenstein, A; Bendszus, M; Sahm, F; Benkhedah, N; Kleesiek, J

    2016-01-01

    MR imaging in neuro-oncology is challenging due to inherent ambiguities in proton signal behavior. Sodium-MR imaging may substantially contribute to the characterization of tumors because it reflects the functional status of the sodium-potassium pump and sodium channels. Sodium-MR imaging data of patients with treatment-naïve glioma WHO grades I-IV (n = 34; mean age, 51.29 ± 17.77 years) were acquired by using a 7T MR system. For acquisition of sodium-MR images, we applied density-adapted 3D radial projection reconstruction pulse sequences. Proton-MR imaging data were acquired by using a 3T whole-body system. We demonstrated that the initial sodium signal of a treatment-naïve brain tumor is a significant predictor of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status (P model confirmed the sodium signal of treatment-naïve brain tumors as a predictor of progression (P = .003). Compared with the molecular signature of IDH mutation status, information criteria of model comparison revealed that the sodium signal is even superior to IDH in progression prediction. In addition, sodium-MR imaging provides a new approach to noninvasive tumor classification. The sodium signal of contrast-enhancing tumor portions facilitates differentiation among most glioma types (P sodium-MR imaging may help to classify neoplasias at an early stage, to reduce invasive tissue characterization such as stereotactic biopsy specimens, and overall to promote improved and individualized patient management in neuro-oncology by novel imaging signatures of brain tumors. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Semiparametric bayes' proportional odds models for current status data with underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianming; Dunson, David B

    2011-09-01

    Current status data are a type of interval-censored event time data in which all the individuals are either left or right censored. For example, our motivation is drawn from a cross-sectional study, which measured whether or not fibroid onset had occurred by the age of an ultrasound exam for each woman. We propose a semiparametric Bayesian proportional odds model in which the baseline event time distribution is estimated nonparametrically by using adaptive monotone splines in a logistic regression model and the potential risk factors are included in the parametric part of the mean structure. The proposed approach has the advantage of being straightforward to implement using a simple and efficient Gibbs sampler, whereas alternative semiparametric Bayes' event time models encounter problems for current status data. The model is generalized to allow systematic underreporting in a subset of the data, and the methods are applied to an epidemiologic study of uterine fibroids. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Oral health status in patients with brain injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Pillai, Rajath; Futarmal Kothari, Simple

    2017-01-01

    Med, Embase, and Scopus electronic databases until January 2016 to identify studies presenting the assessment of the oral health status of patients afflicted with any kind of ABI. The search strategy was restricted to English-language publications, enrolling patients above 18 years. Studies on the association...... and higher colonization of Candida albicans in saliva, all of which significantly reduced after intervention. Oral health related quality (OHrQoL) of life was poorer in patients compared to the population. Conclusion: Stroke was the most predominant brain injury condition studied in the literature with few...

  17. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  18. Economic Integration in the EuroMed: Current Status and Review of Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Jarreau

    2011-01-01

    This article draws a picture of the current status of the liberalization process in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and reviews existing studies of this process. Economic integration among the South-Med countries (SMCs) has started in the middle 1990s through intra-regional agreements (GAFTA, Agadir Agreement) and bilateral agreements with the EU. Econometric studies using gravity models generally found important trade creation effects for intra-regional trade, but smaller and asymmetric effec...

  19. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  20. Brain-Computer Interfaces Using Sensorimotor Rhythms: Current State and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies over the past two decades have shown that people can use brain signals to convey their intent to a computer using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). BCI systems extract specific features of brain activity and translate them into control signals that drive an output. Recently, a category of BCIs that are built on the rhythmic activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex, i.e. the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), has attracted considerable attention among the BCIs that use noninvasive neural recordings, e.g. electroencephalography (EEG), and have demonstrated the capability of multi-dimensional prosthesis control. This article reviews the current state and future perspectives of SMR-based BCI and its clinical applications, in particular focusing on the EEG SMR. The characteristic features of SMR from the human brain are described and their underlying neural sources are discussed. The functional components of SMR-based BCI, together with its current clinical applications are reviewed. Lastly, limitations of SMR-BCIs and future outlooks are also discussed. PMID:24759276

  1. Weed management in short rotation coppice: current status and future requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D.V. [Avon Vegetation Research, Nailsea (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The current status of weed management in short rotation coppices (SRCs) is reviewed in this updated report from the Energy Technology Support Unit, which draws on data from recently published material and from experimental work on advisory and vegetation monitoring activities from large scale SRC plantings. The report covers the need for weed control in SRCs, current methods, the properties and costs of herbicides, problem weed control. The need for the development and operation of sustainable integrated weed management systems is also highlighted. (UK)

  2. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I. [Seismic Engineering Center, NUPEC, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Universtity, Hachioji (Japan); Ishiwata, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Fujiwaka, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Yokota, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  3. Evidence of alterations in brain structure and antioxidant status following 'low-dose' monosodium glutamate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde; Akanmu, M A; Gbola, Olayiwola

    2016-09-01

    The study investigated the effects of low dose monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the brain, with a view to providing information on its effects on neuronal morphology and antioxidant status in mice. Sixty male mice (20-22 g) were divided into six groups of ten animals each. Vehicle (distilled water), a standard (l-glutamate at 10mg/kg body weight) or MSG (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Sections of the cerebrum, hippocampus and cerebellum were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, examined under a microscope and captured images analysed. Plasma and brain levels of glutamate, glutamine, and antioxidants were assayed. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. MSG ingestion did not significantly alter body weight. Relative brain weight increased at 40 and 80mg/kg compared to vehicle. Histological and histomorphometric changes consistent with neuronal damage were seen in the cerebrum, hippocampus and cerebellum at 40 and 80mg/kg. Plasma glutamate and glutamine assay showed significant increase at 40 and 80mg/kg while no significant difference in total brain glutamate or glutamine levels were seen. Levels of brain superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased with increasing doses of MSG, while nitric oxide (NO) increased at these doses. The study showed morphological alterations consistent with neuronal injury, biochemical changes of oxidative stress and a rise in plasma glutamate and glutamine. These data therefore still support the need for cautious consideration in the indiscriminate use of MSG as a dietary flavor enhancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Manifesto for the current understanding and management of traumatic brain injury-induced hypopituitarism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tanriverdi, F

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced hypopituitarism remains a relevant medical problem, because it may affect a significant proportion of the population. In the last decade important studies have been published investigating pituitary dysfunction after TBI. Recently, a group of experts gathered and revisited the topic of TBI-induced hypopituitarism. During the 2-day meeting, the main issues of this topic were presented and discussed, and current understanding and management of TBI-induced hypopituitarism are summarized here.

  5. Manifesto for the current understanding and management of traumatic brain injury-induced hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanriverdi, F; Agha, A; Aimaretti, G

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced hypopituitarism remains a relevant medical problem, because it may affect a significant proportion of the population. In the last decade important studies have been published investigating pituitary dysfunction after TBI. Recently, a group of experts gathered...... and revisited the topic of TBI-induced hypopituitarism. During the 2-day meeting, the main issues of this topic were presented and discussed, and current understanding and management of TBI-induced hypopituitarism are summarized here....

  6. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Spasticity: Historical Approaches, Current Status, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sean J; Wilson, Saul; Johnson, Michael D; Machado, Andre; Frizon, Leonardo; Chardon, Matthieu K; Reddy, Chandan G; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2017-06-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer with spasticity related to irreversible damage to the brain or spinal cord. Typical antecedent events include stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, although insidious onset is also common. Regardless of the cause, the resulting spasticity leads to years of disability and reduced quality of life. Many treatments are available to manage spasticity; yet each is fraught with drawbacks including incomplete response, high cost, limited duration, dose-limiting side effects, and periodic maintenance. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS), a once promising therapy for spasticity, has largely been relegated to permanent experimental status. In this review, our goal is to document and critique the history and assess the development of SCS as a treatment of lower limb spasticity. By incorporating recent discoveries with the insights gained from the early pioneers in this field, we intend to lay the groundwork needed to propose testable hypotheses for future studies. SCS has been tested in over 25 different conditions since a potentially beneficial effect was first reported in 1973. However, the lack of a fully formed understanding of the pathophysiology of spasticity, archaic study methodology, and the early technological limitations of implantable hardware limit the validity of many studies. SCS offers a measure of control for spasticity that cannot be duplicated with other interventions. With improved energy-source miniaturization, tailored control algorithms, novel implant design, and a clearer picture of the pathophysiology of spasticity, we are poised to reintroduce and test SCS in this population. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. [Nutritional status of adults with cystic fibrosis - current methods of assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabla, Anna; Skorupa, Wojciech; Milewska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequent monogenic disease in the Caucasian population, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This is a multiple organ disease and its main manifestations include pulmonary and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The exocrine pancreatic deficiency results in impaired digestion and absorption what may lead to malnutrition and vitamins and minerals deficiencies. The life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients has been increasing over the past years, so there is a need to verify usefulness of existing or create new methods of nutritional status assessment. The aim of this paper was presentation current data on the methods of assessment and monitoring of nutritional status. Particular attention has been paid to appropriate nutritional support in prevention and treatment of malnutrition patients with cystic fibrosis. On the basis of recent literature we can conclude that the advanced nutritional status assessment is recommended in patient with CF by using anthropometrical methods, body composition analysis and biochemical data. Good nutritional status is connected with pulmonary functions, quality and life length. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Adult Patients with Brain Tumours Awaiting Surgical Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michele; Leone, Ashley; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    To measure the prevalence of malnutrition, risk factors for poor dietary intake and body composition in patients with brain tumours admitted to hospital for surgical resection. In this study, 316 patients admitted for brain tumour resection to the Neurosurgical service at St. Michael's Hospital were screened. Assessment tools included the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) for nutritional status and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) for body composition. All measurements were performed by one research dietitian. Information regarding medical history, symptomology, and tumour pathology was recorded. One hundred and nine participants were recruited. Malnutrition was present in 17.6% of patients, of whom 94.7% were moderately malnourished (SGA-B) and 5.3% severely malnourished (SGA-C). Key symptoms contributing to malnutrition included weight loss, nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, headaches, and fatigue. Patients with malignant tumors were more likely to have weight loss and lower fat mass. This study demonstrated that patients admitted for brain tumour resection have a low prevalence of malnutrition compared with other cancer populations. Useful parameters for nutritional screening of inpatient admissions include weight loss >5% of usual weight, nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, and headaches.

  9. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  10. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-01-01

    To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. The current implementation status of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme in 12 rehabilitation centres and 5 hospitals with a rehabilitation department was described by scoring fidelity and satisfaction. Seventy-one rehabilitation professionals filled out a questionnaire on how sports and physical activity, including stimulation activities, were implemented into rehabilitation care. Total fidelity scores (in %) were calculated for each organization. Professionals' satisfaction was rated on a scale from 1 to 10. In most organizations sports and physical activity were to some extent integrated during and after rehabilitation (fidelity scores: median = 54%, IQR = 23%). Physical activity stimulation was not always embedded as standard component of a rehabilitation treatment. Professionals' satisfaction rated a median value of 8.0 (IQR = 0.0) indicating high satisfaction rates. The fidelity outcome showed that activities to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation were integrated into rehabilitation care, but not always delivered as standardized component. These findings have emphasized the importance to focus on integrating these activities into routines of organizations. Implications for Rehabilitation Components of an evidence-based programme to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation can be used to measure the current status of the integration of sports and physical activity in rehabilitation care in a structural and effective way. The method described in the current study can be used to compare the content of the rehabilitation care regarding the integration of sports and physical activity among organizations both on a national and international level

  11. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten eDemberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches towards a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries.

  12. Artificial oxygen carriers as red blood cell substitutes: a selected review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Greenburg, A Gerson

    2004-09-01

    Two distinct approaches are being explored in red blood cell substitute (RCS) development: hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers (PFBOCs). HBOCs are based on intra- and/or intermolecularly "engineered" human or animal hemoglobins (Hbs), optimized for O2 delivery and longer intravascular circulation. Some are currently being evaluated in Phase II/III clinical studies. PFBOCs are aqueous emulsions of perfluorocarbon derivatives that dissolve relatively large amounts of O2. A PFBOC based on a 60% (wt/vol) emulsion of perfluorooctyl bromide has been evaluated in Phase II/III clinical trials. Although current PFBOC products generally require patients to breathe O2 enriched air, they render certain advantages since they are totally synthetic. This article provides a short review of the basic principles, approaches, and current status of RCS development. Results of preclinical and clinical studies including recent Phase II/III clinical studies are discussed.

  13. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging for personalized brain tumor resection: Current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Belykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorescence-guided surgery is one of the rapidly emerging methods of surgical theranostics. In this review, we summarize current fluorescence techniques used in neurosurgical practice for brain tumor patients, as well as future applications of recent laboratory and translational studies.Methods: Review of the literature.Results: A wide spectrum of fluorophores that have been tested for brain surgery is reviewed. Beginning with a fluorescein sodium application in 1948 by Moore, fluorescence guided brain tumor surgery is either routinely applied in some centers or is under active study in clinical trials. Besides the trinity of commonly used drugs (fluorescein sodium, 5-ALA and ICG, less studied fluorescent stains, such as tetracyclines, cancer-selective alkylphosphocholine analogs, cresyl violet, acridine orange, and acriflavine can be used for rapid tumor detection and pathological tissue examination. Other emerging agents such as activity-based probes and targeted molecular probes that can provide biomolecular specificity for surgical visualization and treatment are reviewed. Furthermore, we review available engineering and optical solutions for fluorescent surgical visualization. Instruments for fluorescent-guided surgery are divided into wide-field imaging systems and hand-held probes. Recent advancements in quantitative fluorescence-guided surgery are discussed.Conclusion: We are standing on the doorstep of the era of marker-assisted tumor management. Innovations in the fields of surgical optics, computer image analysis, and molecular bioengineering are advancing fluorescence-guided tumor resection paradigms, leading to cell-level approaches to visualization and resection of brain tumors.

  14. Civilian Power Program. Part 1, Summary, Current status of reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Author, Not Given

    1959-09-01

    This study group covered the following: delineation of the specific objectives of the overall US AEC civilian power reactor program, technical objectives of each reactor concept, preparation of a chronological development program for each reactor concept, evaluation of the economic potential of each reactor type, a program to encourage the the development, and yardsticks for measuring the development. Results were used for policy review by AEC, program direction, authorization and appropriation requests, etc. This evaluation encompassed civilian power reactors rated at 25 MW(e) or larger and related experimental facilities and R&D. This Part I summarizes the significant results of the comprehensive effort to determine the current technical and economic status for each reactor concept; it is based on the 8 individual technical status reports (Part III).

  15. Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, J. M.; Fresia, A.; Berger, B.; McCormack, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in sexually active women, and in a large proportion the underlying aetiology is unknown. We evaluated partner circumcision status as a potential risk and hypothesised that women with uncircumcised partners were at increased risk for BV. METHODS: Retrospective audit of a partner study (272 heterosexual couples) conducted in Baltimore between 1990 and 1992. BV defined by clinical criteria and circumcision status of males was determined by physical examination. RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 83 (30%) female partners; 75 (27%) males were uncircumcised. In males and females respectively, gonorrhoea was diagnosed in 20% and 16%, and chlamydia in 7% and 11%. In women with circumcised partners, 58/197 (29%) had BV compared with 25/75 (33%) with uncircumcised partners (p = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Women with uncircumcised current partners are not at increased risk for BV. 




 PMID:10616362

  16. The Current and Historical Distribution of Special Status Amphibians at the Livermore Site and Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattem, M V; Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2008-08-20

    65 surveys were completed in 2002 to assess the current distribution of special status amphibians at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site and Site 300. Combined with historical information from previous years, the information presented herein illustrates the dynamic and probable risk that amphibian populations face at both sites. The Livermore Site is developed and in stark contrast to the mostly undeveloped Site 300. Yet both sites have significant issues threatening the long-term sustainability of their respective amphibian populations. Livermore Site amphibians are presented with a suite of challenges inherent of urban interfaces, most predictably the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), while Site 300's erosion issues and periodic feral pig (Sus scrofa) infestations reduce and threaten populations. The long-term sustainability of LLNL's special status amphibians will require active management and resource commitment to maintain and restore amphibian habitat at both sites.

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  18. Effects of alternating current stimulation on the healthy and diseased brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Ismafairus eAbd Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive and neurological dysfunctions can severely impact a patient’s daily activities. In addition to medical treatment, non-invasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has been proposed as a therapeutic technique to improve the functional state of the brain. Although during the last years tACS was applied in numerous studies to improve motor, somatosensory, visual and higher order cognitive functions, our knowledge is still limited regarding the mechanisms as to which type of ACS can affect cortical functions and altered neuronal oscillations seem to be the key mechanism. Because alternating current send pulses to the brain at predetermined frequencies, the online- and after-effects of ACS strongly depend on the stimulation parameters so that ‘optimal’ ACS paradigms could be achieved. This is of interest not only for neuroscience research but also for clinical practice. In this study, we summarize recent findings on ACS-effects under both normal conditions and in brain diseases.

  19. European radiological emergency information exchange systems developed at EC-JRC/IES: current status future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cort, M.; Vries, G. de; Galmarini, S. [European Comission, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Environment and Sustainability

    2003-07-01

    Shortly after the Chernobyl accident the European Commission initiated various activities with the scope to make early notification and reliable radiological information available to the EU member states in case of nuclear accidents. JRC-IES/REM in Ispra, Italy, is responsible for the scientific and technical development of three closely related projects that should be a source of valuable information to support decision support in European during major radiological accidents: ECURIE (European Community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange) notifies the competent authorities and continuously informs them about the current status of the accident and its consequences; EURDEP (European Radiological Data Exchange Platform) makes radiological monitoring data from most European countries available in real-time. Currently 23 European countries exchange on a daily basis gamma dose-rates; ENSEMBLE produces a comprehensive overview and comparison of the contamination predictions calculated by world-leading long-range dispersion models. Starting from the legal background these information systems are further described in detail, with an emphasis on their current status, our experience and the planned future developments. (orig.)

  20. Curriculum leadership in the postgraduate: Gap between current and optimal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Avizhgan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the strengths and weakness points is one of the effective methods to analyze current status, and prioritizing actions based on the gap between current and optimal status is necessary for short-term and long-term planning in departments and colleges. The aim of this study was to determine the gap between current and optimal status of curriculum leadership in the postgraduate courses in two Iranian universities. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 212 faculty members from the two Iranian universities (one medical and one nonmedical was randomly selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher-made questionnaire, with 55 items categorized in four areas of main dimensions in curriculum leadership. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by curriculum studies scholars, and the reliability was confirmed as the Cronbach′s alpha calculated 0.969. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics according to the variables. Results: There was a gap in all dimensions and roles. The maximum gap (−1.70 with the highest frequency (98% were related to "improving the educational atmosphere" dimension. As for items, the maximum gap (−2.41 was related to "society needs and expectations and the labor market" in "curriculum development and revision" dimension. Conclusion: The negative gap between all dimensions of curriculum leadership implies faculty members′ dissatisfaction. Curriculum leadership at universities, colleges and departments of the study in all aspects need to be improved. Hence, it is necessary for managers to make use of the viewpoints of the faculty members to decrease the gap.